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NATURAL SCIENCE 2 ND OF ESO

UNIT 10?

HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

WHAT IS HEAT?

Heat is the thermal energy which transfers form one body or system to another. This transfer is caused by a difference of temperature.

Heat flows in one direction:

from higher temperature (the cup) to lower temperature (the hands). One system releases heat (the cup) and the other absorbs it (the hands).

THERMAL EQULIBRIUM

When two bodies or systems are at the same temperature, they can't transfer heat between them. This is called thermal equilibrium.   HEAT UNITS

There are two measurements of heat:

1)

2)

Since heat is thermal energy in transit, in the Uniternational System the measurement unit for heat is the joule (J).

The most common unit of measurement for heat is the calorie (cal). It is used for thermal pumps and food.  1J = 0,24 cal 1cal = 4184J

WHAT IS TEMPERATURE?

Temperature is the measurement of the amount of heat in a body or a system.

Heat and temperature ARE NOT THE SAME:

Heat is energy in transit. When a body transfers heat to another, its temperature decreases.

The soda transfers heat to the ice cubes, so gets colder. When a body absorbs temperature from another, its temperature increases.

The ice cubes recieve heat from the soda, so they get warmer and eventually melt.

until

they reach the thermal equilibrium (both systems are at the same temperature).

WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF HEAT?

EXPANSION: This is the increase of volume which occurs when a system gains heat or increases its temperature.

CONTRACTION: This is the decrease in volume which occurs when a system loses heat or cools. WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF HEAT?

A CHANGE OF STATE is a modification in the way the molecules and atoms of a substance are disposed.

Changes of states can be:

ENDOTHERMICS: changes are produced by heat absorption, such as melting, evaporation or sublimation.

EXOTHERMIC: the changes are produced by heat loss, such as solidification, condensation and desublimation. BOILING POINT & MELTING POINT

While a change of state is occuring, the substance doesn't change its temperature, no matter if it's absorbing or releasing heat. This heat is used to change the way its molecules are disposed in space.  The temperature at wich

a substance changes

from liquid to gas is called boiling point. The boiling point for water is 100ºC.

The temperature at wich

a substance changes

from solid to liquid is

called melting point. The melting point for water is 0ºC.

HOW IS TEMPERATURE MEASURED?    HOW IS TEMPERATURE MEASURED? HOW DOES HEAT TRANSFER?  CONDUCTION

CONDUCTION is how heat transfers in SOLID bodies or systems. In conduction, heat is tranferred by CONTACT.

Two substances at different temperatures transfer heat between them through contact, untill they reach the same temperature (this is, they reach the thermal equilibrium).

CONDUCTORS & INSULATORS Metals are usually good conductors. When we touch them, we usually feel cold because the heat transfer is very quick.

Porous and fibrous materials, which can contain air in its inners, are good insulators. CONVECTION   