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Klaus-Peter Brand Volker Lohmann Wolfgang Wimmer Substation Automation Handbook Comprehensive descriotion of Substation Automation and the coordination with Network Operation to obtain both performance and cost benefits by enabling enhanced Power System Management Copyright © 2003 by Klaus-Peter Brand - Kaus-peterbrand@ ieee org \Voker Lohmann - volkerlohmann @bluewin ch Wolfgang Wimmer - toptools bluewinch Neither this book, nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form ox by any means, elec- tronic or mechanical, including photocopying, migro- filming, and recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the permisson in ‘writing ofthe publisher Publisher: Utiity Automation Consulting Lohmann, Im Meyerhot 18, CH-5620 Bremgarten, Switzeriand hetp:/Aenwwuacch This book is printed on acifree paper Text and ilustrations: Klaus-Peter Brand, Volker Lohmann, Wolfgang Wimmer CCover lustration: Werner Lehmann Concept Designer: Kurth Winiger, CH-8050 Zorich Pre-Press: Romy Schatz, CH-8050 Zurich Print: Jatte-Miessedruck Leipzig Grol E-04329 Leiprig Printed in Germany ISBN 3-85758.951-5 1 Table of content 1 Table of content 2 About this Book 3. Introduction and Scope 4 Challenges with introducing Substation Automation 5 Primary Equipment in Substations 6 The Functions of Substation Automation 7 Substation Automation Structure 8 Substation Automation Architectures 9 Asset Management Support 10 New Roles of Substation Automation 11 Wide Area Protection 12 Standards and Quality Definition for Substation Automation 13 The System Standard IEC 61850 for Substation Automation 14 Phase Models of Substation Automation Systems 15. Benefits of Substation Automation 16 Guide to SA System Specification 17 Strategy to Cope with the fast Changing Technology 18 Trends and Gutlook 19 References 20 Glossary 21 Annex 5 15 31 43 93 141 151 183 197 2u 279 301 313 325 339 345 349 353 361 367 Table of content 4 2 About this Book 2.1 Preface ‘The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap in ‘mutual understanding between those readers, who are well experienced with the technical requirements, design, construction, testing and operation of primary equipment in substations €9, circuit breakers, isola- tots current and voltage transformers or power trans- formers etc, and information technology (7) orented readers, who are involved in the development, design, production, and application of modern inteli- gent electronic devices (IED) intended to be used for Substation Automation (SA) Systems, When the fst microprocessor based substation con- tral systems (SCS) were built the prime objective was to provide the same functionalty and make then ‘work as reliable and fast as conventional control systems. The system inherent problem to be soWed was the fact that the serial bus communication caus- ed a bottleneck for the system response times in comparison with conventional parale-wired control systems. This SA system behavior made the commu- nication within the substation a key issue for the per formance of SCS and numerous propriety communi- ‘ation bus systems and protocols were implemented due to the lack of intemational Standards. The con- sequence was that all the SCS were vendor spectic ‘and IEDs from other vendors could not be used in such systems due to the lack of compatibity The users were not hapoy about this situation as they felt to be restricted to a specific vendor f they inten- ded to extend their control systems. On the other hand, many SCS were implemented by small compa- nies and based on general purpose programmable logical control (PLC) systems that could net provide the required functionality or meet the lang term ori- ented system compatiblity requirements, which are typical for the electric utility business, On the other hand, many ofthese small companies did not last for a long time because of commercial problems and many of those SCS can neither be extended nor be maintaned due to the lack of spares and specific system knowledge. The awareness of these problems leads to an ob- stade for the acceptance of the new technology and for the large-scale implementation of SCS. This caus- €ed pressure on the reputable vendors of SCS to stand- ardize the communication within substations a5 well 2 the engineering approach and the formal descrip- tion ofthe functionality in terms of a substa-tion con- figuration language (SCL) The main objective was to achieve interoperability between IEDs that originate from different vendors The authors have been personaly involved in the process, which was triggered by IEC and EPRI to standardize the communication and all its system related aspects t has resulted in the new IEC 61850 standard for communication within substations, ‘which is availabe in the year 2003, The authors are proud to highlight in this book some achievements made with this standard, The objective of the descrip- tion is to rake all those decision makers in utitis, ‘who are sceptical and fear the problems involved with proprietary communication, confident that the new standard provides a comprehensive solution for the interoperability of IEDs from various vendors, who commit themselves to support this new standard in their IEDs When the design of IEDs to be appied tor SCS _systems was based on common main stream hard- ‘wate components as well as on modular functional libraries for control that were quite similar to functio- ral brates for protection, it was possible to integra te control and protection systems in comprehensive systems for substation automation (SA). The authors ‘were personally involved with the development and implementation of a comprehensive platform for multipurpose control and protection 1E0s. Therefore, the focus of this book is on SA rather on SCS with 22 separated protection. The objective of the authors is to make those readers wth a background in substa- tion control or protection confident that the integra tion of both functionalities leads to cost effective sys tem solutions that have the same safety and availabi- lity as systems with seperate IEDs for control and for protection. The integration of the control and protection functio- ralty to SA makes effecive substation monitoring primary equipment condition and support of modem systems for maintenance and asset menagerent possible as an additional beneft that can be derived from SA, This book descibes the realization of such concepts, which lead to an enhancement of the over- all power system management. The objective is that the readers, who wish to evaluate the commercial benefits that can be derived from SA, become aware that such an cost/benefit analysis has to take those additional benefit into account. In view of the fact that SA systems can be used for the condition monitoring of primary equipment lke Corcuit breakers, instrument transformers and power transformers, the descrocon of this equipment in this, 'book includes the crtical comoonents, which are sub- Ject to wear and aging, The objective is to make users (of SA systems aware of this new possibility and to provide developers of SA application with back- ‘ground knowledge of the critcalty of the primary equipment, ‘Apart from substation related issues, the implemen- tation of SA enables new strategies related to power system protection that counteracts wide area distur bances and avoids power system collapse. With the aid of new digital sensors for the detection of volta- ‘ge and frequency instabilities, wide area protection systems can be implemented that provide the sys- tem operator with eariy indication of incipient pro- blems in the grid in order to put him into the posi- tion to initiate counter measures early enough that the power system integrity is maintained, SA enab automated corrective actions that reduce the respon se time to problems significantly If sudden loss of generation or increase of load caus- £5 instabilities so fast that the operator has no chan- ce to react fast enough, SA can be used by the wide atea protection scheme for rapid automatic load shedding to compensate for the loss of generation and to reduce the load Because of this new role of SA, the scope of this book as outlined in Chapter 3 has been extended beyond the traditional functions to describe wide area protecion schemes ard ther interaction with SA The objective is to make system planners and ‘operators aware of the new possi that are offer- ‘ed by SA in conjunction with wide area protection systems and power system optimization concepts 2.2 About the Authors 2.2.1 How SA has started The idea to substitute conventional relay logics for substation control and analogue protection relays by digital technologies based on microprocessors and serial communication commenced in BBC in the late 1970ties. Study groups were established in BBC Baden/Switzerland and BBC Mannheim/Germany. The key people of that time in BBC Baden were Jorgen Kopainsky and Klaus-Peter Brand, who deve- loped very systematicaly the basic specications and concepts of SA, Woligang Wirnmer became involved in these early activites when engineering issues have been touched, and Volker Lohmann was represen- ting the gas insulated substation (GIS) diision in this team Many customers were approached during this time with these new ideas, but the users were not very enthusiastic and receptive, and no utility wanted to take the risk to run a pilot project. One of the main obstacles for the acceptance were the uliity’s orgar nization. The reason was that substation contro, pro- tection and communication were considered to be separate discipines and, consequently, each was organized in separate departments. As the SA approach integrated the whole lt in one system, the idea of separate departments became obsolete, which was perceived by the corresponding depart- ment managers as a threat This situation changed crasticaly, when BBC was awarded by ESKOM South Africa with the world frst 800 kV GIS “ALPHA on 1th of December 1982 This spectacular order has created a huge innovative ‘momentum not only in BBC for the development of a complete new size of GIS but also on ESKOM's side with regard to the readiness to accept new ideas and technologies. [1] The key issue for the ESKOM acceptance of a microprocessor based substation control system (SCS) was the complex and large 800 kV GIS substa: tion layout comprising 12 switchgear bays that would have required a very extensive interlocking scheme, i it had been designed by relay logics In view of the fact that more than 100 contacts of auxilary switches and relay contacts would have had to be connected in series for one single interlocking expression in Boolean algebra, ESCOM considered such a solution a impracticable und unreliable The much better solution was the B8C proposal to substitute hard- ‘wired interlocking by a rricroprocessor based expert system, called "Topology based interlocking scheme’ which was based on general rues rather than on Boolean Algebra expressions. This new idea was developed by Jurgen Kopainsty, Klaus-Peter Brand and Wolfgang Wimmer. [3] The development and implementation of this fist SCS in ALPHA was first headed by Jurgen Kopainsky and later by Hermann Schachermayr, the customer requirement specication and engineering was made by Becnhard Sander, [2] and the function plan pro gramming for the bay controls by Fritz Wittwer, while Voiker Lohmann was the project manager of the total contract comprising the 800 KV GIS deve- lopment and delivery as well as the SCS part Five years after the order, ALPHA was successfully commissioned on 31st March 1987 within the sche duled delvery time. ‘After the merger of BBC and ASEA to become ABB (on 10th of August 1988, the progressive activities on SCS in Switzerland were allocated to the protection division of ABB Switzerland, which was headed by Jean Gantner. A new group for the SCS business development was established with Volker Lohmann as manager and Klaus-Peter Brand, Wolfgang Wimmer, Helmut Hager and Otto Preiss as members Of the first core tear. Two years later, this division became the new company ABB Relays AG, which ‘was managed by Otto Lanz In ABB Relays AG, the world-first commercial com: mon hardware and software platform decicated for the protection and control of HV substations was ceveloped under Fred Engler, who was head of the development department. This innovative and revo- lutionary approach enabled to merge protection and control functions into one integrated system and to allow modem SA functions. ‘The commercial break-through of this new platform, ‘was enabled in conjunction with the first PC based MicoSCADA from ABB Finland, which was used as station level HMI and with the complementary new range of microprocessor based protection relays and bay control units from ABB Finland for cistiaution applications. The market acceptance was achieved in the course of the fist SA projects in Switzerland and in the UK. The key people for the successful comple- tion of these demanding projects were Otto Press, ‘Andeé Kreuzer and Kurt Frei. 22 222 10 2.22 Curriculum Vitae Klaus-Peter Brand was bom 1948 in Neustadt ad, Asch, Germany, From 1967, he studied physics and mathematics in Germany at the Universities Ware burg, Kiel and Bonn. In Bonn, be got his Master Degree in Physics in 1972 (Dipl Phys) and his PhD (Or rer nat) in 1976 by a work about Interstar Plasma Physic. From 1976 to 1982 he worked in the BBC Research Center, Baden, Switzerland in the area of SF6 plasma physics (SF6 arc in high voltage breakers) He intro duced the onvine literature search facies in the Research Cente From 1982 to 1988 he acted as Senior En the department for “Power System Analysis” of BBC, Baden, Switzerland making load flow and EMTP cal lations. He participated in the team for the intro- duction of "Substation Automation’ jointly writing the Function and Engineering Specification, and design- ing the System architecture. He joint the project team for the pilot project in Substation Automation of an 800 KV GIS substation and was involved in the deve lopment and application of the topology based Interlocking method. He further acted as co-editor of the company owned Handbook for Electromagnetic Compatibility ‘Alter the merger of ASEA and 88C to ABB, from 1988 to 1995 he was involved in the substation ‘automation (SA) business development in ABB Relays/Baden, Switzerland to set up the engineering actvties, sales support and to contibute to the design and realization of pilot projects. In the local ABB organization he was product menager (PM) for SA and he acted globally as chaiman of the market requirement group to define the next ABB genera- tion of SA systems. From 1995 to 1999 he was PM of the ABB Panorama concept for Network Control and SA and coordinated Klaus Peter Brand ‘the PM adivities in ABB. Network Pariner/Baden Switzeriand. He participated in the successful imple mentation of the ISO Cerifcation process and was responsible for the definition of the PM process. He further provided sales suopot for complex projects, and established the fist ABB Internet based market- ing too for Panorama, in 2000 he moved to the ABB University Switzerland to manage, conduct and develop taining courses mainly on the subjects of Power systems, Elecro- magnetic compatibity, Substation automation and Communication. He has further set up lum for Project managers Since 1990 he is working for CIGRE SC B5 (former C34) as working group (WG) and task force (TF) Convener, Since 1995 he is member of the editor team in ‘G10 of the IEC technical committee TC57 for the Standard IEC 61850 "Communication Net- works and Systems in Substations’. He is further member of TKS7, the Swiss National Mirror Comrnit tee of TCS7, and he is Senior Member of IEEE Volker Lohmann was bom 1940 in Milheim-Rubr, Germany and studied Flectical Engineering at the Rheinisches Poltechnikum Disseldort, Germany. He gained his professional experience from more than 30 years of working with Brown Boveri Cie (BBC) and ‘ABB Switzerland in various ranagement positions ‘and field related to high voltage (HV) substations, HV Volker Lohmann Grcuit breakers (CB), gas insulated switchgear (GIS) and substation automation (SA). He started his ca- reer 1965 with research in the application of HV power electronics for High Votage Direct Current (HVDC and variable speed chives. After several years in research he moved into the sales and marketing ‘organization for HV circuit breaker and gas insulated sat (GIS) as sales and. project manager, In 1982 the world’s fst 800 KV GIS project offered him the opportunity to initiate the development and im: plementation of the fist BBC microprocessor based substation control system (SCS) as the project mana- Ger. His coauthors were member of the project team In the course of the merger between BBC, Switzeriand and ASEA, Sweden, in 1987 he was re5- pponsible for the product management for SCS and protection and was involved in the development of a rmuttfunctional and software library based platform for inteligent electronic devices (IED) for contro, pro- tection and monitoring of HV substations. In 1995 he became member of the ABB Business Area Mana ‘gement Team for SA and protection and was worid- ‘wide responsible for the product management and strategic marketing of SA systems. He retired in 2002 and stared his own company for Utlity Automation Consuiting, where he is presently working Wolfgang Wimmer was bom 1947 in Bad Schwartau, Northen Germany. He studied Mathe: matics and Computer Science at the University of Wolfgang Wimmer Hamburg, where he also graduated in Computer ‘dence about Deadlocks in Communication net: works. After five years working for the Deutsches Blektronensynchroton in Hamburg, where he wrote compilers and implemented the base software for a packet switching network, he moved to Brown Boveri & Cie (B80) in Baden/Switzerland ‘There he started with the design and implementat- on ofa train contro system and became member of the technical committee TC7 “Safety and Reliabilty” Of the European Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems (EWICS) He was further involved in the design of engineering systems for remote terminal Units (RTU) and Network Control Systems. During this, time, he was also member of the IEC technical cor: mittee TC65 to develop the standard IEC 61508 "Safety in Industrial Electronic Systems” His involvement in substation autornation started in 1983 with partipation in the development of a ‘topology based interocking program, and continued with the introduction of mictoprocessor based con trol systems for the substation automation business. Aiter the merger of BBC with Asea in 1987, he conti- ‘nued with these activites in the new company. ABB with focus on engineering processes and tools. He is currently occupied with the development of substar tion automation and monitoring systems at ABB/ Switzerland, and he is member of the IEC TCS7 work- ing group WG11 as editor of the upcoming standard IEC 61850 for Communication in Substations, part 6. 222 "1 25 12 2.3 Acknowledgements ‘There are quite a number of colleagues to be men- tioned, who have contributed directly or indirectly to this book by cooperating with us over more than 20 years for a longer or shorter time. They have helped to collect the basic information, to elaborate market requirement spectications, to establish the SA busi- ness, to develop advanced ideas and to maintain the high level ofthe state-of the-art. Most of them came from our internal business environment in BBC and ‘ABB respectively, but there have been other impor- tant contributors from customers and even from chal lenging competitors, There have ahways lvely discus- sions taken place, not only in our every day's working fe but also in intemal and extemal meetings, in Intemational Conferences, as well 2s in International Organizations lke CIGRE and IEC and the associated working groups. In order to avoid that some contri bbutors are not mentioned below, we first would like to express our coral gratitude and apprecation very generally to all those colleaques, we were privileged to work with on the subjects of SA and communica- tion within substations Some of these colleagues we ike to mention are listed below in alphabetic order as they have been intensively involved in our activites in substation auto- ‘mation ann our invoWement in the IEC 6185 stand- ardization, each of them in a very particular way: Lars Andersson (ABB Switzerland) ‘Carl Byman (ABB Sweden) Christoph Brunner (ABB Switzerland) Rudolph Dinges (ABB Germany) Fred Engler (ABB Switzerland) Kurt Frei (ABB Switzerland) ‘Soren Forsman (ABB Sweden) Helmut Hager (former ABB Switzerland) Antti Hakala-Rarta (ABB Finland) Jurgen Kopainsky (former BBC Switzeriand) ‘André Kreuzer (former ABB Switzerland) Lars-Gunnar Malmqyist (ABB Sweden) Carl-Gustav Oesterbaka (ABB Finland) Martin Ostertag (ABB Switzerland) Otto Preiss (ABB Switzerland) Bemhard Sander (former BBC Switzerland) Hermann Schachermayr (ABB Switzerland) Leif Wiliamsson (ABB Finland) \We futher thank our company, ABB Switzerland, that gave us the great opportunity and support to build Up allthis know-how in an inspiring international environment, which has finally been converted into numerous SA produc, systems, and projects We futher express our appreciation to Goran Lind, Head of the Division Utity Automation System jn ABB Switzerland for his continuous, encouraging and supporting interest in our book, a5 well as his Sub- divsion Manager, Yves Baumgartner, for selecting our book as offical reference for ABB intemal and exter- ‘nal triing in Substation Automaton, 2.4 We would like to hear from you ‘This isthe fist edition of the Substation Automation Handbook In view of the fact that the technology is developing very fast and that it will enable further enhancements in functionality and application it may be desirable to produce futher editions. This occa- sion would be an excellent opportunity to introduce ‘comments and modifications, which may be raised and proposed by some of our readers, Therefore, we encourage you fo contact us via E-mail and to help that the next ection can be improved accordingly. 2.5 Readers Guide In the area of substation automation there are work- ing people with different professional background. Very often, this leads to a lack of mutual understand: ing between people with power system back- ground, who eg started their professional career before PCs became a common working tool, and computer scentists, who are familiar with the modern way of thinking in the computer age. They, however, usualy lack of the understanding of the pri- ‘mary equipment and the particular requirements for making electronic equipment workin the harsh envi- ronment of HV substations, Apart from this, they are not aware of the sensitivity of the power system pro- cess and the impact of the control actions that are initiated by the IEDs on the power system behavior. The authors are well aware of this conflict and the lack of mutual understanding from their personal background in switchgear and substation automation. as well as from their extensive experience in + Gas insulated switchgear (GIS) research, design and application, « The development of substation automation ‘concepts, software functions and components ‘The marketing and introduction of SA business 5 well as negotiatng SA contracts, managing projects, trouble shooting and «last but not least ftom more than 20 years of teaching and conducting SA workshops in many parts of the word Many SA projects became a disappointment for users as well as for the suppliers as they failed to meet the expectations with regard to cost effective-ness. The reasons were always very similar: the users were not in the postion to specify their requirements and the suppiers were not aware of the genuine needs of their customers. The main motivation to write this book was the awareness of the need for such a SA, Handbook as a contribution to improve the mutual Understanding between the two conficting partes. Allreaders are invited to read Chapter 3 “Introduction and Scope” to get familar with the general way of thinking and the related vocabulary. In addition to chapter 3 the readers may chose those chapters that cover their missing knowledge. ‘The objectives of the authors are ‘To transfer their extensive know-how of all the ‘aspects related to the technical, functional and commercial issues around SA to all decision makers in utity management, system operation, system planning, engineering and maintenance who wish to imprave their personal knowledge in this field (Chapters 4 9, 10,15 refer ‘To make the power system oriented readers, aware of the new possibilties and benefits that can be exploited with the implementation of substation automation systems (Chapters 4,9, 10,11, 15 refer. To make the readers with a background in corwentional control and protection systems (secondary systems) familar with the specific performance and safety aspects of SA systems that comps integrated numerical protection ‘and control functionality (Chapters 6, 7 8 refer, ‘+ To make the -eaders involved in the development, sign and application of IT in terms of inteligent electronic devices (IED) and for SA aware of the specific needs of the power system and the safety and availabilty related aspects of substation con- trol and protection (Chapters 6,7 8, 12,13 refer, #70 provide the readers, who are involved with engineering, zesting and commissioning of SA systems with background knowledge with regard to SA systems architectures, availabilty and safety aspects as well as to the allocation of functions in 2a SA system (Chapters 6,7, 8 refer) ‘To convey decision makers in utites the message that the implementation of SA throughout their substations offers new chances for the ullities to improve the’ internal processes to the exert that the overall cost in power system operation and maintenance are drastically reduced, the return on investment is accelerated and the productivity as well as the profitability of the enterprise is sigif- cantly improved (Chapters 4, 11,15 refer) 25 13 26 14 Table 2-1 provides a more detailed guidance for the readers with various background and experience to select the chapters that may be of particular interest to them to complement their specific knowledge with information around SA, Chapters | Readers 3| 4/5 {6 |7 [8 | 9 |r0| 11/12] 13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |21 Students x x|x[x/ x x x Beginners in ‘Computer science, Power systems, Financal planning, System operation x] x} x] x |x] x x |x| x] x] x Deason makers: System planning, System operation Designiengineering. Maintenance x] x xfxfxf fxf fx pp xpx Developers x| | x{x{x[x x|x|x x|x|x Engineering spec. x{_| x[x]x[x x | x] x ba mall Protection spec. x|_ | x[x]x]x x[x[ x} | x|x]x x SCADA spec. x [x] x Px [x [x fx [x [x x} [x[x x Testing/comissioning x[_[x[x]x[x x[x]x Maintenance xx] x x[ xt [x [x System planning x{x | x[x x[x[x x Table 2-1. Readers Guide 2.6 References [1] Volker Lohmann (B8C/Switzerland), Andrew C. Bolton (ESGOM/South Africa) Gas insulated switchgear developed for 765 kV, Modem Power Systems, February 1985, published by Unted Trade Press Ltd. London/UK [2] Bric Engelbrecht (ESCOM/South/Aftical, Bernhard Sander, Hermann Schachermayr (BBC/Switzerland) Integrated control for ECOM's 800 kV ALPHA Substation, Transmission and Distribution, ‘Modern Power Systems, October 1987, published by United Trade Press Ltd. Londor/UK [B] Klaus-Reter Brand, J0rgen Kopainsky, Wolfgang Wimmer - Topology based interlocking of electrical substations, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery PWRD-1, 3, 118-126 (1986) 3 34 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Introduction and Scope Scope Electric power as sensitive basics of our today's society The electric power system 3311 The long and complex path from power generation to power consumpiion 332. The power production 333. Three-phase system and aurrent, voltage and frequency 3.34. The transportation of electric eneray by the network and the related voltage levels 3.35 Some comments to voltage levels in electric power systems 3.36 The consumption of electric energy 3.36.1 The defrition of root mean square values Specific Aspects of the Electric Power System 3.41 The power flow Production equals consumption 3.41.2 Base load demand and load peaks, variation of demand per day, week 3.413. Power flow controlled by physics of the power network 3.4.14. Many votage levels for transmission and distrbution 3.42. Power generation, network stability and energy quality 3421 Dispersed power generation (PG) 3422. Complex network with stabilty problems 3423 Power quality 343. Safety aspects 343.1. High currents, voltages and surges 3432 Electromagnetic interference and hig 3.433 Protection The Role of the Substation for the grid 35.1. Node functionality 352. Access to the power and power network The Role of Substation Automation for the Network Management 3.6.1 The Power Network Management System 36.1.1 The structure 36.12 The overall tasks 3.62. Local Functions in Substations 3.63 The local support functions for Network Level Systems 3.64 The cudal role of communication ‘Substation Automation Systems 371 Short definition of Substation Autornation Systems 3.72 The History wth Remote Terminal Units 373. From RTU to SA ‘Substation Automation Soiutions 381 Commercial questions behind substation automation solutions 382 Benefits of Substation Automation 383 The realzation of SA automation References 16 16 16 16 16 17 18 19 19 20 20 20 20 2 21 21 21 21 21 22 2 2 22 2B 24 24 24 25 25 26 26 2 a 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 3 Table of content 15 34 16 3 Introduction and Scope 3.1 Scope ‘The topic of this book is Substation Automation. Before we can go into this fascinating and powerful automation area, we have to get some idea about the role ofthe substation and its automation in the electric power system. Behind all we can see the importance of electric power for our socety today. 3.2 Electric power as sensitive basics of our today’s society We all use the benefit of electric power in our every days life. Already for a long time, the dean electric light has extended the day up to 24 hours both for work services, and pleasure. A lot of heavy work has taken over by electric powered machines. Medical instruments and the complete infrastructure of hospi tals rely on electic power. In every home, we find many devices from vacuum cleaner to TV set all depending on electric power. Our complete telecom ‘environment and all our information technology wath all its computers rely on the unlimited availabilty of electric power. The strong impact of power on sode- Te ee ‘Transmission and distribution ty i seen by any shortage of electrcty or blackouts happening from time to time. How does the system look that provides al this power? 33 The electric power system 33.1 The long and complex path from power generation to power consumption Despite of some efforts in decentralized power pro- duction, power generation and power consumption are separated from each other at least for bulk power. Few production centers feed milions of con- sumers. Therefore, large transmission and distibution networks are needed to link both parties (Figure 3-1) ‘An introduction to power systems is found in [1] 332 The power production Most electric power is produced by fossil (oi coal) or rnudear power plants. These types of power plants produce steam, which drives turbines and the con nected generators providing electric energy (Fig 3-2) A\lot of power is produced also by hydropower Manes! pana Figure 3-1 This schematic picture indicates the countrywide interconnection af power production ‘and consumption by the network vetve Controle 333 Figure 3-2 Turbine and (generator (cluding PF and QV contro) plants where the water flow is the driving force. Wind farms (driving force wind) or photovokaic cels (direct production of electric power) produce a small but increasing fraction of electic energy. The electic power production is subject to some dedicated sys: tem features, which have to be considered from the beginning, 333 Three-phase system and current, voltage and frequency Photovottac cells ke batteries produce electric ener: gy with constant votage and current cated direct cur- rent (00, The production of electic power with the above mentioned rotating machines, where cols are mov- ing in changing magnetic fields, provides a sinuosoi- dal, aerating current (AQ). Since these machines (Figure 3-3) have usualy three poles displaced by 1/3 of a complete tum we get a three-phase system, ie three-phase belts (windings) with induced sinuosoi- dal altemating voltages feeding three conductors with sinusoidal altemating current (AC) each dsplac ed by 1/3 of 360° resulting in a displacernent of 120° igure 34) saatorwinaing! Phase belt a Phase winding, B \'Pnase set's Phase b — rinses ~ = phase? — > Phase Figure 3-4 Three-phase Power System (Phase Currents with Amplitude normalized to 1) 7 334 18 This rotation frequency gives the frequency both of the voltage and the current. Common values for the power frequency are ie. SO Hz (eq. in Europe) or 60 He (ea. in US), For some few railway systems, also 167 He (formerly 16 2/3 Hz) isin use. Curent refers to conducting parties (electrons) moving through a conductor. ts driving force is the voltage with the same frequency built up by the magnetic feld in the generators. Basicaly, power is calculated out of the Product of current and voltage. Considering the phase shift (angle difference) described by sinp or cos between current and voltage or not, we get three types of power ie the apparent power (5) the reactive power (Q) or the active power (R). The last value is what provides the electic energy to work for Us (See section 3361) The three-phase system is advantageous as the three displaced phases fit well to rotating machines whit- out dead point, and no return conductor is needed Under faut-free conditions ‘The advantage of AC systems is that its votage can be transformed to higher and lower levels by tans- formers being based again on changing magnetic fields in the transformer cols. These magnetic fields result in inductance and the related electric fields in capactance of each wire, Both effects have to be added to the Ohmic resistance of the conductor. The result is the impedance meaning losses and phase shits of the sinusoidal currents and voltages. The advantage of DC is that only the Ohrric resistance has to be considered. These advantages of OC are used also for power transtrssion by High Voltage Direct Current (HVDQ lines. With these features, we have started already to touch the transmission and distribution of electric energy. 3.34 The transportation of electric energy by the network and the related voltage levels Since production and consumption of energy are nor- mally separated, a sophisticated network or atid of conductors tke transmission lines and cistribution ‘ables has to connect both the producers and con- sumers of electric energy (Figure 3-5) The conductors have some resistivity against this cur- rent descibed by the above-mentioned impedance consisting of inductvity, capacity, and resistivity. Overhead ines and cables form the network and, to some very small extent, gas isolated lines (GIL). In plans of such networks, the conductors for all three phases are shown as single lines. The nodes in this network are substations providing ‘aities for switching on and off the connections. in Such a product approval procedure should be * L@k or failure of transmission appled only once to assure thatthe right and feasi. Lack o failure of cistibution ble produc is received on ste, * Lack or failure of accounting To evaluate all these parameters is a very complex task and itis suggested to define a single non-per- formance factor called “Non Distributed Energy” (NDE) to analyze the shortcorrings in service This NDE is a new unit, in the local currency by kWh, which represents the difference of money between the two states of power systern: 1. The utity is able to deliver the energy to the end customer and 2. The utility is not able to deliver The valuation of the NDE is a very sensive action because the NDE is not only the benefit by kWh but includes all the activities of the uty. For national or state utlities, the NDE will include the lack of quality of energy, that this factory cannot produce and then cannot grow and cannot pay its people and they can- not use electricity because they cannot pay or buy electric equipment ‘The NDE does not indicate where to invest but indi- ‘ates when and how much to invest. This is the first step. The NDE is also used to sort the projects and {ve prioty between two projec. (The NDE is also {2 very good parameter to contol the level invest- iment in a uty. It can be used with great benefit by ‘the managernent board for financial regulation) But non ual of service translated in NDE alone is @ poor approach, if we do not consider other paramne- ters as well Level of voltage, frequency, reactive ower transfer, number of long and short time inter- rupts are important parameters. One part of these parameters i involved in network stability, ‘Therefore utilities use as a more complete approach ‘qualty parameters, which are often the time of inter- tupts coming from the electrical network and stations failures (FTime) and time of interrupts coming from works on the network and the substation (W/-Time). Historical and detailed information of these two para meters is very important so as to be able to deter- ‘mine where to invest to increase the quality of ser- vice The Fime parameter has to be- cut in short time +200 ms and long ime >= 200 ms (FS-Time and FL Time) because these two kinds of failure do not have the same impact forthe final customer. Generally, FS- Time are not vety sensitive for the end customer ‘except if this one uses programmable logic compu- ters withcut using UPS. FSTime is coming from faut on the lines (trees, storms, ightning..) and Fl-Time is commonly coming from stations oF equipment. Repeatability of non-qualty is @ very important aspect 100. The situation involved by twenty energy prob- lems @ year is more than twice as worst than the situation involved by ten energy problems a year. It ‘seams that the customer disappointment is propor: ‘ional to the square of the default number. To eva- late this fact, we propose to use a formula hike: Cost=A*E*N'+B*E* NDE where A is a utility coefficient in currency E Is the power aut in kWh N: is the number of faults 8: is an uty coeffent NDE: isin curencyfkWh with this approach, every ult is able to determine what to invest and when to invest and if we consider the substations, the utity wil realize rapidly that the costs that are caused by conventional hardwired sub- station control systems and old protection relays are very significant 4.1.4 Condusion Moving to substation automation system is an ine- luctable way but is not done without consequences. Generally, we can find advantages for the end custo- mer, but the way to provide these can be diffcut for uilties. Examples from European or North American utlies can not easily be transferred directly to the rest of the world World-wide knowledge is a good guarantee for suc- «ess in such an approach. This knowshow may be learned assisted by world-wide active companies but the major part of the thoughts must be done inter- naly. This approach is necessary to avoid great deception and disilusion in the years to come. 414 37 43 38 4.2 Management and Utilization of Substation Data Dedicated hardware devices for process data record ing that were previously provided for data retrieval from the control center now become functional modules that are integrated into the IEDs. The RTU merely acts 25 a gateway to provide access to these data, which are transmitted to the relevant historical data base for storage and processing. These data comprise: «Sequence of event recordings «Disturbance recordings «Quality of supply measurands «Statistical metering for power system planring purposes ‘© Accounting information With these new features an SA system can be provid ed by the most cost effective functions like: ‘System-wide under-frequency load shed- ing: Dedicated IEDs monitor the system volta ges, currents, frequency and power and are corn- municating peer-to-peer on a realtime basis over the corporate wide area network (WAN), in case of power generation deficit detected they deter- rine the most suitable location for performing load shedding on the basis of real time voltage instabilty studies, power swing predictions and actually measured loads. «Redundant protection and control functions: The introduction of serial communication at process level allows IEDs to share analogue and Gigital data on 2 real time basis and to perform mutual back-up functions, An IED acting primariy as protection device may incorporate also back-up contol functions that are used, if the associated IED for control is fault. The associated IED for control may have a back-up protection functiona lity that can be activated automaticaly if the pra- tection IED has failed to operate. «Intelligent power system voltage control: The active and reactive power flow in the network can be tracked system wide by means of a dedicated voltage control function, As it knows the positon of al transformer tap-changers it can automatically ajust them from remote, and it also can switch capacitor banks, or inate of load shedding etc There may stil be some obstades like processing power and speed of a typical WAN/LAN, to apply such new functions but they may become realty in a ‘ot too distant future. 43 System Performance Aspects In order to assure that the SA system performs ade- quately to conventional systems, the folowing per- ‘formance related aspects have to be addressed + Security, retabilty, dependabiliy and speed in ‘order to ensure that the protection functionality is not degraded and has highest prot ata times + Flexibiliy, expandability and forward compatibility with newer systems to ensure that future expan- sion can be accommodated at minimum costs 43.1 Backward compatibility to allow integration with existing systems A secure control hierarchy and corresponding interlocking has to ensure that remote contol from the SCADA as well as local control from the substa- tion HMI is safe by verifying the validity of control actions hefore execution Redundancy of equipment and/or functionality has to ‘ensure that a single hardware faire does not expo- se neither the power system nor primary equipment 10 unsafe and undesirable operating conditions. 44 Justification for Substation Automation 44,1 Typical Justification Scenarios Most utites today have identified potential benefits avaiable from the implementation of automation to their operations, These benefits general fall into two distinct categories: strategic and tangible. The strate- Gic benefits result from programs designed to impro- \ve the customeris perception of quaity, reiabiity and added value, Tangible benefits are derived from pro- Grams to increase the abilty of the organization to ‘work better, faster, and cheaper. Table 4-1 includes ‘examples of benefits faling under these categories. Many utes befeve that automation oftheir power delivery systems can improve system reliability and lower-operation and maintenance costs if applied correct, The folowing important justification scena- Tios are recognized by many utiles as necessary consideration before capital resources can be com- mitted to a specific substation project. Strategic - Autornation project must improve power Quality, reibilty of service and information avaiable to large commercial or industrial (C&A) customers, The 4a future success of many utilities depends on main- taining their large customers who may be subject to strong market competition. C&il customers typically subsidize reduced residential rates and are therefore a most valued corporate asset Tangible - The benefiv/cos ratio of the application is ‘greater than 1 under the assumption of chosen eco- omettic model. Tangible benefits of automation tmayindude deferral of planned capacity addition pro jects, reduced operation and maintenance costs, improved functionality and reduced costs as compar- ed with conventional non-automated atternative sce- ratios. 442 Perception of Substation Automation Until recently, automation in the substation has meant the presence of a SCADA remote terminal unit (RTU) to many utility engineers. A recent Newton-Evans Sur- Strategic Benefits Tangible Benefits Improved quality of senice Reduced manpower requirements Improved reliability Reduced system implementation costs Maintenance/expansion of customer base Reduced operating costs High value service provider Reduced maintenance costs Added value service Abilty to defer capacity addition projects Improved customer access to information Improved information for engineering decisions Enterprise information accessibiity Improved information for planning decisions Flexible Biling Options Reduced customer outage time Table 4-1 Examples of strategic and tangible benefit 39 444 40 vey indicated that RTU would be primary information processing task handler for the majority of those polled (54 9). 35% percent indicated the require- iment for a separate processor - other than an RTU, 15% preferred a PLC-based approach and another 15% indicated a combined approach using both technologies. Approximately 30 % of thase surveyed indicated that they had not yet formed an opinion on ‘the type of substation platform that would be imple- mented. All of these answers are, of course right. For the purposes of this book, substation automation is defined as a microprocessor based systern that inte- grates and processes substation status, analog and control information and. communicates with local and/or remote devices. Actual the capabilities of equipment that qualify Under this defrtion are quite varied. SA systems range from simple RTUs to fully networked PC/PLC systems that manage WAN/LAN input/outputs (V0) and provide advanced services for the substation environment and mainstream dstibution automation functions. 4.43 Substation legacy systems and practices Transmission substations have received the lion's share of automation device in the past because of the importance of their relabilty to system operar tions. Automation devices at these sites incude RTUs, fault recorders, sequence of events recorders (SERS), ~annunciater panels, and a few microprocessor based relays. Iput/output (V/0) to these devices is typically Via hardwired connections to instrument transformers (ia transducers), field and local status contacts, inter- posing relays, and mimic style control panels. The dominant protective devices are electromechanical relays. The local operator interface is generaly a con- ‘tol panel analog meters, nnunciater window boxes, and recording devices of various types. Communication links, other than voice grade tele- hone connections, are typically between transmis- sion subs and master stations via microwave, fiber optic or decicated telephone lines using relatively slow data transfer rates from 1200 to 9600 baud. Most distribution substations today have a fimited number of IEDs. Many have RTUs, but few have been provided with automated SER fault recording and microprocessor based relay systems. Connectivity is similar to that mentioned above for transmission sub- stations. Maintenance practices at legacy substations involve labor intensive routine on-site manual inspection. Field devices such as circuit breakers, switchgear, transformers and load tap changers are maintained routinely without detailed information on operation of these devices. 4.4.4 Opportunities and justifications Many opportunities exist today to design, operate and maintain substations using better faster and: cheaper devices and service methodologies. These eiciencies are accomplished by eliminating unneces- sary redundant systems and using microprocessor based controllers to manage information supplied by IEDs ‘ypialy, substation automation passes justification tests under the folowing conditions New construction - the substitution of RTUs, mimic style control panels, annundiaters, sequence of events recorders (SER5), fault recorders, cable/condult systems, and significant control room space with SA reduces the cost of new construction while vastly improving functionality. SA is a “no brainier’ for new substations. ignificant retrofit or expansion of existing substation - capital projects that add new bays, transformers or switchgear can easly incorporate SA retrofit projects cost effectively. Legacy systems can be replaced or integrated into the new SA infrastuc- tue. Upgrading the WAN to high speed capabilities such as Ethernet speeds - RTU architectures nor- mally communicating with SCADA master stations at 1200 baud will not be compatible with the high speed data transfer and synchronizing required by modern WANS, New or replacement RTU, annunciaters, sequence of events recorder, fault recorder, or electromechanical relays - the integrated SA plat- form will indude the functions ofall these dedicated vices plus an order of magnitude of additional func- ‘ions and all at a significantly reduced price 445 Benefits of substation automation integration Integrated substation automation systems provide improved benefits in the functionality, design, opera- tion, maintenance and reliabilty of the substation operating environment. The architectures of most substation automation solutions vary significantly and include smart systems, black box proprietay solu- tions, and open WAN/LAN solutions using off-tne- shelf commodities from the PC and PLC marketplace. The following lists categorize and summarize the potential benefits available from a well integrated substation automation architecture using PC HMl SUBLAN, IED relays, and remote modem access. 445.1 Design Benefits ‘Standardization ofthe user interface and improved User access. «System architecture standardization for uniformity Cf operation and buikding SA/DA upgrade paths. ‘= Blmination of unnecessary redundant equipment. ‘* Reduced substation infrastructure induding wiring, conduit, wire channels, controVelay panel space and control house size 445 ‘© Easy upgracebilty using mainstream hardware and software + Protocol independence « Distrbuted computing and communication hub for simplified integration of distribution automation (DA), 4.452 Operation Benefits # Uniform HMI for data acess. « Interoperability of EDs « Integrated alarm log and sequence of events reporting, « Custom display and reporting capabiliy from integrated database. + Automatic logging of HMI accesses and operating activities. + Programmed logic for automatic reconfiguration of busses and/or feeders. +s Network (peer to peet) messaging between substation server nodes and other WAN nodes 4453 Maintenance Benefits «Data for relaying, metering and communication service is availabe localy or remotely ‘= Each IED can be directly accessed (locally fromm the PC HMI or remotely via modem) from easy to use HMI for configuration, setting and, diagnostic reporting «Predictive maintenance is possible from automatic analysis of equipment operating history ‘* Supervision and management of transformer, load tap changer, and circuit breaker intemal operations ‘optimizes just in-time maintenance 4 4s 445.4 Reliability Benefits * Uniformity and consistency in HMI operation procedures reduces the chances for operating errors, ‘Integrated and sequenced databases provide accurate information for problem analysis and maintenance + Monitoring of al staion equipment ensures that failed equipment is detected and repaired before called upon for sence during system distubances. + Reduced customer outage minutes resulting in improved relabilty indices ‘© Reduced chances for operator switching errors. ‘Quick isolation of faults and restoration of service ‘0 unfauled feeder sections. 45 Reference 4455 Reduced cost benefits 1 Reduced costs for new construction, « Reduction of unnecessary tips to read alarms, relay targets, and station logs. «Readily accessible relay operation information, fault location data and alarm log for operators will help reduce line patroling and problern investigation time, and thus outage time. ‘© Reduced traning costs because of uniform database, HMI, customized screen format talored for ease of use. « Integrated database information, comprehensive problem reporting and a future expert system ‘an greatly factate of maintenance and repair activities, thus reducing costs. ‘Maintenance scheduling can be streamlined and optimized for a cost effective and efficient program, by using the ad documentation ‘Distributed computing hub to manage the substation and connected feeder environment. ‘Shared access to the enterprise WAN by SA, and DA devices. Ryan Bird «Justifying Substation Automation, Black & Veatch, http/-tasnet.comjusta shtml 42 5 Primary Equipment in Substations 5.1 Introduction 5.1.1 Condition Monitoring 5.2 Switchgear installations 5.21 Classification of switchgear installations 5.3 Single line diagram and busbar configuration 53.1 Defrtion of Switchgear 53.2 Common circuit configurations 5.33 Special configurations, mainly outside Europe 5.34. Configurations for load-center substations 5.4 Substation Structure 54.1 Grauit Breaker Bays/Feeders 5.42. Bus coupler bays 5.43. Connections of instrument Transformers 5.5. Switching Equipment 55.1 Circuit Breakers 55.1.1 Grau Breaker tripping operation 55.12 Requirements for control of circuit breakers 55.121 Phase-screpancy monitoring 55.122. Anti-pumping control 55.123 Non-stop motor operation 55.124. SF, gas monitoring 551.25. Localremote control 55.1.26 Energy monitoring 551.27 Autoreclosure 55..28 Synchrorized switching 55.13 Definitions 55.131 Auxiliary switches 55.132 Opening time 551.33 Total break time 551.34 Arcing time 551.35 Closing tme 55.136 Operating cyce of circuit breakers 55.137 Monitoring of circuit breakers 55.138 Rapid or auto-redosure 55.1.4 Ciitical CB parts to monitor 552. Disconnectors and Earthing Switches 553 Switch cisconnectors 554 _ Instrument transformers 5541 Definitions and electrical quantities 5542 Curent transformers $542.1. Definitions for current transformers 55422. Selection of current transformers 5543 Voltage transformers 55.4311 Definitions for voltage transformers 45 45, 47 a7 49 51 52 53 53 54. 54 55 55 s7 37 7 7 7 57 37 57 58 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 60 oI 61 61 62 62 62 6 6 Table of content 43 55432. Inductive voltage transformers 55433 Capactive voltage transformers 5544 Non-conventional transformers 5544.1 Active non-conventional transforers 55.442 Passive non-conventional transforrers 55443 Cable connection to protection devices 5 55,444 Serial connection to protection devices Table of 555. Innovative HV switchgear technology content 555.1 Modem design concepts 5555.11 Process electronics (sensor technology, PISA) 5552 Innovative solutions 5552.1 Compact outdoor switchgear installations 55522 Hybrid switchgear installations 556 SF, gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) 5561 General 5562 Sf_ gas as insulating and are-quenching medium 5563 Gas Density Monitoring 5564 — Components 5565 SMARTGIS 557 Surge anestors 5571 Design, operating principle 55.72 Application and selection of MO surge aresters 558 Transformers 558.1 Transformer connections 5.6 Voltage and Power Factor Control 5.6.1 Transformer control and votage regulation 561.1 Change over switches 561.2 Onoad tap changer (OLTC) 5613 OUIC control 56131. Local control 56.132 Station and remote control 56.133 Automatic control 562 Power capacitors 562.1 Compensation of reactive power 5.63. High voltage reactors 563.1 Current lriting reactors 563.1.1 Voltage drop and voltage variation 563.12. Reactor circuits 5632 Shunt reactors 564 FACIS 5.7 Static Var (reactive power) compensation (SVC) 571 Applications 5.72_Types of compensation 5721 Thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) 5722 Thytistor switched capactors (TSG) 5723 Thytstor switched capacitors/thyistor controlled reactor (ISC/TCR) 44 5.8 References SyseVHWNUAHIIVSSISSSSse SLSSSSSSVRARSREEKSSLSLBS 5 Primary Equipment in Substations 5.1, Introduction ‘The idea to induce this chapter inthis book is to pro- Vide background knowledge about the primary pro- ess in terms of switchgear insalations, various single line diagrams, switching equipment, and modem fle- ible AC transmission systems (FACTS) to readers who have their professional expertise mainly in IT applications or in secondary equipment for control plotection and monitoring, The descriptions of the main primary equipment that is located in distribution and transmission substation, ie '* Gruit breakers ‘= Disconnectors and earthing switches * Switch disconnectors «Instrument transformers, + Innovative switchgear technologies ‘SF. gas insulated switchgear (GIS) *# Surge arestors ‘Transformers ate detaled enough that the interaction between substation contro, protection and monitoring can be explained. In addition to this, the attention is drawn to those citcal parts of the primary equipment, which are subject to aging and wear. ‘The descriptions of FACTS applications is induded because they are mentioned in Chapter 11 “Wide area protection” as counter measures to maintain power system integity in case of the occurrence of muti- contingencies. 5.1.1 Condition Monitoring ilies can save themselves time and money by employing a step-by-step condition-based, rather a purely time-based, maintenance strategy for the pr ‘mary and secondary equipment. Generally time-based or usage-based maintenance is 2 suitable strategy if degradation is gradual and pre dictable. However, curative maintenance is also requir- ed as numerous defects cannot otherwise be pre- vented or detected. In the case of some parts, the possiblity of fare is constant, even if there are very few signs of aging, However, in the longer term there will always be some kind of degradation process involved. For example, in the case of static parts, such ‘process may take 50 years or more. However, if maintenance is only performed when necessary, based on the condition of the component (condition based maintenance, or CBM), overall savings on maintenance tasks can be achieved. Indeed, field experience has shown that savings of 20-30 9 are possible The condition of a component is estimated through inspections, dagnostc tests, monitexing systems and (patty) cismanting one or more samples. When app- iying CBM, there must be at least one condition ind cator and proven expertise in the assessment of de~ gradation. The key issue is to detect degradation before failure occurs and apply an ‘expertule’ to define what will happen next and when. Condition monitoring indudes acquisition, recording, processing and visualizing measured quantities to allow early detection of fauts in important equipment such as Gircuit-breakers, power transformers orinsttu- iment transformers. According to international surveys conducted by CIGRE, the operating mechanisms and the electrical control circuits in crcuit-breakers are the primary source of serious faults, ie. faiutes causing ‘operational disruptions. The most common sources sa 45 52 46 of failure are the mechanically actuated parts such as electro-mechanical relays and signaling contacts in the electrical control Grats and in operating mecha- risms forthe primary equipment. In order to increase the intemal system reliability the electronic hardwere and software is sel- monitored Condition monitoring requires careful evaluation of the large quantities of measured data because only the combination of status acquisition with inteligent assessment procedures results in a knowedgeable ciagnosis and initiation of the necessary maintenance steps. Special algorithms for reducing the data and «akauating trends are basic for a monitoring sys- tern. The P-F curve forthe condition degradation over time (Figure 5-1) represents ie. qualitative connection between the condition of a component and the time ‘AS a result of wear, the fauit mechanism starts at a specific time t,, ie the condition deteriorates until time t, when the degradation is detected at point P which is designated a “potential faut’ In general, t can be assumed that from this time the state of the system continues to deteriorate, usually with increas ing speed until the fault (point F) actually occurs at time t,. A typical exemple for such a response is the aging mechanism of oi/paper or plastic insulation or leakage in gas-insulated switchgear instalation. ‘The objective of condition monitoring isto detect the degradation at point P with sufficent assuracy, so there willbe sufficient time, to take appropriate action to prevent the fault within the time interval between point P and point F. CBM Indicator ‘artng point of degradation Detection point of degradation —<—+ Figure 5-1 Condition degradation over time 5.2 Switchgear installations ‘A switchgear instalation contains all the apparatus and aunlary equipment necessary to ensure reiable operation of the installation and a secure supply of electricity, Three-phase AC high-voltage switchgear installations with operating voltages of up to 800 KV ate usec for distributing electricity in towns and cites, regions and industrial centers, and also for power ‘transmission. The votage level employed is determin- ed by the transmission capacity and the short-circuit capacity of the power systern Distribution networks are operated predominantly up to 123 KV. Power transmission systems and ring mains round urban areas operate with 123, 245 of 420 kv, depending on local conditions. Over very large disances, extra high powers are also transmit ed at 755 kV or by high-voltage cirect-current sys- tems. Switchgear installations can be placed indoors or out doors. S, gas-insulated switching stations have the importe-t advantage of taking up litle space and beng uaffected by pollution and environmental fac- tors. Indoor istallations are built both with SF gas-insulat- ed equiament for al vtage ratings above 36 KV and also wth conventional, open equipment up to 123 KV. SF, echnology, requiring very litle floor area and building volume, is particularly suitable for supplying load centers for dies and industial complexes. Ths Kind of equipment is also appied in underground instalatons. Outdoor switching stations are used for all voltage levels from 52 to 765 KV (Figure 5-2). They are butt outside cities, usually at points along the cross-coun- tty ines of bulk transmission systems. Switchgear for HVDC applications is also predominantly of the out- door type. Transformer stations comprise not only the HV equip- ment and power transformers but also medium- and low-voltage switchgear and a variety of auiiary ser vices. These must aditionally be accounted for in the station layout Depending on the intended plant site, the construc tion of a switchgear installation must conform to IEC requirements, ANS! Standards or particular national codes. The starting point for planning a switchgear installa tion ists singe-ine ciagram. This indicates the extent of the instalation, such as the number of busbars and branches, as well as their assodated apparatus. The most common circuit configurations of high and medium-voltage switchgear instalations are shown in the form of singlesine diagrams in chapter 53. 5.2.1 Classification of switchgear installations ‘Switchgear installations in terms of substations are ‘commonly classified by function, which is related to the voltage level. While there are no utity wide stand. ards, typical dassifcations are as follows: «Distribution (36 - 36 kV): Substations trans- rritting power to the final retal outlet. ‘* Subtransmission (175 - 145 kV): Substations transmitting power to cistibution substations and to bulk retail outlets. «© Transmission (725 - 765 KV): Substations trans- rmitting power between major substations of interconnecting systems, and to wholesale out- lets. The voltage levels are further divided into «High voltage (HV): 115 - 245 kV Figure 5-2 53 220 kV outdoor substation « Extra high voltage (EHV): 300 - 765 kV ‘© Utra high voltage (UHV: greater than 765 kV « Direct current systems can be dassitiod follows: ‘Low voltage (24 - 250 V): Auxiiary power in power plants and substations, contol +60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 ‘Temperature [T/C] 55.63 Ea pi Nominal are quenching 92s pressure in CB 75 55.64 %6 Figure 5-16 SF Gas Schematic Diagram The insulating capabiliy of SF, gas is dependent on the gas density in kg/m’. For monitoring the gas den- sity the relation between gas pressure, density and temperature has to be taken into account as shown in Figure 5-15. Ths interdependence makes it difcut to measure the gas density dieay, There are twa measuring principles available: «A temperature compensated pressure switch with ‘wo contacts, one forthe indication of a non- Urgent low density alam to alert the maintenance ‘crew for refling the gas compartment concerned and an urgent alarm for isolating the gas compart- ‘ment from high voltage, as the insulating capability is no longer assured. For Graut-breakers there is a third contact necessary to alert the operator that the circuit breaker is no longer capable to interrupt short circuit currents. This contact operates before the other two respond to deaeasing gas density Based on the same principle, there also monitors available on the market thet delver continuously measured gas density values, ‘+n electronic gas monitoring sensor that can directly indicate the gas density in kg/m? by means of an feasible measuring principle that is independent of temperature variation. Such moni tors are today stil expensive but they may be leconornical in the future, Components Reference is made to the typical layout of a GIS sta- tion in Figure 5-14 and gas schematic diagram Figure 546 ‘The busbars are separated by barier insulators at each bay and form a unit with the busbar disconnec- tors and the maintenance earthing switches. The circut-breaker operates on the sel-blast rnc ple. Conventional puffer-type breakers use the mechanical energy of the actuator to generate the breaker gas stream wile the self-bast breaker uses 1 Gas barter ns ator Busbar gas compartment Feeder gas compartment Circuit breaker gas cornpa SI Station and remote contro! Higher/Lower mechanical 5613 LocalRemote switch Drive motor Contact resisters inactive Voltmeter Remote indication: "Motor is running Tap position indicator mechanical Higher/Lower electrical Contact resistors active ‘Tap position indicator, electrical Stat indicator Transducer for electrical tap changer postion indication > 83 562 84 Automatic control Voltage regulation by means of tap changers can also be done automatically. The principal components of such a system are a voltage regulator, 2 set-point ‘adjuster, a measuring device for load-dependent set- Point correction, and for long lines, a means for com- pensating the voltage drop. This latter device can be contained in the voltage regulation or be installed separately. Measuring unts are avaiable forthe follow ing operating conditions: ‘* Parallel busbar operation, « Parallel network operation, # Networks with widely varying acive and reactive power components. The choice of measuring units thus depends on the operating conditions. The control system is connect- ed to voltage and instrument transformers at the vol- tage level that needs to be held constant. Simultaneous manual/automatic operation is prevent- ed by selector switch If transformer ate operated in parallel on one line, special precautions have to be taken to avoid loop currents flowing between the transformer which could cause damage to the transformer, 5.6.2 Power capacitors The term power capacitor is mainly applied to capa- citors having 2 rated frequency of 50 or 60 Hz which compensate the reactive power at points of heavy cdemand in public and industial networks. This gene- ‘al designation aso incudes “umace capacitors” and “medium-frequency capacitors” which cover the high reactive power requirement of meting furnaces and inductive heating coi, and also “welding machine capacitors” and “fuorescent lamp capacitors” used for compensating welding transformers and the bal lasts of fluorescent larhps. The reactive power of a capacitor is determined by its capacitance, the rms value of the operating voltage and the system frequency Q=Ua The rated power of a capacitor as stated on its name- plete is always in elation to its rated voltage U, and rated frequency f, In three-phase networks, the capacitors, ahveys three ofthe same size, are connected in either sta or deta ft «© G, is the capactance in one phase with star connection + Cys the capacitance in one phase with delta connection then for the sare reactive power: G=3Cy Voltage and frequengy increases and total harmonic distortion of the voltage or the current place adcltio- nal stress on capacitors Capacitors must be able to cay continuously 13 times the current flowing with sinusoidal rated volta ge and frequency at an ambient air ternperature cor- responding to its temperature dass, With this loading, the voltage must not be higher than 1.1. U, with no transient over-voltages taken into account. Compensation of reactive power Only the active power produced by the active current (,) in Figure 5-23 a) s utiized at the point of con- ‘surmption, The reactive power produced by the reac- ‘ive current (,) does not contribute to the conversion into useful power ands therefore not counted by the ‘active power meter. However the reactive power has an unfavorable effect on the electrical equipment in that it constitutes an additional load on generators, transformers and conductors. It gives rise to additio- nal voltage drops and heat losses. Static reactive-power (vat) compensation in systems With the aid of thyristors is desaibed in chapter 57 Its economically sound to draw the reactive power from capacitor, Figure 5-23 b). These are loceted in the vicinity of the largest reactive loads (motors and transformers) in order to relieve the transmission net- works, induding transformers and generators, from the corresponding share ofthe reactive curent if the capacitors are properly positioned, by reducing the reactive current (,) in this way, itis possible in many instances to connect adcitional loads to existing sup- ply systems without having to increase the power or extent of the network. a, 7 é a > ©) Fyne 5:23 het an rections hn etc! ‘etoaton 9 uncmperate 1) compensated with capacitor, ©) power vector diagram With full compensation as shown in Figure 5-23 b) the generator (G) supplies only the currently fr the purely active load (R) and active current lox for the ‘Capacitor loss resistance Re. Figute 5-23 c) shows the reactive before compensa- tions with Q Pran@, ‘And after compensation with Qe =P tan @ Where g is the phase displacement angle of the desired cos «The capacitor rating required for this is Qe =P (tan @,-tan ga) ‘The electricity supply ullites generally specify a wer factor of 08 to 09. Compensation beyond cos (0ver-compensation Qc > Q,) must be avoided 25 this gives rise to capactve reactive power, which stresses the conductors in the same way as inductive reactive power, and in addition, unwelcome valtage increases can occur 5,63 High voltage reactors Current limiting reactors Curtentlimiting reactors are reactances employed to limit short-circuit curents. They are used when one intends to reduce the short-circuit power of networks Cr installations to a value which is acceptable with regard to the short-circuit current carrying capability Of the equipment or the breaking capacity of the ci- cut-breaker. Since the reactance of a series reactor must remain Constant when short-circuit curents occur, only the air-core type of construction is suitable. If iron cores were used, saturation ofthe iron caused by the short aut currents would result in a drop in the induc- ‘tance of the col thus seriously reducing the short cir ait protection Voltage drop and voltage variation ‘The rated impedance is the impedance per phase at tated frequency. The resistance of a current firiting reactor is neghgble and in general, amounts to not more than some 3 9 of the reactance X,. 563 85 563.1.2 86 The rated voltage drop AU, is the voltage induced in the reactor when operating with rated current and rated reactance: AU=1X When the voltage drop is referred to the system vol tage, the rated voltage drop is denoted Au, and usually stated in 9. Au=A u ¥3/U, 100% For given values of reactance and current, the voltage Variation Upin the network ie. the difference be- tween the network voltage before and after the reac- tor is also dependent on cos g, Figure 5-24. Thus, whereas the voltage difference U, across the reactor is small under normal operating conditions itincreas- 5 in the event of a short drcut ‘in proportion to the shor-