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KANNADA
A SELF INSTRUCTIONAL COURSE

LINGADEVARU HALEMANE

KARNATAKA GOVERNMENT

KANNADA DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY


BENGALURU

KANNADA : A Self Instructional Course by Lingadevaru Halemane


Published by Kannada Development Authority Govt. of Karnataka
Pages : 259 + 16

First Edition
: 1989
Second Edition : 2003
Third Edition
: 2012

x zt : 1989
wAi zt : 2003
vwAi zt : 2012

: 35-00 gU

Price

: Rs. 35/-

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Printer :

Karnataka Offset Printers


30/2, 4th Main, 3rd Cross,
Chamarajpet, Bangalore-18.
( : 26678525

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INTRODUCTION

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This is a self-instructional material prepared to develop


speaking, reading and writing skills. This is intended for adult
English Learners from different mother-tongue backgrounds, who
wants to learn Kannada for various reasons.
It is hoped that this self instructional material would enable
the learner to construct orally the basic sentences with the help of
given patterns and lexical items. This would also enable the learner
to converse with the native speakers in given situation with the help
of conversations framed. The book also takes care of the skills of
reading and writing.
An attempt has been made here to present the material as
systematically as possible. The language and the situations used to
follow the principle of selection and gradation which is the modern
practice the world over. The lessons show development from the
simple to the complex and from the known to the unknown.
Provision has been made for reinforcement of the language habits
through conversation and narration. The language structures
introduced here are found in informal spoken contexts and their
description in the text are pedagogically oriented.
The book contains two parts. Part I deals with graded
language structuring and Part II deals with the script.
Part I contains 25 lessons. These lessons are structurally
graded. The language used in these lessons is standard spoken
Kannada. The Bangalore - Mysore dialect of Kannada is generally

VI/Introduction

accepted as the standard spoken Kannada. However one can see


certain changes at phonological level, like dropping of the vowel in
the second syllable in the spoken form. One can find occassional
overlapping of formal and informal usage in this book.
Each basic lesson contains five components, namely,
conversation/narration, pattern drill, key to learners, exercise and
vocabulary.
Each lesson is a running conversation/narration written on a
specific situation with appropriate structure and vocabulary. The
purpose of having a majority of the lesson in the form of
conversation is that it forms the 'stimulus-reponse pattern' in the
learners. The dialogue form of the book facilitates participation by
the learners with interchanging roles. However the last four lessons
are narrations; they can be used as reading texts. The content of the
lessons include day to day social contexts and cultural information
about Karnataka. The first ten lessons are given in Roman
transliteration. A key to sound transcription is given in the begining
of the book. The tenth lesson onwords, lessons are given in
Kannada Script. It is assumed by the time the learner completes the
structure of first ten lessons that he would also have learnt the
recognition of letters in isolation and in combination. the translation
of text and pattern drill is given in English. (while the translations
are largely idiomatically acceptable, the exigencies of instructions
may have here and there resulted in slightly deviant English
constructions).
Pattern drills and exercises are meant for reinforcement of the
structures introduced in the lesson. Generally a distinction is made
between drills and exercises on the lines of their nature. The drills
aim at establishing the structure as habit. In other words they

Introduction / VII

establish automatic response through intensive practice. Besides


this they are also helpful in knowing the syntactic relationship
among the related structures.
In a true sense exercises are an application activity, No new
structure is given under exercise. The learner is expected to apply
the structure learnt in the lesson to test his competence.
The vocabulary contains the newly introduced in the text as
well as in the drill part under two headings, namely, vocabulary and
supplementary vocabulary. Vocabulary is listed in an alphabetical
order.
The key to the learner gives a brief explanation of the structure
or pattern introduced in the lesson. To a great extent extensive use
of linguistic terminology is avoided. Necessary examples and
sandhi rules are also given.
Part II contains the introduction of the Kannada alphabet. The
letters have been introduced on their shape similarity and
contrastive perception. This would enable the learner to recognise
the letters in isolation and in combination as quickly as possible.
The combination of consonants and vowels are also introduced on
their shape similarity. The sound value in Roman script is also
given along with the primary letters in order to enable the learner to
identify the target language sounds. It is expected that the learner
should start learning speaking, reading and writing side by side.
The explanation given above is only a guide line. The actual
learning lies with the learner's motivation and requirement.
Language learning should'nt be taken as a sole activity, but rather as
an enjoyable game. Each structure and each vocabulary item is to be
treated as an interesting toy in the hands of the learner. The learner

VIII/Introduction

should always approach them with an open mind. Aslo one should
be very conscious and alert about his/her surroundings and the
people. One can learn the language while talking in it without
inhibitions. Talk to the people. If they laugh at your pronunciation,
wrong construction of sentences join them and laugh with them.
But don't be disheartened. While laughing with them try to know
the correct form with the help of the book and with the help of the
native speakers.
I acknowledge my grateful thanks to Prof. Baragur
Ramachandrappa, and Sri Idinabba former Chairmans, Kannada
Development Authority Govt. of Karnataka, who are chiefly
responsible for re-printing this book. They have also got it
translated into other languages knowing its importance in the
development of Kannada language. I am equally grateful to the
translators of this book into different languages. My sincere thanks
to Secretary, Kannada Development Authority for his keen interest
in executing this work.
I hope that this self instructional material will be helpful in
your endeavour.

Lingadevaru Halemane

ABBREVATIONS
Prox.

Proximate

rem.

remote

hon.

honorific

pl.

Plural

sg.

singular

non hon.

non honorific

V.P.

Verbal participle

V.

Verb

N.

Noun

R.P.

Relative Participle

Aux.

Auxiliary Verb

Key to Transcriptions/XI

KEY TO TRANSCRIPTION
1.

Vowels

Symbol

enqivalent in English

donkey, made

this, other

number, many

people, camp

but, rubber

mail, small

young, beyond

up, cut

aa

aunt, laugh

it, kit

ii

each, keep

book, put

room, bring

uu

ooze, moon

live, small

egg, leg

v/w

wine, shave

ee

ape, make

small, face

one, no

shave, fish

oo

own, coat

ai/ay

island, five

hall, behave

au/av

owl, south

2. Consonants
Symbol
k
g
c
J

The following sounds do not have acceptable equivalents in


English. Hence their articulation rather than examples are given.
t

Kannada sound is a variety of t produced by the tip of


the tongue touching the back of the upper teeth.

Kannada sound is produced by curling the tip of the


tongue backwords.

Judge, agent

Produced in the above fashion, but nasal in its quality.

The sound does't exist in English, but is heard


in French and spanish words like Senor, Signe

sh

Variety of 's' also produced in the above fashion.

Produced in the above fashion, but lateral in its


quality.

equivalent in English
king, make
get, beg
church, much

XII/Key to Transcriptions

fan refer. This sound is found only in loan words from


English and urdu. It is represented by the symbol ph.

zoo, lazy. This sound is found only in loan words


from English and urdu. It is represented by the
symbol for J or Jh.
k c T t p and g J D d b, when followed by 'h' are
produced with greater breath force.
Note the sound qualities indicated above are not the
exact ones, but the nearest approximations.

CONTENTS
Introduction
Abbrevations
Key to transcription

V-VIII
IX
X-XII

Part I
Lesson I
Personal pronouns with their possessive forms

1-6

Lesson 2
Personal pronouns with their possessive forms
Yes/No type of interrogation.

7-15

Lesson 3
Possessive forms of the nouns

16-22

Lesson 4
Qualitative and Quantitative adjectives

23-28

Lesson 5
Predicative forms of the pronouns, nouns,
adjectives. Adjectival nouns, alli, Locative case.
Post positions.

29-39

XIV / Contents

Contents / XV

Lesson 6
Dative case, Numerals

40-51

Lesson 14
Past tense d and t and negation

119-130

52-62

Lesson 15
Past tense k, T, D, id and their negation. Indirect
speech, reportive forms.

131-142

Lesson 16
Past participle forms and their negation

143-153

Lesson 17
Continuous forms and their negation

154-162

Lesson 18
Perfect forms and their negation

163-171

Lesson 19
Relative participle, participle nouns and
their negations

172-191

Lesson 20
Simple conditional and its negation

192-199

Lesson 21
Unfulfilled past conditional and its negation,
Concessive form

200-209

Lesson 22
PlP (Reading Practice)

210-219

Lesson 7
Numeral adjectives, Human plurals,
Human numerals
Lesson 8
Colour adjectives, Model verbs and negation

63-70

Lesson 9
Verb iru ; non-post tense paradigm and negation.

71-78

Lesson 10
Imperative, premissive, hortative forms of the
verbs. Non-post tense forms of the main verbs,
annu accusative case.

79-89

Lesson 11
inta comparative marker. Definitive permissive
and prohibitive forms

90-97

Lesson 12
Gerundials, Potential forms, inda instrumental
and ablative case

98-108

Lesson 13
isu as verbaliser and causative, Reflexive pronouns 109-118

XVI / Contents

LESSON - 1

Lesson 23
Pq s (Reading Practice)

220-224

Lesson 24
i vg AUw C (Reading Practice)

225-228

Lesson 25
P qU (Reading Practice)

229-233

1. Dialogue :
Manohar : namaskaara saar.

Good morning sir

Mahadeva : namaskaara niivu


yaaru ?

Good morning, who are


you (polite) ?

Manohar : naanu KannaDa


vidyaarthi

I am a student of
Kannada

Mahadeva : nimma hesaru eenu ?

What is your
name (polite) ?

Manohar : nanna hesaru


manohar, niivu
yaaru saar ?

My name is Manohar
Who are you, sir ?

Mahadeva : naanu kannaDa


adhyaapaka

I am a Kannada teacher

Manohar : nimma hesaru


eenu saar ?

What is your name, sir ?

Mahadeva : naana hesaru


mahaadeva. nimma
raajya yaavudu ?

My name is Mahadeva
Which is your state ?

Manohar : nanna raajya


tamiLnaaDu

My state is Tamilnadu

Mahadeva : nimma maatru bhaashe


yaavdu ?

Which is your Mother


tongue ?

Manohar : naana maatru bhaashe


tamiLu. ivaru yaaru
saar ?

My mother tongue is
Tamil. Who is she Sir ?

Part II
Kannada Script

234-259

2/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 1/3

Mahadeva : ivaru kannaDa


adhyaapaki

She (prox.) is Kannada


teacher

Manohar : ivara hesaru eenu saar ?

What is her name sir ?

Mahadeva : ivara hesaru Siila


avaru yaaru manoohar ?

Her name is Sheela


Who is he, Manohar ?

Manohar : avaru raabar T, nanna


sneehita

He is Robert, my friend

2.5

avara uuru yaavudu ?


ivaru raajya yaavudu ?
nimma jille yaavudu ?

Which is his/her native Place ?


Whis is / her state ?
Which is your district ?

2.6

nanna deeSa bhaarata


nanna raajya KarnaaTaka
avaru uuru mayasuuru
ivara jille tumakuuru

My country is India
My state is Karnataka
His/her native place is Mysore
His/her district is Tumkur

2.7

avaru nanna sneehita


avaru nanna sneehite

He is my friend
She is my friend

2. Pattern drill :
2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

niivu yaaru ?
avaru yaaru ?
ivaru yaaru ?

Who are you (hon) ?


Who is he/she (hon.rem.) ?
Who is he/she (hon.prox.) ?

naanu adhyaapaka.
avaru vaidya
ivaru gumaasta
avaru leekhaki
avaru injiniyar
naanu vyaapaari

I am a teacher
He is a doctor
He is a clerk
She is a writer
He is an engineer
I am a businessman

nimma hesaru eenu ?


avaru hesaru eenu ?
ivara hesaru eenu ?

What is your (hon.) name ?


What is his/her name ?
What is his/her name ?

nanna hesaru moohan


avara hesaru kamala
ivara hesaru raaju

My name is Mohan
Her name is Kamala
His name is Raju

3. Key to Learners :
3.1

'namaskaara' is a greeting term used whenever persons


meet.

3.2

This lesson introduces simple sentences containing


nouns. Note that there is no copula in Kannada as in
English.
niivu yaaru ?
naanu vidyaarthi
avaru vidyaarthini

'Who are you ?'


'I am a student'
'She is a student'

In the above English sentences 'are', 'am', 'is' are


functioning as copula conjoining Noun+Noun. This is not
so in Kannada.
3.3

yaaru 'who is a human interrogative marker, whereas


ennu 'what' is a non-human interrogative marker.
niivu yaaru ?
nimma hesaru eenu ?

'Who are you ?'


'What is your name ?'

4/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

3.4

naanu 'I'
niivu 'you'
avaru 'he/she'
ivaru 'he/she'

First person (sg.)


Second person (sg. hon+pl.)
Third person (sg. hon+pl. rem.)
Third person (sg. hon+pl. prox.)

Lesson 1/5

4.2.3 niivu _____________ ?


4.2.4 ivaru kannaDa ______________
4.3

If 'naanu' becomes 'nanna' what would be the following


4.3.1 niivu ____________
4.3.2 avaru ____________
4.3.3 ivaru ____________

4.4

Use the following words in your own sentences :

are personal pronouns. Note that there is no gender


distinction in third person honorafic plural forms.
3.5

3.6

The pronouns are further extended by adding possessive


marker - a
naanu + a = nanna 'my'
niivu + a = nimma 'your'
avaru + a = avara 'his/her'
ivaru + a = ivara 'his/her'
yaavudu 'which one' is a non-human interrogative
pronoun.

4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.5

Translate the following sentences into Kannada


4.5.1 I am a student of Kannada
4.5.2 Gopal is my friend
4.5.3 My state is Kerala
4.5.4 Her name is Jaya

4.6

Answer the following questions


4.6.1 niivvu yaaru ?
4.6.2 nimma hesaru eenu ?
4.6.3 nimma deeSa yaavudu ?
4.6.4 nimma raajya yaavudu ?
4.6.5 nimma jille yaavudu ?
4.6.6 nimma uuru yaavudu ?
4.6.7 nimma maatrubhaashe yaavudu ?

4. Exercise :
4.1

fill in the blanks using the Kannada equivalents of the


English ones :
4.1.1 raaja nanna ___________ (friend)
4.1.2 avara _____________ tamiLu. (mother tongue)
4.1.3 ____________ hesaru Kamala. (my)
4.1.4 avara raajya ______________ ? (which)

4.2

Fill in the blanks


4.2.1 nimma hesaru _______________ ?
4.2.2 avara hesaru _______________

adhyaapaki
raajya
hesaru
naanu

6/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

5.

adhyaapaka
adhyaapaki
avara
avaru
ivara
eenu
nanna
namaskaara

naanu
nimma
niivu
maatrubhaashe
yaaru
yaavudu
raajya
vidyaarthi
sneehita
hesaru
5.2

LESSON - 2

Vocavbulary
'teacher (mas.)'
'teacher (fem.)'
'his/her (rem.)'
'he/she(hon.rem)'
'his/her (prox.)'
'what'
'my'
'greeting term, equivalent to
English good morning/
good afternoon/good evening'
'I'
'your'
'you (hon.sg.)'
'mother tongue'
'who'
'which one'
'state'
'student (mas.)'
'friend (mas.)'
'name'

Supplementary vocabulary :
gumaasta
'clerk;
jille
'district'
deeSa
'country'
leekhaki
'writter(fem.)'
vaidya
'doctor'
vyaapaari
'businessman'
sneehite
'friend(fem.)'

1. Dialogue :
Manohar : idu yaava pustaka ?

Which book is this (prox.) ?

Gopal

This is a novel

: idu kaadambari

Manohar : idara hesaru eenu ?

What is its name ?

Gopal

Its name is Chirasmarane

: idara hesaru
cirasmaraNe

Manohar : idu yaara


kaadambari ?

Whose novel is this ?

Gopal

This is Niranjana's novel

: idu niranjana avara


kaadambari

Manohar : idu ninna


pustakaanaa ?
Gopal

Is this your book ?

: alla. idu nanna


No. It is not my book. It is
pustaka alla. idu
my friend Ashok's book
nanna sneehita
aSoka avara pustaka

Manohar : adu yaara pennu ?


ninna pennaa ?

Whose pen is that (rem.) ?


Is it yours ?

Gopal

Yes. It is my pen

: havdu. adu nanna


pennu

Manohar : adara hesaru eenu ?

What is its name ?

Gopal

Its name is Hero

: adara hesaru hiiro

8/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 2/9

1.1 Dialogue :
Manohar : niinu yaarappa ?

who are you (endearing) ?

Mohan

I am Anand's son

: naanu aanand avara


maga

Manohar : ninna hesaru eenu ?

What is your name ?

Mohan

My name is Mohan

: nanna hesaru
moohan

Manohar : ivanu yaaru ? ninna


tammanna ?

Who is he ? (Sg. non-hon.


prox.) Is he your younger
brother ?

Mohan

Manohar : ii huDugi yaaru ?


ninna tangiinnaa ?

Who is this girl ? Is she


your younger sister ?

Mohan

No. She is not my younger


sister. She is my elder
sister

: alla. ivaLu nanna


tangi alla. ivaLu
nanna akka.

Manohar : ivaLa hesaru eenu ?

what is her name ?

Mohan

Her name is Lalitha

: ivaLa hesaru lalita

2. Pattern drill :
2.1

idu yaava pustaka ?


adu yaava kaaleeju ?

Which is this book ?


Which is that college ?

No. He is not my younger


brother. He is my elder
brother

2.2

idu kavana
adu kathe

This is a poem
That is a story

Manohar : ivana hesaru eenu ?

What is his name ?

2.3

Mohan

His name is suresh.

idara hesaru eenu ?


adara hesaru eenu ?

What is its (prox.) name ?


What is its (rem.) name ?

2.4

idu caduranga avara


kathe
adu bhyrappa avara
mane

This is chaduranga's story

: alla. ivanu nanna


tamma alla. ivanu
nanna aNNa
: ivana hesaru sureeS.

Manohar : avanu yaaru ?

Who is he (sg. non-hon.


rem.) ?

Mohan

He is my friend

: avanu nanna sneehita

Manohar : avana hesaru eenu ?

What is his name ?

Mohan

: avana hesaru raaju

His name is Raju

Manohar : aa huDugi yaaru ?

Who is that girl ?

Mohan

She (sg. non-hon. rem.) is


my younger sister

: avaLu nanna tangi

Manohar : avaLa hesaru eenu ?

What is her name ?

Mohan

Her name is Kamala

: avaLa hesaru kamala

That is Bhyrappa's house

2.5

idu ninna angiinaa ?


adu avara maneenaa ?

Is it your shirt ?
It it his (rem.) house ?

2.6

havdu. idu nanna pustaka


havdu. adu avara mane

Yes. this is my book


Yes. that is their house

2.7

alla. idu avara pennu alla


alla. adu nanna kaaru
alla.

No. This is not his/her pen


No. That is not my car

10/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 2/11

2.8

niinu yaaru ?
ninna hesaru eenu ?

Who are you (non-hon.) ?


What is your name ?

2.9

ivanu yaaru ?
ivanu javaana
ivana hesaru eenu ?
ivana hesaru nanjappa

Who is he ? (non.hon.prox.)
He is servant
What is his name ?
His name is Nanjappa

2.10 avaru yaaru ?


avanu kaavalugaara
avana hesaru raamayya

Who is he (non-hon. rem) ?


He is a watchman
His name is Ramaiah

2.11 avaLu yaaru ?


avaLu javaani
avaLa hesaru lakshmi

Who is she (non-hon.rem) ?


She is servant ?
Her name is Lakshmi

2.12 IvaLu yaaru ?


ivaLu nanna tangi

Who is she (non-hon.rem.)?


She is my younger sister

2.13 ivanu ninna tammaanaa ? Is he your younger brother ?


alla. ivanu nanna tamma No. He is not my younger
alla. ivanu nanna aNNa
brother. He is my elder
brother
2.14 avaLu ninna akkaanaa ? Is she your elder sister ?
havdu. avaLu nanna akka Yes. she is my elder sister

3. Key to learners :
3.1

idu kurchi
adu mara
3.2

The neuter pronouns are extended by adding possessive


marker - a
adu + a = adara 'its' (rem.)
idu + a = idara 'its' (prox.)
Note that the additional of - ar - when the above neuter
pronouns are used as possessive forms.

3.3

yes / no type of interrogation is obtained by adding - aa


to the nouns. Note the combination

3.3.1 kaadambari + aa = kaadambariinaa (kaadambariyaa)


mane + aa = maaneenaa (maneyaa)
site + aa = siiteenaa (siiteyaa)
3.3.2
3.3.3

pennu + aa = pennaa (pennaa)


avaru + aa = avaraa (avaraa)
maga + aa = magaanaa (maganaa)
raama + aa = raamaanaa (raamanaa)
Kamala + aa = kamalaanaa (kamalaLaa)

Whenever = aa is added, the last vowel of the noun


becomes long and it takes - n - as an addition in spoken
form. The forms in the paranthesis represent the standard
written form.
3.4

havdu 'yes' is an affirmitive answer to question. alla 'no'


is negation. Note that we can also make questions using
havdu and alla as havdaa ? and alvaa ?

3.5

niinu
ivanu

idu 'this' third person (neut. sg. prox.)


adu 'that' third person (neut. sg. rem.)
are introduced. These pronouns are used to denote all
non-human nouns.

This is a Chair
That is a tree

'you' : second person (sg.)


'he' : third person (mas. sg. prox.)

12/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

avanu
ivaLu
avaLu

Lesson 2/13

'he' : third person (mas. sg. rem.)


'She' : third person (fem. sg. prox.)
'She' : third person (fem. sg. rem.)

are introduced. aata, iita, aake, iike are also used as


substitutes for avanu, ivanu, avaLu, ivaLu
3.6

3.7

3.8

The above pronouns are further extended by adding a Possessive marker.


niinu
+
a =
ninna
'your'
ivanu
+
a =
ivana
'his'
avanu
+
a =
avana
'his'
ivaLu
+
a =
ivaLa
'her'
avaLu
+
a =
avaLa
'her'
- appa is an addressive term used to address men who
are strangers, intimates and subordinates. Femi - nine
counterpart of this term is - amma
aa 'that' and ii 'this' are demonstrative adjectives. Note
the difference between these adjectives and neut.
pronouns.
adu mane
aa mane

'that is house'
'that house'

4. Exercises :
4.1 Fill in the blanks using th appropriate word
4.1.1 idu niranjana avara ___________
4.1.2 indiraa gaandhi avara ________ raajiiva gaandhi
4.1.3 _______ hesaru cirasmaraNe
4.1.4 _______ adu nanna pustaka alla

4.2 Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the words given
in the bracket.
4.2.1 adu _________ kaaru (avanu)
4.2.2 idu _________ aafiisu ? (yaaru)
4.2.3 avaLu ninna ________ ? (tangi)
4.2.4 _______ hesaru kaamaakshi (ivaLu)
4.3 Fill in the blanks using the Kannad equivalent of the
English ones :
4.3.1 avaLu ___________ (girl)
4.3.2 savita nanna ________ (elder sister)
4.3.3 nimma ________ yaaru ? (elder brother)
4.3.4 nanna __________ kannaDa adhyaapaka
(younger brother)
4.4 interrogate :
4.4.1 avanu vidyaarthi
4.4.2 adu pustaka
4.4.3 nanna raajya keeraLa
4.4.4 havdu. avanu nanna tamma
4.5 Translate into Kannada
4.5.1 Who are you ?
4.5.2 Is she your younger sister ?
4.5.3 Who is that girl ?
4.5.4 This boy is Satish's Son
4.5.5 Is it your booK ?
4.5.6 No. It is not my pen?
4.5.7 Which is your native place ?

14/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 2/15

4.6 Answer the following questions.


4.6.1 nimma uuru madaraasaa ?

tangi

'younger sister'

tamma

'younger brother'

4.6.2 aa huDuga nimma magaanaa ?

ninna

'your'

4.6.3 niranjana avara kaadambari yaavudu ?

maga

'son'

4.6.4 nimma maatrubhaashe kannaDaanaa ?

pustaka

'book'

yaava

'which'

havdu

'yes'

huDugi

'girl'

5. Vocabulary :
akka

'elder sister'

adu

'that' (rem.)

adara

'its'

aNNa

'elder brother'

alla

'no' (negates the noun)

avaLu

'she' (non. hon. sg. rem.)

avaLa

'her'

avanu

'he' (non. hon. sg. rem.)

avana

'his'

aa

'that'

idu

'this' (prox.)

idara

'its'

ivana

'his'

ivaLu

'she' (non. hon. sg. prox.)

ivaLa

'her'

ii

'this'

kaadambari

'novel'

Lesson 3/17

LESSON - 3
1. Dialogue :
Raja : raamaayaNada naayaka
yaaru ?

Who is the hero of


Ramayana ?

Rani : raamaayaNada naayaka


Sriiraama

The hero of Ramayana is


Sri Rama

Raja : raama yaara maga ?

Whose son is Sri Rama ?

Rani : avanu daSarathana maga

He is the son of Dasharatha

Raja : raamana taayiya hesaru


eenu ?

What is the name of


Rama's mother ?

Rani : raamana taayiya hesaru


kavsalye

Rama's mother name is


Kausalye

Raja : raamana tammana


hesaru eenu ?

What is the name of


Rama's younger brother ?

Rani : raamana tammana hesaru


lakshmaNa

Rama's younger brother's


name is Lakshmana

Raja : raamana henDatiya


hesaru eenu ?

What is the Rama's wife's


name ?

Rani : raamana heNDatiya


hesaru siite

Rama's wife's name is


Sita

Raja : avaLu yaara magaLu ?

Whose daughter is she ?

Rani : avaLu Janaka raajana


magaLu

She is the daughter of King


Janaka

Raja : raamana makkaLa


hesaru eenu ?

What are the names of


Rama's children ?

Rani : lava, kuSa

Lava & Kusha

Raja : Lava hiri magaanoo ?


kusha hiri magaanoo ?

Who is the eldest son ?


It is Lava or Kusha ?

Rani : kusha hiri maga. lava


kiri maga

Kusha is the eldest son.


Lava is the youngest

2. Pattern drill :
2.1 karnaaTakada mukhya
mantri yaaru ?

Who is Chief Minister of


Karnataka ?

bhaaratada raajadhaani
yaavudu ?
2.2 sumati raajuvina magaLu
avanu ii guruvina Sishya
2.3 raamana tandeya hesaru
daSaratha
nanna taayiya hesaru
kamalamma
2.4 siiteya gaNDana hesaru
raama

Which is the Capital of


India ?
Sumati is Raju's daughter
He is the student of this
teacher
Rama's father's name is
Dasharatha
My mother's name is
Kamalamma
Sita's husband's name is
Rama

avara magana hesaru


raajiiva

His son's name is RaJiv

2.5 raamana makkaLa hesaru


lava, kuSa

Rama's children's names


are Lava and Kusha

18/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

2.6 namma kaalejina hesaru


Mahaarajaa kaaleeju

Lesson 3/19

The name of our college is


Maharaja's College

nimma uurina hesaru eenu ? What is the name of your


native place ?
2.7 avaLu raamaraayara hiri
magaLoo kiri magaLoo ?

3.

Is she Ramarao's elder


daughter or younger
daughter ?

Key to learners :

3.1 The possessive marker - a is added to nouns


3.1.1 bhaarata + a = bhaarataDa 'of India'
karnaaTaka + a = karnaa Takada 'of Karnataka'
Whenever possessive marker - a is added to neut
nouns ending with - a, it takes - d - as an
addition
Now add the - a to the following nouns :
mara 'tree'
giDa 'plant'
dina 'day

pustaka
sinima
raajya

3.1.2 gaandhi + a = gaandhiya


site
= a = siiteya

'book'
'cinema'
'state'
'of Gandhi'
'of Site'

whenever - a is added to nouns ending with - i or - e,


whether human or non-human, it takes - y - as an addition
Now added - a to the following nouns.

sose
kathe
henDati

'daughter in law'
'story'
'wife'

huli
kiTaki
kurci

'tiger'
'window'
'chair'

3.1.3 when - a is added to - u ending neuter, nouns, final - u


drops and - in - is inserted.
kaaleeju + a = kaaleejina
kaaDu + a = kaaDina
add, - a to following nouns
uuru
'native place'
bassu
'bus'
baagilu 'door'

'of college'
'of forest'

haavu
pennu
hengasu

'snake'
'pen'
'women'

There are some nouns which are exceptions to the above rule
hasu
'cow
bandhu
'relative'
guru
'teacher'
magu
'child'
karu
'calf'
Satru
'enemy'
These nouns and the proper nouns ending in - u take - vin - as an
addition. Observe the following examples.
hasu
guru
karu
raaju
siitu

+
+
+
+
+

a
a
a
a
a

=
=
=
=
=

hasuvina
guruvina
karuvina
raajuvina
siituvina

3.1.4 The numerals ending with - u take - ar - as an increment


ondu + a = ondara
'of one'
hattu + a = hattara
'of ten'

20/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 3/21

Note that when magaLu and maakaLu added to - a


possessive from, final - u drops
magaLu
makkLu

+ a = magaLa
+ a + makkaLa

'of daughter'
'of children'

4.2 Fill in the blanks using Kannada equivalents of the


English words given in the bracket
4.2.1 Saaliniya ___________ rajani (daughter)
4.2.2 nanna ____________ raajeSa (elder son)
4.2.3 raviya ____________ savita (wife)

3.15 Human nouns ending with - a, when added to posses sive


marker take -n - as an addition.
maga
+ a = magana
'of son'
raama + a = raamana
'of Rama'
kamala + a = kamalana
'of Kamala'
akka
+ a = akkana
'of elder sister'
3.2 Dubitive marker is - oo. this is used to express doubt.
sanjay gaandhi indiraa gaandhiya hiri maganoo kiri
maganoo ?
avanu ninna aNNanoo tammanoo ?
adu avara manenoo ninna manenoo ?
3.3 Note that the kinship terms are used in this lesson

4.

Exercises

4.1 fill in the blanks using the appropriate words

4.2.4 sumana ___________ rama (mother)


4.3 Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the word given
in the bracket
4.3.1 nimma __________ hesaru eenu ? (maga)
4.3.2 Saaliniya __________ mane yaavudu ? (sneehite)
4.3.3 _______ aNNa raajiiva (sanjaya)
4.3.3 _________ raajadhaani dehali (bhaarata)
4.4 Translate into Kannada :
4.4.1 My mother's name is Sharada
4.4.2 Who is her husband ?
4.4.3 Arpita is my youngest daughter
4.4.4 Rama Rao is my father's father
4.5 Trans form as per the model :
4.5.1 indiraa gaandhi ____ indiraa gaandhiya
rajani _________

4.1.1 bhaaratada ___________ dehali

ravi _________

4.1.2 raamana ___________ siita

naayi _________

4.1.3 lava kuSa raamana __________

kurci _________

4.1.4 raajiiva gaandhiya ____________ firooj gaandhi

tande _________
kathe _________

22/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

4.5.2 bhaarata ____ bhaaratada


deeSa __________
pustaka __________
mara __________
4.5.3 maga ___ magana
sanjaya __________
rameeSa __________
kamala __________
lalita __________
4.5.4 neharu ___ neharuvina
raamu __________
niilu __________
magu __________
hasu __________
guru __________
4.6 Give a brief introduction about your family
4.7 Answer the following questions
4.7.1 nimma makkaLa hesaru eenu ?
4.7.2 nimma heDatiya hesaru eenu ?
4.7.3 nimma tande / taayiya hesaru eenu ?

5.

Vocabulary
makkaLu
magaLu
hiri maga
heNDati

'children'
'daughter'
'eldest son'
'wife'

LESSON - 4
1. Dialogue :
Ramu : Sriiraamapura oLLeya
baDaavaNeenaa ?

Is Shreeramapura a good
extension ?

Suresh : alla. adu oLLeya


baDaavaNe alla. keTTa
baDaavaNe

No, It is not a good


extension. It is a bad one

Ramu : oLLeya baDaavNe


yaavudu ?

Which is the good


extension ?

Suresh : banaSankari oLLeya


baDaavaNe

Banashankari is a good
extension

Ramu : adu hosa


Is it a new extension or an
baDaavaNeenoo
old one ?
haLeya baDaavaNeenoo ?
Suresh : adu haLeya baDaavaNe
alla. hosa baDaavaNe

It is not an old one. It is a


new one

Ramu : adeenu doDDa


baDaavaNeenoo,
cikka baDaavaNeenoo ?

Is it a big extension or
small one ?

Suresh : adu doDDa baDaavaNe

It is a big extension

Ramu : adu entha baDaavaNe ?


Sriimantara
baDaavaNeenoo,
baDavara
baDaavaNeenoo ?

What type of exttension


is that ? Is it a rich people's
extension or poor people's
extension ?

24/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 4/25

Suresh ; adu tumbaa Sriimantara It is neither very rich


baDaavaNeenu alla
people's extension nor
tumbaa baDavara
the extension of poor
baDaavaNeenuu alla
Suresh : adu tumbaa duuraanoo
hattiraanoo ?

It is too far or nearby ?

Ramu : adu tumbaa duuraanuu It is neither too far, nor


alla, tumbaa hattiraanuu too nearby
alla

2.

Pattern drill :

2.1

maysuuru oLLeya
nagara
rameeSa oLLeya
huDuga
moohan oLLeya
adhikaari

2.4

That is a small shop


This is a short story
She is a small/mean woman

2.6

maysuuru aramane
tumbaa doDDa aramane
avaru bahaLa oLLeya
adhyaapaki
adu tiiraa keTTa naayi

The Mysore palace is a


very big palace
She is a very good teacher

2.7

adu keTTa pustaka


avanu keTTa huDuga
adu keTTa uuru

That is a bad book


He is a bad boy
That is a bad place

2.3

adu entha pennu ?


adu oLLeya pennu
idu entha kadambari ?
idu keTTa kadambari
avaLu entha naTi ?
avaLu keTTa naTi
avanu oLLeya NaTa

What kind of pen is that ?


That is a good pen
What kind of novel is this ?
This is a bad novel
What kind of actress is she ?
She is a bad actress
He is a good actor

He is a big/nobel man

adu cikka angaDi


idu saNNa kathe
avaLu saNNa hengasu

Ramesha is a good boy

2.2

That is a big house


Bangalore is a big city

2.5

Mysore is a good city

Mohan is a good officer

adu doDDa mane


bengaLuuru doDDa
paTTaNa
avaru doDDa
manushyaru

raama sumitreya
magaanoo ? kaikeyiya
magaanoo ?
raama sumitreya
magaanuu alla
Kaikeeyiya magaanuu
alla. avanu kausalyeya
maga
adu ninna pennoo
ninna tammana pennoo /
adu nanna pennuu alla
nanna tammana pennu
alla. nanna tangiya
pennu

That is a very bad dog


Is Rama the son of
Sumitra or Kaikeyi ?
Rama is the son of neither
Sumitra nor Kaikeyi
He is the son of Kausalya

Is it your pen or your


younger brother's ?
It is neither my pen nor
my younger brother's It is
my younger sister's pen

26/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

3.

4.2.2 adu ____________ gaDiyaara (big)


4.2.3 adu tumbaa doDDa ____________ (extension)

Key to learners :

3.1 OLLeya 'good', keTTa 'bad', hosa 'new', haleya 'old' are
qualitative adjectives. doDDa 'big' cikka, saNNa 'small'
are quantitative adjectives. These adjectives always
precede nouns. doDDa and saNNa may refer to either the
size of an object or the quality of a person.
adu doDDa mane
avanu doDDa manushya
3.2 Note that tumbaa, bahaLa and tiira, are the intensifiers.
They always precede the adjectives
avanu tumbaa oLLeya manushya
3.3 - uu is a conjuctive marker which is used to co-ordinate
two or more terms. If it is used with the subject along with
'alla', it gives the meaning 'neither,--nor !
avanu raviya aNNanuu alla, tammanuu alla
3.4 entha 'what type of' is a qualitative interorragative
adjective.

4.

Lesson 4/27

Exercise :

4.1 Fill in the blanks using the appropriate word


4.1.1 adu ____________ sinimaa
4.1.2 bengaLuuru ____________paTTaNa
4.1.3 avanu nanna ____________ aNNa
4.1.4 avaLu nanna tammana ____________ magaLu
4.2 Fill in the blanks using the kannada equivalents of the
English words in the bracket
4.2.1 reekhaa ____________ oLLeya naTi (very)

4.3 Use the following words in your own sentences


4.3.1 mane
4.3.2 hosa
4.3.3 doDDa
4.3.4 entha
4.3.5 saNNa
4.4 Translate into kannada
4.4.1 It is a very good novel'
4.4.2 Whose story is this ?
4.4.4 Jayanagara is a good extension
4.4.5 It is a big city
4.4.6 It is a good old house
4.5 Answer the following questions
4.5.1 karnaaTakada raajadhaani yaavudu ?
4.5.2 nimma doDDa magana hesaru eenu ?
4.5.3 adu nimma haLeya manenooo hosa maneenoo ?
4.5.4 nimma baDaavaNeya hesaru eenu ?
4.5.5 nimma baDaavaNe do DDadaa ?

5.

Vocabulary :
entha
oLLeya
keTTa

'what type of'


'good'
'bad'

28/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

cikka
doDDa
baDaavaNe
saNNa
hattira
haLeya
hosa

Lesson 5/29

'small'
'big'
'extension'
'small'
'near by'
'old'
'new'

5.1 Supplementary Vocabulary :


aramane
'palace'

LESSON - 5
1. Dialogue :
Swamy : nimmadu baaDige
maneenaa ?

Is yours a rented house ?

Ranga : alla. nannadu baaDige


mane alla. svanta mane

No. Mine is not a rented


house. It is my own

Swamy : mane hosadaa ?

Is it a new house ?

Ranga : havdu. hosadu

Yes. a new one

gaDiyaara

'watch / clock'

Swamy : doDDadaa ?

Is it big ?

naTa

'Actor'

Ranga : swalpa doDDadu

Some what big

naTi

'Actress'

Swamy : mane elli ide ?

Where is the house ?

nagara

'city'

Ranga : Jayanagaradalli ide

It is in Jayanagara

naayi

'dog'

paTTana

'city'

Swamy : alli yaavudaadaruu


baaDige mane ideyaa ?

Is there any house for rent?

manushya

'man'

hengasu

'woman'

Ranga : illa. yaavuduu illa

no. There is none

Swamy : beere elliyaadaru


ideyaa ?

Is there one, elsewhere ?

Ranga : raajaaji nagaradalli ide

There is one in
Raajajinagar

Swamy : rajaaji nagara duura


banaSankari hattira
alli yaavuduu liva ?

Raajaji nagar is far off


Banashankari is near
Is there not one ?

Ranga : illa

No

30/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 5/31

Swamy : raajaaji nagarada mane Whose house is the one in


yaaradu ?
Raajajinagar ?

2.2 aa huDugi nannavaLu


ii huDuga nannavanu

That girl is mine


This boy is mine

Ranga : nanna sneehitanadu

It is my friend's

Swamy : elli ide ?

Where is it ?

Ranga : navarang thiyeeTar


hattira ide

It is near Navarang theatre

2.3 nanna SarTu hodadu


avaLa siire haLeyadu
avara kaaleeju doDDadu
avana rummu cikkadu

My shirt is new
Her saree is old
Their college is big
His room is small

Swamy : gurutu eenaadaruu


ideyaa ?

Is there any landmark ?

2.4 nimma cappali hosadaa ?


aa sinimaa haLeyadaa ?
ii saykallu oLLeyadaa ?

Are your Chappals new ?


Is that film old ?
Is this Cycle good ?

Ranga : mane munde navarang


thiyeTar ide. hinde
ondu angaDi ide
maneya eDa pakkadalli
bala pakkadalli tengina
mara ide

Navarang theatre is in front


of the house. Behind, there
is a shop. There are coconut trees on the left and
right sides of the house

2.5 mane jayanagaradalli ide


naayi maneyalli ide
aane kaaDinalli ide

Swamy : aa mane doDDadaa ?

Is that a big house ?

The house is in Jayanagar


The dog is in the house
The elephant is in the
forest
There is space in the bus
There is gold mine in
Karnataka

Ranga : havdu. sumaaru


doDDadu

Yes. fairly big

Swamy : nimma sneehita


enthavaru ?

What kind of a man is your


friend ?

Ranga : avanu tumbaa


oLLeyavanu

He is a very nice man

2. Pattern drill :
2.1
aa mane nannadu
ii pustaka avanadu
hosa kaaru ivaradu

That house is mine


This book is his
The new car is his / her's

bassinalli jaaga ide,


karnaaTakadalli cinnada
gaNi ide
2.6 nimma kaaleju elli ide ?
avara haasTelu elli ide ?
gaNeeSana angaDi elli
ide ?

Where is your college ?


Where is his/her hostel ?
Where is Ganesh's shop ?

2.7 pustaka alli ide


sigareeT illi ide

The book is there


The cigarette is here

2.8 avara hattira benki


paTTaNa ide
avara mane munde
aaspatre ide

There is a box of matches


with him
There is a hospital in front
of his/her house

32/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

2.9

meejina meela pustaka ide


mancada keLage
peTTige ide

2.10 aa pustaka nanna


sneehitanadu
ii siire siiteyadu
ii hosa SarTu raamanadu
2.11

alli yaavudaadaruu
baaDige mane ideyaa ?
nimma hattira
yaavudaadaruu kathe
pustaka ideyaa ?
illi elliyaadaruu angaDi
ideyaa ?

Lesson 5/33

There is book on the table.

That book is my friend's


This saree is Site's
This new shirt is Rama's
Is there any house for
rent ?
is there any story book
with you ?
Is there any shop near by ?

2.12

kannaDa adhyaapaki
enthavaru ?
aa huDuga enthavanu ?
ninna sneehite kamala
enthavaLu ?

What kind of a lady is the


Kannada teacher ?
What kind of a boy is he ?
What kind of a person is
your friend Kamala ?

2.13

kannaDa adhyaapaki
oLLeyavaru
aa huDaga keTTavanu
nanna sneehite Kamala
oLLeyavaLu

The Kannada
teacher (fem.) is good
That boy is bad
My friend Kamala is a
good person

3.

Key to learners :

3.1 Note the predicative forms in Kannada


3.1.1 Noun predicatives : They are formed by adding the third

person neut. pronouns - adu, - avu to the possessive nouns


raamana + adu
= raamanadu
raamana + avu
= raamanavu
note the deletion of - a
3.1.2 Pronoun predicatives : They are obtained by the addition
of third person pronouns (either human or non-human) to
the possessive pronouns.
nanna
+ avanu = nannavanu
nanna
+ avaLu = nannavaLu
nanna
+ avu
= nannavu
adara
+ adu
= adaradu
idara
+ adu
= idaradu
3.1.3 Adjectival predicatives : They are obtained by adding
third person pronouns (either human or non-human) to
the adjectives.
doDDa
+ avanu = doDDavanu
chikka
+ avaLu = cikkavaLu
oLLeya
+ avaru
= oLLeyavaru
keTTa
+ adu
= keTTadu
keTTA
+ avu
= keTTavu
observe that these predicative forms can never be used before
nouns. (However they, can also be used as subjects of sentences
like nannadu haLeya mane)
The possessive forms of the human nouns are used in the rare
context. Whereas the neuter nouns are used frequently to
express the possession. Whenever the predicative form is used
the denotative adjective is used. Observe the following
sentences.

34/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

IvaLu nanna magaLu


ii magu nannadu
idu nanna mane
ii mane nannadu
3.2

Lesson 5/35

'She is my daughter'
'She is my child'
'This is my house'
'This house is mine'

When the interrogative marker - aa is added to


predicative form, final - u drops
hosadu
+ aa
= hosadaa

3.3

-alli is the locative case marker, which denotes the


location
mane + alli = maneyalli
'in the house'
bengaLuuru + alli = bengaLuurinalli
'in Bangalore
The changes are the same as in possessive form, when
added to different types of nouns (ref. L. No. 3)
3.4

Post position like


munde
'in front of'
hinde
'behind'
bala pakka
'right side'
eDa pakka
'left side'
meele
'above'
keLage
'below'

are also location denoters. Observe that these post positions


always follow nouns.
maneya munde
meejina meele

'in front of the house'


'on the table'

Where as in English they always precede.

3.5

Note that by adding - aadaruu to


elli
'where'
yaaru
'who'
eenu
'what'
yaake
'why'
heege
'how

the following forms are obtained.


elliyaadaruu
'somewhere/any where'
yaaraadaruu
'some one'
eenaadaruu
'something'
yaakaadaruu
'for some reason'
heegaadaruu
'somehow'
3.6

ide means 'to be' used to denote to the existence of neuter


noun. The corresponding negation for ide is illa

4.

Exercise :

4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4

Fill in the blanks using the appropriate words :


aa kiTaki _____________
nimma mane _____________ ide ?
nimma Saleya _____________ eenu ?
nanna _____________ kannaDi ide

4.2

Fill in the blanks using the kannada equivalents of the


English words given in the bracket

4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4

avara maneya ____________ citra mandira ide. (behind)


idu _____________ mane (rented)
ivaLu nanna _____________ magaLu (own)
mane _____________ ide (a little far)

36/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

4.3

Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the words


given in the bracket

Lesson 5/37

4.4.4 Model :

Transform : taayi __________


mane __________
naayi __________
rajani __________

4.3.1 avara mane __________ ide (saraswatipura)


4.3.2 nimma uuru __________ ? (doDDa)
4.3.3 ii SarTu nanna _________ (sneehita)
4.3.4 namma mane __________ angaDi ide (pakka)
4.4 Transform the following as per the model
4.4.1 Model : cikka - cikkadu
Transorm : oLLeya __________
keTTa ___________
hosa ____________
haLeya __________
yaava ___________
4.4.2 Model :

4.4.5 Model :
Jayanagara -- jayanagaradalli
Transform : pustaka __________
mane ____________
jaalahaLLi _______
uuru ____________
4.4.6 Model :
Transfer

niivu - nimmadu

Transform :

4.4.3 Model :
Transform :

naanu __________
avanu __________
avaLu __________
avaru __________
adu ____________
sneehita -- sneehitanadu
Kamala __________
raama ___________
aNNa ___________
akka ____________

ravi -- raviyadu

4.5

raamu -- raamuvindau
: veeNu __________
hasu ____________
magu ___________
guru ____________

Transform according to the model


Model :
T : adu doDDa mane
S : aa mane doDDadu

Transform
4.5.1 adu cikka pustaka
4.5.2 idu hosa sthaLa
4.5.3 adu haLeya uuru
4.5.4 adu nanna tangiya mane
4.5.5 adu aa hasuvina karu
4.5.6 adu entha mane ?

38/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3

Translate into kannada


Mysore is a big city
There is a shop behind my house
That book is kamala's
My book is in my house
Where is your dog ?
Answer the following questions
nimma mane elli ide ?
nimmadu swanta maneenoo baaDige maneenoo ?
nimma mane gurutu eenu ?

5. Vocabulary

Lesson 5/39

5.1

Supplementary vocabuary
aane

'elephant'

kannaDi

'mirror'

kaaDu

'forest'

kaaleeju

'college'

kiTaki

'window'

gaNi

'mines'

cappali

'chappals'

cinna

'gold'

jaaga

'place'

peTTige

'box'

eDa pakka

'left side'

benki paTTaNa

'match box'

elli

'where'

ruumu

'room'

gurutu

'identification / land mark'

saykallu

'cycle'

tengina mara

'coconut tree'

siire

'saree'

duura

'far off'

SarTu

'shirt'

bala pakka

'right side'

baaDige

'rent'

mane

'house'

munde

'in front of'

swanta

'own'

swalpa

'a little'

hattira

'near'

hinde

'behind'

Lesson 6/41

LESSON - 6

shiva

: doDDadakke eshTu
cikkadakke eshTu ?

How much is the big one ?


How much is the small
one ?

t.v.

: doDDakke eeLu
ruupaayi. cikkadakke
naalku ruupaayi

Seven rupees for the big


one. four rupees for the
small one

Shiva

: doDDadu kaDme ilvaa ? Nothing less for the big


one ?

t.v.

: illa saar. ellaa taaja


maalu. ondee bele

Shiva

: kooLi moTTege eshTu ? How much are eggs ?

t.v.

: kooLi moTTege ondu


ruupaayi eppattu paise

one rupee seventy paise


each

Shiva

: kottumbari soppu ?

coriander (leaves) ?

t.v.

: ondu kantege ayvattu


paise

It is fifty paise a bunch

1. Dialogue :
Shiva

: ondu kg. badanekaayige What is the price of a kilo


eashTu bele ?
of brinjals ?
tarakaari vyaapaari :
ondu kg. badanee
kaayige enTuvare
ruupaayi

It is eight and a half rupees


for one kilo of brinjals

No sir. It is all fresh stuff


Fixed prices

Shiva

: nimma angaDiyalli bele Rates are high in your


jaasti
shop

t.v.

: illa saar. iiga habbada


siisannu. ella tarakaari
beleenuu jaasti

No Sir. This is festival


season. The prices of all
vegetables are high

: ardha kg. TomyaaToo


haNNige eshTu ?

How much for a half kilos


of tomatoes ?

t.v.

: hattu kaalu ruupayi

Ten and quarter rupees

Shiva

: TomyaaToo bele ashTu Is the rate of tomatoes so


jaastiinaa ?
high ?

1.1 Dialogue

t.v.

: havdu saar,
Yes sir, There are no
maarkeTTinalli
tomatoes in the market
TomyaaToo haNNe illa

Shankara

Shiva

: aa kumbaLakaayige
eshTu ?

How much is that


pumpkin ?

: nange aydu inlyaanD I want five inland letters


leTer beeku. ondu
How much is an inland
inlyaanD leTerge
letter ?
eshTu ?

P.M.
t.v.

: doDDadakkoo
cikkadakkoo ?

The big one or small one ?

: ondakke eraDu
ruupaayi. aameele
eenu beeku saar ?

Shiva

Postmaster : nimage eenu beeku ?

What do you want ?

It is two rupees each.


What else do you want
sir ?

42/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 6/43

Shankara : envelap ideyaa ?

Do you have envelopes ?

P.M.

No sir. There is no stock of


envelopes. Stamps are
available

: illa saar. envelap


sTaak illa. sTyamp
ide

Shankara : muuru ruupaayiyadu I want six stamps of three


aaru sTyamp beeku rupees. Seven stamps of
hattu paiseedu eeLu ten paise
sTyamp beeku
P.M.

: inneenu beeku saar ? What else do yout want sir ?

Shankara : hanneraDu kaarD

I want twelve cards

P.M.

Don't you want anything ?

: inneenuu beeDvaa ?

Shankara : beeDa

No. I don'g want

P.M.

To whom are all these


cards sir ?

: yaarige saar
ishTondu kaarDu ?

Shankara : naalku nanna


sneehitanige, aydu
nanna tangi
kamalnige, muutu
nanage

Four for my friend, five


for my younger sister
Kamala and three for me

2. Pattern drill ;
2.1 nimma manege baaDige
eshTu ?
bengaLuurige bas
caarju eshTu ?

How much is the rent for


your house ?
How much is the bus fare
to Bangalore

2.2 ondu kilo huruLikaayige


enTu ruupaayi

It is eight rupees for a kilo


of beans

aa pustakakke muuru
ruupaayi

It is three rupees for that


Book

tenginakaayi eraDakke
hanneraDu ruupaayi

It is twelve rupees for two


coconuts

2.3 avanige eenu beeku ?


nanage ondu capaati
beeku

What does he want ?


I want a chapati

ninage eshTu doose


beeku ?

How many dosas do you


want ?

avarige hannondu
ruupaayi beeku

He wants eleven rupees.

avaLige eenuu beeDa

She does'nt want anything

2.4 siitege aa siire


beeDvaa ?

Does'nt Sita wants that


saree ?

rajanige hattu ruupaayi


beekaa ?

Does Rajani want ten


rupees ?

raamanige ippattu
ruupaayi beeku

Rama wants twenty


rupees

aa kaaleejige oLLeya
hesaru ide

That college has a good


name

nimma uurige eshTu


kilomiiTar ?

How many Kilometers to


your home town ?

3. Key to learners :
3.1 The use of dative marker is as follows - (i) ge, - age and
- akke are the dative case markers. the function of the
dative is to denote the direction.

44/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 6/45

beneficiary, recipient or even sometimes possessor of


objects or qualities.
The use of dative marker is as follows
3.1.1 -- (i) ge
3.1.1.1 --u ending neuter nouns, - a ending human nouns
and third person human Pronouns take - ige as
dative
kaaleeju
uuru
bassu
raama
tamma
sarasa
avanu
avaLu
avaru

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

ige
ige
ige
ige
ige
ige
ige
ige
ige

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

kaaleejige
uurige
bassige
raamanige
tammanige
sarasanige
avanige
avaLige
avarige

'to the college'


'to the native place'
'to the bus'
'to Rama'
'to younger brother'
'to Sarasa'
'to him'
'to her'
'to them'

3.1.1.2 All categories of nouns ending in - i and - e take -ge as


dative
sumati + ge = Sumatige
'to Sumati'
raadhe + ge = raadhege

'to Radha'

mane

+ ge = manege

'to house'

naayi

+ ge = naayige

'to dog'

tarkaari + ge = tarkaarige

'to vegetable'

3.1.2 First and second person pronouns take - age as dative


nannu
+ age = nanage
'to me'
naavu
+ age = namage
'to us'
niinu
+ age = ninage
'to you' (sg)
niivu
+ age = nimage
'to you' (pl. + hon.)
3.1.3 Neuter nouns ending in - a, third person neuter pronouns
and numerals take - akke as dative
mara
+ akke = marakke
'to tree'
kaagadda + akke = kaagadakke 'to the paper'
adu
+ akke = adakke
'to that'
ondu
+ akke = ondakke
'to one'
nuuru
+ akke = nuurakke
'to one hundred'
3.2

Numerals are introduced


ondu
'one'
aaru
eraDu
'two'
eeLu
muuru 'three' enTu
naalku 'four'
ombattu
aydu
'five'
hattu
are basic numerals.

These numerals
multiplication.
hattu +
hattu +
hattu +
hattu +

'six'
'seven'
'eight'
'nine'
'ten'

can be further developed by addition and


ondu
eraDu
mooru
naalku

=
=
=
=

hannondu
hanneraDu
hadimuuru
hadinaalku

'eleven'
'twelve'
'thirteen'
'fourteen'

46/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

hattu
hattu
hattu
hattu
hattu
hattu

+
+
+
+
+
+

aydu
aaru
eeLu
enTu
ombattu
hattu

=
=
=
=
=
=

hadinaydu
hadinaaru
hadineeLu
hadineNtu
hattombattu
ippattu

Lesson 6/45

'fifteen'
'sixteen'
'seventeen'
'eighteen'
'ninteen'
'twenty'

Note that the numerals from eleven to nineteen (as in english !)


have slightly irregular forms and as in English again numerals
from twenty onwards are expressed as multiples of ten plus
basic numerals.
ippattu + ondu

= ippattondu

'twenty one'

ippattu + eraDu

= ippatteraDu

'twenty two'

The possessive marker - a is added to the first numeral.


Observe the following examples.
aydu nuura hattu
ondu saavirada eraDu
3.3

beeku 'want' and its corresponding negation beeda 'do


not want' are also introduced. Note that beeku and beeda
are always obligatorily used with dative subject.
nanage kaafi beeku
raajanige niiru beeDa

3.4

'five hundred and ten'


'one thousand two'

'I want coffee'


'Raju doesn't want water'

eshTu 'how much' is a quantitative interrogative word


(either adjective or pronoun). It covers both 'how many'
and 'how much'

4. Exercise

every multiple of ten is expressed by adding the word for ten to a


basic number.
muuru x hattu = muuvattu
'thirty'
naalku x hattu = nalvattu
'forty'
aydu
x hattu = ayvattu
'fifty'
aaru
x hattu = aravattu
'sixty'
eeLu
x hattu = eppattu
'seventy'
enTu
x hattu = embattu
'eighty'
ombattu x hattu = tombattu
'ninety'
hattu
x hattu = nuuru
'hundred'

4.2.1 nanage ondu kilo ____________ beku. (brinjal)

number above hundred can be similarly derived.

4.2.2 ella saamaaniguu ____________ jaasti (price)

nuura ondu 'hundred and one'


nuura hattu 'hundred and ten'

4.1

Fill in the blanks using the suitable words

4.1.2 nimma angaDiyalli savtekaayi ________ ?


4.4.2 avaLige inneenu ____________
4.1.3 saroojana vayassu ____________?
4.1.4 ____________ ondu kantege hattu paise.
4.2

Fill in the blanks using the kannada equivalents of the


English words given in the bracket

4.2.3 __________ ondakke ondu ruupaayi ayvattu paise (egg)


4.2.4 avarige iDLi saambaar ____________ (not wanted)

48/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

4.3

Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the word given
in the bracket

4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4

_________ eenu beeku ? (niivu)


doDDa _________ eshTu ? (kumbaLakaayi)
_________ aaru sTyaamp. (hannerDu ruupaayi)
savteekaayi _________ ? (illa)

4.4.

Transform the following according to the model

4.4.

Model : beenDeekaayi __________benDeekaayige


maalini__________
ravi__________
naadini __________
Siite __________
mane __________
atte __________
savteekaayi __________

4.4.2 Model : baaLee haNNu ______ baaLee haNNige


kottambari soppu __________
kaalu __________
magaLu __________
avanu __________
avaLu __________
avaru __________
4.4.3 Model : cikkadu _________ cikkadakke
doDDadu ___________
ondu __________
eraDu __________

Lesson 6/49

aaru _________
adu __________
4.4.4 Model :

naanu _______ nanage


niinu ________
niivu ________

4.4.5 Model : raaju ________ raajuvige


raaamu ________
hasu ________
guru ________
sarayu ________
karu ________
4.4.6 Model :

kamala ________ kamalanige


aSooka ________
vinuta ________
maga ________
bhaava ________

4.5 Translate the following into kanndad :


I want a cup of coffee
What is the rent for your house ?
Anitha does not want brinjal
What else do you want ?
How much is the big pumpkin ?
4.6 Use the following in sentences of your own :
aydu
jaasti
kaDime
aameele

50/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 6/51

4.7 Answer the following questions :


nimage eenu beeku ?
savitana siirege eshTu rupaayi ?
nimma magaLige habbakke hosa langa beeDvaa ?
nimage sambaLa eshTu ?
5. Vocabulary :
aameele
inneenu
eshTu
kaDime
kante
kottumbari soppu
kooLimoTTe
jaasti
ToomyaaTo
tarkaari
taaja maalu
badanekaayi
bele
habba

'after wards'
'what else'
'how much'
'less'
'bundle / bunch'
'coriander leaves'
'greens' (vegetables)
'egg'
more / too much'
'tomato'
'vegetable'
'fresh stuff'
'brinjal'
'cost / price'
'festival'

5.1 Supplementary vocabulary :


kaalu
'leg'
baaLe haNNu
'plantain'
benDekaayi
'lady's finger'

vayassu
saamaanu
savtekaayi
huraLikaayi

'age'
'things / articles'
'cucumber'
'beans'

Lesson 7/53

LESSON - 7
1. Dialogue :
Kamala : ivattu eshTanee taariiku ? What is the date today ?

Kamala : vidyaarthigaLu enTu


nuuru. vidyaarthiniyaru
naanuuru

Men are eight hundred


Women are four hundred.

Sheela : adhyaapakaru eshTu


jana ?

What is the strength of


teachers ?

Kamala : naavu adhyaapakaru


aravattu jana

We are sixty teachers

Sheela : adhyaapakiyaru ?

Lady teachers ?

Kamala : avaru hattu jana

They are ten

Sheela : nimma kaaleejinalli


eshTu ruumugaLu ive ?

How many rooms are there


in your college ?
There are twenty five
rooms

Sheela : ivattu hannondanee


taariiku

Today is the eleventh

Kamala : naaLe hanneraDanee


taariiku, mangaLavaara
namage raja

Tomorrow is twelth
Tuesday. It is a holiday
for us

Sheela : yaake ?

Why ?

Kamala : naaLe namma kaaleejina


vaarshikootsava

Tomorrow is the annual


day of our college

Sheela : mukhya atithi yaaru ?

Who is the chief guest ?

Kamala : ippattaydu ruumugalu


ive

Kamala : mukhya atithi


Dr. sarvajna

The chief guest is


Dr. sarvajna

1.1 Dialogue

Sheela : nimma kaaleeju


doDDa kaalejaa ?

Is your college a big one?

Kamala : havdu. tumbaa doDDa


kaaleeju

Yes. It is a very big


college

Sheela : vidyaarthigaLa sankhye


eshTu ?

What is the number of


students ?

Kamala : vidyaarthigaLa sankhye


ondu saavirada innuuru

The number of students is


one thousand two hundred

Ranga : gaNDu makkaLu


Three sons and one
muuvaru. heNNu magaLu daughter
obbaLu

Sheela : vidyaarthigaLu eshTu


jana ? vidyaarthiniyaru
eshTu jana ?

How many men students ?


How many women
students ?

Ravi

Ravi

: nimage eshTu jana


makkalu ?

How many children have


you ?

Ranga : naalku jana

Four children

Ravi

How many daughters ?


How many sons ?

: heNNu makkaLu eshTu


jana ? gaNDu makkaLu
eshTu jana ?

: gaNdu makkaLu
eshTanee klaasu

In which class are the


sons ?

54/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Ranga : modalaneyavanu B.A


modalaneya varsha
ibbaru hayskuulu
magaLu hyskuulu
konee varsha

Lesson 7/55

The first one is in first


year B.A. Two are in
high school. The daughter
in the last year of High
school

2. Pattern drill :
2.1 ivattu soomavaara
ivattu ippattondaneya
taariiku

Today is Monday
Today is twenty first (of
the month)

naaLe mangaLavaara

Tomorrow is Tuesday

naaLe ippatteraDaneya
taariiku

Tomorrow is twenty
second

ninne bhaanuvaara

Yesterday was Sunday

ninne ippattaneya
taariiku

Yesterday was twentieth

naaDiddu budhavaara

The day after tomorrow is


Wednesday

naaDiddu ippattamuura
neya taariiku

The day after tomorrow is


twenty third

monne Sanivaara

The day before yesterday


was Saturday

aace naaDiddu guru


vaara

Two days after tomorrow


is Thursday

aace naaDiddu ippatta


naalkaneya taariiku

Two days after tomorrow


is twenty fourth

aace monne Sukravaara

Two days before


yesterday was Friday

aace monne hadineeLa


neya taariiku

Two days before yesterday


was seventeenth

2.2 Srii raama daSarathana


modalaneya maga

Sri Rama was Dasharatha's


first son

lakshmaNa muuraneya
maga

Lakshmana was the third


son

bharata eraDaneya maga

Bharata was the second son

2.3 ivaatu eshTaneya taariiku

What is the date today ?

nimma magaLu
eshTaneya klaasu ?

In which class your


daughter is ?

Srii raama daSarathana


eshTaneya maga ?

What (rank) son was Rama


to Dasharatha ?

2.4 adu ondu pustaka


avu eraDu pustakagaLu
ivu naalku pennugaLu
ii aydu naayigaLu
nammavu

That is a book
Those are two books
These are four pens
These five dogs are ours

2.5 avanu obba huDuga


naavu ibbaru
vidyaarthigaLu
namma maneyalli eraDu
bekkugaLu ive.
avaru muuvaru kannaDa
vidyaarthiniyaru
ivaru naalku jana nanna
tammandiru

He is a boy
We are two students
There are two cats in our
house
Those three are Kannada
students (fem)
These four are my younger
brothers

56/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

paaNDavaru ayvaru
draupadiya ganDandiru
aydu jana
avaru ibbaru namma
aaLugaLu
2.6 iiga hattu gaNTe

3.

Lesson 7/57

Pandavas were five


members
Draupadi's husbands were
five in number
Those two are our servants.
Now it is ten o' clock

hanneraDu gaNTege
hadinaydu nimisha ide

It is fifteen minutes to
twelve

iiga eraDuuvare gaNTe

Now, it is half past two

hannondu mukkaalu
gaNTege klaasu ide

The class is at quarter to


twelve

ninage ombattu
mukkaalu gaNTege
kkafi beekaa ?

Do you want coffee at


quarter to ten ?

Key to Learners :

3.1 The basic numerals are further extended by adding aneya anee, resulting the numeral adjectives
ondu + aney = ondaneya
'first'
hattu + aneya = hattaneya
'tenth'
nuuru + aneya = nuuraneya
'hundredth'
eshTu also takes aneya /anee and forms the corresponding
ordinal interrogation
eshTu + aneya = eshTaneya
anee is the colloquial form of aneya

3.2

The plural markers are introduced. There are three plural


markers -andiru, - aru and - gaLu

3.2.1 - andiru is used with relative nouns ending with - a.


anna
+ andiru = annandiru
'elder brothers'
bhaava + andiru = bhaavandiru 'brothers - in - law'
akka
+ andiru = akkandiru
'elder sisters'
3.2.2 -aru is used with other human nouns
adhyaapaka + aru = adhyaapakaru 'teachers'
vidyarthini + aru = vidyaarthiniyaru 'girl students'
soase + aru = soseyaru 'daughters - in - law'
3.2.3 -gaLu is used with other neuter nouns
mara + gaLu = maragaLu
'trees'
kurci + gaLu = kurcigaLu
'chairs'
dina
+ gaLu = dinagaLu
'days'
varsha + gaLu = varshagaLu 'years'
hasu
+ gaLu = hasugaLu
'cows'
There are few human nouns which take - gaLu as plural marker.
But they are exceptional cases.
manti + gaLu = mantrigaLu 'ministers'
guru
+ gaLu = gurugaLu
'teachers'
vidyaarthi + gaLu = vidyaarthigaLu 'students'
3.3

naavu 'we' first person plural pronoun

3.4

Note, how the basic numerals change into human


numerals before a human noun
adu ondu mara
'that is a tree'
avanu obba huDuga 'He is a boy'

58/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

in the same way


eraDu > ibbaru
muuru > muuvaru
naalku > naalvaru
aydu > ayvaru

'two persons'
'three persons'
'four persons'
'five persons'

- aru is not added after five. But from three onwards jana
'person' is the frequent use. Thus the form is,
muuru jana
'three members'
hattu jana
'ten members'
nuuru jana
'hundred members'
jana is also used with eshTu
3.5

Note the use of numerals above thousand


ondu saavirad nuura hattu
'one thousand hundred and ten'
Here saavira takes the possessive marker - a and when
nuuru is followed by any numeral, the form used is
nuura
nuura enTu
'hundred and eight'
saavirada ombynuura nalavatteeLu
'One thousand nine hundred and forty seven'

3.6

Srii raama eshTaneya maga ?


The literal translation of the above question is not
possible in English. It is a question which anticipates an
answer in the forms of an ordinal such as first, second,
etc. It can only be translated as non-existent English
form ' How manyth ?

Lesson 7/59

4.

Exercise :

4.1

Fill in the blanks using suitable words

4.1.1 ivattu ____________ taariiku ?


4.1.2 bhaanuvaara namage ____________
4.1.3 ravige ____________ makkaLu ?
4.1.4 samaarambhada ____________ Dr. paTTanaayak
4.2

Fill in the blanks using the kannada equivalents of the


English words given in the bracket

4.2.1 nanage ____________ magaLu (one)


4.2.

maadhaviya ____________ maga yaava klaasu ? (first)

4.2.3 sureeSana maneyalli ________________ ruumugaLu


ive (fifteen)
4.2.4 Saalinige ____________ tangiyaru (two)
4.2.5 idu ____________ mane (our)
4.3 Change the following according to the model :
4.3.1 Model : ondu ---- ondaneya
Change : eraDu ______
eshTu
modalu ______
4.3.2 Model :
Change :

vidyaarthi --- vidyaarthigaLu


mantri _______
aaLu _________
aaspatre _______
mara _________

60/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

4.3.3 Model
Change

: vidyaarthini --- vidyaarthiniyaru


huDugi _________
atte ____________
tangi ___________
huDuga _________
adhyaapaka ______

4.3.4 Model
change

: aNNa _______ aNNandiru


akka _________
tamma _________
bhaava _________
appa ___________

4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.4.7

Change into Interrogative using the underlined word


ivattu guruvaara
naaLe hattanee taariiku
nanage naalku jana makkaLu
ravige aydu ruupaayi beeku ?
avaLa hesaru Liilaa
adu maalatiya mane
avara maatru bhaashe telugu alla

4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5

Translate into kannada


What day is to day ?
My daughter's birthday is on 10th October
We have two houses in Bangalore
What is the strength of your class ?
How many daughters do you have ?

Lesson 7/61

4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4

Answer the following question


nimma magana / magaLa pariikshe yaavaaga ?
nimage eshTu jana tangiyaru / tammandiru ?
naaLe nimage rajaanaa ?
niivu obbanee / obbaLee / magaLaa maganaa ?

5. Vocabulary :
ivattu
gaNDu makkaLu
janma dina
taariiku
naaLe
mangaLavaara
mukhya atithi
raja
vaarshikootsva
sankhye
heNNu makkaLu

'today'
'sons'
'birthday'
'date'
'tomorrow'
'Tuesday'
'chief guest'
'holiday'
'annual day'
'number'
'daughters / girl's

5.1 Supplementary Vocabulary


aaLu
'servant'
gaNTe
'hours/time, bell'
guruvaara
'Thursday'
nimisha
'minute'
bekku
'cat'
budhavaara
'Wednesday'
bhaanuvaara
'Sunday'

62/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

soomavaara
Sanivaara
Sukravaara

'Monday'
'Saturday'
'Friday'

LESSON - 8
1. Dialogue :
BaTTe vyaapaari : eenu beeku saar ? What do you want sir ?
Ramesh : nange SarTige
pyaaNTige baTTe beeku

I want cloth for shirts


and pants

b.v.

Which cloth do you want


sir ?

: yaaava baTTe beeku


saar ?

Ramesh : SarTige paaliyesTar


Ployester for shirts and
pyaaNTige Terivul beeku terriwool for pants
b.v.

: SarTige Yaava
bannabeku?

What colour would you


want for Shirt Sir?

Ramesh : yaava yaava baNNa ide ?

What colours do you


have ?

b.v.

Red, white, blue, yellow


we have all these

: kempu, biLi, nilli


haLadi ella ide

Ramesh : kempu beeDa. adu nange


ishTa illa, nilli nange
ishTa

I don't want red. I don't


like it. I like blue

b.v.

How much do you want


sir ?
I want two meters

: eshTu beeku saar ?

Ramesh : eraDu miiTar beeku ?


b.v.

: SarTige eraDu miiTar


saalalla

Ramesh : nanage eraDu miiTar


saaku

Two meters isn't enough


for shirt Sir ?
Two meters are enough
for me

64/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

b.v.

Lesson 8/65

: pyaaNTige yava baNNa


beeku saar ?

Which colour do you


want for pants sir ?

ii kempu pennina bele


eshTu ?

What is the cost of this red


pen ?

Ramesh : pyaaNTige kappu beeku

I want black for pants

b.v.

Don't you want white


one sir ? Raymonds is
available

nanage kappu karcif


beeDa

I don't want a black hand


kerchief

raamanige nilli baaNNa


beeku

Rama wants blue colour

rajanige haLadi siire ishTa

Rajani likes yellow saree

aa gooDeya baNNa biLi


avara kaarina baNNa teLu
niili

The colour of that wall is


white
The colour of her/his car is
light blue

Avana Saykal Kaaduniilii

His cycle is dark blue.

: biLiidu beeDavaa saar ?


reemaanDs ide

Ramesh : beeDa. kariide beeku

No. I want black only

b.v.

Allright sir

: sari saar

Ramesh : nimmalli sveTar ilva ?

Don'g you have sweaters ?

b.v.

No sir. We have another


shop of our own. We
have sweaters there.

: illa saar. namdee


innondu angaDi ide. alli
sveTar ide

Ramesh : nimma aa angaDi elli


ide ?

Where is that shop of


yours ?

b.v.

Do you know Vasavi


Cloth Centre ?

: nimage vaasavi klaat


senTar gottaa ?

Ramesh : illa gottilla

No. I don't know

b.v.

Do you know Sangam


theatre ?

: sangam thiyeeTar
gottaa ?

Ramesh : havdu, gottu

Yes. I know

b.v.

It is beside that

: adara pakkadalli ide

2. Pattern drill :
2.1

aa biLi SarT yaaradu ?


ii hasiru langa nannadu

Whose that white shirt is ?


This green skirt is mine

2.2 ravige kathe pustaka ishTa


rajanige kathe pustaka
ishTa illa
avaLige capaati ishTa illa
nange uppinakaayi ishTa

Ravi likes story books


Rajani doesn't like story
books
She doesn't like chapatis
I like pickles

2.3 nimage liDoo taakiis


gottaa ?
raamanige raavaNa
gottaa ?
lalitanige hindi sinimaa
ishTaana ?
ivarige kannaDa sinimaa
ishTa ilvaa ?
avaLige hattu ruupaayi
beekaa ?
nimage kaafi beeDvaa ?

Do you know Lido talkies?


Does Rama know Ravana?
Does Lalitha like Hindi
films ?
Does'nt he/she like
Kannada films ?
Does she want ten rupees ?
Don't you want coffee ?

66/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 8/67

ivarige ardha kap kaafi


saakaa ?

Is half cup of coffee


enough for him / her ?

nanna hattira oLLeya


pennu ide

There is a good pen with


me

naayige ondu kap haalu


saalalvaa ?

Isn't a cup of milk enough


for the dog ?

avara maneyalli
gaDiyaara illa

There is no clock in his /


her house

2.4 nanage maalini gottu

I know Malini

avrige raviindra
kalaaksheetra gottu

They know Ravindra


Kalakshetra

huDugarige vidhaana
saudhada daari gottu

The boys know the way to


Vidhana Soudha

ivarige hindi gottu

He/she knows Hindi

manooharge kannaDa
gottilla

Manohar does'nt know


Kannada

nanage prajaavaaNi
sampaadakaru gottilla

I don't know the editor of


Prajavani

2.5 bhiimanige aydu doose


saku

Five dosas are enough for


Bhima

kubeerappanige tingaLige
hattu ruupaayi saaku

Ten rupees will be


sufficient for Kuberappa
for a month

nanage dinakke ippatta


naalku gaNTe saalalla

Twenty four hours a day


is not sufficient for me

avanige tingaLige aynuuru


ruupaayi sambaLa saalalla

A salary a five hundred


rupees a month is not
sufficient for him

2.6 aa angaDiyalli akki ide


it angaDiyalli pustaka illa

There is rice in that shop.


There are no books in this
shop

3.

Key to learners :
3.1 The basic colour adjectives are :
biLi
'white'
kapu/kari
'black'
kempu
'red'
hasiru
'green'
haLadi
'yellow'
niili
'blue'
by adding - adu to the colour adjectives predicative forms
can be obtained
biLi + adu = biLiyadu 'white one'
kempu + adu = kempadu 'red one'
3.2 beeku
ishTa
saaku
gottu

'want'
'like'
'enough'
'know'

are model or defective verbs. These verbs do not take tense


and personal markers like regular verbs
beeDa
ishTa illa
saalalla
gottilla

'do not want'


'do not like'
'not enough'
'do not know'

68/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 8/69

are the corresponding negative forms of the above said


defective verbs. Note that all these verbs obligatorily take
dative subject.
nanage tiNDi beeku
'I want tiffin'
avaLige hattu ruupaayi
saalalla

'Ten rupees will not be


sufficient for her'

3.3 illa negates the verb. Compare this with alla, which
negates noun.
ninna hattira pennu ideyaa ?
illa. nanna hattira pennu illa
adu ninna pennaa ?
alla, adu nanna tammana pennu
4.
4.1

4.3

Exercises :
Fill in the blanks using suitable words :

4.4

Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the word


given in the bracket :
4.4.1 aa langa ____________ (niili)
4.4.2 ravige namma DayrekTar ____________ ? (gottilla)
4.4.3 ravige eraDee eraDu SarTu ____________ ? (saaku)
4.4.4 nimage siire ____________ ? (beeDa)
4.5

Use the following in your own sentences :


(1) yaara
(2) avaradee
(3) haLadi
(4) baTTe
(5) angaDi

4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4

Translate the following sentences into kannada


I don't want blue pen
Do you like capathi for breakfast ?
I don't like that dark red cloth
I want two packets of biscuits

4.1.1 nanage _________ baNNa ishTa


4.1.2 nimage nanna tande _________ ?
4.1.3 avaLige sangiita tumbaa _________
4.1.4 nanage ninna sahavaasa khaNDita _________
4.1.5 raajuvige iiga kathe pustaka _________
4.2

Fill in the blanks using the kannada equlivalents of the


English words given in the bracket :

4.2.1 adu ________ siire (green)


4.2.2 nanage naanuuru ruupaayi sambaLa ______ (not
enough)
4.2.3 Saaliniya mane sangam Taakiis _______ ide (beside)
4.2.4 sumanige uuTakke eraDu capaati ______ (don't want)

Change the following according to the model :


Model : kappu _____ kappadu
Change : hasiru __________
kempu __________
niili __________
biLi __________

4.7
Answer the following questions
4.7.1 nimage yaava baNNada baTTe ishTa ?
4.7.2 nimage tiNDige capaati ishTaanaa ?

70/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 9/71

4.7.3 nimage uuTakke eshTu capaati beeku ?

LESSON - 9

4.7.4 nimage karnaaTakada mukhya mantri gottaa ?


4.7.5 nimage kannaDa sinimaa ishTaanoo hindi sinimaa
ishTaanoo ?

5. Vocabulary :
kappu / kari
kempu
niili
baTTe
baNNa
biLi
haLadi
5.1 Supplementary vocabulary :
akki
uppinakaayi
uuTa
kaDu niili
teLu niili
gooDe
daari
langa
sampaadaka
sahavaasa
haalu

'black'
'red'
'blue
'cloth'
'colour'
'white'
'yellow'

'raw rice'
'pickles'
'meals'
'dark blue'
'light blue'
'wall'
'way/path'
'long skirt'
'editor'
'companionship'
'milk'

1. Dialogue :
Vijaya : suma leeDiis ruuminalli
idaaLaa ?

Is suma in the ladies


room ?

Shashi : illa, avaLu ruuminalli illa


avaLige iiga klaas ide
avaLu klaasinalli idaaLe

No. She is not in the


room. She has class. She
is in the class

Vijaya : ninage iiga klaas ilvaa ?

Don't you have class


now ?

Shashi : illa. nanage klaas illa.


muuru gaNTege klaas ide

No. I don't I have class


at three o' clock

Vijaya : nimma profesar uurinalli


idaaraa ?

Is your professor in
town ?

Shashi : illa. avaru uurinalli illa

No. He is not in town

Vijaya : sumaa naalku gaNTege


ruuminalli irtaaLaa ?

will Suma be in the


room at four o' clock ?

Shashi : iralla. naalku gaNTege


laybrarilli irtaaLe

No she won't. She will


be in the library at four
o' clock

Vijaya : niinu naalku gaNTege


laybrariili irtiiyaa ?

will you be in the library


at four o' clock ?

Shashi : havdu. irtiinii

Yes. I will be there

72/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 9/73

1.1 Dialogue :
Raghava : namaskaara, cennagi
idiiraa ?
Rao

Hello. are you well ?

: cennagi idiini. nimma


Yes I do. Is your father
tande maneyalli idaaraa ? at home ?

niivu yaava biidiyalli


idiiri /

In which street tdo you


live ? (pl+hon.)

niinu yaava uurinalli idiiye ? In which place are you ?


niivu elli idiiri /
Where are you (pl.+hon.)?
avanu hattanee klaasinalli
idaane

He is in tenth class

Raghava : avaru maneyalli illa


angaDiili idaare

No. He is not at home


He is in shop

mallikaarjuna maneya
oLage idaane

Mallikarjuna is inside the


House

Rao

Why ? isn't your elder


brother in town ?

avaLu haasTelinalli
idaaLe

She is in the hostel

Raghava : ibbaruu allee idaare

Both are there

padma byaankinalli idaaLe

Padma is in the Bank

Rao

When will be your father


at home ? Will he be at
home in the evening ?

avaru pakkada maneyalli


idaare

They are in the house next


door

nanna tande taayi uurinalli


idare

My father and mother are


in our home town

pustaka meejina meele ide

The book is on the table

haNNugaLu maradalli ive

The fruits are on the tree

: Yaake ? nimma aNNa


uurinalli ilvaa ?

: nimma tande maneyalli


yaavaga irtaare ?
saayankaala irtaaraa ?

Raghava : iralla. saayankaala


tooTadalli irtaare
raatri maneyalli irtaarw

2.

No. he won't. He will


be in the farm in the
evening. He will be at
home in the night

Pattern drill :

2.1 naanu maysuurinalli idini


naanu iiga hooTelinalli
idiini

I am in Mysore
I am in a hotel now

naavu aafiisinalli idiivi


nnavu bengaLuurinalli
vaasa idiivi

We are in the office


We are living in
Bangalore

niinu elli idiiye ?

Where are you ?

2.2 naanu saayankaala


siTiyalli irtiini

I will be in the city in the


evening

naavu naaLe
bengaLuurinalli irtiivi

We will be in Bangalore
tomorrow

niinu ivattu madhyaanha


elli irtiiye ?

Where will you be today


afternoon ?

niivu beligge eNTu


gaNTege elli irtiiri ?

Where will you be in the


morning at eight o' clock ?

avanu dinaa sanje aydu


gaNTege aaTada mydaana
dalli irtaane

He will be in the playground daily at five o'


clock in the evening.

74/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

avaLu hattu gaNTege


kaaleejinalli irtaaLe
hasu madhyaanha
tooTadalli iratte.
karugaLu maneyalli
irtaave

Lesson 9/75

She will be in the college


at ten o' clock
The cow will be in the
garden in the afternoon
The calves will be at
home

2.3 avanu uurinalli illa


aa kaadambari
laybrariyalli illa

He is not in town
That novel is not in the
Library

2.4 naanu naaLe maneyalli


iralla
avaru ishTu hottinalli
angaDiyalli iralla

I won't be at home
tomorrow
He/she won't be in the
shop at this time

3.

Key to learners :

3.1 The verb iru 'to be' introduced in this lesson. iru plays in
important role as a main verb as well as an auxillary verb.

avaLu dinaa naalku gaNTege laybrariyalli irtaaLe


3.1.1 When id - the difinite form is used, it won't take my tense
marker. This will be straightaway added to the personal
marker
The paradigm is given below :
naanu
id - iini
naavu
niinu
id-iiye
niivu
avanu
id-aane
avaLu
id-aaLe
avaru
adu
id-e
avu

id-aare
iv-e

3.1.2 Whereas ir - will be first added to -t- which is non past


tense marker, then added to personal marker. Thus
obtaining the forms
naanu
ir-t-iini
naavu
ir-t-iivi
niinu

ir-t-iiye

iru verb has two bases in Kannada. They are id - and - ir

avanu

ir-t-aane

id - is used as definite construction, whereas ir - used as


indefinite or habitual construction.

avaLu
adu

nanna sneeita maneyalli idaane

id-iivi
id-iiri

niivu

ir-t-iiri

ir-t-aaLe

avaru

ir-t-aare

iru-tt-e

avu

iru-t-ve/ir-t-aave

Note that in the third person neut. sg. - t - is doubled

In this sentence, the friend's presence at home is definite


nanna sneehite madhyanha maneyalli irtaaLe
Here irtaaLe is used as an indefinite construction with
future proposition. This can also be used as habitual as in
the following sentence.

3.1.3 illa and iralla are the corresponding negative forms of


id- and ir - respectively
There is no person, number or gender distinction made
in the negative construction.

76/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

3.2

Lesson 9/77

alli is the locative case marker which denotes location.


The changes are of the same of possessive case when
added to the nouns.

4. Exercise :

4.4 Change in to negative :


4.4.1 kamala amerikaadalli idaaLe
4.4.2 nimma aNNa uurinalli idaaraa ?
4.4.3 nanna pustaka ninna hattira ide
4.4.4 raamaraayaru ishTu hottinalli klabbinalli irtaaraa ?

4.1 Fill in the blanks using suitable words :


4.1.1 _____________ avanu angaDiyaalli idaane
4.1.2 _____________ namma tande maneyalli irtaare
4.1.3 _____________ ishTu hottinalli angaDiyalli irtaane
4.1.4 nanage hattu gaNTege klaasu _____________
4.2 Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the word given
in the bracket :
4.2.1 nimma akka maneyalli __________ ? (iru)
4.2.2 kamalana tamma uurinalli __________ ? (iru)

4.5 Use the following words in your own sentences :


1. beLigge
4. keLage
2. saayankaala
5. uuru
3. tooTa
6. aaTada maydaana
4.6 Translate into kannada
4.6.1 At what time will you be at home ?
4.6.2 Suma won't be there at this time
4.6.3 All the twenty four hours he will be in the club
4.6.4 He is not there
4.6.5 Will you be there at ten o' clock ?

4.2.3 nimma naayi sadaa tooTadalli __________ ? (iralla)


4.2.4 aaspatreyalli DaakTaru __________ ? (illa)
4.3 Match the following :
1. niinu yaavaaga maneyalli
2. sumati iiga aaspatreyalli
3. avaru heege
4. pustaka meejina meele
5. niivu yaavaaga angaDiyalli
6. aravindana tamma madaraasinalli

(a) idaare
(b) idaane
(c) irtiiye
(d) irtiiri
(e) ide
(f) idaaLe

4.7 Answer the following question :


4.7.1 niivu elli vaasa idiiri ?
4.7.2 niivu dinaa saayankaala maneyalli irtiiraa ?
4.7.3 nimage svanta mane ideyaa ?
4.7.4 nimma maneyalli eshTu jana idaare ?
4.7.5 nimma uuru yaava raajyada, yaava jilleyalli ide ?

5. Vocabulary :
tooTa
raatri
saayankaala

'garden'
'night'
'evening'

78/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

5.1 Supplementary vocabulary :

LESSON - 10

oLage

'inside'

karu

'calf'

1. Dialogue :

keLage

'below'

Raju : baa ravi, eenu samaachaara ?

gaNTe

'hour'

Com Ravi. What is the


news ?

biidi

'street'

madhyaanha

'afternoon'

Ravi : eenuu illa raaju. naavella


mundina vaara piknik
hoogooNavva ?

Nothing Raju. Shall we


go for a picnic next
week ?

meele

'upon / above'

vaasa

'reside / live'

Raju : aagli. ellige hoogooNa ?

Allright. Where shall we


go ?

haNNu

'fruit'

Ravi : nandi beTTakke hoogooNa

Let us go to Nandi hills

horage

'outside'

Raju : yaaru yaaru bartaare ?

Who are all will be


coming ?

Ravi : moohana, goopala bartaare

Mohan and Gopal are


coming

Raju : sureeSa baralvaa ?

Isn't Suresh coming ?

Ravi : baralla. avanige


dhaaravaaDadalli kelasa
ide. naaLe hoogtaane
hadinaydu dinada meele
bartaane

He won't come. He has


work in Dharwar. He
goes tomorrow. He
comes after fifteen days

Raju : manoohara ?

Manohar ?

Ravi : avanannu keeLalaa ?

Shall I ask him ?

Raju : keeLu. avanuu barali


piknikkige oLLe kampani
irali

Ask him. Let him also


come. Let us have a
good company for the
picnic

80/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Ravi : keeLtiini. avanu bartaane


Raju : mundina bhaanuvaara
hoogooNa

Lesson 10/81

I will ask him. He will


come
Let us go next Sunday

Ravi : eshTu gaNTege


horaDooNa ?

At what time shall we


start ?

Raju : beligge enTu gaNTege


horaDooNa

Let us start at eight o'


clock in the morning

Ravi : tiNdi eenu tagoNDu


hoogooNa ?

What snacks shall we


take ?

Raju : eenaadaruu sari. niinu


sihi tiNDi tagombaa
moohana, goopaala
puLiyoogare tarli. naanu
haNnu tartiini

Anything is allright. You


bring sweets. Let
Mohana and Gopal
bring tamarind rice. I
shall bring fruits

Ravi ; heege hoogooNa ?

How shall we go ?

Raju : bassinalli hoogooNa. bassu


tumbaa sigutve

Let us go by bus. Buses


are available in plenty

Ravi : naavu ellige barooNa ? bas


sTyaaND hattira
barooNvaa ?

Where shall we come ?


Shall we come to the bus
stand ?

Raju : bas sTyaaND hattira banni


naanu allige bartiini

You come to the bus


stand. I shall come there

2.

Pattern drill :

2.1

niinu naaLe namma


manege baa

niinu kaafi KuDi


niinu ii baaLe haNNu
tinnu
niinu iiga kaaleeJige
hoogu
2.2

(you.sg.) Come to my
house tomorrow

(you.sg) Go to college
now

niivu ii baaLe haNNu


tinni
niivu iiga kaaleeJige
hoogi

(you. hon. pl.) Come to


my house tomorrow
(you. hon. pl.) Drink
Coffee
(you. hon. pl.) Eat this
banana
(you.hon. pl.) Go to
college now

2.3

naanu nimma manege


naaLe barlaa ?
naanu kaafi kuDiyalaa ?

Shall I come to your


house tomorrow ?
Shall I drink coffee ?

2.4

naavu nimma manege


Shall we come to your
barooNavaa ?
house ?
naavu uurige hoogooNavaa ? Shall we go to home
town ?

2.5

naavu naaLe beLigge


caamunDi beTTakke
hoogooNa
naavu iiga kaafi
kuDiyooNa

2.6

niivu naaLe namma


manege banni
niivu kaafi KuDiyiri

(you. sg) Drink Coffee


(you.sg) Eat this banana

avanu madaraasige hoogali


rameeSa oLage barali

Let us go to Chamundi
hill tomorrow morning
Let us drink coffee now
Let him go to Madras
Let Ramesh come in

82/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Kamala haalu kuDiyali

2.7

Lesson 10/83

hasu hullu tinnali

Let Kamala drink the


milk
Let the cow eat the grass

naanu sinimaakke bartini


naavu dinaa jileebi tintii
niinu beLigge kaafi
the kuDiitiyaa ?

I shall come to movie


We eat jileebis everday
Do you drink coffee in
morning ?

niivu sanje tiNDi tintiiraa ?

Do you eat tiffin in the


evening ?

moohana iiga bartaane

Mohan comes now

nanna heNDati avaLa


taayiya manege hoogtaaLe

My wife will go to her


mother's house

nanna maava naaLe


bartaare

My father - in - law comes


tomorrow

magu hallu kuDiyatte

The child drinks milk

makkaLu hallu kuDiyutve

Children drink milk

3.

Key to learners :

3.1

Main verbs are introduced in this lesson. Verb root itself is


used as an imperative, which is always in second person
singular form. Observe the following sentences.
niinu baa
niinu hoogu

'you come'
'you go'

The imperative singular forms can be changed into


imperative plural forms by adding -iri or -i , - iri is addeds
to the verbs ending with - i or -e.

kuDi + iri = kuDiyiri


bare + iri = bareyiri

'you (pl. hon.) drink


'you (pl. hon.) write

Note the addition of -y -i is added to all other nouns


tinnu + i = tinni
'you (pl. hon.) eat
hoogu + i = hoogi
'you (pl. hon.) go
baa + i = banni
'you (pl. hon.) come
Note that the final -u drops in the above combination.
baa changes into ban before it takes imperative plural
form. taa 'to bring' also behaves like baa. These two verbs
have two bases viz., bar, ban and tar, tan. Observe in the
coming lessons how these bases are added to higher
constructions. These forms are also used as honorafic
singular forms.
3.2

Permissive form is obtained by adding - ali to the verb


root. These forms are operated only with third person
subjects. It is possible with first person singular subject in
interrogative construction. Observe the following
examples
hoogu + ali = hoogali
kuDi + ali = kuDiyali
avanu hoogali

'let him go'

avaLu hoogali

'let her go'

avaru hoogali

'let them go'

adu hoogali

'let it go'

avu hoogali

'let them go'

84/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

naanu ellige hoogali ?


naanu eenu kuDiyali ?

Lesson 10/85

'Where shall I go' ?


'What shall I drink' ?

Note that the above sentences with first person singular


subject are in interrogative form making use of
interrogative pronouns. It is also possible to have the
interrogative sentences by adding -aa, the interrogative
suffix, thus obtaining the meaning - 'may I ..........'. - al will be addid to verb root as infinitive marker and then aa is added.
naanu uurige hoogalaa ?
naanu kaafi kuDiyalaa ?

'may I go to home town' ?


'may I drink coffee ?

tenses is nullified. - t - is used as non-past tense marker.


The future ideas are expressed by adding time aspect to the
non-past tense form
naanu kaafi kuDiitiini

'I drink coffee'

naanu naaLe uurige hoogtiini

'I will go to my
native place
tomorrow'

The structure of non - past tense is


verb root + non-past tense
+ pronminal
termination
hoogu + t + iini = hoogtiini

3.3

'Let us go' type of structure (which is known as hortative


form) is obtained in Kannada by adding - ooNa to the verb
root in first person plural subject
hoogu + ooNa = hoogooNa
tinnu + ooNa = tinnoNa
kuDi + ooNa = kuDiyooNa
tar + ooNa = tarooNa

3.4

'let us go'
'let us eat'
'let us drink'
'let us bring'

The subject and the predicate agreement in verbal


construction is strictly maintained in Kannada
Observe the following paradigm
naanu hoog - t - iini
naavu hoog - t -iivi
(hoogutteene)
(hoogutteeve)
niinu hoog - t - iiye
(hooguttiiye)

niivu hoog - t - iiri


(Hooguttiiri)

When the iterrogative suffix - aa is added to hortative


form, -v- is added as an addition

avanu hoog-t-aane
(hooguttaane)

avaru hoog-t-aare
(hooguttaare)

hoogooNa + aa = hoogooNavaa ?
barooNa + aa = barooNavaa ?

avaLu hoog-t-aaLe
(hooguttaaLe)

'shall we go ?'
'shall we come ?'

Non-past tense marker - t - is introduced with main verbs.


Strictly speaking there is no present tense marker in
Kannada. Traditonal grammars describe -t- as present
tense marker and -v- as future tense marker. However in
modern spoken Kannada the difference between these two

adu hoogu-tt - e / hoog - t - ade

avu hoog - t - ave /


hooga - t - ve

(hooguttade)

(hooguttave)

The forms given in paranthesis are standard written forms

86/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

3.1.5

The non-past negation is obtained by adding alla to the


verb root
tinnu + alla = tinnalla
'do not eat'
kuDi + alla = kudiyalla
'do not drink'
There is no number, gender distinction in negative
construction.

3.1.6

4.

The accusative (objective case) marker - annu/anna is


also introduced in this lesson. Accusative case marker is
mostly optional with neuter nouns. It is obligatorily used
with human nouns and plural nouns.

Exercise

Lesson 10/87

4.3 Interrogate
4.3.1 havdu. idu pustaka
4.3.2 aagaLi. hoogooNa
4.3.3 illa. raaju baralla
4.3.4 havdu. bassu eNTu gaNTege horaDatte
4.4 Change the form according to the model
4.4.1 Model :
avanu + annu = avanannu
Change :
ivanu _______
avaLu _______
adu _________
kaaDu _______
bassu ________

4.1 Fill in the blanks using suitable words


4.1.1 ______ bhaanuvaara bengaLuurige hoogooNa
4.1.2 naanu _________ tarali ?

4.4.2 Model :
Change :

mara + annu = maravannu


pustaka _______
hanNa ________
dina __________

4.4.3 Model :
Change :

mane + annu = maneyannu


naayi _________
kathe _________
siite __________
ravi __________

4.1.3 _________ bas sTyaaND hattira banni


4.1.4 _________ beLigge kaafi kudiitaane
4.1.5 siitaa naaLe uurige _________
4.2 Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the word given
in the bracket
4.2.1 ayyoo. naanu eenu ____________ ? (maaDu)
4.2.2 paapa. avanu manege ___________ (hoogu)
4.2.3 naavu uurige eshTu gaNTege ______ ? (horaDu)
4.2.4 sandhya yaavaaga amerikaakke ______ ? (hoogu)
4.2.5 niivu naaLe namma manege ___________ (baa)

4.5

Use the following verbs with non - past tense markers in


all persons
1. baru
2. horaDu
3. tinnu
4. keeLu
5. kuDi

88/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

4.6 Translate into kannada


4.6.1 I listen to music over the radio ?
4.6.2 Who will come with you ?
4.6.3 What shall I bring for you ?
4.6.4 Let him go to a movie
4.6.5 Please, take this coffee
4.6.6 Shall we go to Mangalore today ?
4.7 Answer the following questions
4.7.1 niivu ivattu saayankaala ellige hoogtiiri ?
4.7.2 niivu yaava kelasa maaDtiiri ?
4.7.3 niivu ivattu sanje sinimaake hoogtiiraa ?
4.7.4 rajaa dinadalli nimma manege sneehitaru bartaaraa ?
4.75 niivu beligge eshTu ganTege tinDi tintiiri ?

5. Vocabulary :
keLu

'to ask / to listen'

togoNDu hoogu

'to carry'

tagombaa

'to bring'

tiNDi

'snacks' / 'breakfast'

nandi beTTa

'Nandi hills'

puLiyoogare

'tamarind rice'

baa

'to come'

mundina vaara

'next week'

sigu

'to be available'

Lesson 10/89

sihi tiNDi

'sweets'

horaDu

'to start'

hoogu

'to go'

5.1 Supplementary Vocabulary


iiga
'now'
kuDi
'to drink'
tinnu
'to eat'
hullu
'grass'

90/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 11/91

o - 11

1. Dialogue :
g : zsgqP
UP. Aiit
MAiz, g Aiit
MAiz ?

I have to go to
Dharwar. is the bus
journey or train jour
ney better ?

Train journey is better


than bus journey. The
train fare is less than
the bus fare. Don't go
by bus.

: AiitQAv g
Aiit MAiz.
VAv gU bd
Pr.
Ur

g : g Aii iU
Uv ?

Which way does the


train go ?

It goes via Arasikere

: CgPg iU Uv

: z. Cgq C
UgU.

Yes. They are twin


cities

g : zqz
zsgq zqz ?

Is Hubli or Dharwar
bigger ?

Hubli is bigger than


Dharwar

: zsgqQAv
zqz

g : Aiiz z Uv ? Which one comes first ?


w

: z Uv

Hubli comes first

g : Qvg JP
U Uz ?

Can one go quickly in


the Kittor express ?

Yes. Where do you


have to go there ?

: Uz. C
JU UP ?

g : Cz MAz iU ?

Is that the only route ?

One can go via


Guntakal also

g : AinU UP I have to go to the


g Dm
University. Are autos
Uv ?
availabel at the railway
station ?

g : Aiiz wg ?

Which one is shorter ?

The Arasikere route is


shorter than the
Guntakal route

: UAvP iU
Uz.

: UAvPVAv CgPg
iU w

g : zsgq Jgq
wg EAii ?

Are Hubli and


Dharwar close to each
other ?

: Uv. Dzg Dmz


Ur. Pz
Uv.
V

Yes the are. But


don't go by auto
Plenty of busses are
available. Go by bus

g : A gP
Is a seat available for
g m Uz? next Monday ?

92/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

2.

: P. MAz g z
j iqP. E
vq iqgz

Lesson 11/93

Difficult. It has to be
reserved one week
earlier. You shouldn't
delay things this much.

U v g
PqP

You have to give me


ten rupees

w U g
NzP

One must read the


newspapers every
morning

PlPz Jg Pq
PAiP

Everyone in Karnataka
should learn kannada

D P iqq

(You) Don't do that


(deed)

Pattern drill
2.1

AUjVAv g
aPz.

Mysore is smaller than


Bangalore

gVAv gt
zsAi.

Ravana is braver than


Rama

VAv i aP

Malini is younger/
smaller than Shalini

C VAv Jvg

He is taller than me

D PQAv F P MAiz

This party is better


than that party.

AwU VAv U
Azg

2.3

Z P PrAir (You) Don't drink too


much coffee
2.4

MU gz
Cg zU
Uz.

2.5

A rose is more beautiful


than a cryasnthemum

zs iqgz
One shouldn't smoke
C AiPqz You shouldn't scold
him

gAsVAv P
Azj

Menaka is more
beautiful than Rambha

P i
qgz

Children shouldn't see


movies everyday

AUjVAv g
Azgz Ug

Mysore is a more
beautiful city than
Bangalore

D rVAi
qPqz.

You shouldn't see that


girl.

2.
2.2

HjU UP

I have to go to my
home town

You may come in


He may go to Madras
tomorrow.

Key to learners :
3.1

- inta is the comparitive marker. It is used to


compare two subjects or objects. Kannada has no
distinction of degrees in adjective itself unlike.

94/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 11/95

English. Only intensifiers like 'bahaLa', 'tumba' 'tiira', are


used to indicate the superlative degree. - inta is always
used with dative subject.

avanu naaLe barabahudu

There are two prohibitive forms viz., - baaradu, and


kuuDadu, The later one is used as strong prohibition.

nanage kannaDa sinimakkinta hindi sinimaa ishTa.


bengaLuuriginta kalkatta doDDa nagara.

adkhikaarigaLu lanca tegedukoLLa baaradu


Officers should not take bribe

3.2 Definitive, permissive and prohibitive forms of the verbs


also introduced.
definitive forms are obtained by adding 'beeku' 'beeDa', to
the main verbs. 'beeDa', is added to only second person.
Wheas 'beeku', can be added to all persons.
niinu ivattu uurige hooga beeDa

Dont go to home
town today

niivu namma manege bara beeDi

(You pl/hon.)
don't come to
our house

naanu bahaLa beega hoogabeku

I have to go
soon

niinu aa pustaka ooda beeku

You have to read


that book

avanu hattu ruupayi koDa beeku

He has to give
ten rupees.

permissive forms of the verbs are obtained by adding bahudu to the main verbs. Although this is called
perrmissive, it can also denotes probability.

He may come
tomorrow.

makkaLu sigareeT seeda kuuDadu


Children shouldn't smoke

4.

Exercise

4.1 Fill in the blanks using the suitable words :


4.1.1 zgz PAzgz Jgq ______ UgU
4.1.2 g z ____________ Uv.
4.1.3 _________ sg AUjU UP.
4.1.4 JP __________ Uz.
4.2 Combine the following sentences using the comparitive
marker :
4.2.1 AUg zq lt
g aP lt
4.2.2 gU v
PtU gq

niinu nanna jate barabahudu

You may come


with me

4.2.3 F P MAiz
D P Plz

naanu sanje ninage sigabahadu

I may meet you


in the evening.

4.2.4 P Azj
vA Azj

96/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 11/97

4.3 Use the following words in your own sentences :


Pz, U, Aiit, iU, z, Pr

'rose'

zs

'smoking'

4.4 Translate into Kannada :


4.4.1 Mysore is smaller than Bangalore
4.4.2 Train journey is more comfortable than bus journey
4.4.3 She is taller than me
4.4.4 You may go now
4.4.5 Please, don't talk to me
4.4.6 I have to go to Delhi next week
4.4.7 You should not smoke
4.4.8 He shouldn't do that work

zsAi

'brave person'

'party'

Ai

'to scold'

Azg

'beautiful (N)'

Azj

'beautiful women'

AwU

'crysanthemum'

'flower'

4.5 Answer the following questions


4.5.1 v UAmU PP UP ?
4.5.2 VAv Pz aVzAii ?
4.5.3 VAv v / vAV Jvg ?
4.5.4 Ai Ugm zPqz ?

5.

Vocabulary
C UgU
Zd
vq
Aiit
U
iU

'twin cities'
'fare'
'late'
'journey'
'early/quickly'
'route/via'

4.1 Supplementary vocabulary :


Jvg
'tall'
P
'to learn'

Lesson 12/99

o - 12

ivqz Cs
iqP. Cz
iqzjAz jPAi
Ug

1. Dialogue :
g : g, PtU Pq
jP AiiU ?

When is the Kannada


examination for
Manohar and Kannan ?

g : A wAU

Next month

g : F jz
iqg ?

Will they get through


this time atleast ?

g : K iqg Uw

No idea as to what they


will do

g : CjU ivqz,
gAiz ZV gv ?

practise to speak. By
doing that they can get
through.

g : z. Pt
Uzg Ci
E. gz
Ci

Yes. kannan has no


doubt of passing the
examination. Only
Manohar has doubts

g : AiiP ? C jAiiV
Aivq ?

Why doesn't he try


properly ?

Do they know to speak


and write well ?

g : q. Cz vAzg

He soesn't. That is the


problem

g : gU ivqP
ZV gv. gAizP
g

Manohar knows well to


speak. He doesn't know
to write.

g : CU P.

He should be told

g : Cz z. CU
Cx DUP

g : C Pq PAizP
lU U

He goes for tuition to


learn kannada

These things can't be


told. He must under
stand it himself.

g : U C

He goes, that is all

g : Pt ?

Kannan ?

g : C gAi. Dzg
ivqg

He can write, but can't


speak

g : M gAiz Cs
iqP. E

One has to practise to


write. The other has to

2. Pattern drill :
2.1

U Px Pz E.
qUjU z z
s

I like listening to stories


It is easy to advise
youngsters

Hlz zs g PrAiz
CgU

It is unhealthy to drink
water in the middle of a
meal

100/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

gAiz
qP

I should see what you


write

C ivqz Aiig
Pg ?
Pq PAizjAz s Ez

Who will listen to her


talk ?
There is advantage in
learning Kannada
One gets headache by
seeing bad films
They go to hotel to eat
meals
She is ready to quarrel

Pl i qzjAz
v gv
Cg Hl iqzP
mU Ug
C dU DqzP
vAiig
AQU Uzg vq
DUv
C zAz lg
vgzg Ci E
g Pq ivqzg
Az E ?

2.2

Lesson 12/101

D g PrAiz
Axg CAx P
Nzz.

2.3

There will be a delay


in going to the bank
There is no doubt about
his bringing sweaters
from Delhi
(Rhetorical question
implying) In speaking
kannada he is nothing
when compared to
Suresh
That water is not fit to
drink
Persons like you should
not read such books.

2.4

2.5

Cg EAx P iqz

They shouldn't do such


a thing.

MAz Qlg Nq

I can run a kilometer

A ZV gAi
v Er wAii ?

We can write Hindi well


Can you eat ten idlis ?

U Dg UAmU
gg ?

Can you come at six o'


clock in the morning ?

g ZV q

Ramesh can sing well

P jPAi gAP
g

Kamala can get a rank


in the examination

Cg ZV Um iqg
F lg M
Pqz

They can make a lot of


noise
This scooter can give
good service

U Z
Pq

Hybrid cows can give


more milk

v q wg

I can't eat ten laddus

CjU g g
PqgAii ?

Can't you give them a


thousand rupees ?

D wP vA
GAigz

That news paper can't


last very long

C Pq ivqzP
vA Pqv

He struggles a lot to
speak Kannada

102/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 12/103

qg vA zBRqvg

Poor people suffer a lot

Avg R qvg

The rich enjoy


themselves a lot

keeLoodalla
maaDoodalla

'not to be listened'
'not to be done'

Verbal noun with comparative marker - inta gives the


meaning 'instead' or 'rather than'

3.

Key to learners :

aa sinima nooDoodakkinta summaniroodu oLLeyadu

3.1

Gerundial or verbal nouns are obtained by adding


'vudu/oodu' to the verbs. It is equivalent to - ing in
English. It functions as noun as well as adjective.

'Instead of seeing that film, it is better to be quiet'.

tinnuvudu / tinnoodu
maaDuvudu / maaDoodu

'eating'
'doing'

After the verbs are transformed into nouns by adding


'vudu / oodu'. the case markers can be added.
cennaagi uuTa maaDuvudannu kali
Learn to eat well

3.2

bal - and aar - are the positive and negative potential


markers respectively.
After adding these markers to personal markers, they are
used in the compound construction with the infinitive
form of the main verbs.
tinna - bal - e = tinnaballe
tinna - laar - e = tinnalaare

'I can eat'


'I can't eat'

Note how they are used with all personal nouns.

JagaLa maaDuvudarida kelsa aagutte


The work will be get done by quarrelling

naanu

naavu

kaafi kuDiyuvudakke hooTelige hoogi


Go to hotel to drik coffee

maaDaballe
maaDalaare

maDaballevu
maaDalaarevu

niinu

niivu

nritya nooDuvudaralli nanage aasakti illa


I have no interest in seeing the dance

maaDaballe
maaDalaare

maaDaballiri
maaDalaariri

avanu

Note that - alu can be substituted for the dative case


marker in verbal noun construction

maaDaballa
maaDalaara

avaLu

avaru

avanu' kaafi kuDiyalu hooTelige hoogtaane


He goes to hotel to drink coffee

maaDaballaLu
maaDalaaraLu

maaDaballaru
maaDalaararu

adu

maaDaballadu
maaDalaaradu

avu

maaDaballavu
maaDalaaravu

The negative verbal noun is obtained by the addition of


'alla' to the verbal noun, and it is used only as a part of
predicate.

'balla' is also has another meaning 'to know' in


independent position.

104/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

3.3

- inda in Kannada is instrumental as well as ablative case.


Although - inda is a homophonus form.

4.2

functionally it maintains the distinction. Observe the


following sentences.

4.2.1 C __________ Aiig Pz ? (q)

avanu pennininda bariitaane


'He writes with pen'
avanu aafisige haasTelininda bartaane
'He comes from hostel to office'
In the above sentences, first one is instrumental and the
second one is ablative.
Instrumental denotes the accomplishment of the action
with an instrument.
Ablative denotes the source from which action began.
3.4

Lesson 12/105

paDu 'to feel' is used with nouns like kashTa, sukha,


dukha, santoosha etc. (nouns expressing feelings.) , thus
getting the compound verbs like, kashTapaDu, sukha
paDu. dukha paDu

4.

Exercise :

4.1

Fill in the blanks using suitable words :

Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the words


given in the bracket :

4.2.2 Cg iv __________ P (P)


4.2.3 D i _________ UP (q)
4.2.4 D g ________ (Pr)
4.3 Transform into negative sentences :
4.3.1 Cg D P iqg
4.3.2 FU U UP ?
4.3.4 C D i qz.
4.3.4 P Ugm zz.
4.3.5 D t wz
4.4

Combine the following and use them is your own


sentences :

4.4.1 g + C

= __________

Pg + C

= __________

+ C

= __________

CzsPg + C = __________

4.1.1 jU _____________ Uv ?
4.1.2 C ___________ jU g
4.1.3 Cg EU ___________
4.1.4 jPAi gAP vUzPzP _________ qP.

4.4.2 + EAz
g + EAz

= __________
= __________

Hg + EAz = __________
v + EAz

= __________

106/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 12/107

4.4.3 g + dative case

= __________

C + dative case

= __________

Vocabulary :
Cx DU

'to understand'

+ dative case

= __________

Ci

'doubt'

Cz

+ dative case

= __________

F j

'this time'

+ dative case

= __________

vAzg

'trouble'

=
=
=
=

Aivq

'to try'

ivq

'to speak'

4.4.4 n
Px
Pq
Ez

+
+
+
+

C
C
C
C

5.

__________
__________
__________
__________
5.1

4.5

Transform the following verbs into Gerundial forms. Add


all the case markers and use them in your own sentences :
iq,

4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.6.6
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.4.4

P,

U,

Translate into Kannada :


Savita can drink ten cups of coffee
Who asked you to come here ?
He cannot do that work
Can you sing a song ?
He is going to the hotel to eat a meal
One should not speak like that
Answer the following questions :
P PrAiz qjg ?
U Pq gAizP / ivqzP gv ?
Kzg MAi P iqg ?
v Nqg ?

Supplementary Vocabulary :
CgU

'ill health'

'to remain / to stay'

Hl

'meals'

Nz

'to read'

Nq

'to run'

Pq

'suffer / try hard'

Um

'noise '

dU

'quarrel'

'head ache'

zBRq

'suffer'

'water'

wP

'paper/magazine'

'advice'

108/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

zs

'middle / centre'

'advantage / profit'

'hybrid cow'

R q

'enjoy'

'easy'

'song/sing'

'milk'

'to say'

Lesson 13/109

o - 13
1. Dialogue :
g : g zg FU
DZguAi EzAii ?

Is Mysore Dasara still


celebrated ?

Yes. It is now celebrated


as a state festival

: z, FU qV
DZjg

g : Aiig DZjg ?

Who celebrates it ?

The karanataka govenment celebrates it

: PlP Pgzg
v DZjg

g : g gdAzg Don't the descendents of


DZj ?
the Mysore king
celebrate it ?
g

: Cg v Ai
DZjg. C

They celebrate it at
home. That is all

g : Pgzg J
DZjg ?

For how many days


government celebrates it ?

They celebrate if for


nine days

: MAv DZjg

g : MAv K
iqg ?
g

What do they do for


nine days ?

: CgAi AVv They arrange musical


PZj Krg. F
concerts daily in the
PZjU z
palace. They invite

110/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

AVvUg Pgg.
zg Qqv qg

Lesson 13/111

D gtU
iqg. gtUAi
g g fAi
U Egv.

famous musicians to
these concerts. They
conduct Dasara sports.

g : z Egv ? Will there be an


exhibition too ?
g

: z. z
zgz MAz R
DPu. z
Cz
Gzng.

Yes. The exhibition is


one of the main
attractions of Dasara.
It will be inaugurated
on the first day itself.

g : CgU APg
Egv ?

Will there be illumination


of the place ?

Yes. They decorate the


palace with electric
lights. The main streets
of the city are also
decorated with electric
lights.

: Egv. CgAi
zUAz
CAPjg. Ugz
R U
zUAz
CAPjg

g : zgz R DPu
Aiiz ?
g

What is the main


attraction of Dasara ?

: dAj. dAiz The elephant parade


z gtU
The procession of the
Vijayadashami day ?

g : Dv K iqg ?

What do they do on that


day ?

They worship
Bhuvaneswari on that

: Dv sjAi
fg. D Cz

day. Afterwards it (the


idol) is taken on
elephant back in
procession. The
specialities of different
districts will also be there
in the procession.

g : gtU JU Uv ? Where does the


procession go ?
g

: Cz AlP
Uv. C Ae
mZm gq
Egv. C zyU
g, A
UqU zs
gAe qg

g : MAz j
qP

It goes to the
Bannimantap. There will
be a torch light parade
in the evening. Students,
Police, Homegaurds
provide entertainment
there.
I should also see it once

2.

Pattern drill :

2.1

PlPz GU
DZjg.
zszsz Az
CAqg w
wg

The Ugadi festival is


celebrated in Karnataka
The statue of Ambedkar
will be erected in front
of Vidhana Soudha

CgAi zUAz
CAPjg

The palace will be


illuminated with electric
bulbs.

112/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 13/113

gw Pj

Every night I talk in


dream

EAVAz PqP
sAvj.

We translate from
English to Kannada

Cg grAiz Ev
i nAi Azvg

They will interview a


film actress on the radio
today.

2.2 gg AVv Pg
v UU Pr

Rama Rao teaches music


Mother feeds milk
to the baby

2.4 v Aiig ?

Who are you (extra hon)?

2.4 v g K ?

What is your Name ?


(May I know your
name?)

2.5 C v P v iq

He does his work himself

Pgzg v zg
DZjg
2.6 PlPz GU
DZgu qg

The government itself


celebrates Dasara
Ugadi festival is celebrated in Karnataka

CAz v

We will make him to


utter the truth

Cg zge iqg He worships God daily.

Cg U Pg
vjg

They will show us a new


car

P CPgu iq

Cg UAqUAz
qg

They will have beaten


me by hoodlums

3.

gi v vAVAi v a

Rama will get her


younger sisters hair
combed.

3.1 - isu in kannada has two functions. (1) as verbaliser. (2) as


causative. It functions as verbaliser when added to
borrowed nouns and as a causative, when added to native
verbs.

2.3 v UU gfAz
Pr
vU
vAz AUg
vj

Mother gets the baby


fed with milk by
sarojini
I will have my friend
shown round Bangalore
by my younger brother.

Kamala imitates me

Key to learners :

3.2 The function of verbaliser is to change a noun into a verb.


By adding __ isu to the loan words from Sanskrit and Urdu,
verbs can be derived. This is now being extended to the
nouns borrowed from English also.

114/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Sanskrit nouns :
priiti
dukha
anveeshaNe
aacaraNe
alankaara
SooshaNe
eerpaaDu

Lesson 13/115

naanu avaninda aa kelasa maaDistiini


+
+
+
+
+
+
+

isu
isu
isu
isu
isu
isu
isu

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

priitisu
dukhisu
anveeshisu
aacarisu
alankarisu
Sooshisu
eerpaDisu

Urdu nouns :
jamaavaNe
cunaavaNe

+ isu
+ isu

= jamaayisu
= cunaayisu

English Nouns :
foon
Tayp

+ isu
+ isu

= foonisu
= Taypisu

'to love'
'go grieve'
'to search'
'to celebrate'
'to decorate'
'to exploit'
'to arrange'

'to muster'
'to elect'

Note that the above mouns can also be changed into verbs by
compounding them with 'maaDu'
Priiti maaDu
alankaara maaDu
eerpaadu maaDu
jamaavane maaDu
cunaavane maaDu
foon maaDu
3.1.2 The causative denotes the action performed through an
agent. Causative can be derived from both transitive and
intransitive verbs.
The transitive verb is the one which takes an object and
the intransitive does not.

'I will get that work done by him'


avaLu avaninda kaagada bareyistaaLe
'She gets the letter written by him'
In the above sentences isu is added to the verbs maaDu and bare.
Both of these verbs are transitive verbs. They take objects
'kelasa' and 'kaagada' respectively
naanu ooDtiini
naanu malgtiini

'I run'
'I sleep'

In the above sentences 'ooDu' and 'malagu' are intintransitive


verbs. They do not take objects. However by adding - isu they
can be converted into transitive.
naanu avanannu ooDistiini
'I make him run'
avaLu maguvaanu malagistaaLe
'she puts the baby to sleep'
Here ooDu and malagu are added to - isu and becomes transitive
verbs. Some of the transitive verbs have an inherent -isu. They
also take - isu and form the causative meaning.
naanu avarige karnaaTaka tooristiini . (Transitive)
I show them KarnaTaka (myself)
naanu avarige KarnaaTaka toorsistiini (causative)
I get some one to show them round karnaTaka

116/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

4. Exercise
4.1 Fill in the blanks using suitable words.
4.1.1 zgz R DPu _______
4.1.2 dAizAi sjAi ________ iqg
4.1.3 zg Aiz __________ Krg
4.1.4 FU zg ________ DZjg
4.1.5 CgAi ___________ CAPjg.
4.2 Transform the following sentences into verbaliser
4.2.1 C vVAz PqP sAvg iq
4.2.2 zg e iq.
4.2.3 z Cv Z CPgu iq
4.2.4 g v P Mgg w iqg
4.2.5 C ZV zu iq.
4.3 Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the verbs given in
the bracket
4.3.1 v UU _________ (Pr)
4.3.2 CzsPg zyUU Pq ______________ (P)
4.3.3 Cg nAz vgPj ___________ (vg)
4.3.4 g U g ______________ (vg)
4.3.5 Cg CAz v ________________ ()
4.4 Answer the following questions.
4.4.1 FU g zg Aiig DZjg ? U DZjg ?
4.4.2 zg J DZjg ?
4.4.3 zg Aiz K PAiP Egv ?

Lesson 13/117

4.4.5 zgz R DPu K ?


4.4.5 Alz K PAiP Egv ?

5. Vocabulary
Cg

'palace'

DZgu

'celebration'

DPu

'attraction'

Gzl

'inauguration'

Kq

'arrangement'

Qqv

'sports festival'

dAj

'elephant parade'

APg

'illumination'

'state festival'

'to worship'

gAd

'entertainment'

gtU

'procession'

gd

'king'

'family'

'exhibition'

'electric bulb'

AVvUgg

'musicians'

AVv PZj

'music concert'

118/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

5.1

Lesson 14/119

o - 14

Supplementary Vocabulary

CPgu

'imitation'

Pj

'to talk in dreams'

'to teach'

vZ

'comb the hair'

vj

'to show'

'statue'

'install'

sAvg

'translation'

'truth'

g : AiiP C vq ?

Why were you so late ?

Az

'to intervies'

izs

The train came late

'to beat'

g : AzAii ?

Did you come alone ?

izs

No. My younger sister


came with me

1. Dialogue :
g : AUjU AiiU
Az ?

When did you come to


Bangalore ?

izs

I came yesterday evening

: Ae Az

g : J UAmU Az ?

At what time did you


come ?

izs

I came at seven o' clock


in the morning

: Ae K UAmU Az

: m vqV Av

: E ev vAV
Az.

g : v g ?

Didn't your younger


brother come ?

izs

He didn't. He went with


my elder brother to
Madras

: g. C
Ct ev zU
z

g : v zg? Did your mother also go ?


izs

: E. Cg U
Cg A g
EU gg.

No. She didn't go. Next


week she is coming here.

120/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 14/121

g : , wAr w

Come, have tiffin

izs

No. I have had it already

: q. DU wAr wAz

g : Pzg Pr

Come. at least have


coffee

izs

I had coffee also. All


right, given me a little

: P Prz. Dzg
Pq

g : FU UAm J ?

What is the time now ?

izs

Now it is eleven o' clock


Why breakfast is so late ?

: FU Az UAm
AiiP wAr E l ?

g : Ev vqV Jz
sg q

Today I got up late. It is


sunday, you see

izs

All right eat soon. Let


us go to Ramesh's
house.

: j, U wAr w
g U
Ut

1.1 Dialogue :
g
: Pq J Pwj ?

Where did you learn


Kannada ?

g : j Pv

I learnt it in Mysore

Where did you learn it


there ?

: C J Pwj ?

g : C zQt AwAi
s PAzz Pv

I learnt it in the southern


Regional Language
Centre there.

: Aii Pwj ?

g : gz MAg
JAvg Pv.

In which year did you


learn it ?
I learnt it in 1980

2.

Pattern drill :

2.1

U JAl UAmU Jz

I got up in the morning


at eight

HjAz Az

We came from our home


town yesterday

P PrzAii ?

Did you drink coffee ?

D P vAg ?

Did you bring that book ?

gd UU qz

Raju beat the child

gt QlQ vUz

Rani opened the windows

Cg Pgzg

They called me

wAz

The cow ate the grass

PgU Prz

The calves drank the milk

2.2 gz dgg
PAig PAzg
sgv QPn Uv
CzsPg zyU
zg.

Zamindars killed coolies


in Bihar
India won the cricket
The teachers scolded the
students.

122/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 14/123

Cg MAz v gzg.
v g Ae MAz
Qlg qz.

He/she wrote a letter.


Ravi and I walked a
kilometer in the evening

Pg Cgtz g Przg

U D Ai gwj? How did you forget that


C z
her beauty
U Qwv

Thieves cut the trees in


the forest.

The child plucked the


flower

AVv J Pwj ?

Cg F j Z P
zg.

They grew more sugar


cane this time.

Where did you learn


music ?

z UAq U v

qV zjAi z

The girl fell on the road

Padma gave birth to a


male child

CU m MUz.

gvg Gvg

The washerman washed


the clothes.

Peasants ploughed the


field.

ZPgg P jzg The agitators broke the


law.
U Ut vv.
U vA v Pz

The child stepped on


cow dung.
I waited a long time for
the bus

Cg AUj Ezg He/she was in Bangalore


yesterday
C v AzAiAz
C z
2.3 Dlz v.
UAf ZgPAz vg.
P zgAvz gg
d vg

She fascinated him with


her beauty
Sheela lost in the game
Gandhiji spun with a
spinning wheel.
Hundreds of people died
in the circus tragedy.

2.4 P egV Cv.

Children cried loudly

Cg zsV P Przg

They drank coffee


slowly.

C lj UV
z.

She went fast on the


scooter.

2.5 sgv QAi Qz


U.

India didn't win against


pakistan in hockey.

The bus didn't fall into


the river

Pz Aig U
Q

The neighbours didn't


pluck the roses.

vAz U PUz gAi

My father didn't write


to me a letter

F zz Az Aiig
Ai

No body died out of


hunger in this country.

124/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 14/125

'to subtract'

Pz

'to push down'

vz

'to break'

jz

'to grow'

MU

'to wash'

MUz

Pr

'to cut'

Prz

verb root + personal termination.

'to walk'

qz

The personal termination of the pronouns are given below


with verb root tinnu

'to write'

gz

PAi

'to reap'

PAi

PAi

'to wait'

PAi/Pz

'to fall'

'to come'

Az

'to bring'

vAz

vU

'to open'

vUz

Pg

'to call'

Pgz

Third person neut. sg. has two personal terminations


namely -tu and -itu. -tu will be directly added to the verb
root. -itu is added with past tense.

'to kill'

PAz

'to get up'

Jz

Eg

'to be'

Ez

The list of a few verbs with take - d - as past tense.


U
'to go'
z
w
'to eat'
wAz
Pr
'to drink'
Prz
J
'to pull'
Jz

'to win'

Uz

'to say'

CAz

'to beat'

qz

'to wash'

vz

3. Key to learners :
3.1 Past tense markers are introduced in this lesson. There are
many past tense markers in Kannada. Among them -d and -t are introduced in this lesson. There is no
conditioning to specify which verb takes -d- and -t - as past
marker. A list of verbs are given to facilitate the learner.
Ther structure of the past construction is,

person
First
Second
Third. Mas.
Human Fem.
Neuter

singular
naanu tin-d-e (nu)
niinu tin-d-e
avanu tin-d-a (nu)
avaLu tin-d-aLu
adu-tin-tu
tin-d-itu

plural
naavu tin-d-evu
niivu tin-d-iri
avaru tin-d-aru
avu tin-d-avu

126/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 14/127

The list of a few verbs which take - t - as past tense.

'to be defeated'

'to pluck'

Qv

'to learn'

Pv

'to weep'

Cv

Ai

'to die'

'to give birth'


(Human)
'to plough'

Gv

'to weave'

'to forget'

gv

Note the changes in some of the verbs, when -d- past-tense


is added.
kollu + d + e
= konde
bayyu + d + e
= bayde
eeLu
+ d + e
= edde
gellu
+ d + e
= gedde
biiLu + d + e
= bidde
kaayu + d + e
= kaayde/kaade
hoogu + d + e
= hoode
- t - past tense :
kiiLu +
saaytu +
soolu +
heru
+

t
t
t
t

+
+
+
+

e
e
e
e

=
=
=
=

kitte
satte
soote
hette

3.1.2 Past negation is obtained by adding -illa to the verb root.


-al an infinitive suffix will be added to verb root before it
takes illa.
tinnu + al + illa = tinnalilla
There is no Person, gender distinction. Negation is same
for all persons and genders.
3.3

-ee is an emphatic marker. This is used to give emphasis


on the intended category.
idee liDoo Taakiis
'This is Lido Talkies
naanu aagalee tiNdi tinde
'I have already taken tiffin'

3.4

Adverb can be derived by adding aagi to adjectives or


nouns. When the adjective is a qualitative or a
quantitative adjective aagi is added to their predicative
forms.
keTTadaagi, hosadaagi, doDDadaagi
With other nouns and adjectives aagi is added to their
base forms :
tadavaagi, kempaagi, cennagi

4. Exercise :
4.1 Fill in the blanks using the past tense forms of the verbs
given in the bracket :
4.1.1

Cg HjAz _____________ ()

4.1.2

jPAi ZV _______________ (g)

4.1.3

C MAz t U ________________ (g)

4.1.4

U gw g UAmU _____________ (K)

128/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

4.1.5

UV vA v ____________ (PAi)

4.1.6

Cg Dlz _______________ ()

4.1.7

g CWvz Lz d ______________ (Ai)

4.1.8

AUj _________________ (Eg)

4.2
4.2.1

Transform into past :


zs PrAiv

4.2.2 U zjAi vz.

Lesson 14/129

4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.4

Translate into Kannada :


I wrote a letter to my friend
We walked three miles yesterday
She wept for half an hour.
He died of heart attack
He called me a fool.

5.1

Supplementary Vocabulary :

4.2.3 P AVv PAiv.

Cgt

'forest'

4.2.4 C C gAiv

Dl

'game'

4.2.5 g gt Pv.

'sugarcane'

Pg

'thieves'

PUz

'paper'

'law'

QlQ

'window'

'coolie'

ZgP

'spinning wheel'

ZUgg

'agitators'

dg

'zamindar'/'landlord'

zgAv

'tragedy'

4.4.2 K UAmU P Prz.

'river'

4.4.3 Pq ZV ivqz Pv

'letter'

4.4.4 D Ai gv

gvg

'peasants'

4.4.5 vAz zg.

Ai

'thing/matter'

Ut

'cowdung'

4.3
4.3.1

Transform into non-past :


z UAq U v

4.3.2 gvg Gvg


4.3.3 gt QlQ vUz
4.3.4 D P vAg ?
4.3.5 m MUz.
4.4
4.4.1

Transform into negative :


U Dg UAmU Jz

130/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

'to fascinate'

AzAi

'beauty'

'bunger'

'grass'

'field'

o - 15
1. Dialogue :
gd

: U P ?

Did you meet Mohan


yesterday ?

g : E. U. U P ?

No. He didn't Did you


meet him ?

gd

Yes. I met him in the city.


He told me that he was
going to see you

: z. nAi P
qP V
CAv CAz.

g : E. g. K
iZg ?

No. He didn't come yester


day. What is the matter ?

gd

He said that he left the job

: C P lAv

g : AiiP ?

Why ?

gd

It seems his father bought


land at his place. That is
why.

: Cg vAz Hj d
PAqgAv. CzP

g : K d ?

What land ?

gd

A coconut plantation. It
appears he will look after
that.

: vAV vl. E Czg


Zgu iqAv

g : J JPg ?

How many acres ?

gd

Ten acres

: v JPg

132/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 15/133

g : J Plg ?

How much did they pay ?

e : g z

Ramesh and I went

gd

He said that they paid one


lakh

CgAz : Aiizzg i
rg ?

Did you see any movie ?

e : E. Aii i
q. JAl UAmU
C E vrz
Pv P Prz.
MAv UAmU
Az.

No. Wandered here and


there till eight o' clock. We
had coffee in Kamath. We
returned at nine o' clock.

: MAz P Plg CAz

g : gV. Pr .

1.1

Not bad. It isn't a big


price

Dialogue :

CgAz : U J UAm
vP Dl Drj ?

Till what time did you


play yesterday morning ?

e : v UAm vP Drz

We played till ten o' clock

CgAz : Aiig Uzg ?

Who won ?

2.

Pattern drill

e : Cg Uzg,
v

They won, we lost

2.1

U P Qv

Mohan got a job.

gd U zjAi P

I met Raju on the way

CgAz : D K irj ?
Eg ?

What did you do


afterwards ? Were you in
the hostel ?

qUg P Pg

e : D irz.
ig MAz UAmU
Hl irz. Jgq
UAmAz
UAmgU z irz.

Afterwards I took bath.


Around one o' clock I ate
meal. I slept from two o'
clock until four.

F wAU Az v
g Qv.

The boys laughed in the


class.
Ten rupees remained out of
this month's salary.

Pg Pg.

Thieves entered the house

CgAz : nU U ?

Didn't you go to the city ?

e : Lz UAmU z

I went at five o' clock.

CgAz : Aiig Aiig j ?

Who all went ?

2.2 Pig U v g
Pl

Kumar gave me ten rupees

UAqU et
wPAi lg

Hoodlums burnt the


prajavani newspaper.

C Pl qUg
Az Pl

He was spoiled in the


company of bad boys.

134/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

2.3

2.4

Lesson 15/135

rU Ai m

I left the rented house.

t AQ
Eng ?

Did you keep the money in


the bank ?

v g Gl.

My friend (fem). put on a


new saree.

v UAmU gnv.
Ai Az J
vAV Vq nj ?

U Ai Ut Pt.

The solar eclipse was not


visible to me

CrU irP
C v m v
MUzP.

I cook for myself.


He washes his own
clothes.

Bus started at ten o' clock.

v aP.

Vimala combs her hair

Cg irPAqg.

He took a bath

C Dvv irPAq

He committed suicide.

i t Pnv.

How many coconut plants


did you plant in front of
your house ?
The mango fruit was spoilt.

P z m
vlg.

Children put on new clothes


on the festive day.

g AUjU
V CAv CAz

Ramu said that he will go


to Bangalore tomorrow.

jP Pl CAv
vAz t Plg

My father gave me money


asking me to pay the
examination fee

CU Az qP
CAv D

He desires to see Brindavan

R AwU zU
UgAv

It seems the chief minister


goes to Delhi tomorrow.

zs zsz v
QgAv

It seems they are putting


up a fence around Vidhana
Soudha

s HjU
ggAv.

It seems my brother-in-law
will come to town
tomorrow.

2.5

2.6

ggAig
Rama Rao bought a new
PAqg.
house.
DU gV z GAqg. Servants ate ragi balls.
zjAi MAz
PAq

I saw a snake on the way.

C m uUAv
U.

He didn't laugh himself to


death

Cg U i
Pq

They didn't give me the


prize.

AiP jAiiV
gq.

We didn't start on time.

gVt g P.

Ragini didn't buy a new


saree

2.7

136/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

2.8

v UAAig sgvz Mahatma Gandhi fought


vAvP grzg.
for the freedom of India.
gAzgzg qjU
LAi z irzg.

Purandaradasa gave away


his wealth as charity to the
poor

PvU vA egV
Nrz.

The donkeys ran very fast.

gAi PgdUg
Pnzg.

Visweswaraiah constructed
Krishana Raja Sagar.

QlQ az

I closed the window.

dv P Pg
gav.

The Janatha party formed


a new Government.

J UAmU
Vj ?

At what time did you sleep


Yesterday ?

l J j ?

Where did you have your


shirt made ?

J o Nz ?

2.9

Lesson 15/137

Which lesson did you read


yesterday ?

C J Ugm
z ?

How many cigarates did


he smoke yesterday ?

Px z, Cg
Pzg.

I narrated a story, they


listened.

qUg v o
Nz.

The boys didn't read the


tenth lesson.

3.

C C A

She didn't believe him.

vPvg R AwU
P.

The journalists didn't put


questions to the Chief
Minister.

E C vq.

We din't roam here and


there.

Key to learners :
Past tense -k - ; - T - ; - D - ; and -id- are introduced here.
Unlike the past tense markers introduced in the previous
lessons these past tense markers are conditioned in the
following manner.

3.1 Verbs with cvc syllabic pattern, where the last consonant
is -g- (e.g. n + a + g) take -k- as past - tense. Please note
that 'c' stands for consonant and 'v' stands for short vowel.
The final vowel - u doesn't have any value.
Sig (u) + k + a = sikka
nag (u) + k + a = naaka.

'he met (some one)'


'he laughed'

Note that when -k- is added, the last consonant -g- is


assimilated with -k- resulting in -kk3.2 Verbs with (c) vc syllabic pattern, where the last
consonant is D (e.g. i + D; k + e + D) take -T- as pasttense.
biD (u) + T + e = bitte
'I left'
iD (u) + T + e = itte
'I kept'
-D- is assimilated with -T- when added.

138/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 15/139

Although 'horaDu' doesn't have the same syllabic


structure as the above words, its past tense form is
however is 'horaTe'
3.3 There are only three verbs which take -D- as past tense
mark. They are.
kaaN(u) + D + e = kaNDe
'I saw'
uNN(u) + D + e = uNDe
'I ate (meals)'
koLLu koN/- D koN +D + e= koNDe.
'I bought'
Notice the change form L to N in koLLu
koLLu as a main verb means 'to buy'. This will also be used
as an auxillary verb in refiexive construction. Refiexive
indicates that the benefactor of the action of the verb is the
performer himself. This is obtained by adding koLLu to
the verbal prticiple of the main verb.
avanu baTTe ogedu koLtaane
'he washes his clothes'

mucc(u) + id + e = muccide
namb(u) = id + e = nambide

'I closed'
'I believed'

3.4.3 Multi syllabic


The verbs with more than two syllables. Causatives also
come under this category.
toorisu + id + e = tooriside
'I showed'
malagu + id + e = malagide
'I slept'
maataaDu + id + e = maataDide 'I spoke'
The verbs referred under the earlier past tense markers are
exceptions to this rule as well.
3.5 anta is used in the construction of indirect speech. It
occurs immediately after the reported clause.
avanu bengaLuurige hoogtiini anta heeLida
'He said that he is going to Bangalore'
3.6 ante is reportive form
apaghaatadalli nuuru jana sattarante
'It seems hundred persons died in accident'

avaLu aDige maaDikoLtaaLe'


'She cooks for herself'

avaru naaLe bartaarante


'It seems he is coming tomorrow'

3.4 -id- past tense takes three categories of verbs.


3.4.1 (c) V V syllabic pattern
keeLu (u) + id + e = keeLide
aaD (u) + id + e = aaDide

'I asked/listened'
'I played'

Note that VV stands for long vowel


3.4.2 CVCC syllabic pattern
hatt (u) + id + e = hattide

4. Exercise :
4.1 Substitute and complete the sentence :
4.1.1 Pg vl Pg
D ______________________
4.1.2 Avg qg lg.

'I climbed'

______________________

140/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

4.1.3 C f P El
C _____________________
4.1.4 m MUzPAq
Cg _____________________
4.1.5 C v UAmU Vz
_____________________
4.1.6 jPU Pnz
_____________________
4.1.7 P Prv
PU _____________________
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5

Transform the following sentences into past tense


U Cvz
Cg egV ivqvg.
gd U Pv.
C Hg qv.
z Ai vA i Uvz.

4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.3.8

Transform into negative


Av
Cg V azg.
PAU AvAi zszs Pnzg.
C lP rz.
g Z PAqPAq.
U vAz t Plg.
C P.
g vA d gdg Dzg.

Lesson 15/141

4.4 Translate into Kannada


4.4.1 How much advance did you pay for that house ?
4.4.2 I bought two shirts in Bangalore
4.4.3 What places did you see in Karnataka ?
4.4.4 We played volleyball till 6 o' clock.
4.4.5 She narrated a story.
4.5
4.5.1

Answer the following questions


Aii i rj ?

4.5.2

PlPz Aii rj ?

4.5.3

zszs Aiig Pnzg ?

5. Vocabulary
d

5.1

'land'

'to be available'

vq

'to wander'

'lakh'

Supplementary Vocabulary
Dvv

'suicide'

Eq

'to keep'

Gq

'to put on clothes' - like


saree, dhoti

Gt

'to eat meals'

LAi

'wealth'

142/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Pn

'to build'

o - 16

Pv

'donkey'

1. Dialogue

'thief'

QlQ

'window'

Pq

'to be spoiled'

UAqU

'hoodlums'

vq

'to put on clothes'

'charity'

'to plant'

vPvg

'journalists'

'presentation'

'fence'

gV z

'ragi balls'

Pg

'government'

'company'

vAv

'independence'

'to burn'

Ai Ut

'solar eclipse'

'snake'

'wound'

'stomach'

e : U
UAmU Kj ?

J At what time do you get up in the


morning ?

: Dg UAmU K.

I get up at six o'clock.

e : Jz K irj ?

After getting up, what do you do?

: Jz QAU
V. QAU
V Az
GfP.
Gf PAq P
Prw.

I go for a walk. After the walk, I


brush my teeth and I drink coffee.

e : GfPz P Don't you drink coffee without


brushing your teeth ?
PrAi?
: E, U Cs
E. P Prz
g M.
g N
ir.

No, I have no such habits. After


drinking coffee I read the news
paper. After reading the news
paper, I have my bath.

e : vtj irg
j
irg?

Do you take bath in cold water or


in hot water ?

: j ir. I take bath in hot water .

Lesson 16/145

144/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

D Hl
Afterwards I eat my meal and I
irPAq DU go to office.
gqw.
e : wAr wz?

Without eating breakfast ?

Yes I don't go home in the after


: z, zs
U U. wAr noon. I carry tiffin with me.
vUAq V.

e : DU U
Vj?

How do you go to office ?

By bus. Sometimes it is a
: rz
problem getting a bus. In that
V. P
Uz vAzg case I go by auto.
DUv. DU Dmz
V .

e : Ae U Az
K irj?

What do you do in the evening


after coming home ?

: P Prz vg
ev gm
rw. gm
qz l JAl
UAm vP Kz
N. N Hl
ir V.

I drink coffee and chat with my


friends. When I have finished
chatting, I read something or
other till eight o'clock. After
reading I have meal and go to
bed.

2. Pattern drill :

2.1 wAr wAz P


Prw.

After tiffin, I drink coffee.

vAz AUjU
Az zU Ug.

My father will come to


Bangalore and then goes to
Delhi.

Az v.

When rained and the crops grew.

U AZAz PU z The child fell from the cot and


broke its teeth.
jzPArv.
Cg Pq Pv ZV
ivqvg.

Having learnt kannada, they


speak it well.

sgv QPn v v
vVv.

India lost in cricket and bowed


down its head.

g P P
CzsPjAz PAq.

Ravish laughed in the class and


got a scolding from the teacher.

Jv vlP P
Vq vAv.

A bullock broke into the garden


and ate the plantain tree.

C P r Pl
qz.

He paid interest on the loan and


became poor.

C Vq l l g
Qz.

She planted the plant and


watered it.

irPAq
zg e irz.

I took bath and worshipped


God.

Lesson 16/147

146/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

C g PAq
PAq Az.
2.2 Cg nU V i
r Azg.

She bought a new saree (and


came)

nPm vUzPz
lP q.

We didn't see the play without


buying the tickets.

They went to city and saw a


film (and came)

qPg t vUzPz
Ozs Pq.

The doctor will not give


medicne without taking money.

AQU t Pn
Az.

We paid the money at the


bank and came.

Ugm
PAii ?

Do you cough when you


smoke cigarettes ?

EAg UA st P
d Pg.

People laughed listening to


India Gandhi's speech.

C v UAmU V
gq UAmU Jz.

She slept at ten o'clock and


got up at twelve o'clock.

They went to Bangalore and


2.3 Cg AUjU V
zszs qz Azg. came back without seeing
Vidhana Soudha.
zg CjU MAiz
iqz Eg.

May God do them no good.

o Nzz Gvg
gzAii ?

Did you write the answer


without reading the lesson?

C qVAi
qz zU
MPAq.

He agreed to get marry


without seeing the girl.

2.4 P PrAiz
DU gq.

I did not leave for the office


without drinking coffee.

3. Key to learners
3.1 The past participle / verbal participle form is intro
duced in the lesson. The function of the past
participle is to show the completion of one action
and an anticipation of another one.
naanu avanannu nooDi bengaLuurige hoode.
`having seen him, i went to Bangalore.'
-u and -i are two past participle markers in
Kannada.
-u is added to the verbs which take -d-;-t-;-k-;-D-;
and -T- as past tense markers. (ref. lessons 14 & 15)
The structure is,
verb root + past tense + verbal partilciple market
tinnu + d + u = tindu.
rameeSa kalleejige bandu sinimaakke hooda.
Ramesh came to college and went to a film.
IvaLu kannaDa kalitu haaDu haaDtaaLe
She learns Kannada and sings a song.
naanu laLemane biTTu hosa manege bande.
I left the old house and came to a new house.
avanu daariyalli sikku maattaDisida.
He met me on the way and talked to me.

Lesson 16/149

148/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

ondu pustaka konDu bande.


I bought a book (and came)
-i- is added to the verbs which take -id- as past
tense. But here -i- is added straightaway to the verb
root. Thus the structure is,
verb root + verbal participle
maaDu + i = maaDi
naanu + peeper oodi snaana maaDide.
I read newspaper and took a bath.
avanannu nambi naanu haaLaade.
I believed him and got spoiled.
magu nidde maaDi edditu
The child slept and got up.
avanu uurige hoogi ivattu banda.
He went to his hometown and came today.
`hoogu' and `aagu' through they take -d- as past
tense, they take -i as past participle. Thease two are
exeptions.
3.2 The verbal participle negation is -ade. It will be
added to the verb root.
naanu simimaa nooDade bande.
I came without seeing a movie.
avanu nanna maatu keeLade hooda.
He went without listening to my words.
avaLu bas caarj koDade prayaaNa maaDidaLu.
She travelled without paying the bus fare.
If the double negation is used, the positive meaning
will be obtained.

Siita hallu ujjade kaafi kudiyalla.


Sita don't drink coffee without brushing her teeth.
nannu kaagada bareyade uurige hoogalilla.
I didn't go to my hometown without writing a
letter.
3.3 The verbal participle of the verb biDu is used some
times with the past participle of the other verbs.
This is used either for emphasis or with on specifi
cation.
avanu tinDi biTTu banda.
naanu siTige hoogi biTTu baralilla.
4. Exercise
4.1 Fill in the blanks using the verbal participle forms of the
verbs given in the brackets.
4.1.1 C wAr _________, P _________(w, Pr)
4.1.2 Cg Ev HjAz _______ gg. (gq)
4.1.3 D qU ____________z..(q)
4.1.4 Cg Pq _________________ ivrzg. (P)
4.1.5 C D P __________________ Cv. (Nz)
4.1.6 dv P ZuAi ______ CPgP Av. (U)
4.1.7 g gt__________eU z. (P)
4.1.8 C C _______________Pl. (A)
4.2 Combine the following sentences using the verbal participle
marker.
4.2.1 qUg zq Plg.
qUg P rzg.

Lesson 16/151

150/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

4.2.2 AwU jU Azg.


Cg st irzg.
4.2.3 C qv Ez.
C PfU z.
4.2.4 P iq Ez.
JA. J. Nz.
4.2.5 Ugm .
Av r.
4.3 Split the following sentences into smaller sentences.
4.3.1 Az AvU Av PU P zU

v.
4.3.2 UAz Jz Gf P Prz g
Nzg.
4.3.3 D i r v Az qPg wg
V O vUAq Prz.
4.4 Transform the following sentences into reflexive
4.4.1 C U Ge.

4.4.2 Cg Ae PP R vvg.
4.4.3 C v Z.

4.5.3 g nPm Q Aiit irz.


4.5.4 C v aPAq Az.
4.5.5 Jg C A Plg.
4.5.6 CU zAiiV Z rv.
4.5.7 C ZV N z.
4.6 Change the follow sentences into double negation.
4.6.1 Cg A vUzPAq U zg.
4.6.2 C Hlir z irz.
4.6.3 P Dl Dr g Przg.
4.6.4 U Pav.
4.7 Translate into Kannada.
4.7.1 He cooks his own food.
4.7.2 There is no drinking water without rains.
4.7.3 I got headache by seeing that movie.
4.7.4 I bought a book paying hundred rupees.
4.7.5 He is staying in that house without paying rent.
4.8 Answer th following questions.
4.8.1 iqz DU Vg?

4.4.4 g m MVv.

4.8.2 vi wP Nzz Ejg?

4.4.5 P o jv.

4.8.3 Ae QAU Vg?

4.5 Transform into negative sentences using negative verbal


participle
4.5.1 i r Az.

4.5.2 PUz gz MAz wAUv.

4.8.4 q irg?
4.8.5 CrU irPg? m

MUzPg ?

Lesson 16/153

152/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

5. Vocabulary

`worship'

Cs

`practice/habit'

`interest'

`sometime'

`crop' (n)

vtg

`cold water'

`hot water'

Vq

`plantain tree'

iq

`to take bath'

`to bark'

gm r

`to chat'

st

`Speech'

`teeth'

`rain'

Gd

`to brush the teeth'

AZ

`cot'

`face'

`bullock' (n)

`loan'

`to lift' (v)

t Pl

`to pay money'

Ozs

`medicine'

`madness'

PZ

`to bite'

`leg'

`to cough'

`hand'

Vq

`plant'

`head'

vvV

`to bow down one's head

zq

`money'

zg

`god'

5.1 Supplementary Vocabulary

Jv

`to grow' (v)

Lesson 16/155

154/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

o - 17
1. Dialogue:

P : gdRg FU J
P iq Ez ?

Where is Rajashekara work


ing at present ?

gAU : FU etAi
P iq Ez.

Now he is working in
prajavani.

P : C K P iq
Ez?

What is he doing there?

gAU : jlg DV P
iq Ez.

He is working as a reporter.

P : J? AUj
iq Ez?

Where? Is he working in
Bangalore

gAU : E. AUj
iq E.
Ai iq Ez.

No. He is not working in


Bangalore. He is working at
Hubli.

P : z J P
iq Ez?
gAU : j P
iq Ez.

gAU : Pf iq
Eg. Aiiz
m PAAi
iq Ez.

P : DU C Px, P Was he writing stories and


jv Ez ?
poems even at that time?
gAU : z. jv Ez.

Yes. He used to write.

P : C v M
EAfAijAU Nz
Ez?

Was one of his younger


brothers studying
Engineering?

gAU : z. Nz Ez.

Where was he working


earlier?
He was working in Mysore.

P : C Aiizzg
Was he working there in some
Pf P iq college ?
Ez ?

He was not working in a


college. He was working in
some private company.

P : FU E Ez?

Yes. He was studying


Where is he now ?

gAU : FU AUj
Z.JA.n.Ai P
iq Ez.

He is now working in H.M.T


in Bangalore.

P : gdRg FU
vAPx, P
jv Eg?

Does Rajashekara still write


stories and poetry.?

gAU : vA jv Eg.
DUU jv Eg.

He dosn't write much. He.


writes now and then.

P : qzP g
Eg?

Does he come to see you ?

gAU : z vA g
Ez. FU MAzAz
j g Eg.

He used to come frequently


earlier. Now he comes
once in a while.

Lesson 17/157

156/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

1. Pattern drill

2.1 g MqAig A
zg Dv Ezg.
j Az
g JA gP
iq Ez.
Av CzvV l
iq Ez.
wlj
Nz Ez.
grAiz an
u g Ev.
z E P
iq Ej?
jAz AiiU v
Ez.
2.2 P Dl Dq Ezg.
PzAj Nz Ez.
gU AiP jAiiV
Nq E.
C v Pr
Ez.
nAi Pg Pq
Ezg.

The wodeyar dynasty used to


rule Mysore.
A demon by name
Mahishasura lived in
Mysore long ago.
Shantala used to dance
splendidly.
I used to study in high school
in Tiptur.
Chittubabu's veena performance was broadcast over
the radio yesterday.
Where were you working
earlier?

AwU st iq
Ezg.

The Minister is making


speeches.

2.3 C D mU He comes daily to that hotel.


g Eg.
w Ae Lz Shamala would be singing
UAmU q q Eg. daily at five o' clock in the
evening.
D qUg vA Um Those boys will be making a
lot of noise.
iq Egg.
Cg AiiU
Eg Aii
Egg.

He always will be blaming


some one.

2.4 g AUj P
iq Eg.

Ravi was not working in


Mangalore.

Harischandra was telling


truth always.

CP g gdg U Ashoka didn't fight battles like


other kings.
Aiz iq Eg.

Children are playing.

g IUU
vAzg Pq Eg.

Mahishasura didn't disturb the


sages.

Cg m P
PrAiv Eg.

They didn't drink coffee in the


hotel

g z iq E.

Ravi is not sleeping.

She is disturbing my penance.

C AUjU
U E.

He is not going to Bangalore


tomorrow.

Sugar is being given at


consumers' society.

Cg U A Pq They are not paying me the


salary.
E.

Sheela is reading a novel.


Trains are runningng in time.

Lesson 17/159

158/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

EU Z U g
E.

Enough buses are not


coming here.

2.6 D P U
g Eg.

That cat will not be coming


daily to our house.

Cg PU U
Eg.

They are not going daily to


the club.

C V v Nz
Eg.

She will not be reading in the


morning.

ge U Z
g Eg.

Rajesh will not be coming


frequently to our house.

3. key to learners
3.1 The continuous forms are introduced. Continuous
forms are obtained by adding - taa (uttaa) to the
verb.
maaDu + taa (uttaa) = maaDtaa (maaDuttaa)
tinnu + taa (uttaa) = tintaa (tinnutta)
These continuous forms are followed by the finite
form of auxillary verb iru.
3.2 The definite form of iru. Will be added to continuous
verbs to obtain present continuous.
maaDtaa idiini
'I am doing'.
tintaa idaaLe

`She is eating'.

3.3 The past tense of iru is added to continuous verbs to


obtain past continuous.

maaDtaa idda.
tintaa idda.

`he was doing'


`he was eating'.

3.4 By adding habitual form of verb - iru to the


continuous verbs, habitual continuous form is
obtained.
maaDtaa irtiini
`I will be doing'
tintaa irtiini.
`I will be eating'
3.5 The corresponding negative forms are obtained by
adding illa, iralilla and iralla respectively to the
continuous verbs.
maadtaa illa.
`not doing'
tintaa illa.
`not eating'
madtaa iralilla.
`was not doing'
tintaa iralilla
`was not eating'
maaDtaa irall.
`will not be doing'
tintaa iralla.
`will not be eating'
4. Exercise
4.1 Fill in the blanks using the appropriate continuous
forms of the verbs given in the bracket
4.1.1 v U Az vPj_____(Nz)
4.1.2 C FU AUj P____________(iq)
4.1.3 vAz FU z_________________(iq)
4.1.4 Cg U ___________(g)
4.1.5 aPzgd g___________(D)
4.1.6 C Ae q_______________(q)
4.1.7 g eUU vAzg____________(Pq)

Lesson 17/161

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4.1.8 FU P_______________________(Nz)
4.1.9 Cg wAr_____________________(w)
4.1.10 C C qzP___________(g)
4.2 Transform the following sentences into present continuous
forms
4.2.1 P gAi Dl Dq Ez.
4.2.2 Px D wPAi g Ev.
4.2.3 qUg vgUwAi U Ezg.
4.2.4 gPg IUU vAzg Pq Ezg.
4.2.5 gAs HAig IU v Pr Ezg.
4.3 Transform the following sentences into present continuous
4.3.1 D AUg dU Dq Ezg.

4.5 Transform the following sentences into their negative forms


4.5.1 AUj P iq Ez.
4.5.2 Cg z iq Ezg.
4.5.3 Cg z rU Ai iq Ezg.
4.5.4 U DUU m g Egv.
4.5.5 UAq ev dU Dq Ez.
4.6 Answer the following questions
4.6.1 MAz z Az J P iq Ej? FU
J P iq Ej?
4.6.2 Pd J Nz Ej?
4.6.3 DU / PfU U U Ejj?

4.3.2 PlPz qVAig Pgm PAiv Ezg.

4.6.4 U EU gzP AZ Pq g Eg?

4.3.3 qg Az Aii Ezg.

4.6.5 zU DUU U Ejg?

4.3.4 E vgPj Pr U U Ez.


4.3.5 C CAUrAz i vg Ez.
4.4 Transform the following sentences into habitual continuous
4.4.1 C EU g.
4.4.2 U C Ez.
4.4.3 gvg Z iq Ezg.
4.4.4 E g Ez.
4.4.5 E U vA Nqq E.

5. Vocabulary

DUU
MAzAz j
P iq

`now and then'


`once in a while'
`to work'

5.1 Sulpplementary Vocabulary

CzvV

`splendidly'

`sage'

Pr

`to spoil'

`penance'

162/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

liq

`to dance'

`cat'

Aiz

`battle'

gP

`demon'

`dynasty'

Pg

`sugar'

`truth'

o - 18
1. Dialogue:

w : Aiig ivqz? Hello, Who is speaking?

gd : , gd ivq
z.
w : K iZg?
gd : zgAz Ct
Az.
w : AiiU Az?
gd : DU Vz.
U gzgU
Az.
w : Ai Ez?
gd : E, gU Vz.
w : CwU Azg?

It is me, Raju, speaking.


What is the matter?
My elder brother has
come from Madras.
When did he come?
I had been to office. He
had come before I
returned.
Is he at home ?
No. He has gone out.
Has your sister-in-law
also come ?

No. she hasn't come Two


gd : E CwU A.
of
his friend have come
evAi Eg vg
with him.
Azg.

w : Kzg Pz
Az?
gd : z.

Has he come on any


business?
Yes.

Lesson 18/165

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w : Ev Ae Ai
P?

Will he be avilable at
home this evening?

gd : E Ae nU Vg. No. He would have gone


U J Vg, to the city in the evening.
He won't go anywhere
.
tomorrow morning.
please come.
w : J Eg?

For how many days will


he be here ?

gd : MAz g Eg. s He will be here for one


g q, jU week. They will go to
Halebid and Belur on
Ug.
Sunday.
w : AiiP? C r?
gd : C r. MAz
z Az Aig
Vz. C iv
g. FU C
vg Azg. Cg
qPAv.

w : U j CAv
CU .

Why ? Hasn't he seen


them?
No, he hasn't, All of us
had been there a year ago.
He alone hadn't come. He
had stayed at home. Now
his seems they have to
see those places.

Tell him that I would


come tomorrow morning

2. Pattern Drill

2.1 g, U s Az. Sir, there is a phone call for you.


qPg qP gVU Patients have come to see the
doctor.
Azg.
v vgPj vgP nU Sita has gone to city to bring
vegetables.
Vz.
U u AVz.

The child has swallowed a


four annas coin.

Cg Pnzg.

He has built a new house.

Pg
PAqPAr.

I have bought a new car.

D qU MAi Azs
gz.

That boy has written a good


essay.

v vAz MU Vzg.

My father is sleeping inside.

vU P
QzAii?

Has you younger brother got


a job ?

22. Pz zU I went to Delhi last year.


Vz.
Cg ZAr lP They went to Chamundi hills
day before yesterday.
Vzg.
v z Az We saw the film `Naandi' ten
years ago.
`A' i rz.
g U PUz gz.

Ramesh wrote me a letter

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PlPz
Vg?
gd AAz
lg vAz?

Did you go on a tour of


Karnataka?
U Did Raju bring you a sweater
from Bombay?

g UAf Gandhijis photo had


appeared in the paper
sm Av.
yesterday.
2.3 Cg AiAP E They would have come by this
time tommorrow evening.
wU Agg.
g RArv gU Suresh would have certianly
g g Png.
paid hundred rupees to
Ramesh
JAl UAmU Will you reach Madras
tommorrow by eight o' clock.
z vjg?
gd jPU J oU Raju would have read all the
lessons for the examination.
Ng.
2.4 U Aiiz
A.

PUz No letter has come for you.

C g q z P No body has come to see him.


Aiig A.
v nU V.
Dl DqP Vz.

My brother has not gone to


city. He has gone to play.

AQg U E
Pn.

The bank has not yet given me


a loan.

2.5 ZAr
lP Vg.

We had not been to


Chamundi hills day before
yesterday.

D E wg.

That dog hadn't died yet.

zsgqz AzAig
Qg.

We couldn't meet Bendre in


Dharwar.

C CPjUU AZ
Png.

He had not bribed the


officers.

2.6 g E U U
Ag.

Ramesh would'nt have come


hometown by tenth.

Cg v vjR
HjU vg.

He wouldn't have reached


his hometown by tenth.

zsgAiAx
g.

A person like Dharmaraya


wouldn't have uttered a lie.

PAx
irg.

A person like krishna


wouldn't have cheated.

F zz vA d
qg Hl irg.

Most of the poor people


would not have taken food in
this contry.

3. Key to learners :
Present, past and future perfect forms and their
corresponding negative forms are introduced. The
stucture is, past participle form of the verb plus
present, past and future tense form of the verb iru.

Lesson 18/169

168/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

3.1 present perfect


bandu + idaare = bandidaare 'they have come'
nooDi +idaane = nooDidaane 'they have seen'
3.2 past perfect
bandu + idda = bandidda 'he had come
nooDi + idda = nooDidda ' he had seen'
3.3 Future perfect
bandu + irtaane = bandirtaane 'he would have
come'
nooDi + irtaane = noodirtaane 'he would have
seen'
3.4 The corresponding negation is obtained by adding the
negative from of the verb iru in present, past and future
tense to the past participle form of the verb.
bandu + illa = bandilla (one) 'hasn't come'
nooDi + illa = nooDilla (one) 'hasn't seen'
bandu + iralilla = bandiralilla (one) 'handn't come'
nooDi + iralilla = nooDiralilla (one) 'handn't seen'
bandu + iralla = bandiralla (one) 'would not have
come'
nooDi + iralla = nooDiralla (one) 'would not have
seen'

4. Exercise :
4.1 Fill in the blanks using the perfect forms of the verbs given
in the bracket.
4.1.1 EAgUA z g jU________(g)

4.1.2 gw U MAz P ____________()


4.1.3 AUjU____________________(U)
4.1.4 Cg Ae Lz UAmU U ____________(g)
4.1.5 v Ae zjAi ____________(P)
4.2 Transform in following sentences into past perfect tense.
4.2.1 g, U s Az.
4.2.2 C M Px gz.
4.2.3 Cg ZAr lP Vzg.
4.2.4 AUg PgU sAz DZjvg.
4.2.5 C MAz Z PArz.
4.3 Transform into present perfect.
4.3.1 AwU U gg.
4.3.2 Ev jP svA gvz.
4.3.3 C D i qv.
4.3.4 Aii Px Nj?
4.3.5 Cg PUz gAivg.
4.4 Transform-into future perfect
4.4.1 g Ae Lz UAmU gv.
4.4.2 Cg Hl iqv.
4.4.3 AUj gv.
4.5 Transform into negative
4.5.1 zU a zz AivAU Az.

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4.5.2 Pv r z Pnz.
4.5.3 Cg Pj Azg.
4.5.4 Cg gePig q P Vzg.
4.5.5 Uge U Ag.
4.5.6 Cg PlP Vzg.
4.5.7 eg rz.
4.5.8 g Ai Vg.
4.6 Transform into Kannada.
4.6.1 Did you meet Ramesh in Dharawar?
4.6.2 Teachers from various states have come to learn
Kannada.
4.6.3 Boys have gone to see the cricket match.
4.6.4 he had gone on office duty.
4.6.5 He would have come home by this time.
4.7 Answer the following questions.
4.7.1 vAz v HjAz Azg?
4.7.2 z zgU Vg?
4.7.3 eU dv rg ?
4.7.4 Aiizzg Pq P Ng?

5. Vocabulary
CwU

`sister - in - law'

GzP `to stay'


5.1 Supplementary Vocabulary

CPj

`officer'

`four annas'

AU

`to swallow'

Azs

`essay'

`tour'

`cheating'

gV

`patient'

AZ

`bribe'

`loan'

`lie'

Lesson 19/173

o - 19
1. Narration

q, g
P
lPz
z
PAzU. C Aig Pnz
dUvz zU. F
Jgq U FV
f A i . A U jAz
rU ig 250
Qlg DUvz.
rAz jU 15
Qlg.
rg zz
g Aig z.
j g z z
g ZP zAi.
g z Pnz
gd g Ai
zs. E gdsg
iqv Ez Pz PlP
PAi t AiU
PArv. E Aqw Av
`lgt' JA gz q
z


.
E lPU z PtP
Cg. q z
Pnz Pv. C
zs zAqAiP DVz.

Halebid and Belur are


famous architectural centres
of Karnataka. The world
famous tempels built by
Hoysalas, are there. These
places are in the present
Hassan district. Halebid is
about 250 kms. from
Bangalore. It is only 15 kms.
from Halebid to Belur.
The name of the temple at
Helebid is Hoysaleswara
temple. The name of the temple
at Belur is Channakesava
temple. The name of the king
who built Belur temple is,
Hoysala Vishnuvardhana. At
the time when he was ruling,
Karnataka saw the golden age
in architecture. His wife
Shantala had a title - `Queen
of Dance'. Her contribution to
the art or dance is remarkable.
The man who built Halebid
temple was Ketamalla. He
was Commander-in-chief of
Vishnuvardhana.

Az rU Ez g
zgz CAv. Aig
gdzsAiiVz zgz
CAv.
Aig
gdzsAiiVz
zg


z
U
g DP
tAz
v. z HjU
q CAv g Av.
`g' JAz gtU

zz z
FU g
JAzVz.

The earlier name of


Halebid was Dwarasamudra,
which was the capital of
Hoysalas and ruined by the
Mogal invasion. The town got
the name Halebid (old
township). The place which
was famous as 'Velapura' in
mythology is now called
Belur.

DUU z iq Ez
U

jAz dg
Er z
gAz a gQzg. U
Gz zU EAz
PAi gAiv Aw.

The people protected the


temples from the frequent
invasions of Moghals by
covering them with sand. The
temples thus saved stand
proclaiming their artistry
even today.

F zU z
U g dPt v qAPt
CAv d vg. Dzg
zz Plqz v
JA g Ez.

People say that the architects who built these temples


are Jakkana and Danakana.
But there is another name
`Mallitamma' on the building.

F zU AzAi
rAi C s P .
U irg Pj P
CzvVz. C Pz
Pj P iqzP z
P GAi
Vzg. z
z

gUqAig giAit

One can know the beauty


of these temples only by
seeing them. The subtle
carvings of the sculptors are
marvellous. To achieve such a
delicacy in carving they have
used soapstone. The scenes
from the Ramayana and the

Lesson 19/175

174/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

sgvz zU, Av
l iq Ez vPgz
P, zs sAVAi l
iq Eg PAig,
AiV Pwz E
U U rz PtP.

Mahabharata on the walls of


the temple, the round stone on
which Shantala used to dance,
the Shilaballikas in various
dancing postures, finely
carved bull, all these are gifts
of sculptors.

F zU PlP
Ai Pnzg. Ez zq
U Gvgz Ug Ai
AU. PvPgz dUAi
Cw Jvg Cz Cw
aPz Cz z Ez.

These temples are built in


the Karnataka style. The
Karnataka style is combination
of the Dravida and the
northern nagara style. On a
star shaped plat from there is a
temple which is neither too
large nor too small.

F Jgq zU
CzQAv Ez, EzQAv Cz
C U E. CU
r DAP. Aiiz
JAz tzP
U g z . C U
qz Q vz.
F zU q
CU gg gg
d. PlPz F z
U qzg Cg.
M AzjU v gP
JAvUvz. MAz j
rz j U v v

It is not possible to say that


this temple is greater than that
or that is a superior to this. one
should see them to enjoy
them. one shouldn't try to
decide which is superior on
who hasn't see them is an
unfortunate man indeed.
The number of people
who come there daily to see
these temples are in hundreds.
In Karnataka the people who
haven't seen these temples are
rere indeed. Those who come
once feel like coming again. It

rzg gU.
AUjAz gjU FU
a PAi Ez. FU
CU gg AS e
EgzjAz UjU J
CP PVz.

is not boring to see these again


and again. Now there is good
bus service for those who
come from Bangalore. As the
number of visitors has
increased now all facilities
have been provided.

2. Pattern drill

21. q U
Eg U q,
g.

The places that we are going


to see are Halebid and
Belur.

Cg vj Eg g
et.

The newspaper that they are


getting is prajavani.

C Nz Eg P
g tU.

The book that she is reading


is `Maralimannige'

22. jg zz The name of the temple


g ZP zAi. which is at Belur is Channakeshava temple.
Ev q The movie that we are going
to see today is `Chomana
i Z zr.
Dudi'
Cg P jAi.
2.3

rz

The question that he asks is


not correct.

i Which is the film that you

Lesson 19/177

176/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Aiiz?

saw?

irz o N.

Read the lesson which was


done yesterday.

Cg Pl
irz.?

K What did you do with the


money which he paid ?

2.4 Ez Av l iq This is the place where


Shantala used to dance.
Ez eU.
C P iq Ez The college where she was
Pd gd Pd. working is Maharaja's
College

l g g A i z There is no literary form in


which puttappa has not
v Pg E.
written.
2.7 Cg A i Who is the one among you
who has not seen the palace ?
qzg Aiig ?
Ev A P gAi Who are those who have not
written home-work today?
zg Aiig?
l g Who are the ones who are not
going for tour tomorrow?
Uzg Aiig?

iq Ez The place where we were


living was Tiptur.
Hg wlg.

2.8 D Pq There are ten person in our


office who do not know
gzg v d Ezg.
Kannada.

2.5 Aig gdzsAiiVz Dwarasamudra, which was


zgz v.
the capital of Hoysalas, was
ruined.
U Az qV Who was the girl who had
come to your home ?
Aiig ?

Ai Nzz The only one who has not


studied in our hose is my
vAV M.
younger sister.

Pz t J?
2.6 Dq lz .
CU Uwz Ai.
C qz i E.

What was the amount that


you sent?
There is no plant which a
goat doesn't touch.
There is nothing which he
doesn't know.
There are no films which she
doesn't see.

AwAqz Pq There are two in our cabinet


gAiP gzg Eg who do not know to write
Kannada
Ezg.
2.9 Cz iqz P It is not something which
you have never done.
C.
It is not something which he
Ez C Pz Ai
hasn't heard before.
C.

2.10Cz PP gz .

It is a pen that is of no use.

Lesson 19/179

178/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Cz P
.

AiUz It is a house which is unfit


for living.

Pq ivqg Don't give up the company of


qr.
those who speak Kannada.

Cg CzP AdjAiz He is not a person who would


flinch at all that.
Q.

P Ur We have awoman in our


hostel to sweep.
Ez.

2.11 z gv E K He won't do anything unless


he is told.
iq.

2.14 Pq PAiv How many among you are


Egg E d?
learning Kannada?

PgAiz gv C Unless you call him he won't


come.
g.

Ai AVv One who is learning music in


PAiv Eg P. our family is Kamala.

Nzz gv jP Unless you read you won't get


through in the examination.
Ai U.

egV Nzv Eg One who is reading loudly is


my son.
U.

2.12m MUAi CU.

One who washes clothes is a


was her man.

o iq CzsP. One who teaches is a teacher.


gU iq qV. One who does wood work is a
carpenter.
Z Ai One who makes chappals is a
cobbler.
Zig.
m Ai zf.
qP iq
PAg.
z gAi P.

2.13 qAi Jqv.

One who makes clothes is a


tails
One who makes post is a
potter.

2.15U rU Plg Who rented you the house ?


Aiig.
U v gz D
qU.

One who wrote me a letter is


that boy.

Ae AVv rz One who sang yesterday


evening is my younger sister.
vAV.
2.16 iwU U Ez One who used to laugh at me
gim.
was my room mate.
U NzP t Pq One who was paying for our
Ezg aP.
studies was my uncle.
3. Key to learners :

One who writes poetry is a


poet.
One who walks trips.

Relative participle constructions, negative relative


participle constractions, participle nuns and negative
participle nouns are introduced in this lesson.

Lesson 19/181

180/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

3.1 Relative participle constructions :


-a is the relative participle maker in Kannada. The
structure of the relative participle in Kannada changes
according to tense.
3.1.1 Non-past-relative participle
The structure is,
hoogu + a = hooguva.
bare + a = bareyuva.
kuDi + a = kuDiyuva.
avanu hooguva sthaLa kemmaNNuguNDi.
the place to which he goes is Kemmannugundi.
avaLu bareyuva kathe saNNadu.
the story the she writes is a short one.
avaru kuDiyuva kaafi bru kaafi.
Coffee they drink is bru coffee.
Note the addition of - v-and-uva-when-u-and-i, -e, ending
verbs added to R.P

naavu tinda jaamuunu cennaagittu.


the jamun that we are eat was good.
naanu hayskuulinalli kalita ingliish maretu
hooytu.
I forgot the English which I learnt in High
School.
niinu koTTa haNa kharchaaytu.
he money which you paid was spent.
anannannu nooDi nakka huDuga ivane.
He is the boy who laughed at me.
niivu hoosadaagi konDa kaaru heegide?
How is the car which you newly bought?
naavu nooDida sinnimaa cennaagide.
The film which we saw is good.
3.1.3 Perfect Tense :
3.1.3.1 Present perfect :
The structure is,
Verbal participle stem + iru + R.P.

3.1.2 Past :
The structure is,
Past tense stem + R. P.
tind
+ a = tinda
kalit
+ a = kalita
koTT + a = koTTa
nakk
+ a = nakka
koND + a = koNDa
nooDid + a = nooDida.

nooDi + iru + a = nooDiruva.


bandu + iru + a = bandiruva.
nimma magaLige nooDiruva huDuganige eenu
kelasa?
What is the occupation of the boy whom you
have seen (for marriage alliance) for your
daughter?
assaamininda bandiruva I.A.S. adhikaari ivaree.
He is the I.A.S. officer who has come form Assam.

182/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

3.1.3.2 Past perfect :


The structure is,
Verbal participle stem + id + R.P.
koTTu + id + a = koTTidda.
bandu + id + a = bandidda.
naanu ninage koTTidda pennu elli?
Where is the pen which I had given you?
rushyashrunga maysuurige bandidda varsha maLe
cennaage bandittu.
The year in which Rishyashringa had come to Mysore,
it rained well.
3.1.4
Continuous Tense:
3.1.4.1 Present continuous :
The structure is,
Continuous stem + iru + R.P.
maaDutta + iru + a = maadutta iruva.
oodutta + iru + a = oodutta iruva
alli kelsa maaDutta iruva huDuga nanna tamma.
The boy who is working there is my younger
brother.
avanu oodutta iruva pustaka samskaara.
The book that he is reading is Samskara.
3.1.4.2 Past continuous :
The structure is,
Continuos stem + id + R.P.
hoogutta + id + a = hoogutta idda.
bareyutta + id + a = bareyutta idda.

Lesson 19/183

naanu hoogutta idda bas nadige bittu.


The bus in which I was going fell ingo a river.
avaru bareyuttaa idda Kaadambari mugidilla.
The novel he was writing has not yet been
completed.
Note that the R.P. construction is always followed by a
noun. This is otherwise called as adjectival Participle.
R.P. is always used as subordinate class which is
follwed by a finite main clause.
3.2 Nagative R. P.
-add is the negative R. P. maker. By adding -add to the
verb root, negative R.P. is obtained. This negation
applies to all tenses except for perfect tenses.
nooDu + ada = nooDada.
naanu nooDada sinima adonde.
That is the only movie which I have not seen.
Whereas, the structure for past perfect tense is, negative
verbal participle stem + iru + R.P.
maaDade + id + a = maaDade idda.
heeLade + id + a = heeLade idda.
avanu maaDade idda kelasa naanu maaDide.
I did the work which he didn't do.
Kaangres heeLade idda satyaana Kamyuunis Taru
heelidaru
Communists said the truth, which the Congress
hadn't said.
The structure of present perfect is,

Lesson 19/185

184/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

negative verbal participle stem + iru + R.P.


nooDade + iru + a = nooDade iruva.
koDade + iru + a = koDade iruva.
adhyaapakaru nooDade iruva pustakaana
vidyaarthigaLu nooDabaaradu.
Students shouldn't see the books which the teachers
haven't seen.
avaru koDade iruva pustakaana nanu nimage heege
koDali?
How can I lend you a book which he hasn't lent
you?
3.3 Participle nouns :
participle nouns are obtained by adding third person
human pronouns to the R.P. form of the verb. The
participle nouns can be added to all tenses.
3.3.1. Non-past
baruva + avanu = baruvavanu.
taruva + avaLu = taruvavaLu.
koDuva + avaru = koDuvavaru.
ivattu namma manege baruvavanu nanna sneethita.
The one who comes to my house today is my friend.
nanage habbakke SarT taruvavaLu nanna akka.
The one who brings shirt for me for festival is my
elder sister.
samaarambhadalli sarTifikkeT koDuvavavaru
mantrigaLu.

The one who gives the certificates at the function is


minister.
3.3.2 past tense :
gaandhiyannu kondavanu gooDse.
The one who killed Gandhi was Godse.
halavaaru janarannu kondavaLu phuulan deevi.
The one who killed many people is Pholan Devi.
nimage ii pustaka koTTavaru yaaru?
Who is the one who gave you this book?
3.3.3 Perfect tense :
3.3.3.1 Present!
namma maneyalli taajmahal nooDiruvavanu
naanobbane.
I am the only one in my family who has seen
Tajmahal.
ii skuulinalli paasaagiruvavaLu kamala obbaLe.
The only one who has passed in this school is
Kamala.
nimmalli paTTadakallu nooDiruvavaru yaaru?
Who is the one among you who has seen
Pattadakallu?
3.3.3.2 Past :
ii pustaka tandiddavanu raaju.
The one who had brought this book was Raju.
nanage kaagada barediddavaLu sudha.
The one who had written me a letter was Sudha.

Lesson 19/187

186/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

keeraLadinda bandiddavaru elli?


where are those who had come from Kerala?
3.3.4 Continuous tense
3.3.4.1 Present
alli ooDuttaa iruvavanu ranga.
The one who is running there is Ranga.
aa kelasa maaDutta iruvavaLu vanaja.
The one who is doing that work is Vanaja.
alli hooguttaa iruvavaru saynikaru.
Those who are going there are soldiers.
3.3.4.2 Past
ninne ninna jote baruttaa iddavanu yaru?
Who is the one who was coming with you yester
day?
avana jote haaDutta iddavaLu yaaru?
Who is the one who was singing with him?
daariyalli galaaTe maaDuttaa iddavaru
caLavaLigaararu.
Those who were making noise on the road were
agitators.
3.4 The negative participle noun is obtained by adding third
person human pronouns to negative R.P. There is no
tense distinction.
nooDada + avanu = nooDadavanu
+ avaLu = nooDadavaLu
+ avaru = nooDadavaru
nimmalli 'Sankar guru' sinimaa nooDadavaru yaaru?
Who is the one among you who has not seen the movie
Shankar Guru?

4. Exercise
4.1.1 Rewrite as directed.
4.1.1 Cg gg Px ZVz. (into past perfect)
4.1.2 g z Pnz gd zs. (into
past perfect)
4.1.3 C Eg Ai d C. (into past)
4.1.4 DAzs zAz Az zyU Jzg?. (into
past perfect)
4.1.5 q i ZVzAii. (into past)
4.1.6 gUq ivqwgg Aiig. (into non past)
4.1.7 U Az D qU. (into past perfect)
4.1.8 D qVAi qg d. (into past)
4.2 Combine the following sentences
4.2.1 Cg o iqvg.
Cg CzsPg.
4.2.2 E Z Aiv.
E Zig.
4.2.3 C Ptz P iqvg.
C Pig.
4.2.4 C m MUAi.
C CU.
4.2.5 C Pv gAi.
C PAi.
4.2.6 C AQ P iq Ez.

Lesson 19/189

188/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

C Ai Pz Ez.
4.2.7 Cg O Pqg.
Cg zg.
4.3 Transform into double negative
4.3.1 Nz P Ez.
4.3.2 Cg iq P vA Ez.
4.3.3 C AiU CP E.
4.3.4 U Nz qV E.
4.4 Transform into double negative
4.4.1 Dq l Ez.
4.4.2 PlPz Pq ivqg Ezg.
4.4.3 q z qg Ezg.
4.5 Answer the following questions.
4.5.1 q, g Aii fAi?
4.5.2 rAz jU J zg?
4.5.3 q v jg zU g K?
CU Pnzg Aiig?
4.5.4 dg AiijAz U zU gQzg?
4.5.5 zU z U Aiig?
4.5.6 AvU Ez gz K?

4.5.9 z PlzP JAx P zg?


4.5.10 U l Vg PtP K?
4.5.11 z PlP JAzg?
5. Vocabulary

Cs

`experience'

Cg

`rear'

Cg

`plenty'

DPt

`attack'

DA

`to enjoy'

Pl

`to build'

PtP

`gift'

Pj P

`subtle carving'

PAz

`centre'

dUvz

`world famous'

dU

`platfrom'

zAqAiP

`commander in chief'

z iq

`to invade'

`scene'

`temple'

4.5.7 Aiig Pz PlP PAi tAiU


PArv?

vz

`unfortunate person'

Ai

`fine, soft'

4.5.8 q v jU Az Ez g?

PvPg

`star shape'

Lesson 19/191

190/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

lP

`art of dance'

`style'

lgt

`queen of dance'

`to ruin'

`to decide'

5.2 Supplementary vocabulary.

`to possess'

CU

`washerman'

`bull'

Dq

`goat'

z P

`soap stone'

Jq

`to trip over'

gz

`titile'

P Ur

`to sweep'

`boredom'

PAg

`potter'

`sand'

Zig

`cobbler'

`to proclaim'

Pig

`blacksmith'

gdsg iq

`to rule'

zf

`tailor'

`architecture'

`to walk'

zs sAV

`various postures'

qV

`carpenter'

vPg

`ciruclar'

qP

`pot'

AU

`confluence'

Aw Aq

`cabinet'

tAiU

`golden age'

AiU

`fit'

PAi

`facility'

`literary form'

`sculptor'

Adj

`to flinch'

`architecture'

`maidens carved in stone'

`superior'

Lesson 20/193

o - 19

P : m J UAmU Ez?

At what time is there a


train?

1. Dialogue:

P : FU zg AUjU If i go now can I get a bus to


Bangalore ?
Uv?

: Az UAmU Ez.

It is at eleven o' clock.

: vPt Uz Ezg
U?

If you go immediately you


will get it.

P : vA mUv.
U Uz Ezg
v U.

P : vPt Uz Ezg
U?

If I don't go immediately
won't it be available ?

: AUjU zg
Ev jg?

If you go to Bangalore will


you come back today itself?

: E, vPt Uz
Ezg U.

No, If you don't go


immediatly you won't get it.

P : P Dzg j. DUz
Ezg Ae j.

If the work is over I shall


come back. If it is not over. I
shall come tomorrow
evening.

P : A J UAmU At what time is the next


Ez.
bus?
: A gq
UAmU Ez.

The next one is at 12o'


clock.

P : CzP zg mUv. If I go by that, it will be


late.
: vA CeAm P
EzAii?
P : z. v
PAii Eg.
: F Uz Ez
mU V.

Do you have urgent work?


Yes my friend get this bus
you can go by train.
If you don't get this bus you
can go by train.

It will be too late. If I don't


go early me friend won't be
available.

: g Ezg
U
Az If you are coming tomorrow
Ai rg?
will you do me a favour?
P : K ?
: UAz P P.
P : Aiiz?
: giAitzA.
P : J Uv?

What is that?
I want a book.
Which one ?
Ramayana Darshanam.
Where is it available?

: AUg P gU If you go to Bangalore


Book Bereau, it is available
zg Uv.
there.
P : C Qzg vj. Uz

If it is available there I will

Lesson 20/195

194/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Ezg K iq?.
P : Uz Ezg r.

bring it. If it is not avail able


there, what shall I do?
If it is not available don't
bother.

2. Pattern drill
2.1 C Qzg
AzP g.

If he gets a bus he will come to


Brindavan.

zq Plg If you give me money I will go


to a movie.
iP V.
s P If I get through in first class
zg JA. J..U I shall join M.sc.
j.
2.2 gd Azg Pj.

If Raju has come call him.

Pq Pwzg If you have learnt Kannada


speak in it.
Pqz ivr.
o gzg If you have written the lesson
you may go.
Uz.
2.3 A U j U If you are going to Bangalore
tell me.
U zg .
PUz jv If you start writing a letter, it
will be late.
Pvg mUv.
C o iq If he is teaching one gets
sleepy.
Ezg z gv.

2.4
C.

Przg

If the baby is fed it won't cry.

FU lg CAx
P.

If you give up the house you


are in now, you won't get
such an one.

CrU irPAqg
Z RZ g.

If we cook our own food, it


won't be expensive.

2.5 Az PUz Azg


HjU VAii?

If you get a letter from home


will you go to your home
town?

U glg
HjU J UAmU
jj?

If you start in the morning at


what time will you reach
your home town ?

AUjU Azg
J q?

If I come to Bangalore where


can I see you?

2.6
q CAvg.

CAzg

If I say I will die, they will


say don't.

U P U CAzg
KrAi?

If you don't get a job what


will you do?

2.7 CU Uz
Ezg ZVg.

It won't be nice, if I don't go


there.

gz Ezg Cg
g.

If you don't come, they won't


come.

nPm Uz Ezg
iP U.

If we don't get the tickets, we


won't go to the movie.

2.8 U vAzg DUz

If it is not trouble to you

Lesson 20/197

196/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Ez zAil .

please do come.

Ai mUz Ezg If we are not delayed at home,


nU Uz.
we can go to city.
CU P Pz Ezg If he does'nt get a job let him
g iq.
do business.
U Pz Ezg
Dmz Ut.

If we don't get a bus, let us go


by an auto.

2.9 vg U gz If my friends do not come


Ezg nU j. home, I will come to city.
Cg Aqw HjU If his wife does not go to her
Uz Ezg Cg home town, he will come with
us.
evAi gg.
g U U If we do not go to Ramu's
gqzg C EU house early he himself will
come here.
g.
2.10

C K iq
Ez Ezg V
PP .

If he is not doing anythig ask


him to sleep.

g HjU U
Ez Ezg
V.

If Suresh is not going to his


home town I shall go.

3. Key to learners :
The simple conditional construction is introduced in this
lesson. -are is the conditional marker. This conditinal
maker is added to different tenses.

3.1 Non past


The stucture is,
past stem + conditional marker.
nakk + are = nakkare.
Kamala bandare kari. 'If kamala comes call her'.
nanna nooDi nakkare ninna hallu muriitiini.
'If you laugh at me, I shall break your teeth'.
3.2 Continuous
The structure is,
continuous stem + conditional of 'iru'
bartaa + iddare = bartaa iddare.
avanu bartaa iddare kari. 'IF he is coming call him.'
avaLu nagtaa iddare aLu baratte.
'If she is laughing I feel like weeping'.
3.3 Perfect tense
The structure is,
verbal participle stem + conditional of iru.
bandu + iddare = bandiddare.
ninage laaTari bandiddare nanage sviiT koDisu.
'If you have won the lottery get me sweets.'
Note that the conditional constructions is mentioned
above refer to non-past events.
3.4 The simple negative conditional is obtained by adding
iddare to the verbal participle negation.
obdade + iddare = oodade iddare
niinu cennaagi oodade iddare feelaagtiiye.

Lesson 20/199

198/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

If you don't read well you will fai.


avaru barade iddare naanu hoogalla.
'If he doesn't come I won't go.'
3.5 The continuous negative conditional is obtained by
adding illade iddare or irade iddare to the continuous
stem.
avanu oodutta illade iddare / irade iddare barooke
heeLu.
'If he is not studying ask him to come'.

4.2.4 zs Hl ir.
ZV z gv.
4.2.5 Cg zq Pqg.
AUjU V.
4.3 Transform into negative conditional :
4.3.1 Pl P irzg Aiig.
4.3.2 zg Cg gg.
4.3.3 sU D P Nzg MAiz.

4. Exercise
4.1. Fill in the blanks using the conitional form of the verbs
given in the bracket.
4.1.1 ____________ P Pr ()
4.1.2 gd O_____________ dg PrAiiUv (Pr)
4.1.3 HjU PUz _________________t Pg. (g)
4.1.4 i _______________v gv. (q)
4.2 Combine the following sentences using conditional form :
4.2.1 Ev gv
PrAiiUv.

4.3.4 CzsPg Pzg eg.


4.4 Transform the following sentences into double negative:
4.4.1 U Jzg PrAiv.
4.4.2 wAr Plg j.
4.4.3 Cg Azg Pjw.
4.4.4 P lg R Ez.
4.4.5 P Pgzg gUv.
4.5 Answer the following quesions.
4.5.1 U v Azg K irj?
4.5.2 U HjAz PUz gz Ezg egUv?

4.2.2 U Ez. .
E Pg g.

4.5.3 DU mV zg Dg Aiig?

4.2.3 Cg P vAzg.
CjU t PqP.

4.5.4 U ljAi MAz P g Azg K


irj?

Lesson 21/201

o - 21
1. Dialogue:

DAz : U Azg
Hand you come earlier, we
JAl UAmU g U would have got the eight
o'clock train.
Ev.
g : g Vq?

Has the train left?

DAz: FU v Ai. F
gU Vzg
Az UAmU
AUg v
Ez.

If has just left. Had we gone


by this train we whoul have
reached Bangalore by eleven
o'clock.

g: A m J
UAmU?

At what time is the next


train?

DAz: vg UAmU. CzP


zg MAzgU
v. zg
GAiU E.

It is at ten thirty. If we go
by that we will reach at one
thirty.
Even if we go by that there
is no use.

g: z EzP Vzg
Yes. Had we gone by this
Az UAmU zs we would have reached
Vidhana soudha by eleven
zsP U Ez.
o'clock.
DAz: gq UAmU z
AwU P Ezg.

We would have met the


Education Minister at 12
o'clock.

g: Cg Qzg Cg
ev gV
ivq v.

Had we met him, we could


have talked to him in deatil.

DAz: Cg ev gV
ivrzg Cg
igAsP
gP M Ezg.

Had we talked to him in detail,


he would have agreed to come
to our function.

g: Cg Mzg g
Aiigzg
CzsPvU Pv.
Mz Ezg g
AwU
qv.

Had he agreed we colud have


asked someone else to
Preside. Supposing he didn't
agree then we could have
asked some other minister.

DAz: D CAz gAi


U Uv.
gU PUz
g.

Then we could have gone to


Ravi's house. We have written
him a letter also.

g: Cg Ai
DgV Pv
Hlzg
iqv.

We could have sat leisurely


there and had our food.

DAz: C Ai Ae
vP Ez Ae
gqv.

We could have stayed there


till evening and started then.

g: Ae Dg UAm gU
gnzg MAv

Had we started by the six


o'clock train, we would have

Lesson 21/203

202/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

UAmU g
Ez.

come back at nine o'clock.

g
zg U Ez.

DAz: gU PUz gAiz


Ezg g
irP Eg.
C PAii Eg.

If we had'nt written to Ravi, I


wouldn't have worried. He
will be waiting.

C ZV Hl Had she eaten well she would


irzg E z have become still fatter.
DU Ez.

g: Aiizzg
Uz,
ArU zg?

Will there be any bus


available, if we go to the bus
stand?

DAz: ArU
zg
F U.
Qzg l U.
DzjAz Uz
GAiU E.

Even if we go to the bus stand,


we won't get one. Even if we
get one we won't get a seat.
Therefore there is no use in
going.

P irzg Had we booked yesterday we


would have got the tickets.
nPm U Ev.
2.3 C g vqV Had he come late on any other
Azg U l g day, I wouldn't have got angry.
Eg.
C C z Had he married her he
DVz g Z U wouldn't have gone mad.
Eg.
2.4 PUz gAiz
Ezzg Uz
Egv.

2. Pattern drill

examination he would have


got through.

Hadn't we written him a letter


we could have stayed back.

C C z
AiiUz Ezg
RV Egv.

Had she not married him she


would have been happy.

K UAm U Had we gone by the eight


Vzg MAz z o'clock bus we could have
returned the same day.
gv.

HjU Uz
Ezg U
gv.

Had I not gone to my home


town, I could have come to
your house.

Had I got an auto I would have


come early.

2.5 D P Pqz
Ezg C Cz
Nz Eg.

Had I not given him that book


he wouldn't have read it.

2.1 Lz U
Azg JAl UAm
U Uv.

2.2 MAz Dmzg


Qzg U g Ez.

Had you come five minutes


early, we could have gone by
the eight o'clock bus.

C jPAi ZV Had he written well in the

Lesson 21/205

204/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

AiP jAiiV Had you not come in time that


gz Ezg D P work couldn't have been done.
DU Eg.
2.6 U Azg Had I come home you would
m PrP have had to offer me sweets.
Vv.
Cg U Had he come to my house, I
Azg P Pq would have had to give him
coffee.
PVv.
2.7 ZV Nzz
Ezg jP
PlgzVv.

If you had not studied well


you shouldn't have appeared
for examination.

U CAi gz If you you do not know acting


Ezg lPz iq you shouldn't have acted in
the play.
gzVv.
v iqz Ezg If you had not made a mistake,
your should't have admitted it.
MPgv.
2.8 FU ArU
zg U.
C Pq Pwzg
ivqP g.

Even if we go to the bus stand


now we won't get a bus.
Even though he has learnt
Kannada he is unable to speak it.

g D qV Even though Ramesh is


q Ezg C seeing that girl everyday he
hasn't talked to her.
ivr.
gdg

Even though the Governor is

AUjU Azg
Aiig q.

coming to Bangalore tomorrow


he won't see anybody.

zU
zg
Uz.

Leela might go to Delhi


tomorrow.

3. Key to learnrs
3.1 The unful filled past conditional (with built in negative
implication) sentences are introduced in this lesson.
These sentences have two clauses ; viz. the conditional
clause and the main clause. The conditional clause
contains a conditional verb in past perfect. The main
clause my be a model verb or a finite verb. The finite
verb in the main clause verb or a finite verb. The finite
verb in the main clause would always be in the past
continuous.
niinu pustaka koTTidare oodtaa idde.
'If you had given me the book. I would have read it.'
If the verb in the main class containing model verb, it
will be followed by ittu,
avanu bandiddare sinimaakke hoogabahudittu.
'Had he come we could have gone to a movie.'
beereyavaru aa kelasa maaDiddare niivu hattu
ruupaayi jaasti koDabeekittu.
'Had some one else done that work, you would have
had to pay ten rupees more'.
nimage jvara bandiddare aafiisige barabaradittu.
'If you had fever, you shouldn't have come to office.

Lesson 21/207

206/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

3.2

The negation in the unfulfilled past conditional are of


two types.

3.2.1 Negation of conditional clause.


The structure of type (1) is,
Negative verbal participle + id + conditional of iru.
barade + ide + iddare = barade iddiddare.
avaru barade iddiddare naanu barta idde.
'If he had not come, I would have come'.
Type (2) gets negated in both the clauses.
avanu pustaka kodade iddiddare naanu haNa kodtaa
iralilla.
'Had he not given me the book, I wouldn't have paid him
money.
This type contain double negation and so it gives
positive meaning.
3.3 The concessive form in Kannada is obrained by addinguu to the conditional verb. It gives the meaning "even
if......".
avanu ashTondu oodiddarauu avanige buddhi illa.
Even if he has read so much, he doesn't have
common sense.
with 'bahuda' it gives the probability meaning.
avanu naaLe bengaLuurige bandaruu barabahudu.
He might come to Bangalore tomorrow.

4. Exercise
4.1 Transform the following sentences into unfulfilled past
conditional
4.1.1 zq Plg vgPj vj.
4.1.2 U zg Uv.
4.1.3 HjU zg vAVP vgz.
4.1.4 P Plg U PqP.
4.1.5 U U zg z iqz.
4.2 Transform into double negative.
4.2.1 AUjU Vzg 'UA' i q Ez.
4.2.2 C ivrzg ivq Ez.
4.2.1 Azg t PqPVv.
4.3 Transform the conditional clause into negative
4.3.1 Azg U Av DVv.

4.2.2 zg v Eg.
4.3.3 w vA zg qzg DgU ZVjv.
4.4 Translate the following into English.
gd v g Eg M vg. Cg Eg
AUj Nzv Ezg. gd vPj. g
zg. gU ZV Pq gwg.
gd CU Pq P gAz. zz
gU Pq PAiz Pv. Dzg Aiv
qz PAi vqVz. vg ev Pqz
ivqwz. evU gAiz v Nzz Pv.

Lesson 21/209

208/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

FU Pl Pq vi wP N
CxirPv. gd ev P
vzg Pqz ivqz Ezg CU v E.
C U Pvg E P U Pq ZV
ivqz.

5. Vocabulary

CzsPv

`presiding'

Dg

`leisurely'

zAw

`education minister'

gV

`in detail'

CAi

`to enjoy'

`fat'

4.5.2 There are a number of places in Mysore which are


worth seeing.

`character'

gd

`governor'

4.5.3 Srirangapattana was the earlier capital of Mysore


Wodeyars.

RV

`happily'

`mad'

4.5 Translate the following sentences into Kannada.


4.5.1 Mysore is a famous cultural centre in Karnataka.

4.5.4 The weather in Mysore is congenial.


4.5.5 I have purchased a new house in Bangalore.
4.5.6 If I meet Raju in Bangalore I will convey your regards.
4.5.7 Please ask him to write me a letter
4.5.8 The person who spoke me over the telephone the other
day has come to see me.
4.5.9 Though he had been to meet the Prime minister, he
couldn't meet him.
4.5.10It is easier to forget a language than learning it.

Lession 22/211

o - 22
PlP
PlPP Az Ez g g gd. Ez sgvz
zQt sUzz. EAi dg R s Pq. Pq R
sAiizg v, vU, AiiA, gp, A, Gz,
EAV ivq dg Ezg. PlPz Ml v
fU. AUg PlPz gdzs. E i vA
vPgVz P AiUVz. E dg Avg,
g.
PlPP vA Aizz AwP gAg Ez.
gdg, PU, id zsgPg, zsP RAqg Pq
AwAi PAq Azg. PzA, ZP,
gPl, UAU, Ai, dAiUgz Cgg, j
MqAig F gd Dzg. Er P, CW
vAU, zs PzgAi, aPzgd, Pgd
MqAig Avzg v, AwU
CdggUzg. P Er zQt sgvz v id
z. vAU vP rz PtP Cg. zs
PAi vz. PzgAi Pz a
Ai Cz igwzgAv. j MqAig dg
vQAi Przg.
Pqz PU gAgAi Az Vz. DP
A EAU Pqz PUg. g, Pig, jg,
gWAP, Q, gvPgt Avzg PU Pq
v AvU. t, Cs, CPz
Avz ZPgg PAw gg. Dqiv vz
lP Kjzg Cx vz sAi DqiwU

Ezg. ewvU j zg. gAzgz,


PPz Avzg zsP ZPn idz zU
wzg. idz U PlV z d
Pqq PAq M qr P. DzsP Pq v EAz
vA zV z. .JA. PAoAi, UAz , P..
l, z.g. Az, i APm CAiAUg, g
PgAv, C.. PgAi, UP CrU Avzg
Rg. sgvz CvAv v Aiiz `eo'
Pqz JAl AU Az. P.. l, z.g.Az,
g PgAv, i APm CAiAUg, Ai.Dg.
CAvw, Vj Pq v q. ZAzRg PAg
Cg F Ai qzg.
PlP VP AwAz Prz. E Cgt U
Rd AvU gV zgPv. Pgz wg az
UtU. szw, vPg, j, PzgRU Pt
U iAU Czj UtU. szwAi Pt,
Am, PUzz PSU. ztUgAi w VgtU,
j UAzs v g PS, mAi Pg
PS,
U
Ai CAiA PSU

. AU

g
PUjP U
g

Az
q

z. C v
PUjP Wl
PU

E.
PlPz sUz zlz Cgt Ez. F Cgtz
UAzs, vU, Avz gU Aiv.
D, fAP, Pq, agv Avz tU E v.
E R UAzg Pj, P, vAUsz, gw,
P. F U g PU U zZQ GvzP
PVz.
Pj U j wg PAr JA z CuPm

212/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

PlVz. Cz PgdUg JAz PgAivg. E MAz


Azgz zlz. Czg g Az. Ez
UU zq DPu. gw U AUQ JA
CuPm Pn zv GvUwz. vAUsz U m
CuPm Pn gj PVz. PU CuPm
PVz.
Al, PtUAr PlPz z VjzsU,
Arg, Ug CsAiigtU.
AUg PlPz gdzs U zqUg. E
CP PAz z PSU. E zszsz gdz
PAiiAiz. zs s v zs jv E gv.
g, , AUg, UU Evg R ltU.
g R lt U g PAz. Az Ez MqAig
gdzsAiiVv. Gvg PlPz R lt U
g PAz. AUg Pg PlPz R g
PAz. E fvz Azg Ez.
PlP v PUU zzz. z
`PlP ' JA AiAz z vgq.
L, lzP, z, q, g, AAig
zU F Ai MAi izjU. eg, UU,
gAiZg, gAUltUg UUlU, zUU
g P rz PtP. tUz
Umg KP U CzvVz.
PlPz g zAiU. j
g zAi, PlP gd P zAi,
AUj AUg zAi, P zAi,

Lession 22/213

gfUA zQAi zAi, zsgqz PlP


zAi v P zAi, UUz UU
zAi, AUj AUg zAi,
Uz PA zAi, vPj vPg
zAi, UPmAi vlUjP zAi v
UA gAi vAwP zAiU. Cz
jAi ez zAi DgAVz.
PlPz R gV, sv, e, Pq, vUj, P, P,
w, KQ, UqA Avz td U.
Cs
1.

PV zU U :
Aw
e
Ew
Zjv
sU
Pt

2.

AwP
eP
LwP
ZjwP
sUP
PtP

gzxU U :
Kj
X
E
Dqiv
X
UAx s
v
X
Cv
Av
X
PAv
Cg
X
Pr
v PUjP X
t PUjP

214/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

3.

PV UU Gvj :

Lession 22/215

3.1 PlPP Az Ez g ?

3.20 PlPz CgtU


gU w.

3.2 PlP sgvz Aii Qz ?

3.21 PlPz R U Aii ?

3.3 PlPz R s Aiiz ?

3.22 PArAi Aii U CuPm PVz ?

3.4 PlPz g Aii s ivq d Ezg ?

3.23 PlPz VjzsU, CsAiigtU Aii?

3.5 PlPz J fU?


3.6 PlPz i Vz?
3.7 PlP d JAvg ?
3.8 PlPz AwAi Aiig Aiig zg?
3.9 PlPz P gdvz g .
3.10 zQt sgvz id z PlPz gd
Aiig?
3.11 Aiig Pz a Ai CAiwzg ?
3.12 Pqz P PU g w?
3.13 ZPgg Az PAw gg Aiig ?

Ai

3.24 g Aiig gdzsAiiVv ?


3.25 `PlP 'Ai zU J ?
3.26 Ul U Jz?
3.27 PlPzg zAiU Aii ?
3.28 PlPz R U Aii ?
4. Ppt zU Cx :
Cdgg

'immortal'

CuPm

'dam'

Czg

'ore'

3.14 vz sAi Dqiw lP Ezg


Aiig?

CsAiigt

'game sanctury'

`to measure'

3.15 Pq q PAq P P Aiig ?

Dq iv

' spoken language'

3.16 Pqz Aiig AiijU eo Az?

'beginning, first'

3.17 PlPz az Ut Jz ?

'to bring down'

3.18 szwAig PSU Aii ?

Gv

'to produce'

3.19 ztUg, m, jg PSU


Aii?

KQ

'cardamom'

Kj

'to raise'

216/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lession 22/217

PlV

'bitterly'

fAP

'deer'

Pq

'bengal Gram'

'jowar'

Pt

'iron'

wz

'to correct'

`sugar cane'

vU

`teak'

Pg

' costal'

zlz

' dense'

PS

'factory'

zgP

'available'

Pq

'bison'

'flaw'

Pq

'to protect'

zsjP RAqg

'religious leaders '

PAiiAi

'secretariat'

qr

'itenerant'

PAw gg

'revolutionary men'

VP

'natural'

PUg

'patron saint'

gAg

'tradition'

PUjP

'industry'

'mature'

Rd

'mineral'

'award'

UAzsz Ju PS 'Sandalwood oil factory'

'to nourish'

Vjzs

'hill station '

'to encourage '

UqA

'cashew'

Azg

'harbour'

WlP

'unit'

v PUjP

'large scale industry'

'gold'

'valuable'

agv

'cheeta'

sv

'paddy'

ZPl

'frame'

'level'

ew

'caste'

'religion'

218/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lession 22/219

izj

'model'

'cotton'

'to transcend'

w Vgt

'cotton mill'

AiU

'worthy'

'weather'

gV

`ragi'

vPg

'congenial'

v P

' fine arts'

vQ

'benificial'

'lapse'

'in plenty'

td

'commercial'

`yellow teak'

zZQ

'electricity'

zs jv

'legislative council'

zss

'legislative assembly'

zAi

'university'

Av

'wealth'

id zsgPg

'social reformers'

'tolerant'

id

'kingdom '

Av

'cultured person'

fvz

'well equipped'

'stone idol'

Lession 23/221

o - 23
Pq s
R zq sU Pq MAz. Evg g
R sUAzg v, vU, AiiA. v sAi
Avgz a zq sAiAzg Pq.
Pq sU CvAv Ai Ewz. ig QP
g vizAi Pq s PAivAz zAg
CAi nzg. Dzg U Qg Pq sAi z
DzsgAzg r . fAi r JA Uz
Qg F z P Q.. 450. Ezg Pq U U
gZAi Ptz.
s Av g. Cz PAz PP zUv
Uvz. Pq sAi PAz PP zUv
Az. Pq sAi zz g UzlPAq
Cz LwPV zs Uq, Uq, qUq
v DzsP Pq JAz sUUV zAg
sVzg.
z Uqz P U P. U U
Pq sAi UzlPAq Ez U s
JAz PgAivg. ig Lz viAz MAsv
vizgU Ezg C Ez. F CAi PlPz
gz U Q.
Uq P v viAz Az viz
PqAigU. F CAi qsz UAxU gAz. A,

, gAv PUzg. F Aiz Pqz


Avz s CwAiiVv. Arv iz sAi
z CA wAi APvVv.
qUqz P gq viAz vAv
vizgU Ez. F CAi Pq s vA
zuU
Mnv. Avz s PrAiiUzg
evU Dqiv Z PU gvqVv. Arv i s
ZPgg, Pig, d Avzg PU Q
ijU CxU U zuUArv. sAi
gz v Pgt Aiz zuUz.
Ev viz Ewa sAi DzsP Pq
JAz PgAivg. Uq U AvAz sUArv
U DzsP Pq EAV, Gz sUAz sUArz.
EAV Pt sgvz DgAsUAqU f P
DgAsv. vAwP Ptz DgAs, eP zP,
v vz s E j Pq s g
qv. DzsP RPg EAz v PwU
Dqiv wzg. sAiAz UAx iv,
vB ivqz JA CAi J Pq Aiwz.
DzsP Pqz g GsU. EU
vB V g Pq, AUg Pq, zsgq
Pq v UU Pq JAz sVz. g,
AUg U Evg PlPz ivq
Gs g Pq. g Pq MAz jwAi
sU wgz. izsU EAz PqP
EzP Z v. Pg zz ivq

222/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Gs AUg Pq. F GsAi v U


PAPt sU sz. A PlP Cx ,
zsgq, U zz ivq Gs zsgq
Pq. F GsAi gp sAi sz.
eg, UU, zg, gAiZg Avz zgz
PlPz ivq Gs UU Pq. F
GsAi Z Gz sAi sz.
Pq s EAz CvAv x sAiiV z Awz.
Pt izsV, eP sAiiV Dqv sAiiV
AwP sAiiV Cz dj z.
Cs
1.

PV UU Gvj.
1.1

R zq sU Aii ?

1.2 CvAv a zq s Aiiz ?


1.3 Pq s J viAz EvAz zAg
CAi qvg ?
1.4 Pqz z Aiiz ? Czg P J ?
1.5 Pq sAi J sUUV sVz?
C Aii? CU P Aiiz ?
1.6 DzsP Pqz J GsU?
2.

Ppt zU Cx:
Cw
CxU

'too much'
'to understand'

Lession 23/223

CAi
C
Dqv s
Dzsg
DgAs
Ewa
Gs
Mq
QP
Pw
U
UAx
U
dj
f P
vAwP Pt
qUq
Ai
w
s
sz
Arv
v v
z Uq
qs

`opinion'
`period'
`administrative language'
`source'
`begin'
`recent'
`dialect'
`undergo'
`A.D'
`work of art'
`attention'
`book'
`village'
`responsibility'
`life style'
`technical education'
`medieval kannada'
`principle'
`pride'
`influence'
`variety'
`scholar'
`western literature'
`pre old kannada'
`mature, learned'

224/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

`acceptable'

sv

`fundamental'

`shape'

`difference'

Pgt

`grammar'

PgZ

`sentence construction'

av

`peculiar '

zA

`scholar'

sV

`to divide'

eP zP

`scientific outlook'

APv

`symbol'

`capable'

izs

`mass media'

`form'

ig

`ordinary people'

`in brief'

`sound'

`inscription'

Pt izs

`educational medium'

`standard language'

Uq

`old kannada'

o - 24
i vg AUw C
AUg Ugz Aii sU EAz eU U
gQv. Aiig Aiig Pzg zZz,
wsnzjU Zj Pz. g UtU
PzPAq PA Qz. q U U V ZP
vj U rz zj Aigz m
PnPAq Ai iqz. EAx PPPg Ai
gz UgUU gPu q x Pv
gjz PgAz zsVz. PlPz
gdzsAiAi EAx sAiiP jwAiizg gdz Evg
sUU z q. , Ugz APj
zz qg U zgq Pgt UgU
Jzjwg UAq PtUAqz CgQv zP dUeg
iqvz. Ez EwZU qg LzAi zgq Pgt. Ez
Ag EvzgAz PgAU quAi A
DUAvP AiAzP V gg g. Ai zxU
zaPAq Nr zg. Jgq U Avg, EvgAz
UAUAi, rAg JgqgAz dAiUg quAi;
Cz v Pqgq z EAxz PgtU
qz. t l CgzsUU U dg rz zj
jU F U zgqUgg
lz iv
zsV. Pz K dAiUg sUz Eg
zZjU zZwz Eg lg gg rAi
zzPV P Zj EjvAz t vgPv.
P vPg EzgU vAiizAv
Pt.
Aq P j U U
P
z A q z
s A i

226/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

vVg EA jw Aii gPgP i vg AUw


C.
(AzQAi, et, 7. 12. 1982)

Lesson 24/227

1.4

AUg Ug EAz Aiig U gQvV ?

Cs
1.1 PV zU Av PU .

PPPg K iqwz ?

wsn, Ut, PAQ, Ai iq, sAiiP


jw, dUeg iq
1.2

1.3

Pg PPPg
zsVzAi ?

zzAv gj.
AUg Ugz Aii sU EAz eU U
gQv. (into positive)
g UtU PzPAq PA Qz.
(into prohibitive)
qU U V ZP vj U rz
zj Aigz m PnPAq Ai
iqz. (split into simple sentences)
A DUAvPg AiAz V gg g.
Ai zxU zaPAq Nrzg (change
into double negative without changing meaning )
Pq gq z EAx PgtU qz.
(negate)
PV gzx zU U. CU Av
Pz .
i X Ci
gQv X CgQv
U zgq X gw zgq
DUAvP X jav

PV UU Gvj.

gz

djU

gPu

APjAi qz zgq Pgt JAi Pgt ?


PgAU quAi DUAvPg K irzg ?
P KP t vgPv ?
2

Ppt U Cx
Cgzs
CgQv
DUAvPg
Ejv
PAQ
Pv
P
PPPg
PvPg
PtUAq
ZP
Zj
dUeg
UAq

`crime'
`un protected'
`strangers'
`stabbing'
`to take to ones heels'
`duty'
`snatch'
`lawless'
`murderers'
`diasaster at every moment'
`knife'
`knife'
`proclaim to the world'
`daily diasaster'

228/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

zZ

`to loot'

UgU

`citizens'

Ut

`jewellery and cash'

gj

`to perform'

Pgt

`incident'

wsn

`to protest'

`detection'

Ai

`escape'

zZjU

`pedestrains'

`share'

AqPjU

`lawless men'

qu

`extension'

`to beat'

zj

`to threaten'

sAiiP

`horrifying'

sU

`part'

U d

`innocent people'

m Pl

`pack up'

gg

`riders'

PzAq

`punishment'

U zgq

`day light robbery '

q U

`broad day light'

o - 25
P qU
ivqz P PrUg Pg JA sAi
VzAi? gAsz sAi P Cg Uvg
d. Cg ev P r. Dzg gvUUr.
Aiv MAz U AivzAv. Dzg r;
i v q z P Ai Pz g g A i g e v
ivqzg P.
g sAi ZV ivqz gAvg
CsAz PAiP. Aiig v iqz, JAz
sAi ivq Pw. R AiAzg MAz
j irz v v v iqz. JZjPAz
ev ivqg iv U. DU J v
iqj J iq JAz wAivz. Pg v
irz v j JAz wz dU AP l qvg.
CAxg v v jrPz E, sAi ZV
PAiz E.
Pq Uwz Eg CP d vg Ezg. Cg
vz PUV Pq PAiPVv. wg Az Pq
PAiPA D Ez, P JAz Pzg. PvqVz,
g v, qU, d, g Avz zU z
Pm. ig Pz Czsz Cg
gwzg. CjU CU ePzlP AAi
Eg. DzjAz zU PAiU AAiAj,
DQ vj, s PAiU v v jgP
AP. dgq MAzV CzPV Pq izs
irP.

230/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

PAiU oU gVz, U V
Ptz. av Jz. g vgz. aAv
Csir. Px z Pj. AsuU
PAq CzP vPAv C. AzsU PAq
gAig ZAv ir.
v iqzAv Ai. CzP zgVj.
s PAiU RgUwj, Wv PzPwj.
UlU FqUwj. CzP vAiigVj.
sAiAz PAiz Wv PzPzQAv
Wzz.
sAi PAiU ivq Nzzg
gAizg CPv. Dzg CPvUU vP U U
NzPz. t t PU, AivPPU v
vi wPU r. zz vA PUvz.
z Avz xP PU, zAvPxU,
dP DgU, i zz GAiUP
gv. vi wPU zz Pzg
AidPj. CU P vz AiU
Za Pz zU sAqgP gv.
CPvVAv Z WAl r. MAz zz Cx
z Ai CxUz Ezg WAl r.

Lesson 25/231

Cs
1.

PV UU Gvj.

1.1

ivqz PAiz U ?

1.2

Pg sAi KP ZV PAi ?

1.3

zU U PAiP ?

1.4

Nzz
GAiP?

1.5

gtUAzU Aid K ?

Ppt U Cx

Cs

iqzP

JAv

CPv

`necessity'

Dv

`confidence '

JZjP

`caution, conscious'

`to notice '

Wv

`dignity '

Za

`to discuss'

Pv sAi gtUAi Z CP
Ez Uz. PlPz vU PUz
gAiU Pqz gj. gtU U Dv
vAz Pqvz. AigV iqvz.

eP

`memory'

`mistake'

zAvPx

`mythological story'

PqAizV MAz iv : vA Pl s Pwj.


DzjAz Pv sAi gAir. KPAzg sAi
PAiz J P gAiz C s.

`daily'

PU

232/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Lesson 25/233

Ul

`laughing stock'

AP

`contact'

WAl

`dictionary'

`problem'

AivPP

`periodicals'

AAi

`patience'

gAvg

`constantly'

`simple'

gv

`discourage'

jrP

`set right'

Ai

`determination'

`to create'

`memory'

dP

`general / public'

jg

`environment'

sAqg

`vocabulary '

Aid

`usefulness'

Av

`stage'

xP

`primary'

`background'

gtU

`writing'

Az

`to adjust' / 'to possess'

`childish'

sAi

`fear'

`again'

`fool'

`to appreciate'

av

`peculiar'

Azs

`incident'

Ai

`local'

`situation'

Part II / 235

" circle" otherwise known as "anuswara" indicates a nasal


consonant corresponding to the following consonant.

PART II
SCRIPT
Mostly hand movement in Kannada is anti clockwise. But
there are stray instances where the clockwise movement is also
seen. The letters in this book are arranged into a group on their
shape similarity and contrastive perception. The arrow mark
and the numbering show the beginning and the direction of the
movement.

Circle
4

ra

Tha

ka

ya

consonants are realised in the following examples.

Jha

The consonant in kannada possess an inherant vowel -

a.

This is generally marked by


(talakaTTu). But there are
some letters which do not have talakaTTu. The pure consonant
is marked by
(halant)

g - r consonant.
g - r+a combination

PAo

F is the only vowel introduced here.


This is the secondary sympbol of vowel F. The box
indicates the primary consonant. The combination of F with

Pg
F Pg
F PAo

ii

Fg

Note that The above words and sentences are formed by


using the letters introduced in this lesson.

g o F
P Ai gh

The words and sentences to practice.

+ F = j

+ F = p

+ F = Q

Aii + F =
ghi + F = jh

Part II / 237

236/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Combine the following

GROUP 2

C D
G H
2

la

aa

Uu

The vowels introduced in this group are C, D, G, H. The


Secondary symbol of C ( ) is already dealt in the previous
lesson. The secondary symbols of the other vowels are given
below.

D
G
H

Ai
P
Dg

Words and sentences for Practice

D
DAi
Ai Pg
Hg DPg
P g

D DAi
F Hg
F DAi D Hg DAi

g
o
P
Aii
ghi

g
o
P
Aii
ghi

g
o
P
Aii
ghi

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

D
D
D
D
D
D
G
G
G
G
G
G
H
H
H
H
H
H

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________

238/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Part II / 239

Combine the following

GROUP 3

z zs x
q qs
2

da

dha

tha

Da

Dha

No vowels in this group

Words and sentences for practice

zq
Pz
gx

zg
zg
zAq

PAz
Dzsg
Pqg

F gx Hg gx
Fg gAig PAq
GzAi DAiz Pz PAq

z
zs
x
q
qs
z
zs
x
q
qs
z
zs
x
q
qs
z
zs
x
q
qs

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

F
F
F
F
F
D
D
D
D
D
G
G
G
G
G
H
H
H
H
H

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________

240/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Part II / 241

Words and sentences for practice

GROUP 4

J K
b
2

ee

va

Jq
g
b
g
KP

Jzg
gi
JPg
P

D g Dz g
Cz Cg gi
izs iAizg

ma

cha

The vowels introduced are

J, K.

The Secondary

symbols are given below.

J
K

P
z

The combination of these secondary symbols with the


consonants are given below.

+ J =
i +J =
b + J = b

+ K =
i + K =
b + K = b

Observe the following combinations.

i
b

i
b

i
b

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

F =
F =
F = c
D =
D = i
D = b
G =
G =
G = b

242/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Part II / 243

Words and sentences for practice

GROUP 5

s
L
3

pa

pha

4
1

sha

gha

aee

The vowel introduced here is L.

L is the combination of

a+i, which is normally called dipthong. The secondary symbol


is given below :

The combination with other consonants :

+
+
+
+

L
L
L
L

=
=
=
=

z CW o s Aqg zP
s G g sAqgg g
D Hg Aqg
g zzsg
Cz D gz s
Observe the following combinations :

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

F =
D =
G =
H =
J =
K =
L =

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Words and sentences

GROUP 6

M N
d
o

oo

O
1

au

ja

The vowels introduced here are M, N, O. O is the


combination of a+u, which is a dipthong like L. The secondary
symbols are given below.

P Pg

Pg

Mz

Nq

P MAz o Nz.

Nz Ozs

MAz g Pq

Cz Cg N.

dog

Combine the following

g +
g +
g +
+
+
+
Aii +
Aii +
e +
e +
e +
i +
+
+
+
+
+
i +

M = ___________
N = ___________
O = ___________
M = ___________
N = ___________
O = ___________
M = ___________
N = ___________
M = ___________
N = ___________
O = ___________
O = ___________
M = ___________
N = ___________
O = ___________
N = ___________
O = ___________
M = ___________

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Part II / 247

GROUP 7

GROUP 8

bha

ba

Z
4

ta

Ta

Words and sentences for practice

Combine the following

F
F
D
N
D
M
K
G
H
L
O
M

ca

P ZgP ZZ gd o gz
sAi P ZAq i A PAq PAqg.
s ZP ZP P sAiqq

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Words and sentences

Z
s
Z
Z
Z

s
Z
e

l v
2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________

Dl
vAz mg
vjPg
vl vv mm
Nl
vl
l
vg
Cz gAig vl.
CAZAi z GAi l vAz.
Combine the following

m
v
m
v
m
m
v
v
m
v
m

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

C
D
F
F
J
K
J
M
M
O
N

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________

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Part II / 249

GROUP 9

GROUP 10

E k t
1

na

below :

Pj

Observe the following combinations :

Aii
z
u
m
v

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

E
E
E
E
E
E
E

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

t
n
w

k is not used as a graphic representation.


"circle" when followed by palatal sounds functions as `k'
e.g. ZAZ, AZ, PAZ.
Words and sentences for practice

Ez
Eg
u
Eg
E
sgt
Pu
Eg EAzwAi vAz v.
D Kt Egz.

ga

Na

The vowel in this lesson is E. The secondary symbol is given

U
2

na

Words and sentences for practice

sa

U U
UgU
UU
g
qUg
gAzj
AU l UAm
AU
D
CU UAiV JAz gz Ez.
EU D i qPAz D.
g Azgz Ug.
Combine the following

U
U

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

F
F
D
M
N
O
J
K
L
E

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________

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GROUP 11

GROUP 12

Sa

La

Z
j
D g Uj.
Azg .
g Uw Azj.
Observe the following combinations :

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

F
D
J
O
L
N
E

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

PAP

kha

ha

Words and sentences for practice

R I B
3

ri

"Visarga"

I is the vowel introduced in this group of letters.

I is a

Sanskrit borrowed sound found only in Sanskrit borrowed


words. The secondary symbol is given below. Although it is
treated as a vowel in traditional grammar it functions as a
consonant.

Observe the follwoing combinations :

v
z

+
+
+

I = v
I = z
I =

Words and sentences for Practice.

RU AR I
RAq P Iv

Re
vt

visarga has the `ah' sound value

P iq PP.
sgv zz gdzs z.
vAU Uj APg Rg Kjz.
s z qsPvg gt.

zBR
Itsg CAvBPgt
Ivi CAvBg

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Part II / 253

Primary letters along with the secondary symbols of


vowels are introduced so far. Now let us see the secondary
symbols of the consonants. The secondary symbols of the
consonants are also grouped into three categories. viz.,
1. The secondary symbols similar to the primary letters but
smaller in size.
2. The secondary symbols which show a little deviant forms
from that of the primary ones.
3. The secondary symbols which have completely different
shape from that of the primary ones.
The secondary symbols of the consonants are written below the
primary letters.

Group I

e
m
u

+
+
+
+
+

d
l
t

=
=
=
=
=

d
l
t

Cd
l
Ct

Cf, PnU, Pt, P, v


fU, m, u, , .

Cf CdU PeAi irz.


Qn P m vAz Pl.
MAz PtU u, MAz PtU t.
z Um P vz.
C JAz rz.

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Part II / 255

Group II

P
U
Z
q
z

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

P
U
Z
q
z

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Group III

P
U
Z
q
z

CP
U
Z
zq
z
P
v

P, U, Z, Uq, Uz, , C, ,
Pg, UP, CZj, PqAi, z, , P.
CP PU ZP P.
UU vV V qAiz Pv.
Z ZZV ivrz.
zrz r zq Pr zqz.
z z wAz zA Nrzg.
P z.
C wAz JAzg.
U v iqzP gz.

i
Aii

+
+
+
+
+

Ai

=
=
=
=
=

Ai

Pvj
Pq
v
CAi

vvj, u, , PAiig, P, Pv,


u, Zig, Ai, PAUr.
Pv z PjAi Ai ?
j C wz MAz g Dv.
vAi P.
CAi AiigAz GAiiAi Pv.
t PzPAq C E qQz.

The secondary symbols are given below with directions.


1

256/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

Part II / 257

The homegeneous clusters of the consonants were


introduced so far. Now let us see the heterogeneous clusters.
Whenever the cluster is pronounced, the first pronounced letter
will be the primary one and then followed is a secondary one.

U
e

+
+
+
+
+

d
t

=
=
=
=
=

U
d

dg
P
P
U
Cd

e, C, , CPg, e, g, .
P U dg Az.
PV Cvjz.
D qPg vA MAig.
vdgz eU sgvz Ezg.
v
q

Z
z

+
+
+
+
+

P
U
Z
b
zs

=
=
=
=
=

v
q

Z
z

vg
Rq
Ai
GZ
Gzg

Please note that the aspirated (mahaprana) consonant


can never appear as primary consonant in a cluster. It always
appears as secondary memeber.

g, Gzg, , Gv, U, Gz, Q,


Gv, v, , Gvw, , vv.
gdPgtU qg Gzgz ivrzg.
zg Z Gzg vUzg.
CjU vg irzg U g vg.
C GZg P AiiAiAz z.

U
z
u
i
g

+
+
+
+
+
+

Ai
g
Ai

=
=
=
=
=
=

v
U
z
t

Ai

Gv
U
z
t
v
g Ai / g

Pw, gP, gv, gQt, t, PAi


Note that

g has two secondary symbols.

258/Kannada A Self Instructional Course

occurs after the primary consonant in pronunciation eg.


taamra v.

occurs before the primary consonant in pronunciation.


eg. Surya Ai. This can also be written as g.

but one must be careful in writing words like Cgu


(Cu). If `g' becomes smaller in size, then it looks
odd.

vv gP P U E.

Lesson II /259

Though the vowel sound occurs lost in a three consonant cluster


unit like g, etc., the written representation has the vowel
symbol added to the first consonant and the other two written
below the primary letter in the order in which they are
pronounced.
Letters of the Kannada alphabet in the traditional order

ti
C D E F G H I J K L M N O CA CB

gvU Uz Aiv irzg.

P R U W Y

zU giv AP E.

Z b d gh k

v - Cv, Ai - CAiU zjU Uv.


DdP fAi.
EAz ZAz j vz ZA vAzg
Pj D AiizAz ivrzg
PAiU gg.
Three clusters are seen in Sanskrit borrowed words. But they
are less in numbers. A few words are given below for example.

wP, C, v, g
GzsU, Aw,

l o q qs t
v x z zs
s s
Ai g
`Y' is not introduced as it is not functional in its full form.