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Subiectul I

1. S se arate c numrul {tex}(1-i)^24{/tex} este real.


Rezolvare: Vom scrie numrul sub form trigonometric. Fie
{tex}z=1-i{/tex}.
Atunci
{tex}r=|z|=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}=\sqrt{1^2+(-1)^2}=\sqrt{2}{/tex};
iar imaginea lui z este un punct din cadranul IV, prin urmare
{tex}\fi^*=2\pi-\arctan \left|\frac{b}{a}\right|=2\pi-\arctan 1=2\pi-\frac{\pi}{4}=\frac{7\pi}{4}{/tex}.
Forma trigonometric a numrului complex z este:
{tex}z=r(\cos \fi^*+i\sin \fi^*)=\sqrt{2}\left(\cos \frac{7\pi}{4}+i\sin \frac{7\pi}{4}\right){/tex}
iar
{tex}z^24=r^24(\cos 24\fi^*+i\sin 24\fi^*)={/tex}
{tex}=(\sqrt{2})^24\left[\cos \left(24\cdot \frac{7\pi}{4}\right)+i\sin \left(24\cdot \frac{7\pi}{4}\right)\right]=2^{12}
(\cos 42\pi+i\sin 42\pi)=2^{12}[\cos (0+2\cdot21\pi)+i\sin (0+2\cdot21\pi)]=2^{12}\in R{/tex}.
Prin urmare, numrul dat este egal cu {tex}2^{12}{/tex} i este un numr real.

2. S se rezolve n mulimea numerelor reale ecuaia {tex}\frac{3x-1}{x+1}+\frac{x+1}{2x-1}=3{/tex}.


Rezolvare: Domeniul de existen a soluiilor ecuaiei este {tex}D=R\setminus \left\{-1;\frac{1}{2}\right\}{/tex}.
Atunci
{tex}\frac{3x-1}{x+1}+\frac{x+1}{2x-1}=3\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}(3x-1)(2x-1)+(x+1)^2=3(x+1)(2x-1)\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}6x^2-3x-2x+1+x^2+2x+1=3(2x^2+2x-x-1)\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}7x^2-3x+2=6x^2+3x-3\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}7x^2-3x+2-6x^2-3x+3=0\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}x^2-6x+5=0{/tex}.
Avem
{tex}\Delta=\left(\frac{b}{2}\right)^2-ac={/tex}
{tex}=(-3)^2-1\cdot5=9-5=4{/tex};
{tex}x_{1}=\frac{\frac{-b}{2}+\sqrt{\Delta}}{a}{/tex}; {tex}x_{2}=\frac{\frac{-b}{2}-\sqrt{\Delta}}{a}{/tex}.
Adic
{tex}x_{1}=\frac{3+\sqrt{4}}{1}=3+2=5\in D{/tex}; {tex}x_{1}=\frac{3-\sqrt{4}}{1}=3-2=1\in D{/tex}.
Mulimea soluiilor ecuaiei este {tex}S=\{1;5\}{/tex}.

3. S se determine inversa funciei bijective {tex}f:R\to (1; +\infty){/tex}, {tex}f(x)=e^x+1{/tex}.


Rezolvare: Funcia f este strict cresctoare pe R, deci injectiv, iar {tex}Im f=(1; +\infty){/tex}, adic f este i
surjectiv. Prin urmare, funcia f este bijectiv.
Pentru a gsi legea funciei inverse, rezolvm n mulimea numerelor reale ecuaia
(*) {tex}f(x)=y{/tex}
n necunoscuta x i cu parametrul y, {tex}y\in (1; +\infty){/tex}.
Avem:
(*){tex}\Leftrightarrow e^x+1=y\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}e^x=y-1\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}x=\ln (y-1)\in R{/tex}.
Aadar, inversa funciei f este funcia
{tex}f^{-1}:(1; +\infty)\to R{/tex}
dat de legea
{tex}f^{-1}(y)=\ln (y-1){/tex}, {tex}\forall y\in (1; +\infty){/tex}.

4. S se determine probabilitatea ca alegnd un numr {tex}\overline{ab}{/tex} din mulimea numerelor naturale de


dou cifre s avem {tex}a\neq b{/tex}.
Rezolvare: S notm cu A evenimentul
A: Alegnd un numr {tex}\overline{ab}{/tex} din mulimea numerelor naturale de dou cifre, numrul ales are cifrele
diferite.
Atunci
{tex}P(A)=\frac{\mbox{nr. cazurilor favorabile}}{\mbox{nr. cazurilor posibile}}{/tex}.

Exist 9 numere naturale de dou cifre cu cifrele identice: 11;22;33;44;55;66;77;88 i 99. Avem {tex}(99-9=)90{/tex}
de cazuri posibile (cte numere naturale de dou cifre sunt) i (90-9=81) de cazuri favorabile (cte numere naturale de
dou cifre diferite sunt).
Prin urmare
{tex}P(A)=\frac{81}{90}=\frac{9}{10}{/tex}.

5. S se calculeze lungimea medianei din A a triunghiului ABC, unde A(-2;-1), B(2;0) i C(0;6).
Rezolvare: Fie M mijlocul segmentului BC. Atunci
{tex}x_{M}=\frac{x_{B}+x_{C}}{2}=\frac{2+0}{2}=1{/tex};
{tex}y_{M}=\frac{y_{B}+y_{C}}{2}=\frac{0+6}{2}=3{/tex}.
Atunci
{tex}AM=\sqrt{(y_{M}-y_{A})^2+(x_{M}-x_{A})^2}=\sqrt{(3+1)^2+(1+2)^2}=\sqrt{16+9}=\sqrt{25}=5{/tex}.
Deci, {tex}AM=5{/tex}.

6. Fie vectorii {tex}\overrightarrow{u}=m\overrightarrow{i}+3\overrightarrow{j}{/tex} i


{tex}\overrightarrow{v}=(m-2)\overrightarrow{i}-\overrightarrow{j}{/tex}. S se determine m>0 astfel nct vectorii
{tex}\overrightarrow{u}{/tex} i {tex}\overrightarrow{v}{/tex} s fie perpendiculari.
Rezolvare: Vectorii {tex}\overrightarrow{u}{/tex} i {tex}\overrightarrow{v}{/tex} sunt perpendiculari dac i numai
dac produsul lor scalar este nul, adic
{tex}\overrightarrow{u}\cdot \overrightarrow{v}=0\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}u_{1}v_{1}+u_{2}v_{2}=0\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}m(m-2)+3\cdot (-1)=0\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}m(m-2)-3=0\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}m^2-2m-3=0{/tex}.
Avem
{tex}\Delta=\left(\frac{b}{2}\right)^2-ac={/tex}
{tex}=(-1)^2-1\cdot (-3)=1+3=4{/tex}
iar
{tex}m_{1}=\frac{\frac{-b}{2}+\sqrt{\Delta}}{a}=\frac{1+\sqrt{4}}{1}=1+2=3>0{/tex};
{tex}m_{2}=\frac{\frac{-b}{2}-\sqrt{\Delta}}{a}=\frac{1-\sqrt{4}}{1}=1-2=-1<0{/tex}.
Prin urmare, pentru {tex}m=3>0{/tex} vectorii {tex}\overrightarrow{u}{/tex} i {tex}\overrightarrow{v}{/tex} sunt
perpendiculari.

Subiectul II
1. Se consider matricea {tex}A\in M_{2}(R){/tex}, {tex}A =
\left( {\begin{array}{cc}
2 & 2 \\
1 & 1 \\
\end{array} } \right){/tex}.
a) S se arate c exist {tex}a\in R{/tex} astfel nct {tex}A^2=a\cdot A{/tex}.
b) S se calculeze {tex}(A-A^t)^{2009}{/tex}.
c) S se rezolve ecuaia {tex}X^5=A{/tex}, {tex}X\in M_{2}(R){/tex}.
Rezolvare:
a) Avem:
{tex}A^2=A\cdot A={/tex}
{tex}=\left( {\begin{array}{cc}
2 & 2 \\
1 & 1 \\
\end{array} } \right)\cdot \left( {\begin{array}{cc}
2 & 2 \\
1 & 1 \\
\end{array} } \right)={/tex}
{tex}=
\left( {\begin{array}{cc}
2\cdot2+2\cdot1 & 2\cdot2+2\cdot1 \\
1\cdot2+1\cdot1 & 1\cdot2+1\cdot1 \\
\end{array} } \right)=

\left( {\begin{array}{cc}
6 & 6 \\
3 & 3 \\
\end{array} } \right)={/tex}
{tex}=3\cdot \left( {\begin{array}{cc}
2 & 2 \\
1 & 1 \\
\end{array} } \right)=3\cdot A{/tex}.
Aadar, pentru {tex}a=3\in R{/tex}, avem {tex}A^2=a\cdot A{/tex}.
b) Avem:
{tex}A^t =
\left( {\begin{array}{cc}
2 & 1 \\
2 & 1 \\
\end{array} } \right){/tex}
i
{tex}A-A^t =
\left( {\begin{array}{cc}
2 & 2 \\
1 & 1 \\
\end{array} } \right)- \left( {\begin{array}{cc}
2 & 1 \\
2 & 1 \\
\end{array} } \right)= \left( {\begin{array}{cc}
0 & 1 \\
-1 & 0 \\
\end{array} } \right){/tex}.
Apoi
{tex}(A-A^t)^2 =
\left( {\begin{array}{cc}
0 & 1 \\
-1 & 0 \\
\end{array} } \right)\cdot \left( {\begin{array}{cc}
0 & 1 \\
-1 & 0 \\
\end{array} } \right)={/tex}
{tex}\left( {\begin{array}{cc}
0\cdot0+1\cdot (-1) & 0\cdot1+1\cdot0 \\
(-1)\cdot0+0\cdot (-1) & (-1)\cdot1+0\cdot0 \\
\end{array} } \right)= \left( {\begin{array}{cc}
-1 & 0 \\
0 & -1 \\
\end{array} } \right)={/tex}
{tex}=(-1)\cdot I_{2}{/tex}.
Atunci
{tex}(A-A^t)^{2009}=(A-A^t)^{2008}\cdot (A-A^t)=[(A-A^t)^2]^{1004}\cdot (A-A^t)={/tex}
{tex}=[(-1)\cdot I_{2}]^{1004}\cdot (A-A^t)={/tex}
{tex}=I_{2}\cdot (A-A^t)={/tex}
{tex}= \left( {\begin{array}{cc}
0 & 1 \\
-1 & 0 \\
\end{array} } \right){/tex}.
c) Fie {tex}X\in M_{2}(R){/tex}, {tex}X =
\left( {\begin{array}{cc}
x & y \\
z & t \\
\end{array} } \right){/tex} o soluie a ecuaiei
{tex}X^5=A{/tex}.
Din egalitatea precedent rezult c
{tex}det(X^5)=det(A)=0{/tex},
i deci
{tex}det(X)=0\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}xt-yz=0\Leftrightarrowxt=yz=k{/tex}.
Dac x ar fi egal cu 0, atunci y sau z ar fi 0, adic X ar avea prima linie/coloan nul, ceea ce este imposibil, ntruct ar
rezulta c A are i ea prima linie/coloan nul. Prin urmare, x este diferit de 0. Analog se arat c t este diferit de 0 i
atunci i y i z sunt diferite de 0.
Obinem atunci:

{tex}t=\frac{k}{x}{/tex} i {tex}z=\frac{k}{y}{/tex}.
Prin urmare
{tex}X =
\left( {\begin{array}{cc}
x & y \\
\frac{k}{y} & \frac{k}{x} \\
\end{array} } \right){/tex}.
Efectund calculele obinem
{tex}X^2=\frac{x^2+k}{x}\cdot \left( {\begin{array}{cc}
x & y \\
\frac{k}{y} & \frac{k}{x} \\
\end{array} } \right){/tex},
adic
{tex}X^2=\frac{x^2+k}{x}\cdot X{/tex}.
Analog
{tex}X^3=X^2\cdot X=\frac{x^2+k}{x}\cdot X^2=\left(\frac{x^2+k}{X}\right)^2\cdot X{/tex}
i
{tex}X^5=X^3\cdot X^2={/tex}
{tex}=\left[\left(\frac{x^2+k}{x}\right)^2\cdot X\right]\cdot \left[\left(\frac{x^2+k}{x}\right)\cdot X\right]={/tex}
{tex}=\left(\frac{x^2+k}{x}\right)^3\cdot X^2={/tex}
{tex}=\left(\frac{x^2+k}{x}\right)^4\cdot X{/tex}.
Atunci
{tex}X^5=A\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}\left(\frac{x^2+k}{x}\right)^4\cdot \left( {\begin{array}{cc}
x & y \\
\frac{k}{y} & \frac{k}{x} \\
\end{array} } \right)= \left( {\begin{array}{cc}
2 & 2 \\
1 & 1 \\
\end{array} } \right)\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}\begin{cases}
\left(\frac{x^2+k}{x}\right)^4\cdot x=2 \\
\left(\frac{x^2+k}{x}\right)^4\cdot y=2 \\
\left(\frac{x^2+k}{x}\right)^4\cdot \frac{k}{y}=1 \\
\left(\frac{x^2+k}{x}\right)^4\cdot \frac{k}{x}=1 \\
\end{cases}{/tex}.
nlocuind {tex}\left(\frac{x^2+k}{x}\right)^4{/tex} din ultima ecuaie n prima ecuaie a sistemului, obinem:
{tex}\frac{x^2}{k}=2\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}x^2=2k\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}x=\sqrt{2k}{/tex}, ntruct x nu poate fi negativ, dup cum rezult din prima ecuaie a sistemului.
nlocuind valoarea gsit pentru x n prima ecuaie a sistemului, obinem:
{tex}\left(\frac{2k+k}{\sqrt{2k}}\right)^4\cdot \sqrt{2k}=2\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}\frac{81k^4}{4k^2}\cdot \sqrt{2k}=2\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}\sqrt{2k^5}=\frac{8}{81}|^2\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}2k^5=\frac{2^6}{3^8}\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}k=\frac{2}{3\sqrt[5]{27}}{/tex}.
Prin urmare
{tex}x=\sqrt{\frac{4}{\sqrt[5]{3^8}}}=\frac{2}{\sqrt[5]{\sqrt{3^8}}}=\frac{2}{\sqrt[5]{81}}{/tex}.
Din prima i a doua ecuaie a sistemului rezult c {tex}y=x=\frac{2}{\sqrt[5]{81}}{/tex}.
Aadar, unica soluie a ecuaiei date este matricea
{tex}X =
\left( {\begin{array}{cc}
\frac{2}{\sqrt[5]{81}} & \frac{2}{\sqrt[5]{81}} \\
\frac{1}{\sqrt[5]{81}} & \frac{1}{\sqrt[5]{81}} \\
\end{array} } \right)=\frac{1}{\sqrt[5]{81}}\cdot A{/tex}.
Desigur, faptul c matricea {tex}\frac{1}{\sqrt[5]{81}}\cdot A{/tex} este soluie a ecuaiei date rezult imediat dac
utilizm pct. a), dar nu putem dovedi c aceast soluie este unic dect urmnd calea de mai sus.

2. Pentru {tex}a, b\in M=[0; \infty){/tex}, se definete operaia {tex}a*b=\ln (e^a+e^b-1){/tex}.


a) S se arate c dac {tex}a, b\in M{/tex}, atunci {tex}a*b\in M{/tex}.
b) S se arate c legea de compoziie * este asociativ.
c) Pentru {tex}m\in N{/tex}, {tex}m\geq2{/tex}, s se determine {tex}a\in M{/tex} astfel nct
{tex}a^m=a*...*a=2a{/tex}.
Rezolvare:

Fie {tex}a, b\in M{/tex}. Atunci:


{tex}a\geq0, b\geq0{/tex}
i
{tex}e^a\geq1, e^b\geq1{/tex}.
Rezult atunci c
{tex}e^a+e^b\geq2\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}e^a+e^b-1\geq1\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}\ln (e^a+e^b-1)\geq0\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}a*b\in M{/tex}.
b) * este asociativ dac i numai dac {tex}\forall a, b, c \in M, (a*b)*c=a*(b*c)\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}\forall a, b, c \in M, [\ln(e^a+e^b-1)]*c=a*[\ln (e^b+e^c-1)]\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}\forall a, b, c \in M, \ln (e^{\ln (e^a+e^b-1)}+e^c-1)=\ln (e^a+e^{\ln (e^b+e^c-1)}-1)\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}\forall a, b, c \in M, \ln (e^a+e^b-1+e^c-1)=\ln (e^a+e^b+e^c-1-1)\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}\forall a, b, c \in M, \ln (e^a+e^b+e^c-2)=\ln (e^a+e^b+e^c-2){/tex} (A).
c) Fie {tex}m\in N, m\geq2{/tex} i {tex}a\in M{/tex}. Atunci
{tex}a^2=a*a=\ln (e^a+e^a-1)=\ln (2e^a-1){/tex};
{tex}a^3=a^2*a={/tex}
{tex}=[\ln (2e^a-1)]*a=\ln (e^{\ln (2e^a-1)}+e^a-1)=\ln (2e^a-1+e^a-1)=\ln (3e^a-2){/tex};
{tex}a^4=a^3*a={/tex}
{tex}=[\ln (3e^a-2)]*a=\ln (e^{\ln (3e^a-2)}+e^a-1)=\ln (4e^a-3){/tex};
...
{tex}a^m=\ln (me^a-(m-1)){/tex}.
Aadar, avem
{tex}a^m=2a\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}\ln (me^a-(m-1))=2a\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}\ln (me^a-m+1)=\ln e^{2a}\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}me^a-m+1=e^{2a}\Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}(e^{a})^2-me^a+m-1=0{/tex}.
Fie {tex}e^{a}=t, t\geq1{/tex}.
Ultima ecuaie devine atunci
{tex}t^2-mt+m-1=0{/tex}
{tex}\Delta=m^2-4(m-1)=m^2-4m+4=(m-2)^2{/tex}.
Atunci
{tex}t_{1}=\frac{m+(m-2)}{2}=m-1\geq1{/tex};
{tex}t_{2}=\frac{m-(m-2)}{2}=1\geq1{/tex}.
Vom avea de rezolvat dou ecuaii n a:
{tex}e^{a}=m-1{/tex} i {tex}e^{a}=1{/tex}.
Obinem {tex}a=\ln (m-1)\in M{/tex} i {tex}a=0\in M{/tex}.
Valorile lui a pentru care {tex}a^m=2a{/tex} sunt {tex}a=\ln (m-1){/tex} i {tex}a=0{/tex}.

Subiectul III
1. Se consider irul {tex}(a_{n})_{n\in N^*}{/tex} dat de {tex}a_{1}\in (0;1){/tex} i {tex}a_{n+1}=a_{n}
(1-\sqrt{a_{n}}), \forall n\in N^*{/tex}.
a) S se arate c {tex}a_{n}\in (0;1), \forall n\in N^*{/tex}.
b) S se demonstreze c irul {tex}(a_{n})_{n \in N^*}{/tex} este strict descresctor.
c) S se arate c irul {tex}(b_{n})_{n\in N^*}{/tex} dat de {tex}b_{n}=a_{1}^2+a_{2}^2+...+a_{n}^2, \forall n\in
N^*{/tex} este mrginit superior de {tex}a_{1}{/tex}.
Rezolvare:
a) Fie predicatul unar P, dat de {tex}P(n): a_{n}\in (0;1), n\in N^*{/tex}.
Vom demonstra prin inducie matematic dup n c P(n) este o propoziie adevrat pentru orice n, numr natural
nenul.
I. {tex}P(1): a_{1}\in (0;1){/tex}, (A).
II. {tex}P(n)\Rightarrow P(n+1), n\in N^* \Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex}a_{n}\in (0;1)\Rightarrow a_{n+1} \in (0;1), n \in N^* \Leftrightarrow {/tex}
{tex} a_{n} \in (0;1) \Rightarrow a_{n}(1-\sqrt{a_{n}}) \in (0;1), n \in N^* {/tex}.
ntr-adevr, dac {tex}a_{n} \in (0;1), n \in N^* {/tex}, atunci
{tex}0<a_{n}<1, n \in N^* {/tex}
i
{tex} 0<1-\sqrt{a_{n}}<1, n \in N^* {/tex}
i prin urmare
{tex}0<a_{n}(1-\sqrt{a_{n}})<1, n \in N^* {/tex}.
Deci,
{tex}P(n) \Rightarrow P(n+1), n \in N^* {/tex}.
Din I i II, rezult conform principiului induciei matematice c P(n) este adevrat pentru orice n, numr natural nenul,

adic {tex} a_{n} \in (0;1), \forall n \in N^*{/tex}.


b) irul {tex} (a_{n})_{n \in N^*}{/tex} este strict descresctor dac i numai dac
{tex} a_{n+1} < a_{n}, \forall n \in N^* \Leftrightarrow {/tex}
{tex} a_{n}(1-\sqrt{a_{n}}) < a_{n}, \forall n \in N^* \Leftrightarrow {/tex}
{tex} a_{n}(1-\sqrt{a_{n}}) - a_{n} < 0, \forall n \in N^* {/tex}
{tex} -a_{n}\sqrt{a_{n}} < 0, \forall n \in N^* {/tex}, (A dac inem cont de pct. a)).
c) Vom demonstra c:
{tex} a_{n}^2 < a_{n} - a_{n+1}, \forall n \in N^*{/tex}.
ntr-adevr,
{tex} a_{n}^2 < a_{n} - a_{n+1}, \forall n \in N^* \Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex} a_{n}^2 < a_{n} - a_{n}(1-\sqrt{a_{n}}), \forall n \in N^* \Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex} a_{n}^2 < a_{n}\sqrt{a_{n}}, \forall n \in N^* |:a_{n}>0 \Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex} a_{n} < \sqrt{a_{n}}, \forall n \in N^*{/tex}
i ntruct ambii membri ai inegalitii sunt pozitivi, avem
{tex} a_{n} < \sqrt{a_{n}}, \forall n \in N^* |^2 \Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex} a_{n}^2 < a_{n}, \forall n \in N^* |:a_{n}>0 \Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex} a_{n} < 1, \forall n \in N^*{/tex} (A, cf. pct. a)).
Prin urmare
{tex} a_{n}^2 < a_{n} - a_{n+1}, \forall n \in N^*{/tex}.
Din aceast inegalitate, rezult urmtorul ir de inegaliti:
{tex} a_{1}^2 < a_{1} - a_{2}{/tex};
{tex} a_{2}^2 < a_{2} - a_{3}{/tex};
{tex} a_{3}^2 < a_{3} - a_{4}{/tex};
...
{tex} a_{n}^2 < a_{n} - a_{n+1}{/tex}.
Adunnd membru cu membru aceste inegaliti, obinem:
{tex} b_{n}=a_{1}^2+a_{2}^2+...+a_{n}^2 < a_{1} - a_{n+1} < a_{1}, \forall n \in N^*{/tex}.
Aadar, irul {tex}(b_{n})_{n \in N^*}{/tex} este mrginit superior de {tex}a_{1}{/tex}.

2. Se consider funcia {tex}f: R \to R, f(x)=\frac{1}{x^2+x+1}{/tex}.


a) S se arate c funcia {tex}F: R \to R, F(x)=\frac{2\sqrt{3}}{3} \cdot \arctan \left(\frac{2x+1}{\sqrt{3}}\right), x \in
R{/tex} este o primitiv a lui f.
b) S se calculeze aria suprafeei delimitate de dreptele {tex}x=0, x=1{/tex}, Ox i graficul funciei {tex}g: R \to R,
g(x)=(2x+1)f(x){/tex}.
c) S se calculeze:
{tex}\lim_{n \to \infty} \int_{-n}^{n} f(x)dx{/tex}, unde {tex}n \in N^*{/tex}.
Rezolvare:
a) Funcia F este o primitiv a lui f dac i numai dac
{tex}F(x)=f(x), \forall x \in R \Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex} \left[\left(\frac{2\sqrt{3}}{3}\right) \cdot \arctan \left(\frac{2x+1}{\sqrt{3}}\right)\right]=\frac{1}
{x^2+x+1}, \forall x \in R \Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex} \left(\frac{2\sqrt{3}}{3}\right) \cdot \frac{1}{\left(\frac{2x+1}{\sqrt{3}}\right)^2+1} \cdot \left(\frac{2x+1}
{\sqrt{3}}\right)=\frac{1}{x^2+x+1}, \forall x \in R \Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex} \left(\frac{2\sqrt{3}}{3}\right) \cdot \frac{3}{4x^2+4x+4} \cdot \frac{2}{\sqrt{3}}=\frac{1}{x^2+x+1},
\forall x \in R \Leftrightarrow{/tex}
{tex} \frac{4}{3} \cdot \frac{3}{4(x^2+x+1)}=\frac{1}{x^2+x+1}, \forall x \in R{/tex}, (A).
b) Aria cerut este:
{tex} A=\int _{0}^{1} g(x)dx={/tex}
{tex}=\int_{0}^{1} (2x+1)f(x)dx={/tex}
{tex}\int_{0}^{1} \frac{2x+1}{x^2+x+1}dx={/tex}
{tex}=[\ln (x^2+x+1)] |_{0}^{1}={/tex}
{tex} =\ln (1^2+1+1)-\ln (0^2+0+1)={/tex}
{tex}=\ln 3-0=\ln 3{/tex}.
c) Calculm mai nti
{tex}I_{n}=\int_{-n}^{n} f(x)dx, n \in N^*{/tex}.
Avem:
{tex}I_{n}=\int_{-n}^{n} \frac{1}{x^2+x+1}dx={/tex}
{tex}=\int_{-n}^{n} \frac{1}{(x+\frac{1}{2})^2+1-\frac{1}{4}}dx={/tex}
{tex}=\int_{-n}^{n} \frac{1}{(x+\frac{1}{2})^2+(\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2})^2}dx={/tex}
{tex}=\left[\frac{2}{\sqrt{3}} \arctan \frac{2}{\sqrt{3}}\left(x+\frac{1}{2}\right)\right] \right|_{-n}^{n}={/tex}
{tex}=\left[\frac{2\sqrt{3}}{3} \arctan \frac{2\sqrt{3}(2x+1)}{3}\right|_{-n}^{n}={/tex}
{tex}=\frac{2\sqrt{3}}{3}\left(\arctan \frac{\sqrt{3}(2n+1)}{3}-\arctan \frac{\sqrt{3}(-2n+1)}{3}\right)={/tex}
{tex}\frac{2\sqrt{3}}{3}\left(\arctan \frac{\sqrt{3}(2n+1)}{3}+\arctan \frac{\sqrt{3}(2n-1)}{3}\right){/tex}.
Atunci

{tex}\lim_{n \to \infty} I_{n}={/tex}


{tex}=\lin_{n \to \infty} \frac{2\sqrt{3}}{3}\left(\arctan \frac{\sqrt{3}(2n+1)}{3}+\arctan \frac{\sqrt{3}(2n-1)}
{3}\right)={/tex}
{tex}=\frac{2\sqrt{3}}{3}\left(\frac{\pi}{2}+\frac{\pi}{2}\right)={/tex}
{tex}=\frac{2\pi \sqrt{3}}{3}{/tex}.