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# Group 7

2B-Biochemistry

## Date Performed: 11 April 2016

Date Submitted: 25 April 2016

Members:
37 Toby, Tinio S.
38 Tuvera, Diandra B.
39 Vargas, Allaine T.
41 Villafaa, Jhanina C.

## Experiment 6: Resonance: Speed of Sound

ABSTRACT
The principle of resonance can by utilized to determine the wavelength of a
sound wave. Sound waves are produced by the compression of a substance by
vibrations caused by objects such as vocal cords, guitar strings, organ pipe, loud
speaker, and so forth. A resonance frequency exists when a system is driven by its
natural frequency. Pendulums and swings demonstrate only one natural frequency.
Conversely, a column of air can demonstrate several natural frequencies which
are determined by the amount of wavelength segments that can be found within a given
tube length. When a tuning fork possesses the same natural frequency as the air
column, the vibrations from the tuning fork will push the air particles at a frequency that
will cause the air column to vibrate.
Resonance is said to have occurred when the amplitude of sound increases
from the sound waves of the tuning fork reinforces the sound waves from the air
column. By determining points of resonance, the velocity of a wave can be determine by
the equation v=f.
In the experiment, the wave equation (v = f) was used to measure the speed (v)
of sound; here (f) is the frequency and () is the wavelength. A vibrating tuning fork held
over the top of the graduated water cylinder resonated with the air column above the
water in the cylinder. After taking the measurements of the air column and the tuning
fork, the speed of sound was calculated.

## Questions and Problems:

1. Through what fraction of a vibration has the prong of a tuning fork moved
while the sound traveled down to the water surface inside the pipe and
reflected back up to the fork again?
In tubes, pipes or columns open at one end and closed at the other creates a
stable standing wave pattern requires that a displacement antinode exists at the
open end and a displacement node at the closed end of the tube. This means
that the fundamental (first harmonic) standing wave, such as a tube, occurs when
the column of air is of length /4.
2. What is the approximate wavelength of the fundamental frequency of a
closed tube 35.0 cm long if the tube has a diameter of 4.000 cm?

=4 ( L+0.3 D )
=4 ( 36.2 cm )

## =4 ( 35.0 cm+0.3 ( 4.000 cm) )

=4 ( 35.0 cm+1.200 cm )

=145 cm1.45 m

## 3. A tuning fork of frequency 384 Hz exhibits a resonance with a closed tube

20.0 cm long and 4.000 cm in diameter. What is the speed of the sound
wave?
=4 ( L+0.3 D )
=4 ( 21.2 cm )
V = f

=84.8 cm0.848 m

## V =( 0.848 m ) (384 Hz)

V =326 m/ s

=4 ( 20.0 cm+1.200 cm )