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Country Case Study Synthesis Report

Ruchel Green
EDTC 645
Country Case Study Synthesis Report
Dr. Joseph Wieczorek

Country Case Study Synthesis Report

Radical changes to teaching methodologies often have several points of resistance in their implementation. In Hong Kong, China curriculum integration is the key
hurdle to curriculum integration. Analysis of other countries technology implementation
can show us new ways to push ahead with revolutionizing education in the US. Two
pivotal peer reviewed articles are reviewed herein to analyze Hong Kongs technology
implementation so that we can improve our US implementation model. It is clear that
Hong Kong teachers need to be shown the ease of implementation as well as the benefits for their students through technology integration. Teacher education programs
should demonstrate the usefulness of technology directly linked to the ease-of-use in
teaching and learning. These interviews of Hong Kong educators, and research have
been outlined in order to provide US policy makers relevant data for technology integration into many aspects of teaching.

It is incumbent on any person trying to implement a large-scale technology integration program to see what has been done elsewhere in order bolster ones likelihood
at success. Peer reviewed literature on the integration of technology in Hong Kong has
shown empirically that the most pressing issue with the integration of Information and
Communications Technologies (ICT) is curriculum integration. Based on a comprehensive survey, with ample distribution and proper distillation of the data, it was shown that
computer infrastructure is present, but teachers are not motivated to implement the
A recently published article by Gary Wong (2015) states the adaptation of educational technology depends primarily on the teacher's willingness to change their class-

Country Case Study Synthesis Report

room to incorporate technology. He has studied the factors that most influenced the acceptance of technology, and what creates an overall positive attitude towards the use of
educational technology. The information herein is intended to provide insight two policymakers about how To design teacher education programs assessing and addressing
the teachers role in Technology integration. Detailed analysis of the process of technology integration can lead to better implementation in our school systems. The method
used in Hong Kong has proven cost-effective and very successful at bringing technology into the classroom, as well as shifting the teachers paradigm towards greater use of

Hong Kong Regional Demographics

Fan and Ho (2012) extensively cover the demographics and history of Hong
Kong as it applies to the development of the citys education system, and the changes
in their education system. Hong Kong's major industries are in the service sector such
as finance and communications. It has the world's third largest container port, but unlike other Chinese ports, its exports mainly come from other Chinese cities. It has developed freely as an independent economy from the rest of mainland China. Hong Kong
has had a fast industrialization over the past 30 years. Abundant resources have been
allocated to their school systems (Wong, 2015).

ICT Integration
Through research, it is possible to identify the methods used for the successful
integration of technology. Two components of this are the allocation of resources and
the paradigm shift in the manner of educating students (Fan & Ho, 2012).
Fan and Ho (2012) note that ICT skills for problem-solving are vital in today's
world. These tools will also be utilized to improve teaching through the use of ap-

Country Case Study Synthesis Report

plications and software. ICT will revolutionize the ability to track a students learning history and performance as well.
Benchmarks for ICT Integration
Three benchmarks are used to determine integration. The first one is the presence of hardware, presented commonly as the ratio of students to computers. The second is creating habitual use of computers. It can be recorded in the amount of time
quantitatively that a student uses a computer daily. The last marker is the dedication of
manpower through professional development that modifies their classroom to incorporate ICT. Each of these on their own, and collectively, impact future students learning.

Perceived Usefulness
Wongs research immediately saw hindrances to implementation in teachers
perception of usefulness, or how the technology would impact grades. Second to this
was the teachers perception of ease of use, or how difficult the technology would be to
learn for the teacher. In America, many teachers have the desire, though there is often a
funding issue preventing the arrival of new technology into the classroom. In China, the
schools are given technology, and the hurdle is teachers use.
Wong (2015), shows that computers, and other technology resources are available in Hong Kong classrooms, and the need and drive teachers to implement technology is the main hurdle. Hong Kong has advanced their computer network infrastructure
with support services and provided a nearly 1 to 1 ratio of tablet computers to students.
Students report finding it easy to incorporate this technology, however, teachers found it
difficult to teach technology, partially because the teachers are often teaching with outdated technology, including computers and projectors that would fail and disrupt lessons
(Wong, 2015).

Country Case Study Synthesis Report

Educational Foundation
Fan and Ho (2012) write that as of 2009, there is free education from the age of 6
until 18 in Hong Kong City. There is significant government subsidy to early childhood
education by a direct subsidy to parents. Classes are large, but teachers are paid highly, and classrooms have ample technology. Quality is maintained to frequent government inspections. There is a virtual 100% attendance throughout level of education, In
the government data does not break this down by grade. An interview with Desi Yeshai,
who currently teaches in a grade 1- 6 private school on Hong Kong Island confirms the
above stating that classrooms in her school, and those in the public system have laptops, iPads and SmartBoards. She says that everything is connected with fast WiFI, and
this is standard across the systems. She sees that private schools more typically use
what they have paid for in terms of technology, where public schools have SmartBoards, and not all teacher use them, as they dont see a compelling reason to use
them. She postulates this is related to her schools mandatory yearly professional development classes that push technology based learning and inquiry based learning,
where the public school does not have this same programming in her area. She says
the public school system seems, old school and tends to stick with what has always
worked when it comes to teaching.

Curriculum Integration
Data has been collected from hundreds of schools using proper techniques for
collection of data, the removal of incomplete information, further process with proper attention given to sensitivity based on the sample size. The city has shown determination
to implement technology, which is being done at rapid pace in comparison to the United
States (Fan & Ho, 2012).

Country Case Study Synthesis Report

The simple access to technology is not enough for successful integration. In

Hong Kong, computers, SmartBoards, and other items were purchased, but not utilized.
In order for meaningful use to occur, teachers must be educated through professional
development new ways to teach. Data has to be collected and presented to them showing the benefits of new teaching styles. The most important tenant is the acceptance of
the need for this technology by the teachers (Wong, 2015).

Acceptance and Adoption

First, the teacher must accept that a tool is beneficial. Only after that happens,
the adoption of those tools can be completed. Wong, in great length, outlines an acceptance model originally brought forward by Davis in 1985. The model, though dated, is
directly applicable to the adoption of technology. At the outset, perceived usefulness
and perceived to ease-of-use must be in place, And only then the adoption of technology will ensue. It was established that the perceived usefulness directly leads to action of
implementation. Ultimately, students will benefit from technological enhanced learning.
To do this, educators must understand the factors contributing to the acceptance of

Based on research, there is primarily a single factor preventing teachers from using the technology already in their classrooms. Hong Kong teachers must have professional development that focuses on the ease of use of their in-classroom technology.
Then, the level of technology integration will rise.
Our policy makers should take note and ensure that each machine placed in US
classrooms are properly used. Teachers have to be given skills, through professional
development, in order to maximize the benefit of our resources. This processes is in-

Country Case Study Synthesis Report

deed facilitated through the purchase of computers, but the key lies in the training of
educators to adopt this technology.

Country Case Study Synthesis Report

Fan, C. W., & Ho, K. K. (2012). A Tale of Three Cities: Review of the Development of
ICT in School Education between Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore. New Horizons In Education, 60(1), 70-82.

Wong, G. W. (2015). Understanding technology acceptance in pre-service teachers of

primary mathematics in Hong Kong. Australasian Journal Of Educational Technology, 31(6), 713-735.