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Egypt British International School

IGCSE

Name: ----------------------------------------------

Class: ---------------------------------------------1

Contents

Topic 1:The particulate nature of matter

States of matter and their interconversion in terms of the kinetic particle theory.
Description and explanation of diffusion.
Evidence for the movement of particles in gases and liquids.

Topic 2: Atoms, elements and compounds


Atomic structure and relationship to the periodic table.
Bonding: the structure of matter.
Formation of ions and ionic bonds.
Molecules of and covalent bonds.
Formation of single covalent bonds.
Differences between ionic and covalent compounds.
Some macromolecules- the giant covalent structures of graphite and diamond and relationship to
uses.
Topic 3:Stoichiometry
Symbols of the elements and the formulae of simple compounds.
Word equations and simple balanced chemical equations.
Relative atomic mass, Ar , and relative molecular mass Mr.
The mole concept.
Topic 4: The periodic table

Periodic trend across a period.


Group properties.
Alkaline Earth metals.
Transition elements.
Halogens
Noble gases

Electricity and chemistry


The electrode products in the electrolysis of molten substances and solutions.
General principles of electrolysis.
Electroplating of metals and the uses of electroplating.
Use of copper and (steel-cored) aluminium in cables.
Use of plastics and ceramics as insulators.
Acids, bases and salts
The characteristics properties of acids and bases.
Types of oxides.
Preparation of salts.
Identification of ions and gases.

Metals

Properties of metals.
Reactive series.
Extraction of metals.
Uses of metals.

Chemical changes
Energetic of a reaction: meaning of exothermic and endothermic reaction.
Production of energy:
-Production of heat energy and burning fuels
-Hydrogen as a fuel.
-Radioactive isotopes, such as 235U, as a source of energy.
Chemical reactions
Speed of a reaction and its affection of concentration, particle size, catalysts (including enzymes),
and temperature.
A practical method for investigating the speed of a reaction involving a gas being produced.
The application of the above factors to the danger of explosive combustion with fine powders and
gases.
Reversible reactions.
Redox.
Air and water
Chemical test for water.
The purification of water supply.
The uses of water.
The composition of clean air.
The common pollutants of the air and their adverse effect.
The uses of oxygen.
Methods of rust prevention.
Fertilisers and the displacement of ammonia from its salts
The sources of carbon dioxide and methane.
The formation of carbon dioxide.
Carbonates
The manufacture of lime.
The uses of lime and slaked lime.
The uses of calcium carbonate
Organic chemistry
Names of compounds.
Fuels.
Homologous series.
Alkanes, alkenes, alcohols ,acids and esters

Good Luck
Dr. Deena Fayez
3

The Periodic Table of the Elements

EBIS KS3 Science Department

Topic 1: The particulate nature of matter

All about Matter


Chemistry is about what matter is like and how it behaves, and our explanations and predictions of its behavior.
Matter is defined as anything that has mass and takes up space (volume).
All matter is made up of tiny particles; these particles might be atoms, molecules and ions.
States of matter
Matter may exist in three states:a- Solids have fixed shape and volume at a given temperature (may be affected by changes in
temperature). Solids usually increase slightly in size when heated (expansion) and usually
decrease in size if cooled (contraction)
b- Liquids have no fixed shape(take the shape of the container) but their volume is fixed
c- Gases have no fixed shape or volume, they spread (diffuse) to fill all available spaces.
Unlike solids and liquids, gases are easy to compress in to smaller size.

An unusual state of matter:


Liquid crystals: are substances that look like liquids, flow like liquids but have some
order in arrangement of the particles, and so in some ways they behave like crystals.
They are used in displays for digital watches, calculators and lap-top computer displays,
and thermometers (change color as the temperature rises and falls)

The change in physical state

The state of substance can be changed by heating or cooling, the following figure shows the
ways of converting matter between different states:

I Sublimation
It is the change of state from solid to vapor and back from vapor to solid without passing
through the liquid state..
Ex: iodine converts to vapor state by heating as shown in the figure below
Ex: carbon dioxide (CO2 is a white solid called dry ice at temperatures below
78C. when heated to just above - 78C it changes into CO2 gas)
Solid Iodine
Dark grey solid

Heat

Iodine Gas
Purple vapor

Allow to cool
6

Solid Iodine

II Melting
When a solid is heated, its particles gain more energy and vibrate more.
This causes an increase in the volume of the solid and the solid expands.

At the melting point the particles vibrate too much that they break away from their
positions so the solid becomes a liquid.

Melting point:
It is the temperature at which the solid melts.
The temperature of a pure melting solid will not rise until it has all melted.
A sharp melting point indicates a pure sample.
The addition or presence of impurities lowers the melting point.

III Boiling
When a liquid is heated its particles gain more energy and move faster.Type equation here.
This causes the liquid to expand.

At the boiling point, the particles get enough energy to overcome the forces holding them
together. They break away from the liquid and form a gas.
Boiling point:
It is the temperature at which liquid boils.
At the boiling point the pressure of the gas created above the liquid equals that of the air
(Atmospheric pressure)
NB: Pure substances have fixed and definite melting point and boiling point
e.g. pure water boils at 100 C and freezes at 0 C
Test of purity:
Check its melting point and boiling point.
When a substance contains impurity, its melting point falls (decreases) and its boiling
point rises (increases).
It melts and boils over a range of temperature, not sharply.

.
Explain why when salt is placed on ice, it melts.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

IV Evaporation
When the liquid is left open to atmosphere, some of the surface particles escape into the
gas state even if the temperature is below the boiling point.
Ex: after raining, the streets dry up due to water evaporation.
The rate of evaporation increases with increasing temperature and increasing surface
area.
NB: evaporation occurs at any temperature but boiling occurs at certain temperature which is
boiling point.

V Condensation
When a gas is cooled, the average energy of the particles decreases
and the particles move closer together.
The forces of attraction between the particles now becomes significant and cause the
gas to condense into a liquid; also if enough force (pressure) is applied gas particles get
so close together that the gas turns into liquid.
Ex: morning dew

Compressing a gas

There is a lot of space


between the particles in a
gas. You can force the
particles closer .

By pushing in the plunger.


The gas gets squeezed or
compressed into a smaller
volume

If enough force is applied to the plunger, the particles get so close together that the gas turns
into a liquid. But liquids and solids cannot be compressed because their particles are already
close together.

Physical
State

Volume

Density

Shape

Fluidity

Solid

Has fixed
volume

High

Definite

Doesnt Flow

Liquid

Has fixed
volume

Moderate to
high

Not definite

Generally
flows easily

Gas

No Fixed
volume

Low

Not definite

Flows easily

10

Heating and cooling curves


The graph was drawn by plotting the temperature of water as it was heated steadily from 15C to 110C

The kinetic theory of matter:


The kinetic theory helps of explain the way in which matter behaves. It explains the physical
properties of matter in terms of the movement of its constituent particles.
1. All matter is made up of tiny, moving particles (atoms, ions or molecules) which have
different sizes
2. The particles move all the time
3. The higher the temperature the faster they move
4. Lighter particles move faster than heavier ones
5. In a gas there is a large distance between the particles. They are free to move anywhere.

Diffusion-evidence for moving particles:


-Diffusion is spreading out and mixing process, seen mainly in gases and liquids
-. The particles of one substance mix with, and move with, the particles of another in a
haphazard and random way.
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- Diffusion goes until the mixture is uniform i.e. it is the movement of particles from regions
of higher concentration to lower concentration.
-Diffusion is faster in gases than in liquids because the particles in gases are moving faster
than in liquids.
-The rate of diffusion depends on the molecular mass.
The smaller the molecular mass, the faster the rate of diffusion.
-When diffusion takes place between a liquid and a gas it is known as intimate mixing.
The bromine diffusion experiment:
Bromine is a red-brown liquid which evaporates
easily at room temperature. When placed in a gas jar,
the red brown bromine vapor spreads out to fill the
gas jar.

Diffusion of ammonia and hydrogen chloride:


a. Cotton wool soaked in ammonia solution is placed at one end of a long tube producing
ammonia gas (Colorless).
b. Another cotton wool soaked in hydrochloric acid is placed at the other end of the tube
producing hydrogen chloride gas (Colorless).
c. The gases diffuse along the tube
d. White smoke ring of ammonium chloride is produced

Ammonia diffuses faster than hydrogen chloride (Why?)


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Diffusion of liquids:
Colored solutes, either liquid or solids, are placed in the bottom of a container and a solvent is
poured over them. Over a period of time, the color of the solute rises in the solvent.
Ex. If few drops of potassium manganate (VII) solution (purple) are carefully added to a
beaker containing water, the purple coloration will be equally distributed throughout

12

Brownian motion:
The apparent random movement of small tiny particles.
First it was observed by Robert Brown in the nineteenth century. Brown observed that pollen
grains on the surface of the water are not stationary, but moving around in a random way.
The pollen grains were moving randomly as the water particles were constantly colliding with
them.

13

Glossary of Topic 1

Melting: the change of state from solid to liquid by gaining energy.


Melting point: The temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy .Pure substance has a sharp
melting point.
Diffusion: The process by which different substances mix as a result of the random motions of
their particles.
Evaporation: A process occurring at the surface of a liquid involving the change of state of a
liquid into a vapour at a temperature below the boiling point.
Boiling: the process where liquid changes to gas by gaining heat at the boiling point.
Matter: Anything that occupies space and has a mass.
Sublimation: The direct change of state from solid to gas and the reverse process without
passing the liquid state.
Atmospheric pressure: the pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the surface of the Earth
Expansion: increase in volume of matter by heating as the particles gain energy, move faster
and the distance between the particles increase.
Contraction: decrease in volume of a substance by cooling
Brownian motion: The apparent random movement of small particles
Pure substance: A pure substance has no particles of any other substance mixed with it.it has
a definite, sharp melting and boiling point.

14

15

Topic 2: Experimental Techniques

Mixture: A mixture contains more than one substance, not chemically joined can be
easily separated by simple physical means.
Air is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and other gases.
Solutions: is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances. Formed of solute and
solvent.
Solute: the solid that dissolves in a liquid.
Solvent: the liquid that does the dissolving.
Examples of solvent:
1-Water: the universal solvent, most of the substances dissolve in.
2-Ethanol: it dissolves glues, inks and perfumes.
Methods of Separation
Seperation technique
Magnetism

Used to separate
Two solids one of them is magnetic

Sieving

Two solids of different particle size

Filtration

An insoluble solid from a liquid

Decanting

An insoluble solid( big particle size) from a


liquid
An insolube solid(small particle size) from
a liquid

Centrifuging

Crystallization

A soluble solute from its solution

Evaporation
Simple distillation

Separating funnel

A soluble solute from its solution


A solvent from a solution/soluble solute
from a solution
Liquids from each other
miscible
Immiscible liquids from each other

Paper chromatography

Different substances from a solution

Fractional distillation

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Dissolving solids in water


Water is a good solvent for many solids.

Imagine stirring spatulas full of copper sulphate crystals into water. At first it is easy to
dissolve the solid in the water to make a solution.

Eventually, as more crystals are stirred into the solution, no more will dissolve, the
solution is said to be saturated.

A saturated solution is one in which no more solute can dissolve at that


temperature.

Making a solution
Solvent
A solvent is
the liquid
that does the
dissolving

solute

a solute is the
substance that
is dissolved

solution
A solution is
formed when a
solute is dissolved
by a solvent

saturated solut
A saturated solution is
one that will dissolve
no more solute at that
temperature

Chemists often need to know exactly how much solute is dissolved in a saturated
solution. This is called the solubility.
The solubility of a solid in water is the number of grams of that solid that will dissolve
in 100g of water. If the saturated copper sulphate solution were heated, much more
solid could be dissolved in it.
Most compounds dissolve more in hot water that in cold. Their solubility increases with
increasing temperature. A graph can be plotted to show how the solubility of a
compound changes with increasing temperature. This is called a solubility curve.

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Solubility curves for various compounds

Dissolving is an example of a physical change. Other physical changes include boiling,


melting, evaporation.

If the solvent is water, the solution is called aqueous solution (aq.).

A concentrated solution is one which contains a high proportion of solute.


A dilute solution is one which contains only a small proportion of solute.

Question:
How would you make a sample of sea water more concentrated?

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Safety in the laboratory


Some chemicals are particularly hazardous. These are pointed out by standard hazard labels.
Hazard label

Examples

(a) toxic

Chlorine, bromine, carbon


monoxide

(b) corrosive

Concentrated solutions of acids


and alkalis such as concentrated
sulphuric acid

(c) oxidizing agent

( d) flammable

Potassium dichromate,
potassium manganite

Ethanol, petrol, hydrogen

Rules for working in a laboratory


DO
Keep bags and coats safely out
of the way.
Tie up long hair and tuck in ties
and loose clothing.

Wear goggles or safety glasses


when doing experiments .
Keep your place tidy and wipe
up spills of chemicals .

DONT
Run in the laboratory.
Eat or drink in the laboratory.

Play with fire, electrical switches


or chemicals.
Look down a test tube that is
being heated, or point it at
anyone.

Ask if you are unsure about


anything
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Some safety precautions:


1- Carrying out the experiments which involve toxic gases and strong smelling gases in
fume cupboard or in a well-ventilated laboratory.
2- Wear gloves when doing experiments with corrosive substances
3- For heating a flammable liquid use a hot water bath.

This diagram shows a student working in a laboratory.

Identify two safety problems in this scene:


Safety problem 1

]
Safety problem 2
]

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Methods of purification
a)To separate a solid (insoluble) from a liquid:
1-Filtration
The solid is left on the filter paper as the residue while the liquid passes through. eg. Mud in
water

2- Decanting
Just by pouring the liquid off from the solid. This method is suitable for separating
suspension(undissolved solid) from solution.

3-centrifuging:
The mixture is spun at high speed in a
Centrifuge, causing the solid to be deposited at
the bottom of the centrifuge tube. Then
the liquid can be decanted

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b)To obtain a solid from a solution:


Evaporation
A solution consists of a solute dissolved in a solvent. Sea water is a solution of salt (sodium
chloride) in water. By heating the solution, water evaporates and solid salt is left. eg. Common
salt in water

Crystallization
The solution is evaporated to the crystallization point, i.e. the point at which crystals of solute
will form on cooling the solution to room temperature and can then be filtered out, and dried.
eg. Sugar in water

Question
What method could be used to show the crystallizing point had been reached?
.
Steps of crystallization:
1-Pour the solution into an evaporating dish, heat the solution to evaporate some of the water
to become concentrated then saturated.
2-to check the crystallization point insert a glass rod, crystals are formed on it
3-leave it to cool, crystals will be formed as the temperature falls.
4- Remove the crystals by filtration.
5-Rinse with distilled water.
6-Dry crystals with filter paper, NOT IN OVEN to avoid loss of water of crystallization.

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c)To separate a solvent from a solution:

Distillation
solvent
When the solution is boiled, the
passes down
changes to vapour, the vapour
a condenser where it is converted back to liquid and collected as the distillate. e.g. Water from
sea water(DESALINATION).

d)To separate two liquids:


Fractional distillation
-Miscible liquids (i.e. ones that mix together completely) may be separated by fractional
distillation provided that their boiling points are different, e.g. mixture of ethanol and water.
The mixture in the flask is heated so that it boils. Both ethanol vapor and water vapor go up
the fractionating column. Ethanol has a lower boiling point (78C) than water (i.e. is more
volatile). The liquid with the lower boiling point (ethanol) reaches the top of the column and
distills over and is collected first.
Anti-bumping granules (or broken porcelain) are added to the mixture to achieve steady
boiling.

Important applications of fractional distillation:


a) The separation of liquid air into oxygen and nitrogen after liquefying the air.
b) The separation of crude oil [Petroleum] into useful fractions.

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Separating two immiscible liquids.


Immiscible: two liquids insoluble in each other forming two layers.

e)Chromatography:
-Paper chromatography is used to separate a mixture of similar solids dissolved in a solvent,
e.g. it can be used to separate the dyes in ink.
It can also be used to identify additives in foods such as flavoring
and coloring agents. A small spot of the solution containing the
mixture is placed near the end of the filter paper. The end of the
paper is dipped into a solvent (e.g. water, ethanol).
- As the solvent rises up, spots of various constituents of the
mixture will be collected at different distances above the original
spot.
The finished paper is called a chromatogram.
A single pure substance will produce only one spot.
Chromatography can also be used to separate colourless substances, but in this case the paper
must be sprayed with another chemical (locating agent) so that the position of the spots can
be seen. eg. Glucose and fructose

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Example of using chromatography:


A dye used in food colouring can be identified by
chromatographing it alongside some pure, know
dyes. In this way, a public analyst can find out
whether a dye used in food is a permitted one or an
illegal one. The figure shows that dye A is a
mixture and it contains dyes C and D.

If a spot remains on the starting line, it means that the substance is insoluble in the
solvent used.

Questions
Why must the starting line be drawn in pencil and not with ink? -1

The diagram shows a chromatogram used to find out which colorings are in a fruit
drink. -

Which two colorings are in the fruit drink?


A. 1 and 4

B. 1 and 5

C. 2 and 3

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D. 2 and 5

Steps of chromatography:
1-Draw an origin line with pencil on a chromatography paper.
2-Place the examined spot on the origin line.
3-Insert the chromatography paper in a beaker containing solvent, the solvent should be below
the origin line.
4-wait till the solvent reaches the top of the paper.
5-Examine the spots.

Rf value is the ratio of the distance travelled by the solute to the distance travelled by the
solvent in chromatography.

Testing the purity of a substance


A pure substance has nothing else mixed with it. A substance is not pure when it has other
things mixed in it; these are called impurities.
Chemists often need to know if a substance is pure. For example, drugs must be tested for
purity before they are sold. Impurities might harm the patient.
1. Chromatography can be used to see if a substance is pure. How?

2. Another way of testing purity is to measure the substances melting point or boiling
point.
3. Pure substances have definite melting points and boiling points. If a substance is not
pure, its melting point or boiling point will be different from the known.

Impurities make melting points lower and boiling points higher.

The water taken from the sea freezes at about -2 and boils at 101C.
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Is it pure?

Why?

Test for gases


Gas

Formula

Test

Result
Burns with a
pop

Hydrogen

H2

Light splint

Oxygen

O2

Glowing splint

Carbon
dioxide

CO2

Lime water

Cl2

Colour
Damp litmus
paper

Chlorine

Relights
Turns milky
Yellow-green
bleached

NH3
Ammonia
(alkaline gas)
Sulphur
dioxide

Smell
Damp red litmus
paper

SO2

Potassium
manganate

Pungent
Turns blue

Turns from
purple to
colourless

Collection of gases
1. Upward delivery over water:
For gases which are insoluble in water such as H2, O2 and N2.

2. Downward delivery:
For gases which are soluble in water and denser than air such as CO2,
Cl2 and SO2
3. Upward delivery:
H2 (lighter than air) can be also collected by upward delivery

27

Drying of gases
1. Gases that do not react with acids such as CO2, SO2, may be dried by passing them
through concentrated sulphuric acid (drying agent).
2. Ammonia gas is dried by passing it over solid calcium oxide (drying agent)
Ammonia + sulphuric acid

ammonium sulphate

28

Glossary of Topic 2

Solute :solid substance that dissolves in a liquid(solvent).


Solvent: the liquid where the solvent dissolves in example water.
Solution: A mixture of solute and solvent.
Dilute solution: a small amount of solute in a big amount of solvent.
Concentrated solution: a big amount of solute in a small amount of solvent.
Saturated solution: no more solute can dissolves in the solvent as there are no empty
gaps between the particles
Mixture: is a blend of two or more kinds of matter (not chemically combined), each of
which retains its identity, e.g. air or sea water, can be separated by simple physical
means.
Miscible: when two liquids are soluble in each other forming one layer.
Immiscible: when two liquids form two layers, so they are not soluble in each other
like oil and water.
Soluble: the solute dissolves in the solvent
Insoluble: the solute doesnt dissolve in the solvent.
Distilled: liquid formed by distillation (evaporation then condensation).
Residue: insoluble particles' left over filter paper.
Filtrate: liquid that comes down from filter paper

Locating agent: A substance used on a chromatography paper to locate the spots


formed when the mixture is colorless.

29

Topic 3:
ATOMS, ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS

Matter exists in three forms: Elements, compounds and mixture

Element: is a substance that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substance,
e.g. aluminum or sulphur. It contains atoms of only one type.
There are 117 elements which have now been identified; 24 of these do not occur in
nature and have been made artificially by scientists.

Elements are classified into two main classes: metals and non metals.
30

Most elements are metals. There are only 22 non-metals. There are a few elements
which are difficult to classify because they have some metallic and some non-metallic
properties.

A comparison of the properties of metals and non metals:

Property

Metal

Non-metal

Physical state at
room
temperature

solid except mercury


(liquid)

Solids, gases and one


liquid (bromine)

Melting point

High except alkali


metals

Low except carbon and


silicon

Appearance

Shiny

Dull

Malleability &
ductility

Easily shaped

Brittle break into pieces

Electrical and
thermal
conductivity

Good

Poor or non, except


graphite

Compound:
is a pure substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined together.
A compound has properties different from those of its elements, e.g. water or carbon
dioxide.
The chemical formula of a compound is made up from the symbols of the elements present
and numbers to shows the ratio in which the different atoms are present.

31

Mixture:
is a blend of two or more kinds of matter (not chemically combined), each of which
retains its identity, e.g. air or sea water.
The properties of a mixture are a combination of the properties of its components.
A mixture can be separated physically.

Atomic structure
Atoms consist of a small nucleus, where all the positive charge and most of the mass of the
atom are concentrated, surrounded by electrons which move around very quickly in electron
shells or energy levels.
The nucleus is made up of two types of particles: protons and neutrons.
A proton is a positively charged particle.
A neutron is a neutral particle (uncharged), with a mass equal to that of a proton.
An electron is a negatively charged particle; the mass of the electron is so small that it can
often be ignored.
The electrons are held within the atom by an electrostatic force of attraction between
themselves and the positive charge of protons in the nucleus.
Sub-atomic
Atoms are electrically neutral
because:
Number of +ve protons = number of
ve electrons.

Relative
mass

Charge

Proton

+1

Neutron

Electron

1/1840

-1

Particle

The masses of the subatomic particles are measured in atomic mass units (amu). This is
because they are so light that their masses cannot be measured usefully in grams.
Atomic (proton) number (Z): is the number of protons in the nucleus.
Each element has its own proton number and no two different elements have the same proton
number.
32

Mass (nucleon) number (A): is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
Mass No.
(p+n)

(Symbol of the
element
Atomic number = number of protons

Atomic No.

Mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons

(p)

Number of neutrons = Mass number


Atomic number
Question:
Work out the numbers of sub-atomic particles [protons, neutrons and
electrons] of the atoms of the following elements

1H,

12
14
19
40
56
6C, 7N, 9F, 18Ar, 26Fe

p=
e=
n=

Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element (with the same numbers of protons) that contain
different numbers of neutrons. In other words, isotopes have the same atomic number but
different mass number.
Extra neutrons alter the mass of the atom and the properties which depend on it, such as
density.
Isotopes were first discovered by scientists using apparatus called a mass spectrometer.

33

Isotopes of hydrogen
Hydrogen has 3 isotopes

Protium

Deuterium

Tritium

The most common


Few have one neutron
2
2
type of hydrogen is
1H. [ 1D]
1
1H. It is an ordinary
hydrogen atom with no
neutron.

Some have two


neutrons 31H, [31T]

Isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties

Isotopes of carbon
Carbon has 3 isotopes

[A] 126C

Mass number

[B] 136C

..

..

[C] 146C

..

Number of protons =

..

..

.....

Number of electrons =

...

..

...

Number of neutrons =

...

...

[A] is called carbon-12


34

What do you think [B] and [C] are called?

Relative atomic masses


Most elements contain a mixture of isotopes. This explains why their relative atomic masses
are not whole numbers.

The relative atomic mass of the element [Ar] is the average of the atomic masses of the
naturally occurring isotopes of an element taking into account their proportions compared
with 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12.
For example, there are two isotopes of chlorine with mass numbers of 35 and 37. Their
proportions are 75% of 3517Cl and 25% of 3717Cl.
The relative atomic mass of chlorine will be: 35 X 75/100 + 37 X 25/100 = ..
Radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes)
Some isotopes [such as tritium and carbon-14] have unstable nuclei (have some extra
neutrons); they emit certain types of radiation [alpha , beta , and gamma ] in order to be
more stable.
Some uses of radioactive isotopes:
Medical uses: e.g.
1. Cancer treatment: tumors can be destroyed using controlled doses of gamma radiation
from cobalt-60.
2. Sterilizing medical equipment
Industrial uses: e.g.
1. Detecting leaks in water pipes.
2. Checking the thickness of paper during manufacture.
35

Nuclear power (235U as a source of energy)


Nuclear fission
Some radioactive isotopes are used as nuclear fuels e.g. Uranium-235.
When they are bombarded with neutrons, they split into smaller atoms. The splitting of an
atom is called nuclear fission. Fission of Uranium-235 atom produces a huge amount of heat
energy (nuclear energy) which can be used for generation of electricity [nuclear power
station]. Nuclear fission is done in a nuclear reactor.

How are electrons arranged in atoms?


1. Electrons are arranged in a series of shells around the nucleus.
2. Each shell can only contain a limited number of electrons.
3. The shell nearest to the nucleus has the lowest energy and it fills first. When it is full,
the electrons go into the next shell, and so on.
4. The first shell can only hold two electrons, the second 8 and the third 18 (however,
when 8 electrons have occupied this level a certain stability is given to the atom and the
next electrons go into the 4th level).

36

The first twenty elements in the periodic table and their electronic structures
H

He

Li

Be

Ne

2,1

2,2

2,3

2,4

2,5

2,6

2,7

2,8

Na

Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

2,8,1

2,8,2

2,8,3

2,8,4

2,8,5

2,8,6

2,8,7

2,8,8

Ca

2,8,8,1 2,8,8,2

The outer shell is called the valency shell and the electrons of the outer shell are the
valency electrons.
Elements of the same group in the periodic table contain the same number of electrons
in their outer shell. For example, lithium, sodium, and potassium (group I) have one
electron in their outer shell. Fluorine, chlorine and bromine (group VII) have 7 electrons
in their outer shell.
What is special about the noble gases?
The noble gases are very unreactive.
They will not join up with each other to form molecules, nor will they react easily with
other elements to form compounds. The noble gases are stable (unreactive) because
they have full outer shells.

We could conclude that other elements are reactive because they don't have full shells. It
seems that other elements attempt to attain the noble gas electron configurations during
chemical reactions.

37

Chemical bonding
A chemical bond is a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of
different atoms that binds the atoms together.

Types of bonds

metallic
Ionic

covalent

Ions and ionic (electrovalent) bonds

An ionic bond is formed when one (or more electrons) is transferred from an atom of a metal
to an atom of a non-metal.
Ionic compounds are made up of ions.

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

Na (atom)
2,8,1

Na+ (ion)
2,8

Cl (atom)
2,8,7

+ Cl- (ion)
2,8,8

38

11 protons

= 11 +

17 protons

= 17 +

10 electrons

= 10

18 electrons

= 18 -

Overall charge = +1

overall charge = -1

Because the sodium atom has lost one negative electron, it became a positive ion.
Because the chlorine atom has gained one electron, it gained a negative charge and became a
negative ion.
Sodium chloride is made of sodium ions and chloride ions held together by an electrostatic
attraction between oppositely charged ions. The charges on the sodium and chloride ions are
equal but opposite.

Ion: is an electrically charged particle formed when an atom loses or gains one or more
electrons.

The arrangement of the valence electrons (i.e. electrons of the outer shell) in the ionic
compound sodium chloride can be represented as follows:

39

Magnesium oxide (MgO)

Magnesium fluoride (MgF2)

Giant ionic structure [giant ionic lattice]


This is a regular arrangement of alternating +ve and ve ions in ionic crystals, giving
strong inter-ionic forces, in other words, ions held together by an electrostatic attraction
between oppositely charged ions.
This explains the high melting points of ionic compounds.
e.g. sodium chloride lattice
Properties of ionic compounds:
1. They are usually solids and have high melting points and boiling points, e.g. the
melting point of pure sodium chloride is 800 C. This is due to the strong electrostatic
forces holding the crystal lattice together. A lot of energy is therefore needed to separate
the ions and melt the substance.
2. Solid compounds do not conduct electricity. They conduct electricity when molten or
dissolved in water, [ions are free to move and carry the electric current].
3. They are usually soluble in water. This is because water molecules are able to bond
with both the positive and negative ions, which breaks up the lattice and keeps the ions
apart.

40

Molecules and covalent bonds


Atoms can gain stability by sharing electros in their outer energy levels. This occurs between
non-metal atoms, and the bond formed is called a covalent bond.
A single covalent bond is formed when a single pair of electrons is shared between two
atoms.
Covalent compounds are made up of molecules.

Hydrogen (H2)

HH

Chlorine (Cl2)

Cl Cl

Similarly,
Br2, I2, F2

41

Water (H2O)

Hydrogen chloride (HCl)

Similarly, H2S
Ammonia (NH3)
Similarly, PCl3

42

Methane (CH4)

Draw a diagram that shows the arrangement of valence electrons in


tetrachloromethane [CCl4].

Methanol (CH3OH)

43

A double covalent bond is formed when two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms.

Oxygen (O2)

O=O

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

O=C=O

Ethene (C2H4)

44

A triple covalent bond is formed when three pairs of electrons are shared.
Nitrogen (N2)

Ethyne [Acetylene]
C2H2

Compounds containing covalent bonds have molecules whose structures can be classified as
either simple molecular or giant molecular.

Properties of covalent compounds [simple molecular]


1. simple made up of molecules and contain no ions
2. do not conduct electricity (do not contain ions) . However, some molecules actually
react with water to form ions. Eg, HCl gas produced aq. Hydrogen ions and chloride
ions when it dissolves in water.
3. most covalent compounds are gases and liquids, few are solids
4. covalent compounds are less soluble in water than ionic compounds
5. usually have lower melting points and boiling points than ionic compounds (weak
intermolecular forces of attraction between simple molecules)
Molecules are small groups of atoms
Diatomic molecules: they consist of 2 identical atoms such as H2, O2, N2, Cl2, Br2, H2, and F2.
In the case of phosphorus and sulfur the atoms are joined in larger numbers (P4, S8)
Noble gases are composed of separate and individual atoms (monatomic)

45

Allotropes of carbon

Carbon occurs in two solid forms: diamond and graphite.


These are very different, even though they both contain carbon atoms.

Pure diamond is a hard, colorless solid that sparkles in the light, while graphite is a dark
grey greasy solid with a dull shine.

When an element can exist in more than one physical form in the same state, it is said to
exhibit allotropy (or polymorphism). The different forms are called allotropes of
carbon.

Allotropes: different physical forms of the same element

46

Macromolecular (Giant) structure


Diamond

Structure
Diamond is a giant structure made of carbon atoms. Each carbon atom is joined to four other
atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.
Diamond has these properties:
1. It is very hard, the hardest substance known. This is because each atom is held in place
by four strong bonds. This is why diamond is used in drilling and cutting.
2. It cannot conduct electricity because there are no ions or free electrons in it to carry
charge.
3. used in jewelry, glass cutters, diamond studded saws and polishers.

47

Graphite
Structure
Carbon atoms are arranged in hexagons in parallel layers. Within each layer each carbon atom
is bonded to three others by strong covalent bonds. The layers are held together by weak
forces, so they will pass over each other easily

Graphite has these properties:


It is soft and slippery and feels greasy. This is because the layers can easily slide over each
other. This is why graphite is used as a lubricant.
It is a good conductor of electricity. This is because each atom has four electrons, but
forms only three bonds. The fourth electron is free to move through the graphite, carrying
charge (delocalized).
Both diamond and graphite have very high melting points, this is because both consist of giant
structure of atoms.
Silicon (IV) Oxide (silicon dioxide)
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) has a giant structure in which each silicon atom is bonded to four
oxygen atoms and each oxygen atom to two silicon atoms.
This structure is similar to the giant covalent structure of diamond.
Like diamond, silicon dioxide is hard, has a high melting point and does not conduct
electricity.

48

Properties of macromolecules:
1.
2.
3.
4.

High M.P. and B.P.


Hard [graphite is an exception since it is soft]
Do not conduct electricity [graphite is an exception]
Insoluble in water

Metallic bond
Giant metallic lattice (in metals)

Giant metallic lattice consists of the positive ions surrounded by a "sea" of (mobile)
electrons (i.e. the electrons of the outer shells).
Metals are good conductors of electricity; the current is carried by the free electrons.
Metallic bonding is very strong in some metals like iron and copper (transition
elements) and is much weaker as in sodium and potassium (group I)

49

Summary of bonding

Bonding

Ionic

Covalent

Metallic

(between metals
and non-metals)

Between non-metals)

(in metals)

Giant ionic
Structure

Melting
point

Conduct
electricity?

Examples

Simple
molecular

Giant covalent
(macromolecular)

Giant
metallic

High

Low

Very high

Usually high

Not in the solid


form, but they do
when molten or
dissolved in
water (when ions
are free to move)

No

No

Yes

NaCl, MgO,
CaCl2

[graphite is an
exception]
Cl2, I2, NH3,
CH4, CO2,
H2O

Diamond,
graphite, SiO2

Diamond

Water

50

(has free
electrons)

Fe, Cu, Mg

Glossary of Topic 3

Element: is a substance that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substance
it is the simplest form of matter, it is made of one type of atoms.
Atoms are the smallest fundamental particle of matter.

Compound: it is made of two different atoms, chemically joined, at fixed ratio, can not be
separated by simple physical means
A compound has properties different from those of its elements, e.g. water or carbon
dioxide.

Mixture: is a blend of two or more kinds of matter (not chemically combined), each of which
retains its identity, e.g. air or sea water, can be separated by simple physical means

Atomic (proton) number : is the number of protons in the nucleus.

Mass (nucleon) number (A): is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.

Isotopes are atoms of the same element (with the same numbers of protons) that contain
different numbers of neutrons. In other words, isotopes have the same atomic number but
different mass number.

Radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes)


Some isotopes have unstable nuclei (have some extra neutrons); they emit certain types of
radiation [alpha , beta , and gamma ] in order to be more stable.

Ion: is an electrically charged particle formed when an atom loses or gains one or more
electrons. Charged atom.

Giant ionic structure [giant ionic lattice]


This is a regular arrangement of alternating +ve and ve ions in ionic crystals, giving strong
inter-ionic forces.

Molecules are small groups of atoms

Diatomic molecules: they consist of 2 identical atoms such as H2, O2, N2, Cl2, Br2, H2, and
F2.
51

Allotropes: When an element can exist in more than one physical form in the same state,

Ionic bond: a strong electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions.

Covalent bond: a chemical bond formed by sharing one or more pairs of electrons between
two atoms.

Metallic bond: an electrostatic force of attraction between the mobile sea of electrons and
the positive ions within.

Electron: a fundamental sub-atomic particle with a negative charge present in all atoms
within energy levels around the nucleus.

Electronic structure (configuration):the arrangement of electrons within the energy levels


around the nucleus .

Lattice: A regular three-dimensional arrangement of atoms/ions in a crystalline solid.

Relative molecular mass: Ar=average mass of isotopes of the element/1/12 x mass off 1
atom of carbon12

52

Topic 4 Stoichiometry
Chemical formulae
\
Valency or combining power
The valency of an element is the number which shows its ability to combine with other
elements.
In molecules (covalent compounds), it represents the number of covalent bonds which
the atom can form.
In ionic compounds, the valency represents the charge on the ions of the element.
Valency can be used to predict the formulae of compounds.
1. The formulae of covalent molecules
Electron diagrams (dot and cross type diagram) or just knowledge about the number of shared
electrons in the outer shell can be used to work out formulae.
Complete the following table:
Element
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Sulphur
Hydrogen
Chlorine
Bromine

Symbol
C
N
O
S
H
Cl
Br

Valency
4

What are the formulae of the following molecules?


Ammonia .
Hydrogen chloride
Methane .
Bromine
53

2. The formulae of ionic compounds


We cannot talk about molecules of ionic compounds. In ionic crystals, we have alternating
arrangement of positive and negative ions.
More about ions:
Some elements can lose or gain electrons and change into atoms with positive or negative
charges. These atoms are called ions. Some examples are:
Na+ sodium ion
Ca+2 calcium ion
Cl- chloride ion

K+ potassium ion
Al+3 Aluminum ion
O-2 oxide ion

Sometimes, groups of atoms can have charges too, and behave as ions. The sulphate ion, SO42
, is made of one sulphur and four oxygen atoms bonded together. The whole group of atoms
has two negative charges.
Nitrate ion NO3-, carbonate ion CO3-2, and ammonium NH4+ are other examples.
Here is a list of most of the ions that you are likely to meet and will need to know:
Valency
1

Positive ions
H+
Li+
Na+
K+
Ag+
NH4+
Ca+2
Mg+2
Ba+2
Pb+2
Cu+2
Zn+2
Fe+2
Fe+3
Al+3

Negative ions
OH- hydroxide ion
Clchloride ion
Br
bromide ion
I
iodide ion
F
fluoride ion
NO3
nitrate ion
-2
S
sulphide ion
-2
O
oxide ion
-2
SO4
sulphate ion
-2
CO3
carbonate ion

hydrogen ion
lithium ion
Sodium ion
potassium ion
silver ion
ammonium ion
calcium ion
magnesium ion
barium ion
lead ion
copper (II) ion
zinc ion
iron (II) ion
iron (III) ion
aluminum ion

PO4-3

54

phosphate ion

Predicting the formulae of ionic compounds


In an ionic compound, the ions are attracted to each other by their opposite charges
. The number of +ve charges is always equal to the number of ve charges. Knowing
this, the formulae of ionic compounds can be written down.
Look at these examples in which the numbers of positive ions and negative ions are
balanced to make the charges the same.

Aluminum oxide

ammonium sulphate

Magnesium oxide

Remember
1) Compounds ending in ide are made of 2 elements only.
2) Compounds ending in ate have a third element which is oxygen.

55

Question:
Write down the formula of each of these ionic compounds:
1. Sodium chloride

..

2. Aluminum nitrate

..

3. Zinc chloride

..

4-Sodium sulphate

5. Copper (II) sulphate


6. Zinc carbonate

7. Aluminum carbonate
8. Potassium iodide
9. Calcium oxide

..

56

Chemical equations
When a chemical reaction occurs, substances react together. These reacting substances are
called the reactants. They form new chemicals called the products.
How to write the equation for a reaction
These are the steps to follow when writing an equation:
1. Write the equation in words (word equation)
2. Write the equation using symbols. Make sure that all the formulae are correct
3. Check that the equation is balanced, for each atom in turn.
Make sure you do not change any formula

Example 1.
When hydrogen burns in oxygen or air, it forms water
Hydrogen + oxygen
H2
+
O2
2 H2
+
O2

water
H2O
2 H2O

Remember that the common gases (nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen) and the halogens are
diatomic. This means that they exist as molecules containing two atoms. Thus oxygen is O2,
and not O, and chlorine is Cl2, and not Cl.
Example 2.
Magnesium burns brightly in oxygen or air, it forms magnesium oxide [white powder]
Magnesium + oxygen
Mg
+
O2
2 Mg
+
O2

magnesium oxide
MgO
2 MgO

State symbols:
Some chemical equations include extra symbols after the formula. They show if the substance
is a solid (s), liquid (l), a gas (g) or dissolved in water i.e. aqueous (aq)
Sodium + water
2 Na (s) + 2 H2O (l)

sodium hydroxide + hydrogen


2 NaOH (aq)
+ H2 (g)

57

Balance the following equations:


Na

Cl2

NaCl

N2

+ H2

NH3

CO

CO2

Al

+ Cl2

NO

Al

+ O2

O2

KClO3

AlCl3
NO2
Al2O3
KCl + O2

Mg

N2

Mg3N2

SO2

O2

SO3

CH4

+ O2

CO2 + H2O

1. 2 NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2
CaCl2 + 2 NH3 + 2 H2O
Complete the word equation for the above reaction:
.... +
..
.. + ..
+ water

58

Chemical calculations
Relative molecular mass [Mr]
Each element has its own relative atomic mass [Ar]. This is the average mass of its isotopes
compared with the mass of a standard atom of Carbon, 126C (because its atomic mass could be
measured particularly accurately).
Compounds have a relative molecular mass (sometimes called formula mass). The relative
molecular mass (formula mass) of a compound is found by adding up the relative atomic
masses of the elements in the compound according to the number of each elements atoms.

Examples
1. sodium chloride, NaCl
1 atom of Na
1 X 23
1 atom of Cl
1 X 35.5
Relative molecular mass
2. Calcium chloride, CaCl2
1 atom of Ca
1 X 40
2 atoms of Cl
2 X 35.5
Relative molecular mass
3. Zinc nitrate, Zn(NO3)2
1 atom of Zn
1 X 65
2 atoms of N
2 X 14
6 atoms of O
2 X 3 X 16
Relative molecular mass

= 23
= 35.5 +
_________
= 58.5

= 40
= 71 +
_________
= 111

= 65
= 28
= 96 +
_________
= 189

Questions:
Calculate the relative molecular masses of the following compounds:
1. Carbon dioxide, CO2

2. Sulphuric acid, H2SO4

3. Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3


...
59

4. Water, H2O
..

Percentage composition by mass


Sometimes it is important to know the exact composition of a compound. For example, all
bags of fertilizers must show the percentage of the elements nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium they contain on the outside.

Ar of the element X number of its atoms

% of an element by mass in a compound =


X 100

Mr of the compound

Examples:
1. The % mass of calcium in calcium carbonate, CaCO3
Ca

Ca + C + 3 X O

40

X 100 =

40 + 12 + 48

X 100 = 40%

40% of the mass of calcium carbonate is calcium

2. The % mass of nitrogen in ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3


2XN

28

X 100 =
2XN+4XH+3XO

28 + 4 + 48

35% of the mass of ammonium nitrate is nitrogen

60

X 100 = 35%

Topic 5
Periodic Table

The modern periodic table is obtained by arranging the elements in order of increasing
atomic number and placing them in rows so that elements fall into vertical columns called
groups and horizontal rows called periods.

Elements are divided in the periodic table into metals and non-metals. The class of
elements which lies on the borderline between metals and non metals is often classified
as semi-metals or metalloids, eg, boron, silicon, arsenic, germanium, tellurium.
For example, arsenic (As) looks like a metal, i.e., shiny but doesnt behave as a metal.

Elements of the same group have similar properties as they contain same number of
electrons in the outermost energy level.
61

The valency increases with the group till group four then decreases.
The reactivity of metals increases down a group

The reactivity of non metals decreases down a group

Rb k Na Li

F Cl Br I

Metals react with non metals to form ionic compounds


Non metals either join with other non metals to make covalent compounds or with
metals to make ionic compounds.

Relation between group number and number of valence electrons


- Group I will have one electron to lose from their outer shells; they form ions with +1
charge.
- Group II have two electrons to lose from their outer shell, they form ions with +2
charge.
- Group III have 3 electrons to lose, they form ions with +3 charge.
- Groups V, VI & VII have more than 4 electrons therefore they need to gain electrons to
fill their outer shell.
Groups of Periodic table:
Elements in periodic table are classified into 8 main classes:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Hydrogen
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Transition metals
Poor metals
Non metals
Noble gases

62

Group I (A) - Alkali metals

This group is called alkali metals


because when they react with
water they form alkaline solution.
The outer most shell contains
only one electron that is why they
behave nearly the same.

Name

Atomic
Symbol
number

Melting
Point Density
C
Gcm-3

Lithium

Li

180

0.53

Sodium

Na

11

98

0.97

Potassium

19

64

0.86

Rubidium

Rb

37

39

1.53

Cesium

Cs

55

29

1.9

Where do group 1(A) metals exist?


They are never found in their elementary state in nature, this is because they are very reactive
metals. So they are found as compounds, e.g.: NaCl (table salt) is the most common group 1
compound and it is found in sea water and ground rock salt deposits.

Physical properties of alkali metals


a- Soft and shiny when freshly cut, they are easily cut with knife. Metals further down the
group are softer (lithium is the hardest and potassium the softest).
b- Conduct heat and electricity
c- Low density; lithium, sodium and potassium float on water. This is because they are
less dense than water. Lithium is the lightest metals known.
Chemical properties of alkali metals

Reaction with air


Metals are stored under oil as they are very reactive with air.
The metals are only shiny when freshly cut. They tarnish easily forming metal oxides.
Alkali metals all burn easily in air, with characteristic flame colors, to form white solid
oxides.
Sodium + oxygen

sodium oxide
63

4Na (s) + O2 (g)

Potassium + oxygen
4K (s)

+ O2 (g)

2 Na2O (s)

potassium oxide
2K2O (s)

Reaction with water


Alkali metals react easily with cold water to give an alkaline solution of the metal hydroxide
as well as hydrogen gas. The heat coming out of the reaction melts the metal

Sodium + water
2Na(s) + 2H2O (l)

Potassium + water
2K (s)

+ 2H2O (l)

sodium hydroxide + hydrogen


2NaOH

+ H2

potassium hydroxide + hydrogen


2KOH

+ H2

The observations that can be made when a small piece of the alkali metal is added to a
trough of water:
1. Lithium floats and a gas fizzes around it
2. Sodium floats and melts as it shoots across the water and a gas fizzes fast
3. Potassium reacts violently that it melts immediately and catches fire
Reaction with Chlorine
Alkali metals react vigorously with halogens to form halides
Lithium + chlorine
2Li (s)

+ Cl2 (g)

sodium + chlorine

lithium chloride
2LiCl (s)

sodium chloride

2Na (s) + Cl2 (g)

2NaCl (s)

potasium + chlorine

potassium chloride

2K (s )

+ Cl2 (g)

2KCl (s)
64

Reactivity of alkali metals increases as we go down the periodic table


because as you go down the group the size of the atoms increase and the outer electron gets
further away from the nucleus and becomes easier to remove.

Elements behave in a similar way if their atoms have the same number of valence
electrons (1 electron).
e.g.: Na

Na+ + e-

Alkali metals compounds

Metal

Chloride

Bromide

Nitrate

Sulphate

Carbonate

Lithium

LiCl

LiBr

LiNO3

Li2SO4

Li2CO3

Sodium

NaCl

NaBr

NaNO3

Na2SO4

Na2CO3

Potassium

KCl

KBr

KNO3

K2SO4

K2CO3

All these compounds (chlorides, nitrates, carbonates, etc) are white ionic solids that dissolve
in water to give colorless solution.

Transition elements:

Those elements are metals that tend to form positive ions with more than one valency.
The position of those elements in the periodic table is between the second and third group of
the representative elements and they are called group B. Examples are Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, V, Co.

65

Main characteristics of transition elements:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

They are metals (less reactive than groups 1 and 2).


High melting points (except for mercury, which is liquid at room temperature).
Have much higher densities than the metals in groups 1 and 2.
Harder and stronger than the metals in groups 1 and 2.
Form a range of brightly colored compounds (eg. Copper II ions, Cu+2 (aq) are blue
iron II ions, Fe+2 (aq) are green).
6. The metals and their compounds can act as catalysts
a. Iron in manufacturing of ammonia
b. Vanadium (V) oxide is used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid
7. Most of them have more than one valency, eg. Iron reacts with oxygen to form Iron III
oxide (Fe+3) and react with Hydrochloric acid to form Iron II chloride (Fe+2)

Comparison between group 1 and transition metals:


Property

Transition metals

M.P.

Group 1Alkaline earth


Metals
Low

Hardness

Soft

Hard

Density

Low

High

Colour of compounds

White

Coloured

Catalytic activity

Not catalyst

Catalyst

Valence

+1

More than one valency

Reaction with cold water

React vigorously

No reaction

66

High

Colours of some transition metals ion:


Metal ion in solution

Colour

Copper (II)

Blue

Iron II

Green

Iron III

Reddish brown

Chromium(III)

Green

Cobalt

Pink

Manganate (VII)

Purple

Chromate(VI)

Yellow

Dichromate(VI)

Orange

Group VII (A) The Halogens


All halogens exist as diatomic molecules.
The atoms are joined by covalent bond as shown in the figure below:

67

Halogen

Fluorine
Chlorine
Bromine
Iodine

Molecule

F2
Cl2
Br2
I2

State at
room
temp.

Color

Gas

Pale
Yellow

Symbol of
the halide
ion

Color
Reactivity
Characteristic

F-

Gas

Green

Cl

Liquid

RedBrown

Br-

Solid

Dark
Gray

I-

Color goes
darker

Reactivity
increases

Bromine is very volatile


Easily turns to gas (low boiling point 59 C)
Iodine is a dark grey solid, when warmed
Turns to purple vapor (Sublimes)
Aqueous solution of iodine is brown
Reactivity decreases as you go down the group because the incoming electron will be
more strongly attracted into the outer energy level of the smaller atom since the outer
energy level is closer to the nucleus. As you go down the group this outermost extra
electron is further from the nucleus.

Uses of chlorine:
1. Making Bleach
2. water Purification (kills bacteria)
3. manufacture of PVC (insulation for electric wires)
Uses of fluorine:
in the form of fluorides in drinking water and toothpaste in order to reduce tooth decay.
Uses of bromine:
make disinfectants, medicines,photographic films and fire retardants.
Uses of iodine:
Antiseptics, medicines and disinfectants and also as a photographic chemical.

68

Chemical Properties of Halogens

Halogens reacts with most metals to form salts


Sodium + Chlorine
Sodium chloride (table salt)
2Na (s) + Cl2 (g)

2NaCl (s)

Reaction with indicators


Chlorine gas dissolves in water to make powerful bleach; dump indicator paper is quickly
bleached with chlorine.

Test for Cl2 gas: chlorine bleaches damp litmus paper

Displacement reaction
Elements at the top of the group are more reactive hence displace other halogens, eg: Chlorine
displaces bromine and iodine from a solution of their salts.

Chlorine + potassium iodide

iodine + potassium chloride

Cl2 (g) + 2KI (aq)

I2 (aq) + 2KCl (aq)

Colorless
Ionic eq. Cl2

brown

+ 2 I-

I2

Chlorine + potassium bromide


Cl2 (g)

bromine + potassium chloride

+ 2KBr (aq)

Br2 (aq) + 2KCl (aq)

Colorless
Br2 + 2Cl-

+ 2Cl-

red
+ 2Br-

Ionic eq. Cl2

Halogens have similar properties because their atoms all have 7 electrons in the outer
shell.
69

Group zero Noble Gasses


Noble gases are in group zero, they are very unreactive gases due to the saturation
of their outer most energy level

0
He

eg. Ar18 2 , 8 , 8
Ne
They dont usually form compounds and they exist as monoatomic molecules
(individual atom).
Colourless gases, which occur naturally in air.

Ar
Kr
Xe

Uses of Noble Gases

Rn
--

a- Helium is very light and doesnt burn so it is used in balloons and air ships.
Hydrogen was used in the past in balloons, now helium replaced hydrogen for filling
balloons. Why?

b- Argon is used in filling electric light bulbs to create inert atmosphere to protect the
tungsten filament.When an electric current pass through neon gas it glows, so it is used
in lamps and advertisement signs.

Hydrogen:
It has no group, it is placed by itself in the periodic table. The properties of H are
unique, it has one electron in the outermost shell and forms a positive ion like group
1,BUT it is a gas and reacts as non-metal.
It is the lightest element all over the world as it has no neutrons.

70

Topic 6
Oxidation-Reduction reaction

When hydrogen is passed over black copper (II) oxide in the apparatus above, the black
powder turns pink-brown (copper)
reduced
oxidized

Copper (II) oxide + hydrogen


CuO (s)
+ H2 (g)
Oxidizing agent
reducing agent

copper + water
Cu (s) + H2O (g)

The copper (II) oxide is losing oxygen. It is reduced.


The hydrogen is gaining oxygen. It is oxidized.
Oxidation is defined as the addition of oxygen
Reduction is defined as the loss of oxygen
Reduction and oxidation always take place simultaneously in a reaction. So the reaction is
called redox reaction.

71

Question:
Which substance is oxidized and which is reduced in the following reaction, which substance
are the reducing and oxidizing agents?

Fe2O3

3 CO

2 Fe

3 CO2

Common reducing agents:


Hydrogen, carbon, carbon monoxide, reactive metals.
Since hydrogen is a common reducing agent, the addition of hydrogen is a reduction
reaction, and the removal of hydrogen is an oxidation reaction.
In which change shown has nitrogen been reduced?
A
N2O
B
NO
Nitrogen, N2

NO2

D
NH3

Redox in terms of electron transfer


- Oxidation is the loss of electrons
- Reduction is the gain of electrons
Therefore:
Reducing agents give electrons
Oxidizing agents accept electrons
Consider the reaction of magnesium with oxygen:
Magnesium
2 Mg

+ oxygen
+
O2

magnesium oxide
2 MgO

Magnesium is oxidized and oxygen is reduced. During this reaction, two electrons are
transferred from magnesium to oxygen. Magnesium ion and oxide ion are formed.
Mg
O + 2 e-

Mg+2
O-2

2 e72

Magnesium, which is oxidized, loses electrons.


Oxygen, which is reduced, gains electrons.

Oxidation states [oxidation numbers]


The oxidation state of iron (II) oxide is 2 and in iron (III) oxide is 3.
The oxidation state of manganese (IV) oxide is 4 and in potassium manganate (VII) is 7.
The oxidation state of chromium in chromium (III) oxide is 3 and in potassium dichromate
(VI) is 6.
Change in oxidation state:
Oxidation involves an increase in oxidation state
Example: Fe+2
Fe+3
Reduction involves a decrease in oxidation state
Example: Fe+3
Fe+2

Summary of oxidation and reduction

With respect to:

Oxidation

Reduction

Oxygen

Addition of oxygen

Removal of oxygen

Hydrogen

Removal of hydrogen

Addition of hydrogen

Electrons

Loss of electrons

Gain of electrons

Oxidation state

Increase in oxidation state

Decrease in oxidation state

Tests for oxidizing and reducing agents:


1. Oxidizing agent (oxidant) + potassium iodide solution:
The color changes from colorless to brown [I2]
2. A. Reducing agent (reductant) + acidified potassium manganate (VII)
solution:
The color changes from purple to colorless
B. Reducing agent (reductant) + acidified potassium dichromate (VI)
solution:
The color changes from orange to green

73

Electricity and chemistry (electrochemistry)


Conductors and non conductors:
Solid substances that allow electricity to flow through them are called conductors. All
metals are good conductors of electricity.
Substances that do not allow electricity to flow through them are called non-conductors
or insulators. All non metals substances such as glass, plastic, wood and rubber are
insulators. There is, however, one very important exception. Carbon, in the form of
graphite, is a non metal, but it is a very good conductor of electricity.
Semiconductors:
They are substances which contain no free electrons and no ions but allow very small
current to pass through them, i.e. they conduct weakly e.g. silicon.
Electrolytes and non electrolytes:
Liquids that conduct an electric current are called electrolytes.
Those that do not conduct are called non-electrolytes.
Electrolytes are substances that contain ions which are free to move about, so they are
ionic compounds that are molten or dissolved in water.
Covalent compounds such as ethanol, pure water or sugar solution are non-electrolytes.
The following figure shows the apparatus that could be used to see if a liquid is an electrolyte.

74

Free
moving
ions

Type of substance
Solutions of acids and
akalis in water
Solutions if salts in
water
Molten salts
Ethanol
Petrol
Sugar solution
Pure water
Oil

Electrolyte

Non-electrolyte

Electrolysis
Electrolysis is the decomposition [breakdown] of a substance by electricity.
During electrolysis, ions migrate towards the opposite electrodes.
Can you suggest why negative ions are called anions and positive ions are called cations?

Chemical changes that take place at the electrodes:


At the cathode, positive ions gain electrons and become atoms or molecules.
At the anode, negative ions lose electrons and become atoms or molecules.
The electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode into the cathode.

75

Electrolysis of molten substances using carbon electrodes


The compounds are decomposed into their elements. The rules for the electrolysis of molten
compounds are:

Molten compounds
At the cathode ve

At the anode +ve

Non-metal

Metal

1. Electrolysis of molten lead bromide [PbBr2]

76

Explain why the lead bromide needs to be melted for electrolysis to take place

The electrode reactions are summarized as follows:


Electrolyte

At the cathode Pb+2 + 2 e-

Lead bromide,
PbBr2

At the anode +
Pb

2 Br-

Br2 + 2
e-

Complete the following table


Molten electrolyte
Lead bromide
Sodium chloride
Magnesium
fluoride
Aluminum oxide

Product at the
cathode -

Product at the anode


+

Lead
.
.

Bromine
.
.
..

2-Electrolysis of concentrated hydrochloric acid:


Electrolyte
Hydrochloric acid, HCl
(aq)

At the cathode 2 H+ (aq) + 2 eH2 (g)

77

At the anode +
2 Cl- (aq)

Cl2 +
2 e-

3-Electrolysis of aqueous solutions:


The products of electrolysis of aqueous solutions are difficult to predict than molten
compounds. This is because in addition to the cation and the anion from the salt, there is a
cations (H+) and an anion (OH-) from the water.
Electrolysis of concentrated aqueous sodium chloride [brine]:
At the cathode

At the anode +

From NaCl

Na+

Cl-

From H2O

H+

OH-

Only H+ takes part in


electrolysis [H being lower
in the reactivity series than
Na]
2 H+ (aq) + 2 e-

Only Cl- takes part in


electrolysis because it is
present in much greater
concentration than OH-

H2 2 Cl- (aq)
(g) 2 e-

Cl2 (g) +

This leaves the solution containing sodium and hydroxide ions (a solution of sodium
hydroxide, NaOH). The solution is alkaline (i.e. turns red litmus paper blue).

Compare the products of electrolysis of:


1. Molten sodium chloride
2. Concentrated aqueous sodium chloride

Manufacture of chlorine and sodium hydroxide


The method is based on the electrolysis of concentrated aqueous sodium chloride (brine).

78

Predicting the products of electrolysis of aqueous solutions:


At the cathode At the anode +
If the metal is higher than hydrogen
For concentrated solutions of
in the reactivity series, then
chlorides, chlorine gas is produced
hydrogen gas is produced
For sulphates and nitrates, oxygen
If the metals is lower than hydrogen
gas is produced
in the reactivity series, then the metal
is deposited (formed).
The reactivity series:

Reactivity
Most reactive

Least reactive

Metals
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Al
Zn
Fe
Pb
H
Cu
Ag
Au

Above hydrogen, so
hydrogen gas is
evolved at the cathode

Below hydrogen so
the metal is deposited
at the cathode

79

4-Electrolysis of aqueous copper (II) sulphate:


Using carbon electrodes (i.e. inert)
At the cathode

At the anode +
Cu+2 SO4-2

From CuSO4

H+ OH-

From H2O

Only copper ions take part


Only the OH- take part in
in the electrolysis electrolysis
Cu+2 (aq) + 2 e-

Cu
4 OH- (aq)
(s) O + 4 e2

2H2O +

Copper is deposited on the


Oxygen gas is given off
cathode(as a brown deposit)

The solution left is dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4)


The solution changes from blue to colorless

Summary:
Electrolysis of aqueous copper (II) sulphate:

At the cathode Copper

at the anode +
Oxygen

The solution left is dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4)


80

Types of electrodes:
Inert electrodes: carbon (graphite) or platinum.
They do not take part in the electrolysis.
Active electrodes: eg, copper, silver, zinc, nickel.
They take part in the electrolysis and the active metal anode dissolves, (i.e, passes into
solution as ions. In other words, the mass of the active metal anode decreases)

Electrolysis of aqueous copper (II) sulphate:


Using copper electrodes (i.e. active):

At the anode +

At the cathode

Copper passes into solution as ions (i.e.


the anode dissolves)
[anode: decreases in mass]

Copper is deposited
[cathode: increases in mass]

Cu (s)

Cu+2 (aq) + 2 e-

Cu+2 (aq) + 2 e-

The aqueous copper (II) sulphate remains unchanged.

81

Cu (s)

Application of electrolysis:
1. Refining of copper:
Copper can be refined by electrolysis using a block of impure copper as the anode and a
thin sheet of pure copper as the cathode.
The electrolyte is aqueous copper (II) sulphate. Impurities sink to the bottom of the container
as anode sludge.
The overall result is the transfer of copper atoms from the impure copper to the cathode.
Zinc can be refined by electrolysis. The method is similar to that used to refine copper.
Complete the following statements about refining zinc.
The cathode is made from .
The anode is made from .
The electrolyte is aqueous

82

2. Electroplating:
Many metal objects are electroplated for:
a. Protecting them from corrosion and rust
b. Making them look attractive

If the object is to be
plated with
Copper

The anode will be made


from
Copper

Silver

Silver

Aqueous copper (II)


sulphate
Aqueous silver nitrate

nickel

Nickel

Aqueous nickel sulphate

83

The electrolyte will be

3-Extraction of metals:
Reactive metals above Zn in the reactivity series such as Na, Mg, Ca, Al can be extracted
only by electrolysis.
Extraction of Aluminum:
Ore: Bauxite
The purified bauxite (aluminum oxide, Al2O3) is electrolyzed in molten cryolite (Na3AlF6)
Aluminum oxide has too high melting point to be used on its own, so it dissolves in molten
cryolite at 900C (i.e. cryolite is used to lower the MP of Al2O3)

At the cathode
Al+3 + 3 e-

At the anode +
Al

The aluminum sinks to the bottom

2 O-2

O2 + 4 e-

Oxygen gas is produced

As the hot oxygen escapes, it burns away the graphite anode ( C + O2


and so they have to be replaced from time to time.

CO2 ),

Making aluminum is an expensive process because large amounts of electricity are


needed.

84

Glossary of topic 6

Anions: Negative ions; these are attracted to the anode.


Anode: The positive electrode. It is positively charged because electrons are drawn
away from it.
Cathode: The negative electrode. It is negatively charged because an excess of
electrons move towards it.
Cations: Positive ions; these are attracted to the cathode.
Electrode: a point where the electric current enters and leaves the electrolytic cell .An
inert electrode is usually made of platinum or carbon that doesn't react with the
electrolyte or the substances produced at the electrodes themselves.
Electrolysis: A process which in the chemical reaction caused by a passage of an
electric current.
Electrolyte: A substances which will carry electric current only if it is molten or
dissolved.
Electroplating: The process of depositing metals from solution in the form of a layer
on other surfaces.
Inert electrode: these are electrodes that do not react with the products of electrolysis
e.g. Carbon and platinum.
Membrane cell: an electrolytic cell used for the production of sodium hydroxide,
hydrogen and chlorine from brine in which the cathode and the anode are separated by
a membrane.

85

Topic 7
Acids, bases and salts
Acids:
An acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions H+ in aqueous solutions.
Aqueous solutions of acids turn the color of litmus paper red.
It is the hydrogen ions that cause the change of color.
The solutions of Acids are electrolytes as they are liquids that conduct electricity.
Remember that the hydrogen ion is simply a proton.
In other words, an acid is a proton donor.
Common acids:

strong

weak

Acid
Hydrochloric acid
Nitric acid
Sulphuric acid

Formula
HCl
HNO3
H2SO4

Ions present in the acid


H+
Cl[Chloride]
+
H
NO3
[nitrate]
+
-2
2H
SO4
[sulphate]

Ethanoic acid
(acetic acid)

CH3COOH H+

CH3COO- [ethanoate]

Basicity of acids:
Monobasic
such as HCl, HNO3, CH3COOH
Dibasic
such as H2SO4
Reactions of acids:
1. Acids react with reactive metals to give a salt and hydrogen
Acid
hydrogen

Metal

salt

Magnesium + sulphuric acid


sulphate + hydrogen
H2SO4 (aq)
+ H2 (g)

magnesium
Mg (s)
+
MgSO4 (aq)
Ionic equation:
Mg(s)
+

2H+ (aq)

Mg+2 (aq)
86

H2 (g)

2. Acids react with bases (metal oxides and hydroxides) to give a salt and water
(neutralization)
Acid
Salt

+
+

Sulphuric acid
H2SO4 (aq)
(l)

Base
Water

+ copper (II) oxide


+
CuO (s)

copper (II) sulphate +


CuSO4 (aq)
+

black
Sulphuric acid
+
H2SO4 (aq)
+

water
H2O

blue

sodium hydroxide
2 NaOH (aq)

sodium sulphate
Na2SO4 (aq)

+
+

water
H2O

3. Acids react with metal carbonates to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water
Acid

Carbonate

Salt

Water

Carbon dioxide

Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate


dioxide
2 HCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s)

calcium chloride + water + carbon


CaCl2 (aq)

H2O (l) +

Things to remember about hydrochloric acid:


Hydrochloric acid is a solution of hydrogen chloride gas in water.
water

HCl (g)
[covalent]

HCl (aq)
[ionic]
87

CO2 (g)

Acids

Weak
Partially ionized in solution,
i.e. some of the molecules remain un-ionized in
the solution.
e.g. ethanoic acid
citric acid [in citrus fruits]

Strong
Completely ionized in solution,
i.e. the solution will contain high
concentration of hydrogen ions
e.g. hydrochloric acid
sulphuric acid
nitric acid

Bases

A base is a substance that can accept hydrogen ions, i.e., a proton acceptor.
Oxides and hydroxides of metals are bases.
Properties of bases:
1. Bases react with acids to form a salt and water only (see properties of acids). This
reaction is called neutralization reaction.
2. If a base is soluble in water, the solution is called an alkali.
An alkali is a base that is soluble in water
Common alkalis:
Alkali
strong

weak

Formula

Ions present in the alkali

Sodium hydroxide
Potassium hydroxide
Calcium hydroxide

NaOH
KOH
Ca(OH)2

Na+
K+
Ca+2

Aqueous ammonia
(often called
ammonium
hydroxide)

NH3 (aq)
or
NH4OH

NH4+

OHOH2 OH-

3. Solutions of alkali turn the color of litmus paper blue.


It is the hydroxide ions that cause the change of color.
88

OH-

Weak and strong acids and bases

Similarly, if an alkali completely ionizes upon dissolving in water, a strong alkali is produced,
e.g., sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide.
If an alkali does not completely ionize in water, a weak alkali is formed, e.g., ammonium
hydroxide (aqueous ammonia).

The PH scale
The strength of an acid or an alkali is shown using a scale of numbers called the pH scale.
On this scale:
An acidic solution has a pH number less than 7
An alkali solution has a pH number greater than 7
A neutral solution has a pH number of exactly 7

The pH can be measured by using a universal indicator.


The universal indicator is a mixture of dyes. Like litmus, it can be used as a solution or as a
universal indicator paper: it changes into a different color at a different pH value as shown in
this diagram:
The pH can be measured more accurately using a pH meter.
89

Salts
A salt is a compound made from an acid when a metal replaces the hydrogen in the acid.
The salt made depends on the acid:
Hydrochloric acid gives a chloride
Nitric acid gives a nitrate
Sulphuric acid gives a sulphate
Ethanoic acid gives ethanoate

Soluble and insoluble salts


Some salts dissolve in water easily; they are said to be soluble. Other salts do not dissolve at
all; they are said to be insoluble.
soluble
All sodium, potassium, and
ammonium salts
All nitrates
Chlorides
chloride
Sulphates
and lead sulphate
Sodium, potassium and
ammonium carbonates

insoluble

except silver and lead


except calcium, barium
But all other carbonates are
insoluble

Making soluble salts:


1. A metal, a base or a carbonate can be added to a dilute acid. The solution formed
is then evaporated.
Making zinc sulphate from zinc and dilute sulphuric acid:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Zn (s) + H2SO4 (aq)


ZnSO4 (aq) + H2 (g)
Excess zinc is added to dilute sulphuric acid in a beaker until the reaction stops fizzing
and some zinc is left.
The mixture is filtered.
The filtrate, zinc sulphate solution, is evaporated in an evaporating basin to crystallizing
point.
Allow the solution to cool; crystals of zinc sulphate are formed.
Separate the crystals by filtration and dry them between filter papers (or in warm oven)
90

Zinc sulphate could also have been made using zinc carbonate instead of zinc. The same
method and apparatus would be used, but the gas given off would be carbon dioxide and not
hydrogen.
ZnCO3 (s) + H2SO4 (aq)

ZnSO4 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

Similarly, zinc oxide could have been used instead of zinc. No gas would be given off and
warming is necessary.

91

2. Making salts from acids and alkalis (the titration method)


Making sodium nitrate NaNO3
HNO3 (aq) + NaOH (aq)

NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (l)

1. A burette is filled to the zero mark with dilute nitric acid.


2. A 25 cm3 of dilute sodium hydroxide is put into a conical flask with a pipette.
3. 3 drops of a suitable indicator such as phenolphthalein (ph.ph.) are put into the alkali.
It turns pink.
4. Acid is run from the burette in to the alkali.
When the indicator just changes color (from pink to colorless), the solution is neutral.
When methyl orange (M.O.) is used as indicator, the color changes from yellow to red.
5. The experiment is now repeated, using the same volume of alkali and the same volume
of acid, that has been added, but without indicator
6-Finally, the salt solution is evaporated to the crystallization point, allowed to cool

92

2-Making insoluble salts:

Salts which do not dissolve in water have to be made by the process of precipitation.
Precipitation is the formation of a solid when two solutions are mixed together.
Making the insoluble salt lead iodide ( PbI2 )
1. Soluble lead + soluble iodide salt

General reaction: soluble salt + soluble salt


lead nitrate

insoluble salt + soluble salt

+ potassium iodide

lead iodide + potassium nitrate

Symbol equation: Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 KI (aq)

PbI2 (s) + 2 KNO3 (aq)

(aq)

+ (aq)

(s)

These state symbols show a precipitation reaction has happened.


Ionic equation:

Pb+2

+ 2 I-

PbI

93

(aq)

Making the insoluble salt silver chloride (AgCl)


AgNO3 (aq)
(aq)
Ionic equation:

Ag+

+
+

NaCl (aq)
Cl-

AgCl (s)

+ NaNO3

AgCl

Water of crystallization
Some salts contain water molecules in their crystal lattice.
These salts which contain water of crystallization are called hydrated salts.
Here are some examples of hydrated salts:
Name
Copper (II) sulphate
Magnesium sulphate
Cobalt chloride

Formula
CuSO4. 5 H2O
MgSO4. 7 H2O
CoCl2. 6 H2O

If the water is removed by heating, the crystals often change in appearance and the anhydrous
salt is formed.
Heating copper (II) sulphate crystals (hydrated):

CuSO4. 5H2O (s)


Hydrated copper (II) sulpate
[blue]

CuSO4 (s)

+
5 H2O (g)
anhydrous copper (II) sulphate
[white]

When these blue crystals are heated, steam is given off and the crystals change to a
white powder called anhydrous copper (II) sulphate.
94

If water is added to the anhydrous powder, it gets very hot and changes back into blue
copper (II) sulphate (hydrated).
This is a reversible reaction.
Anhydrous copper (II) sulphate can be used in this way to test for water

Test for water [chemical test]


Add anhydrous copper (II) sulphate, the color changes from white into blue.
Physical test for water
Pure water boils at 100C and freezes at 0C
Heating cobalt (II) chloride crystals (hydrated)
CoCl2 . 6 H2O
Pink

CoCl2 (s)
blue

6 H2O (l)

Types of oxides

Acidic oxides are usually the oxides of non-metals


Acidic oxide
soluble?
Carbon dioxide
Sulphur dioxide
Sulphur trioxide
Phosphorus (III) oxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Silicon dioxide

is the oxide water


CO2
SO2
SO3
P2O3
NO2
SiO2

yes pH 6
yes - pH 1
yes - pH 1
yes - pH 1
yes - pH 1
no

1. Acidic oxides dissolve in water to form acidic solutions.


2. Acidic oxides react with bases to form salts and water.
Carbon dioxide + calcium hydroxide
calcium carbonate + water
CO2 (g)
+
Ca(OH)2 (aq)
CaCO3 (s)
+ H2O
(l)
(lime water)

95

Explain why carbon dioxide turns lime water milky?

2. Basic oxides are the oxides of metals


Basic oxide
soluble?
Potassium oxide
Sodium oxide
Calcium oxide
Magnesium oxide
Copper (II) oxide
Iron (III) oxide

is the oxide water


K2O
Na2O
CaO
MgO
CuO
Fe2O3

yes - pH 14
yes - pH 14
yes - pH 12
no
no
no

1. They react with acids to form salt and water


CuO + H2SO4
CuSO4 + H2O
2. If they dissolve in water they form alkaline solution
Na2O (s) + H2O (l)
2 NaOH (aq)

3. Amphoteric oxides are the oxides of certain metals e.g. aluminum, zinc.
They have the properties of both acidic and basic oxides, i.e. they react with both alkalis
and acids to form salts and water,
Amphoteric oxides are insoluble in water.
Aluminum oxide + hydrochloric acid
Al2O3
+
6 HCl
H2O

aluminum chloride + water


2 AlCl3
+3

Aluminum oxide + sodium hydroxide

sodium aluminate + water

4. Neutral oxides are the oxides which do not dissolve in acids or alkalis, e.g. NO, CO.

96

Acidic oxides
(oxides of non metals)

Basic oxides
(oxides of metals)

alkali

acid

Salt + water

acid

or alkali

Amphoteric oxides
(Al2O3 and ZnO)

Question: complete the table to show the reaction, if any, of the oxides with acid and alkali.
Indicate a reaction with R and no reaction with NR
Oxide

Type of oxide

Magnesium oxide

Basic

Aluminum oxide

Amphoteric

Silicon (IV) oxide

acidic

Reaction with acid

97

Reaction with
alkali

Identification of ions
Test for anions:
Anion
Carbonate
(CO3-2)
Chloride (Cl-)
[in solution]

Test

Result
Effervescence, CO2 produced
(turns limewater milky)

Add dilute acid


(e.g. dil. Hydrochloric acid)
Acidify, then add aq. Silver nitrate
Acidify, then add aq. Lead nitrate

White ppt. of AgCl


Ag+ + ClAgCl
White ppt. of PbCl2

Iodide (I-)
[in solution]

Acidify, then add aq. Silver nitrate


(or lead nitrate)

Yellow ppt. of AgI


(or PbI2)

Sulphate (SO4-2)
[in solution]

Acidify, then add aq. Barium


chloride
(or barium nitrate)

White ppt. of BaSO4


Ba+2 + SO4-2

Sulphite(SO3)

Add dilute HCl, warm gently and


test for the presence of Sulphur
dioxide.

Sulphur dioxide will turn


acidified potassium manganite
from purple to colourless.

Nitrate (NO3-)
[in solution]

Add aq. Sodium hydroxide, then


little (aluminum powder), warm
carefully

Ammonium is produced
(turns damp red litmus paper
blue)

BaSO4

Note: usually, acidify using dilute nitric acid.


Complete the following table to differentiate between hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid
and nitric acid
Test
Add aq. Silver
nitrate
Add aq. Barium
chloride

Hcl (aq)

H2SO4 (aq)

98

HNO3 (aq)

Test for cations:


Cation
Copper (II) [Cu+2]

Chromium (III)
Iron (II) [Fe+2]

Result of adding aq. Sodium hydroxide

Result of adding
aqueous ammonia
Blue ppt. of Cu(OH)2, insoluble in excess
Blue ppt. soluble in
+2
Cu + 2 OH
Cu(OH)2
excess
Giving dark blue
solution
Green ppt, soluble in excess
Green ppt
insoluble in excess
Dirty-green ppt of Fe(OH)2 insoluble in excess Dirty-green ppt.
(turns red-brown on the surface due to oxidation) insoluble in excess

Iron (III) [Fe+3]

Reddish brown of Fe(OH)3 insoluble in excess


Fe+3 + 3 OHFe(OH)3

Zinc [Zn+2]

White ppt of Zn(OH)2 soluble in excess (giving a White ppt. soluble


colorless solution)
in excess (giving a
colorless solution)

Aluminum [Al+3]

White ppt of Al(OH)3 soluble in excess (giving


a colorless solution)

Red-brown ppt.
insoluble in excess

White ppt.
insoluble in excess

[Al(OH)3 and Zn(OH)2 are amphoteric


hydroxides]
Calcium [Ca+2]

White ppt of Ca(OH)2 insoluble in excess

Ammonium [NH4+] Ammonia is produced on warming with aq.


Sodium hydroxide

99

No ppt.

Flame test:

Metal ion

Flame colour

Lithium ion

Red

Sodium ion

Golden yellow

Potassium

Lilac

Copper II

Blue-green

Gas

Formula

Test

Result
Burns with a
pop

Hydrogen

H2

Light splint

Oxygen

O2

Glowing splint

Carbon
dioxide

CO2

Lime water

Cl2

Colour
Damp litmus
paper

Chlorine

Relights
Turns milky
Yellow-green
bleached

NH3
Ammonia
(alkaline gas)
Sulphur
dioxide

Smell
Damp red litmus
paper

SO2

Potassium
manganate

Pungent
Turns blue

Turns from
purple to
colourless

100

Topic 8
Metal and Reactivity Series

Physical properties of metals

1. Shiny when freshly cut and polished


2. Good conductor of electricity because of free electrons that can move inside the
structure
3. Usually have high density because atoms are packed closely together in a joint structure
4. High melting point and boiling point
5. Malleable (can be hammered into shapes)
6. Ductile (can be stretched into wires), because when force is applied to metals the layers
of atoms slide over each other.
7. Good conductor of heat
Alloys
An alloy is usually a mixture of two or more metals or of a metal and non metal
Alloys are formed by mixing molten metals together and allowing them to cool.

Examples of alloys:
Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.
A) Mild steel used for car bodies and machines.
B) Hard steel used for railway tracks and construction.
C) Stainless steel used for chemical plant and cutlery.
Alloys often result in a metal which is stronger than any of its components, for example
brass which is an alloy of copper and zinc is stronger and harder than both metals.
101

Uses of metals related to their properties


Aluminum

Aluminum

High electrical
conductivity

Low Density

Doesnt corrode

Overhead cables

Air craft
Car engines
Window frames
Cans

Aluminum overhead cables (shown in figure ) contain steel core to strengthen the cable.

Uses of aluminum:
1- Overhead electric cables with a steel core for strength.
2-Cooking foil and food cans.
3-Coating CDs and DVDs.

102

Copper
Usage
Electric wires

Property

Cooking utensils

-Ductile
-Good conductor of electricity
-High melting point
-Low reactivity
Good conductor of heat

Making Brass

Alloy of copper and zinc

103

Reactivity series

The figure shows the arrangement of metals according to reactivity.


104

Metals above hydrogen in reactivity series react with dilute acids to form salt and
hydrogen, this is called displacement reaction.
Carbon can reduce metal oxides of metals below it.
Metals above carbon can be extracted by electrolysis.
Potassium and sodium react violently with water to form metal hydroxide and
hydrogen.
Calcium reacts steadily with water to form calcium hydroxide and hydrogen.
Magnesium reacts very slowly with cold water to form magnesium hydroxide and
hydrogen, but when heated in steam magnesium turns to white powder which is
magnesium oxide.

Magnesium + Steam

Magnesium oxide + Hydrogen

Zinc and iron react only with steam to form hydrogen and oxide.
Reaction of very reactive metals like potassium and sodium with acids is very
dangerous and may cause an explosion.
Aluminum seems to be uncreative because of the layer of aluminum oxide adhering to
it.thats why aluminium used for
D) Manufacture of air craft because of its strength and low density.
E) In food containers because of its resistance to corrosion

Copper, silver and gold dont react with water, steam and dilute acids.

105

Things to remember about reactivity series:


1. The more reactive the metal it likes to form compounds so only copper, silver and
gold are ever found as elements, other metals are found as compounds in the earth
crust such as oxides, carbonates, sulphides and chlorides.
2. The more reactive the metal the more stable is its compound, a stable compound is
difficult to break down or decompose.

Displacement Reactions
Any metal will displace another metal that is lower in the reactivity series from aqueous
solutions containing its ions.
If a piece of iron is placed in copper sulphate solution (blue), a reddish brown deposit of
copper forms on iron and blue colour of the solution fades, this is a redox reaction in
which iron atoms are oxidized by loosing two electrons and going into solution as Fe +2
ions, Cu +2 are reduced by gaining two electrons and forming a solid deposit of copper.
Fe + CuSO4

FeSO4 + Cu

This proofs that iron is more reactive than copper.


Copper can displace silver from silver nitrate solution as it is more reactive.
A metal oxide can be reduced to the metal by heating it with another metal which is
above it in reactivity series, example:

Fe2O3 + 2Al

2Fe + Al2O3

Making use of Reactivity series:


1- The thermite process: it is used to repair rail and tram lines. Powdered aluminium and iron
oxide are put in a container over the damaged rail. When the mixture is lit, the aluminium
reduces the ironIII oxide to molten iron. The iron runs into the cracks and gaps in the rail and
hardens.
2- Galvanisation.
106

107

108

109

110

111

112

Action of heat on metal hydroxides and metal nitrates

Metal Hydroxide
K Does not decompose
KOH heat No reaction

Nitrate
It decomposes into metal nitrite + Oxygen
2KNO3 heat 2KNO2 + O2

Na NaOH heat No reaction


Ca
Mg It decomposes into metal
oxide Plus water, example:
Al
Ca(OH)2 heat CaO +H2O
Zn
Fe
Pb

It decomposes into metal oxide , nitrogen dioxide


(brown gas) plus oxygen, example:
2Ca(NO3)2 heat 2CaO + 4NO2 + O2

Decomposition gets easier as we go down the series.

Cu

Extraction of Metals
1. Aluminum is extracted from its ore called bauxite (Al2O3) by electrolysis.
2. Iron is extracted from its haematite (Fe2O3) by reduction of the metal oxide using
carbon in a blast furnace.
3.

Zinc is extracted from zinc blend (ZnS) using the same method as iron.

113

Extraction of Iron

1. Iron ore, coke and limestone are added at the top of the blast (see figure).
2. A blast of hot air causes coke to burn,
C + O2
CO2
The carbon dioxide rising up reacts with more coke to form carbon monoxide
CO2 + C
2 CO
3. Carbon monoxide reduces iron oxides into iron and carbon dioxide
Fe2O3 + 3 CO
2Fe + 3CO2
Iron reaches the lower part of the furnace, melts and runs to the bottom of the furnace.
4. We use limestone to remove the sandy impurities found with the ore (SiO2), limestone
decomposes by heat
CaCO3
CaO + CO2
CaO + SiO2
CaSiO3 (Slag), slag runs down to the bottom and floats over
iron.

114

Making steel

The process of producing steel is shown in the figure:


The iron produced in the blast furnace is called cast iron, it is brittle and impure (contains
about 3 to 4 percent carbon)+ sand +phosphorous +Sulphur compounds.
Most cast iron is converted to steel in the oxygen converter
Oxygen is passed through the molten iron where carbon is oxidized into carbon dioxide
and pure iron remains where the required amount of carbon is added.
Oxygen reacts with other impurities to form acidic oxides.
Add calcium oxide which is basic oxide,it reacts with the acidic oxides to form slag that
is skimmed off.

1. Mild steel
It contains 0.25% carbon and is used in car bodies and machinery.
2. High carbon steel
It contains about 1% carbon and is used in railway lines, bridges and building
constructions. As carbon content increases the steel hardness increases.
3. Steel alloys
Stainless steel contains nickel and chromium used for cutlery and surgical
instruments.

115

Extraction of Zinc
1. Zinc is extracted from zinc sulphide, the blend is roasted in air to the oxide
2ZnS + 3O2

2ZnO + 2SO2

2. Zinc oxide is then reduced with carbon in a blast furnace


2ZnO + C

2Zn + CO2

Uses of Zinc
1. Galvanizing: The metal is used to protect steel objects from rusting, the zinc coating
corrodes instead of steel.(sacrificial protection).
2. Making Brass: Brass is an alloy of copper 60% and zinc 40% .
3. For torch batteries.
Recycling of Metals
1.
2.
3.
4.

All metals can be recycled by melting down and using them again.
It saves money needed for extraction.
It saves mineral resources, since ores are limited and cannot last for ever.
It solves the problem of waste disposal by stopping them causing pollution and spoiling
the environment.
5. Glass, paper, cloth and plastics can also be recycled.

Rusting
1. The corrosion of iron and steel is called rusting.
2. Rust is the red brown flaky solid which is formed on iron steel.
3. Rusting is the slow oxidation of iron to form hydrated iron III oxide, which is the
chemical name for rust.
4. Both air and water are needed for rusting
Iron + Oxygen + Water
Hydrated Iron III oxide
5. Rusting occurs quickly in water containing dissolved ionic impurities such as sea water.
6. The figure below shows the effect of different conditions on rusting

116

Methods of Rust Prevention


1. Iron and steel can be protected by prevention of air and water to reach them, this can be
done by painting, oiling, galvanizing or electroplating the iron surface.
2. Sacrificial protection which is attaching a block of magnesium or zinc to the iron
present in ship hulls or underground pipes, the magnesium or zinc being more reactive
than iron are oxidized instead of the iron.

117

Glossary of Topic 8

Alloy: A mixture of two or more metals, or metal and non-metal.


Blast furnace: a furnace used for extracting iron from its ore and made of stainless
steel.
Corrosion: the decrease in mass of metals after reacting with oxygen.
Ore: a rock that is rich in metals.
Rust: brown flakes that are formed when iron reacts with water and air

118

Topic 9
Chemical Change

Energetics of a reaction
All chemical reactions involve energy changes, (H) this energy is in the form of heat.
I-Exothermic reaction
It is a reaction accompanied by release of heat (the product becomes hot).
Reactants

products+ energy.

The total energy is the same on each side of the arrow,so in exothermic reactions,the products
have lower energy than the reactants,

Examples of exothermic reactions:


Neutralization,
Combustion of fuels.
Respiration
119

II-Endothermic reaction
It is a reaction which absorbs heat, heat is taken in (the reaction mixture becomes cold).
Reactants + energy

products.

Examples of endothermic reactions:


Decomposition reactions.
Cooking.
Photosynthesis

Bonds Energy:
The bond energy is defined as the amount of energy in kilojoules associated with the breaking
or making of one mole of chemical bonds in a molecular elaement.
Breaking bonds requires energy, it is endothermic , while making new bonds gives out energy,
it is exothermic.
If the energy given out is greater than the energy getting in the reaction is exothermic and vice
versa.
CH4 + 2O2

CO2 + 2H2O
120

Predict whether this reaction is exothermic or endothermic.

Examples for exothermic reactions:


1- All neutralization reactions are exothermic
HCl + NaOH

NaCl + H2O

The initial temperature of the reaction is 21C and the final temperature is 34C.
what would be the temperature of the reaction after one hour?
2- All displacement reactions are exothermic
Mg + H2SO4

MgSO4 + H2

Zn + H2SO4

ZnSO4 + H2

By measuring the rise in temperature we can find out the order of reactivity of metals
H-H + Cl-Cl

2(H- Cl)

436

2x 431

242

Energy needed to break bonds = 436 +242 = 678 KJ


Energy needed to form bonds = 2 x 431 = 862 KJ
Heat of the reaction = energy needed to break bonds - energy given out when bonds are
Formed.

Heat of reaction = 678- 862 = - 184 KJ


The negative sign shows that the chemicals are losing energy to the surroundings, so it
is an exothermic reaction .

121

Examples for endothermic reactions:


1- N2 + O2

2NO

2- Thermal decomposition reaction


2KNO3 -- Heat --> 2KNO2 + O2

3- Melting of ice and evaporation of water

Production of energy:
Burning fuels
Fuels release heat energy when they burn in air or oxygen, all combustion reactions are
exothermic.
Ethanol used in cars in Brazil
C2H5OH + 3O2

2CO2 + 3H2O + Heat

What is needed for fire?


Oxygen
Heat
Fuel
Other sources of fuel
a- Hydrogen is a possible energy source of the future.
b- Hydrogen can be used as fuel for cars, it causes no pollution as the only product of
combustion is water.
c- Nuclear energy obtained from nuclear fuels are not burned . they contain unstable
atoms called radioisotopes. Overtime, they break down naturally into new atoms, giving
out radiation and a lot of energy.
Uranium 235 used as a source of energy.

122

Advantages of nuclear energy:


It produces huge amount of energy
No carbon dioxide or polluting gases are formed
Disadvantages of nuclear fuel:
An explosion in a nuclear power station could spread radioactive radiations over a huge
area.
The waste products are also radioactive and dangerous

How to measure the amount of energy released by a fuel?

The figure shown compares the energy produced by burning different liquid fuels by
measuring the initial and final temperature of the same volume of water.
Then this difference in temperature is used to calculate the amount of energy released by the
fuel by a certain equation.

What are the sources of errors in the above experiment?


1. The calorimeter is opened so the temperature of the water may be altered by the outside
environment.
2. Some of the heat released by the fuel may be lost to the atmosphere.
123

Electricity from chemical reactions


Simple cell:
A device to produce electrical energy from chemical energy, this is the reverse of what
happens during electrolysis where chemical reaction are brought by the use of electrical
energy.

Electrolysis

Electric energy

Chemical reaction
Cell

Two metals fart apart from one another in the reactivity series are placed in an electrolyte, the
more reactive metal will be the cathode from which electrons flow.
The amount of electricity produced (voltage) depends on the position of the metals in the
reactivity series, the bigger the difference between the metals the more electricity produced.
Predict whether the voltage of the zinc-copper cell would be more or less than an iron-copper
cell?
Uses of simple cell:
a- Can be used to compare the reactivity of two metals, the more reactive metal will be the
one to lose electrons and passes ions into the solution and become thinner, the direction
of flow of electrons will be from the more reactive metal to the less reactive one.
b- Zinc-carbon dry cells are convenient source of energy as they are portable and small,
used in toys, radios torches and many other things.
124

125

126

127

Topic 10
Chemical reactions
Rate of reaction

The rate of a chemical reaction can be increased by:


1. Making the size of reacting particles smaller, i.e. increasing the surface area of the
reactants.
2. Increasing the concentration.
3. Increasing the temperature.
4. Adding a suitable catalyst.
5. Light (applied to a few reactions).

Measuring the rate of reactions:


By measuring gas volume:
Take for example the reaction between magnesium and excess dilute hydrochloric acid:

Magnesium + hydrochloric acid

Magnesium chloride + hydrogen


128

MgS (s)

+ 2 HCl (aq)

MgCl2 (aq)

+ H2 (g)

How to calculate the rate of this reaction?


Measurements needed are: gas volume and time.
The volume of gas in the syringe is noted at intervals, for example at the end of each halfminute.
How would you know when the reaction is complete?
The reaction is complete when the gas piston stops to move backward.
Here are some typical results:
Times/
minute
s

1/2

11/
2

21/5

31/2

41/
2

51/2

61/2

Volum
e of
hydron
/cm3

14

20

25

29

33

36

38

39

40

40

40

40

Plotting graphs of reaction rates


These results can be plotted on a graph, as shown

129

Shape of the graph:


1. The faster the reaction, the steeper the curve.
2. When the reaction is over, the curve goes fl
2-By the decrease in mass of reactants:
In case of reactions in which a gas is given off, e.g. an acid and carbonate, the rate of reaction
can be followed up by measuring the decrease in mass of reactants with time. i.e. the balance
reading decrease as the reaction takes place.
Mass (g)

Time (s)

130

Investigating the factors affecting the rate of a reaction:


1. Effect of particle size:
This effect can be examined by reacting equal masses of calcium carbonate with different
particle sizes (e.g. chalk powder and marble chips) with equal volumes of the same
hydrochloric acid.
CaCO3 (s) + 2 HCl (aq)

CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

Procedure:
1- Place the marble in the flask and add the acid.
2-Quickly plug the flask with cotton wool to stop any liquid splashing out.
3-weigh it, starting the clock at the same time.
4-note the mass decrease verses time as carbon dioxide gas escapes through the cotton wool
till the reaction is complete.
5- Repeat the experiment changing only the particle size of the carbonate,
Or u can measure the rate of reaction by measuring the gas produced against time
The volume of the produced CO2 can be measured using a gas syringe and is plotted against
time. The steeper the curve the faster the reaction.
The result shows:
The rate of reaction increases when the surface area of a solid reactant is increased.
The danger of explosive combustion with fine powders and gases [e.g. flour mills and mines] :
Flour in a bag is difficult to burn. A mixture of flour-dust and air may explode if sparkled.
Why is this? Flour-dust has a lot of surface area exposed to air so it burns with an explosion.

131

2. Effect of concentration:
A reaction can be made to go faster by increasing the concentration of a reactant.
This is because increasing the concentration of the reactants increases the number of collisions
between particles and, therefore, increases the rate of reaction.
This also explains why the greatest rate of reaction is usually as soon as the particles are
mixed, i.e. they are both at their highest concentrations. As the reaction proceeds, the
concentrations of the reacting substances decrease and the rate of reaction decreases.

(i)
(ii)

The effect of concentration can be shown by doing several experiments using equal
masses of magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid at different concentrations.
The effect of concentration can be also shown by investigating the rate of the
reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid:
Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2 HCl (aq)

2 NaCl (aq) + SO2 + S (s) + H2O (l)

3- Effect of Temperature:

Procedure:
1- Mark a cross on a piece of paper.
2-place a beaker containing sodium thiosulphate on top of the paper, so u can see the cross
through it, from above.
3- Add HCl, start clock at the same time and measure the temperature of the mixture.

132

4-The cross go fainter as the yellow precipitate of sulpur is formed. Stop the clock when you
can no longer see the cross.
5- Note the time.
6- Repeat the same steps changing only the temperature and record the time taken.
Conclusion:
As temperature increases the rate of reaction increases/ A reaction goes faster when the
temperature is raised.
A series of experiments can be carried out using a solution of sodium thiosulphate and
hydrochloric acid of different concentration. The result shows that the more
concentrated the solution, the faster the rate of reaction.

3. Effect of catalyst:
A catalyst is a substance which speeds up the reaction but remains chemically unchanged at
the end of the reaction.
Enzymes are biological catalysts. [protein in nature].
Example the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide
At room temperature, hydrogen peroxide decomposes very slowly.

2 H2O2 (aq)

2 H2O (l) + O2 (g)

If a catalyst called manganese (IV) oxide is added, decomposition takes place very rapidly.
If the manganese (IV) oxide is filtered off at the end of the reaction, washed, dried, and
reweighed, it will be found that its mass has not changed.
Why?

Question:
The speed of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is investigated using different catalysts.
State the precautions which should be taken to make this a fair test:
133

..

Explaining the factors affecting reaction rates:


The collision theory
The reason for an increase in the rate of a chemical reaction can be explained by the
collision theory. In order for particles to react, they must collide, and they must have
sufficient energy to react.

5. Effect of pressure: (for gaseous reactions only)


Increasing the pressure makes the molecules of the gases close to each other and the frequency
of collision increases and the reaction goes faster.
6. Effect of light
The speed of some reactions increases by exposure to light.
When a silver salt is exposed to light, silver is formed. Light has the effect of decomposition
of silver chloride.

2 AgCl

2 Ag + Cl2

Such reactions which are affected by light are called photochemical reactions.

134

Photography
The decomposition of silver bromide (AgBr) to silver is the basis of photography. The film is
covered with silver bromide. When light shines on the film, silver is formed. This is the black
part of the negative. The unexposed silver bromide stays white.

2 AgBr
White

2 Ag + Br2
black

Photosynthesis:
Photosynthesis is one of the most important reactions involving light.
Chlorophyll is the catalyst.
The green chlorophyll in the leaves absorbs light energy from the sun and uses it to
make (synthesize) sugars from carbon dioxide and water.

sunlight

Carbon dioxide + water

glucose + oxygen

Chlorophyll

6 CO2 + 6 H2O

C6H12O6 + 6 O2

i.e. The process of photosynthesis is endothermic and the energy required comes from the
sun.
Respiration:
Respiration is the reverse of photosynthesis and is an exothermic process. Respiration is the
production of energy from foods by living things (cells).
The process of respiration can be represented as:
135

glucose + oxygen

C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Carbon dioxide + water + Energy

6 CO2 + 6 H2O

Reversible reactions:
A reversible reaction is one which can proceed in either direction depending on the conditions
under which it is carried out.
Forward reaction

Reactants

Backward reaction
reaction

Products

For example:
Ammonium chloride
chloride
NH4Cl (s)

ammonia + hydrogen

NH3 (g) + HCl (g)

136

Energy change in reversible reactions:

If a reversible reaction is exothermic in one direction it will be endothermic in the other.


For example, hydrated copper (II) sulphate (CuSO4, 5H2O) needs energy supplied in the form
of heat to give anhydrous copper (II) sulphate and water. When water is added to anhydrous
copper (II) sulphate (CuSO4), energy in the form of heat is produced.

Hydrated [+ heat energy]

anhydrous

Copper (II) sulphate

+ water

Copper (II) sulphate

Chemical equilibrium
When the rate of forward reaction = the rate of backward reaction, the reaction is said to
be at equilibrium.
At equilibrium, the concentration of reactants and products does not change. In fact,
both the forward and backward reactions are still taking place.

Factors affecting the position of equilibrium:


1. The effect of concentration change:
Change in concentration of
substance

Effect on equilibrium of the


reaction
A + B

C + D

Increase in concentration of A or B

Proportion of C and D increased,


i.e. equilibrium shifts to right

Increase in concentration of C or D

Proportion of A and B increased,


i.e. equilibrium shifts to left

137

2. The effect of temperature change:


Increasing the temperature makes the reaction move in the direction that takes in heat (the
endothermic direction).
In other words,
a. For exothermic reactions, an increase in temperature favors the reactants, i.e. makes the
reaction move to the left.
b. For endothermic reactions, an increase in temperature favors the products, i.e. makes
the reaction move to the right.
Examples of exothermic reactions:

T
N2 + 3 H2

2NH3
T

2SO2 + O2

2 SO3

Examples of endothermic reaction:


T
N2 + O2

2NO

3- The effect of change in pressure for gases reaction

The increase in pressure shifts the equilibrium in the direction in which there is decrease in
volume, the direction which produces fewer gas moles.
P
N2

+ 3H2

1 mole + 3 moles

2NH3
2 moles
138

Predict how the position of equilibrium might change if there were an increase in the pressure
on the following equilibria:

2SO2

+ O2

CO(g) +

2SO3

2H2(g)

CH3OH(g)

Why an increase in pressure doesnt affect the position of the following equilibrium

N2 + O2

2NO

139

Topic 11
AIR AND WATER

Purification of water supply:


The water from rivers is first stored in reservoirs where the process of purification starts. The
water is still, so the larger particles of dirt can settle out. At the surface, oxygen and sunlight
break down other impurities and kill some bacteria.

The water from the storage reservoirs is treated in two stages:


1. Filtration:
It is filtered through beds of fine sand to remove suspended (insoluble) solids.
2. Chlorination:
Then it is treated with chlorine to kill bacteria.
Pure water can be obtained from sea water by distillation, but this is an expensive process.

140

Uses of water:
Household tap water is free from harmful bacteria and insoluble dirt, but it is not pure in the
chemists sense because it contains gases and salts in solution.
At home:
1. Drinking
2. Washing
3. Cooking
In industry:
Industry uses water in many ways, e.g.
1. Much water is used for cooling. Power stations are built near rivers or coasts so that
they can have continuous supplies of water for the cooling towers;
2. As a solvent in many industries, e.g. paper industry;
3. Manufacture of hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis of water.

Electrolysis of water :
Pure water is a very poor conductor of electricity.
To enable water to conduct electricity better, some dilute sulphuric acid is added.
Hydrogen gas is formed at the cathode and oxygen gas is collected at the anode.

141

Composition of air
Air is a mixture of gases:

Separation of oxygen and nitrogen from liquid air:


Fractional distillation is used to separate the pure gases from one another.
1. Air is liquefied by compression
2. The liquid air is allowed to boil
3. The different components have different boiling points, so they can be collected in turn
as they boil off

142

Uses of oxygen:
1. Pure, medical grade oxygen is used in oxygen tents in
hospitals for persons having difficulty in breathing normally
because of illness or unconsciousness.
2. In welding: Acetylene (which is an unsaturated hydrocarbon) burns in oxygen to give a
very hot flame oxyacetylene flame
3. In making steel

4-Formation of carbon dioxide:


1. As a product of complete combustion of carbon-containing substances:
CH4 + 2O2
Methane
(natural gas)

CO2

C2H5OH + 3O2
(ethanol)

2CO2

2H2O

+ 3H2O

Some fuels, e.g. candle wax, also produce a deposit of carbon (soot).
This proves that the air supply was inefficient to oxidize all the carbon in the
hydrocarbon fuel to carbon dioxide (CO2).
There is another product of incomplete combustion which you cannot see or smell. This
is the poisonous gas carbon monoxide (CO).
When petrol is burned in the car engine, the exhaust gases contain some carbon
monoxide, some unburnt hydrocarbons and some soot in addition to the harmless
products carbon dioxide and water.
2. As a product of respiration:
During breathing, some of the oxygen in the air is used up, and CO2, water and heat energy
are produced.

143

Uses of nitrogen:
Manufacture of ammonia by the Haber process:
Ammonia is made by synthesis, i.e. nitrogen and hydrogen are combined together.
Sources of nitrogen and hydrogen
1. Nitrogen is obtained from the air.
2. Hydrogen is now obtained from methane (natural gas)

The following is the equation of formation of ammonia from its elements, nitrogen and
hydrogen:
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
1. The reaction is exothermic
2. The reaction is reversible
Conditions:
Temperature: 450 C
Pressure: 200 atmosphere
Catalyst: iron
Ammonia is liquefied by cooling. The unreacted gases
are recycled.
Uses of ammonia
1. Making fertilizers
2. Making

nitric acid

Ammonia in the laboratory


1. Ammonia is a colorless, choking gas, which is formed whenever an ammonium salt is
warmed with an alkali.
For example:
NH4Cl(s)
H2O(l)
ammonium chloride
water

+ NaOH(aq)

NH3(g) + NaCl(aq) +

sodium hydroxide

ammonia

144

sodium chloride

2-Ammonia is very soluble in water and aqueous ammonia is formed, which is a weak alkali.
NH3(g) + H2O(l)

NH4+OH- these ions make the solution alkaline

Since ammonia is an alkali, it will neutralize acids to make ammonium salts.


Ammonia + nitric acid
NH3(g)
+ HNO3(aq)

ammonium nitrate
NH4NO3(aq)

Fertilizers
1. Fertilizers are substances that are added to the soil to promote plant growth.
2. The major plant nutrients include nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K)
3. Nitrogen is the most important of the three elements because plants use it to make
proteins
Nitrogenous fertilizers:
Ammonium nitrate
NH4NO3
Ammonium sulphate
(NH4)2SO4
Ammonium phosphate (NH4)3PO4
Urea
CO(NH2)2
4. Many fertilizers contain phosphorus and potassium compounds as well as nitrogen
compounds. These mixed fertilizers are called NPK fertilizers.

Air pollution
Apart from the gases normally found in air, other gases such as sulphur dioxide, oxides of
nitrogen, and carbon monoxide can be present. These gases can cause air pollution and are
called pollutants.
Common pollutants in the air:
1. Carbon monoxide, CO:
Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon containing
fuels.
Much of carbon monoxide comes from the incomplete combustion of petrol in car
engines.
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Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas that prevents hemoglobin in the blood from
absorbing oxygen.

At a level of 1%, carbon monoxide will kill quickly; at lower levels it causes
headaches and dizziness. Being colorless and odorless, carbon monoxide gives no
warning of its presence.

2. Sulfur dioxide, SO2:


Fossil fuels (coal and oil) always contain sulfur. When burned, sulfur dioxide is
formed. Factories and power stations burn coal which contains sulfur. They send
sulfur dioxide into the air.
Sulfur dioxide causes bronchitis and lung diseases.
In the upper atmosphere, it reacts with water to form acid rain.
3. Oxides of nitrogen:
When fuels are burned in the oxygen of the air, nitrogen is also present. At high
temperature, the result, some nitrogen combines with oxygen.
Nitrogen + oxygen
N2(g)
+ O2(g)

nitrogen monoxide
2NO(g)

Nitrogen monoxide + oxygen


2NO(g)
O2(g)

nitrogen dioxide
2NO2(g)

About 30 - 40% of the oxides of nitrogen in the air come from car exhausts. Other
sources of nitrogen oxide pollution are factories and fires.
NO2 is highly corrosive and toxic.
Oxides of nitrogen dissolve in water to form nitric acid leading to acid rain.
4. Lead compounds:
A lead compound called tetraethyl lead is added in small quantities to petrol to
increase the octane number of petrol. When the petrol burns in the engine, lead
compounds are released from car exhaust.
Lead compounds are nerve poisons. In particular, they can cause brain damage in
young children.
The main way of preventing pollution from compounds of lead is the use of leadfree petrol (unleaded petrol).

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Acid rain

Harmful effects of acid rain:


1. Acid rain (pH 4) makes lakes too acidic for fish to live in.
2. It removes minerals from the soil and increases the acidity of the soil.
3. Acid rain attacks construction materials such as limestone and cement.
4. Acid rain can speed up corrosion of metals.
It is important to control the acidity in the soil. Lime CaO or slaked lime Ca(OH)2 are used for
neutralizing acidic soils.

Finding the acidity of the soil:


1. A representative sample of the soil (i.e. from different sites of the field) is taken.
2. Water is added to the sample of the soil in a beaker and stirred.
3. Some barium sulfate (insoluble in water) is added to the mixture to help precipitation
and to clear the liquid.
4. The clear liquid is tested with the universal indicator to find the pH.

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Topic 12
CARBONATES
All carbonates are insoluble in water except sodium, potassium and ammonium
carbonate.
All carbonates react with dilute acids, they all fizz and dissolve, giving off carbon
dioxide and leaving a solution of salt.
Carbonate + acid
CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl(aq)

salt
+ water + carbon dioxide
CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

They decompose upon heating to form metal oxide and carbon dioxide.
CuCO3(s)
Green

CuO(s) + CO2 (g)


black

Sodium and potassium carbonate, however, are too stable to decompose, i.e. they have high
thermal stability.

Limestone, lime, and slaked lime


Name
Formula
Limestone
CaCO3
Lime (quick lime)
CaO
Slaked lime
Ca(OH)2

Chemical name
Calcium carbonate
Calcium oxide
Calcium
hydroxide

Color
White
White
White

A solution of calcium hydroxide is called lime water. When CO2 gas is bubbled through lime
water, the insoluble calcium carbonate appears as a white suspension. The lime water goes
milky.
CO2(g) + Ca(OH)2(aq)

CaCO3(s) + H2O(l)

Calcium carbonate (limestone): CaCO3


Uses:
1. Manufacture of cement. Cement is made by heating together limestone and clay.
2. Manufacture of iron (to remove sand impurities)
3. Neutralizes acidity in the soil
4. Manufacture of lime (calcium oxide). Limestone is heated to a high temperature. It
decomposes to calcium oxide and carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide.

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Calcium oxide has important uses. It can be readily converted to calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2
(slaked lime), by adding water.
Calcium oxide + water
(quicklime)
CaO
+ H2O

calcium hydroxide
(slaked lime)
Ca(OH)2

As both, lime and slaked lime, form in water alkaline solutions, they are used to:
- Neutralize acidity in the soil
- Neutralize acidic gases and industrial acidic wastes
Carbon cycle

149

Topic 13:Sulphur

Where is Sulphur found?


Sulphur is a non-metal that is found in the Earth crust and around the rims of volcanoes.
Sulphur compounds also occur naturally in the fossil fuels.coal,petroleum and natural gas.
Extraction of Sulphur:
By frasch process: where steam is pumped into Sulphur beds underground,forcing the Sulphur
to the surface.
Properties:
1-it is brittle yellow solid.
2-low melting point
3-it does not conduct electricity.
4- insoluble in water.
5-it reacts with metals to form sulphides.
6- it burns in oxygen to form Sulphur dioxide.

Uses:
in making sulphuric acid.
it is added to rubber to strengthen and toughen it.(vulcanizing the rubber).
used in making pesticides , matches and paper.
Used in making cosmetics, shampoos and body lotions.
It is added to cement to make Sulphur concrete which resists acidity so it is used in
floors and walls of acid factories.
Uses of Sulphur dioxide:
1-Manufacture of sulphuric acid.
2-It is used to bleach wool, silk and wood pulp for making paper.
3-It is used as food preservative as it kills bacteria.
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151

152

Sulfuric acid
Starting with sulfur, the steps in the contact process are:
1) Sulfur burned in air

2) Sulfur dioxide mixed with more air than passed over catalyst( vanadium(V) oxide
at 450 c and pressure 2 atmospheric

3) Sulfur trioxide dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid to form thick forming


liquid called oleum

4) Oleum mixed carefully with water to form sulfuric acid

Things to note about the Contact process:


The reaction in step 2 is reversible. The sulfur trioxide continually breaks down
again. So the mixture is passed over catalyst, to give the reactants further chances
to react.
The reaction in step 2 is exothermic. So yield rises as temperature falls. But the
catalyst will not work below 400 C, and it works better at higher temperatures. So
450 C is a compromise.
In step 3, the sulfur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated acid instead of water,
because with water, a thick, dangerous mist of acid forms.
Uses of sulfuric acid:
Fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate
Paints, pigments and dyestuffs
Fibres and plastics
Soaps and detergents. It is also the acid used in car batteries.
153

Topic 14
Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is the study of all carbon compounds except the very simple ones
such as CO2, CO and carbonates.
The term organic means living. At first, organic chemistry was the study of carbon
chemicals from plants and animals. Now it is known that complex carbon compounds
can be made artificially.
Organic compounds are grouped into classes (families) such as hydrocarbons, alcohols,
organic acids.
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are compounds containing hydrogen and carbon and no other elements. They
are classified into alkanes (saturated) and alkenes (unsaturated).

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Alkanes

General formula: CnH2n+2 (n = number of carbon atoms)


They contain single bonds between their carbon atoms, i.e. saturated with hydrogen.
They are hydrocarbon:they contain only carbon and hydrogen.
Name of alkanes ended with suffix ane and the prefix indicates the number of carbon
atoms.

Name

Molecular
formula

Methane

Number of
carbon
atoms
1

Ethane

C2H6

Propane

C3H8

Butane

C4H10

Pentane
Hexane
Heptanes
Octane
Nonane
Decane

5
6
7
8
9
10

Structural formula

CH4

Alkyl group
(R)
Methyl

Ethyl

Propyl

Butyl

Bonding in alkanes:

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Homologous series
It is a family of similar organic compounds with similar chemical properties due to the
presence of the same functional group and the same general formula.
All members are represented by the same general formula, eg., alkanes, alkenes,
alkanols

As we go along a homologous series, the boiling and melting points of compounds


gradually increase.
Isomers: are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures
Properties of alkanes
1. The first four alkanes are gases, the next fifteen are colorless liquids and the rest are
solids.
2. Like all hydrocarbons, alkanes burn in air giving CO2, H2O and heat energy is released,
so alkanes are useful fuels.
CH4(g) + 2O2(g)
(methane)

CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)

C3H8(g) + 5O2
(propane)

3CO2(g) + 4H2O(g)

3. Incomplete combustion of alkanes giving toxic carbon monoxide.


4.
5. Alkanes are generally unreactive.
Saturated hydrocarbon undergoes substitution reactions forming halogen
compounds.
Organic halogen compounds
These are compounds formed when hydrogen atoms in an alkane are replaced by halogen
atoms.
CH3Cl

Chloromethane

C2H5Cl

Chloroethane

1-bromopropane

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2-bromopropane

1-bromopropane and 2-bromopropane are isomers; they have the same molecular formula
C3H7Br.
The more carbon atoms in a compound, the more isomers it has. There are 75 isomers for
decane .The branched isomers have lower boiling point, as the branches make it harder for the
molecules to get close, so the attraction between them is less strong, and less heated is needed
to overcome it.

Uses of halogen alkanes:


1) Trichloromethane(chloroform) used as anesthetic.
2) Halothane(CF3CHBr Cl ) which is safer anesthetic.
3) 1,1,1 trichloro ethane used in dry cleaning.

In fact, the demand for lighter fractions (petrol, paraffin) is greater than the supply from the
distillation of crude oil; fortunately, they can be made from the heavier fractions by a process
called cracking.

Cracking is the process of breaking long chained hydrocarbon molecules into shorter ones.
The reaction needs high temperature and a catalyst. Alkenes are always formed as one of the
products of cracking.

Example:
Octane
C8H18

cracking

hexane + ethene
C6H14 + C2H4

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Uses of cracking:
1. It converts larger molecules from heavier, less useful fractions into smaller molecules
that are useful as petrol (more benefit)
2. It also produces alkenes, which are very useful for making plastics.
3. Hydrogen gas could be also obtained during the cracking of alkanes.
C2H6
C2H4 + H2
ethane
ethene
Cracking a liquid alkane:
The following figure shows a simple laboratory cracking experiment. The vapor of a liquid
alkane is passed over a heated catalyst to make ethene.

The ceramic wool ensures an even distribution of heat in liquid alkane.


The delivery tube is removed from the water before the stop of heating to prevent the
reversibility of the reaction

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Alkenes
General formula: CnH2n
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, i.e. they have a double bond between two carbon
atoms.
The simplest alkene has only two carbon atoms. It is called ethene.

Name

Molecular
formula

Ethene

Number of
carbon
atoms
2

Structural formula

Boiling point

C2H4

-102

Propene

C3H6

-47

But-1-ene

C4H8

But-2-ene

C4H8

-6.5

Alkenes are characterized by the presence of a double bond between carbon atoms, which is
called the functional group.

Isomerism:
The alkene C4H8 has two structures, but-1-ene and but-2-ene. The different structures are
called isomers.
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Isomers are compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures.

Alkenes (e.g. ethene, propene) are produced in large quantities in industry from the
larger molecules in oil fractions by the process of cracking.

Properties of alkenes
Alkenes are members of a homologous series, so they all show similar chemical properties.
1. They burn with smoky yellow flame
C2H4(g) + 3O2(g)
Ethane

2CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)

2. The double bond in alkenes makes them very reactive.


3. They undergo addition reactions.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions.
1- Addition of bromine(Test for the double bond):
Compound + bromine water
(orange-red color)

Color of Br2 water goes colorless


unsaturated

2- Addition of hydrogen:
Adding hydrogen to ethane forms ethane
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3- Addition of water (hydration)
Adding water to ethene change it to ethanol

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4-Addition polymerization (making plastics)


Polymerization is the process in which many small molecules (monomers) join together
to make a large molecule (macromolecule or polymer).
The polymerization is done at high temperature and pressure in the presence of a
catalyst
160

Poly(ethene) is used to make plastic bags and plastic sheets.

Poly(choroethene) known as PVC is used to make plastic bottles, floor tiles, raincoats and
electrical wire insulators

Poly(propene) is used to make plastic sheets, electric insulators and bottles


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Monomer: a small molecule which can be polymerized (joined together) to form a polymer. :
the small starting units (molecules) in polymerisation reactions which characterize by having
double bond between the carbon atoms.
On making polyethene at least 17000 ethene (monomer ) molecules join

Polymer: a macromolecule (large molecule) made by polymerizing (joining together) of


monomers.

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Alkanols (alcohols)
General formula: CnH2n+2O
Alkanols can be regarded as alkanes in which one hydrogen atom is replaced by a
hydroxyl group (OH). This is called the functional group.
They are named after the alkane (with the same number of carbon atoms) with an
ending ol.

Name

Molecular
formula

Methanol

Number of
carbon
atoms
1

Structural
formula

Boilong point

CH3OH

65

Ethanol

C2H5OH

78

Propan-1-ol

C3H7OH

87

isomers

Propan-2-ol

C3H7OH

Making ethanol for industry


1. Hydration of ethane(chemical way)

Addition of steam to ethene (obtained by the process of cracking) at high temperature in


presence of a catalyst
Ethene + water
ethanol
(steam)

C2H4 + H2O

C2H5OH
163

2. Making ethanol by fermentation(biological way ).


Fermentation is the process where sugars (e.g. glucose) are converted to ethanol
and carbon dioxide by the action of the enzymes present in yeast in the absence
of air.
The process works best at 37C
Sugar solution
(e.g. glucose)
C6H12O6

ethanol + carbon dioxide


2C2H5OH + 2CO2

It is important to prevent air from entering the reaction vessel, otherwise ethanoic acid
will be formed.
Yeast can only produce a solution containing 10% ethanol. After that, the yeast dies
from alcohol poisoning.
The apparatus below can be used to ferment glucose

During the fermentation process, a rise in temperature is observed since the reaction is
exothermic.
Bubbles of a colorless gas (CO2) are also observed.
Yeast stops working when the % of alcohol increases or the mixture gets too warm.
The ethanol is separated from the mixture by fractional distillation.
The temperature must be from 30-35 c;less than 30c the reaction is too slow and more
than 35 denaturing of the yeast enzyme.
A laboratory experiment to demonstrate fermentation:
Wine (contains about 10% ethanol) is made by fermenting grape juice. Beer is made by
fermenting malt. Spirits (whisky, brandy, .) contains about 30% alcohol
164

.
Biotechnology
Microorganisms have been used in some methods of food-making for many centuries.
Today these methods are often referred to as examples of biotechnology.
One of the oldest known biotechnologies is fermentation.
Properties of ethanol
1. Colorless liquid, boiling point 78C, neutral with litmus.
2. Ethanol burns in air with a blue flame to form CO2 and H2O and heat is given out.
C2H5OH + 3O2
2CO2 + 3H2O
3. Ethanol undergoes dehydration and is converted into ethane when heated with
concentrated sulfuric acid.
C2H5OH
C2H4 + H2O

Uses of ethanol:
1. As a solvent
2. As a fuel
3. In alcoholic drinks.

Uses of methanol (toxic):


1. As a solvent
2. As a fuel

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Alkanoic acids (carboxylic acids)


They are organic acids and characterized by the presence f the carboxyl group. ( - CO2H
or ), which is the functional group.
They are named after the alkane (with the same number of carbon atoms) with an
ending oic acid.
Name

Number of
carbon atoms
1

Molecular formula

Ethanoic acid
(acetic acid)

CH3CO2H

Propanoic acid

CH3CH2CO2H

Methanoic acid

Structural formula

HCO2H

Fossil fuels
Fossils fuels (coal, crude oil, natural gas) have been formed as a result of the decay of plants
and animals that lived long time ago.

Fossil fuel
Natural gas

Appearance
Colorless

It contains
Mainly methane (CH4)

Crude oil
(petroleum)

Dark brown liquid

Coal

Black solid

A mixture of
hydrocarbons, mostly
alkanes
Mainly carbon

Fossils fuels contain sulfur compounds, which form acidic sulfur dioxide (SO2) when
the fuel is burned (leading to acid rain).
Coal, crude oil and natural gas are limited resources, i.e. non-renewable source of
energy.

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Fossil fuels and CO2 emission:


CO2 is produced by burning fossil fuels; CO2 is a greenhouse gas that leads to global warming.
Fractional distillation of crude oil:Refining of petroleum
Crude oil (sometimes called petroleum) is a mixture of alkanes. To make best use of oil, it is
separated by fractional distillation into useful fractions according to the boiling range of the
fractions.
Fraction:
group of molecules with similar boiling points which distill at the same place in the
fractionating column.
1. Each fraction forms at a different temperature and condenses at a different height in
the column.
2. Smaller molecules with lower boiling point condense higher in the column and larger
molecules with higher boiling point condense lower in the column.
The main fractions are:

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170

171

172

173

174

175

176

177

178

179

180

181

182

183

184

185

186

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