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Preambul

Considerind ca recunoasterea demnitatii inerente tuturor membrilor familiei umane si a drepturilor lor egale si
inalienabile constituie fundamentul libertatii, dreptatii si pacii in lume,
Considerind ca ignorarea si dispretuirea drepturilor omului au dus la acte de barbarie care revolta constiinta omenirii
si ca faurirea unei lumi in care fiintele umane se vor bucura de libertatea cuvintului si a convingerilor si vor fi eliberate
de teama si mizerie a fost proclamata drept cea mai inalta aspiratie a oamenilor,
Considerind ca este esential ca drepturile omului sa fie ocrotite de autoritatea legii pentru ca omul sa nu fie silit sa
recurga, ca solutie extrema, la revolta impotriva tiraniei si asupririi,
Considerind ca este esential a se incuraja dezvoltarea relatiilor prietenesti intre natiuni,
Considerind ca in Carta popoarele Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite au proclamat din nou credinta lor in drepturile
fundamentale ale omului, in demnitatea si in valoarea persoanei umane, drepturi egale pentru barbati si femei si ca
au hotarit sa favorizeze progresul social si imbunatatirea conditiilor de viata in cadrul unei libertati mai mari,
Considerind ca statele membre s-au angajat sa promoveze in colaborare cu Organizatia Natiunilor Unite respectul
universal si efectiv fata de drepturile omului si libertatile fundamentale, precum si respectarea lor universala si
efectiva,
Considerind ca o conceptie comuna despre aceste drepturi si libertati este de cea mai mare importanta pentru
realizarea deplina a acestui angajament,
ADUNEAREA GENERALA proclama
prezenta DECLARATIE UNIVERSALA A DREPTURILOR OMULUI, ca ideal comun spre care trebuie sa tinda toate
popoarele si toate natiunile, pentru ca toate persoanele si toate organele societatii sa se straduiasca, avind aceasta
Declaratie permanent in minte, ca prin invatatura si educatie sa dezvolte respectul pentru aceste drepturi si libertati si
sa asigure prin masuri progresive, de ordin national si international, recunoasterea si aplicarea lor universala si
efectiva, atit in sinul popoarelor statelor membre, cit si al celor din teritoriile aflate sub jurisdictia lor.

Declaraia Universal a drepturilor omului.


Adoptata la 10 decembrie 1948 la New York ( Republica
Hotrrea Parlamentului RM nr.217-XII din 28.07.90);

Moldova a aderat prin

Declaraia Universal a drepturilor omului*


din

10.12.1948
* * *

Publicat n ediia oficial


"Tratate internaionale", 1998, volumul 1, pag.11

--------------------Adoptat la New York, la 10 decembrie 1948.


Adoptat i proclamat de Adunarea general a O.N.U. prin Rezoluia
217 A (III) din 10 decembrie 1948.
PREAMBUL
Considernd c recunoaterea demnitii inerente tuturor membrilor
familiei umane i a drepturilor lor egale i inalienabile constituie
fundamentul libertii, dreptii i pcii n lume,
Considernd c ignorarea i dispreuirea drepturilor omului au
condus la acte de barbarie care revolt contiina omenirii i c
furirea unei lumi n care fiinele umane vor beneficia de libertatea
cuvntului i a convingerilor, eliberate de teroare i de mizerie, a
fost proclamat drept cea mai nalt aspiraie a omului,
Considernd c este esenial ca drepturile omului s fie protejate
de un sistem de drept pentru ca omul s nu fie constrns, ca mijloc
suprem, la revolt mpotriva tiraniei i a asupririi,
Considernd c
este
esenial s fie
ncurajat
dezvoltarea
relaiilor prieteneti ntre naiuni,
Considernd c n Cart popoarele Naiunilor Unite au proclamat din
nou credina lor n drepturile fundamentale ale omului, n demnitatea i
n valoarea persoanei umane, n egalitatea n drepturi a brbailor i
femeilor i c s-au hotrt s favorizeze progresul social i s
instaureze condiii mai bune de via n cadrul unei liberti mai mari,
Considernd c
statele membre s-au angajat s promoveze,
n
cooperare cu Organizaia Naiunilor Unite, respectul universal i
efectiv al drepturilor omului i al libertilor fundamentale,
Considernd c
o concepie comun despre aceste drepturi
i
liberti este de cea mai mare importan pentru realizarea deplin a
acestui angajament,
Adunarea General,
Proclam
prezenta Declaraie universal
a
drepturilor omului ca ideal comun ctre care trebuie s tind popoarele
i toate naiunile pentru ca toate persoanele i toate organele
societii,
avnd n vedere permanent aceast Declaraie, s se
strduiasc, prin nvtur i educaie, s dezvolte respectul pentru
aceste drepturi i liberti i s asigure, prin msuri progresive de
ordin
naional i internaional, recunoaterea i aplicarea
lor
universal i efectiv att n cadrul statelor membre nsei ct i n
teritoriile aflate sub jurisdicia lor.
Articolul 1
Toate fiinele umane se nasc libere i egale n demnitate i n
drepturi. Ele sunt nzestrate cu raiune i contiin i trebuie s se
comporte unele fa de celelalte n spiritul fraternitii.
Articolul 2
1. Fiecare se
poate prevala de toate drepturile i de toate
libertile proclamate n prezenta Declaraie, fr nici o deosebire, n
special de ras, de culoare, de sex, de limb, de religie, de opinie
politic sau de orice alt opinie, de origine naional sau social, de
avere, de natere sau decurgnd din orice alt situaie.
2. Pe lng aceasta, nu se va face nici o deosebire bazat pe
statutul politic, juridic sau internaional al rii sau al teritoriului
de
care
aparine o persoan, fie aceast ar
sau
teritoriu
independente, sub tutel, neautonome sau supuse unei limitri oarecare a
suveranitii.
Orice fiin
securitatea sa.

uman

are

Articolul 3
dreptul la

via,

la

libertate

la

Articolul 4
Nimeni nu va fi inut n sclavie, nici n robie; sclavia i traficul
cu sclavi sunt interzise sub toate formele lor.
Articolul 5
Nimeni nu va fi supus la tortur, nici la pedepse
crude, inumane sau degradante.
Fiecare are dreptul
oriunde s-ar afla.

sau

Articolul 6
s i se recunoasc personalitatea sa

tratamente

juridic,

Articolul 7
Toi oamenii sunt egali n faa legii i au dreptul fr deosebire
la o protecie egal a legii. Toi oamenii au dreptul la o protecie
egal
mpotriva
oricrei discriminri care ar nclca
prezenta
Declaraie i mpotriva oricrei provocri la o astfel de discriminare.
Articolul 8
Orice persoan are dreptul s se adreseze n mod efectiv instanelor
judiciare
competente
mpotriva actelor care violeaz
drepturile
fundamentale ce i sunt recunoscute prin constituie sau prin lege.
Articolul 9
Nimeni nu poate fi arestat, deinut sau exilat n mod arbitrar.
Articolul 10
Orice persoan are dreptul, n deplin egalitate, s fie ascultat
n mod echitabil i public de un tribunal independent i imparial, care
va hotr fie asupra drepturilor i obligaiilor sale, fie asupra
temeiniciei oricrei acuzaii n materie penal ndreptat mpotriva ei.
Articolul 11
1. Orice persoan acuzat de un delict este prezumat nevinovat
pn cnd vinovia sa va fi dovedit n mod legal n cursul unui proces
public n cadrul cruia i s-au asigurat toate garaniile necesare
aprrii sale.
2. Nimeni nu va fi condamnat pentru aciuni sau omisiuni care, n
momentul n care au fost comise, nu constituiau un act delictuos
potrivit dreptului naional sau internaional. De asemenea, nu se va
aplica nici o pedeaps mai aspr dect aceea care era aplicabil n
momentul n care a fost comis actul delictuos.
Articolul 12
Nimeni nu va fi obiectul unor imixtiuni arbitrare n viaa sa
particular, n familia sa, n domiciliul su ori n coresponden, nici
al unor atingeri ale onoarei sau reputaiei sale. Orice persoan are
dreptul la protecia legii mpotriva unor astfel de imixtiuni sau
atingeri.
Articolul 13
1. Orice persoan are dreptul sa circule liber i s-i aleag
reedina n interiorul unui stat.
2. Orice persoan are dreptul sa prseasc orice ar, inclusiv
ara sa, i de a reveni in ara sa.
Articolul 14
1. n cazul persecuiei, orice persoan are dreptul s caute azil i
s beneficieze de azil n alte ri.
2. Acest drept nu poate fi invocat n cazul unor urmriri penale
bazate pe comiterea unei crime de drept comun sau pe aciuni contrare
scopurilor i principiilor Naiunilor Unite.
Articolul 15

1. Orice individ are dreptul la o cetenie.


2. Nimeni nu poate fi lipsit n mod arbitrar de cetenia sa nici de
dreptul de a-i schimba cetenia.
Articolul 16
1. Cu ncepere de la vrsta nubil, brbatul i femeia fr nici
restricie n privina rasei, ceteniei sau religiei, au dreptul s
cstoreasc i s ntemeieze o familie. Ei au drepturi egale
ncheierea cstoriei, n decursul cstoriei i la desfacerea ei.
2. Cstoria nu poate fi ncheiat dect cu consimmntul liber
deplin al viitorilor soi.
3. Familia este elementul natural i fundamental al societii
are dreptul la ocrotire din partea societii i a statului.

o
se
la
i
i

Articolul 17
1. Orice persoan are dreptul la proprietate att singur ct i n
asociere cu alii.
2. Nimeni nu va fi lipsit n mod arbitrar de proprietatea sa.
Articolul 18
Orice persoan are dreptul la libertatea gndirii, a contiinei i
a religiei; acest drept implic libertatea de a-i schimba religia sau
convingerile
precum i libertatea de a-i manifesta religia sau
convingerile sale, individual sau n colectiv, att n public ct i
privat, prin nvmnt, practici, cult i ndeplinirea de rituri.
Articolul 19
Orice individ are dreptul la libertatea de opinie i de exprimare,
ceea ce implic dreptul de a nu fi tulburat pentru opiniile sale i
acela de a cuta, de a primi i de a rspndi, fr consideraii de
frontier, informaii i idei prin orice mijloc de exprimare.
Articolul 20
1. Orice persoan are dreptul la libertatea de ntrunire i
asociere panic.
2. Nimeni nu poate fi obligat s fac parte dintr-o asociaie.

de

Articolul 21
1. Orice persoan are dreptul s participe la conducerea treburilor
publice
ale rii sale, fie direct, fie prin intermediul
unor
reprezentani liber alei.
2. Orice persoan are dreptul de acces, n condiii de egalitate, la
funciile publice ale rii sale.
3. Voina poporului este baza puterii de stat, aceast voin
trebuie s fie exprimat prin alegeri oneste care trebuie s aib loc
periodic, prin sufragiu universal egal i prin vot secret sau dup o
procedur echivalent care s asigure libertatea votului.
Articolul 22
Orice persoan, n calitate de membru al societii, are dreptul la
securitate
social; ea este ndreptit s obin
satisfacerea
drepturilor
economice, sociale i culturale indispensabile pentru
demnitatea i libera dezvoltare a personalitii sale, prin efort
naional i cooperare internaional, inndu-se seama de organizarea i
de resursele fiecrei ri.
Articolul 23
1. Orice persoan are dreptul la munc, la libera alegere a muncii,
la condiii echitabile i satisfctoare de munc, precum i la ocrotire
mpotriva omajului.
2. Toi oamenii au dreptul, fr nici o discriminare, la salariu
egal pentru munc egal.
3. Orice om care muncete are dreptul la o remuneraie echitabil i
satisfctoare care s-i asigure lui precum i familiei sale o existen

conform cu demnitatea uman i completat, dac este cazul, cu alte


mijloace de protecie social.
4. Orice persoan
are dreptul s ntemeieze cu alte persoane
sindicate i de a se afilia la sindicate pentru aprarea intereselor
sale.
Articolul 24
Orice persoan are dreptul la odihn i la timp liber i ndeosebi
la o limitare rezonabil a timpului de munc, precum i la concedii
periodice pltite.
Articolul 25
1. Orice persoan are dreptul la un nivel de via corespunztor
asigurrii sntii sale, bunstrii proprii i a familiei, cuprinznd
hrana,
mbrcmintea,
locuina, ngrijirea medical,
precum
i
serviciile sociale necesare, are dreptul la asigurare n caz de omaj,
de boal, de invaliditate, vduvie, btrnee sau n alte cazuri de
pierdere a mijloacelor de subzisten ca urmare a unor mprejurri
independente de voina sa.
2. Mama i copilul au dreptul la ajutor i ocrotire speciale. Toi
copiii, indiferent dac s-au nscut n cadrul sau n afara cstoriei,
se bucur de aceeai ocrotire social.
Articolul 26
1. Orice persoan are dreptul la educaie. Educaia trebuie s fie
gratuit, cel puin n ce privete nvmntul elementar i de baz.
nvmntul
elementar
este obligatoriu. nvmntul tehnic
i
profesional
trebuie s fie accesibil tuturor; accesul la studii
superioare trebuie s fie deschis tuturor pe baza deplinei egaliti n
funcie de merit.
2. Educaia trebuie
s
urmreasc
dezvoltarea
deplin
a
personalitii umane i ntrirea respectului pentru drepturile omului
i pentru libertile fundamentale. Ea trebuie s stimuleze nelegerea,
tolerana i prietenia ntre toate popoarele i ntre toate grupurile
rasiale sau religioase, precum i dezvoltarea activitii Organizaiei
Naiunilor Unite pentru meninerea pcii.
3. Prinii au, cu prioritate, dreptul s aleag felul educaiei
care urmeaz s fie dat copiilor lor.
Articolul 27
1. Orice persoan are dreptul s ia parte n mod liber la viaa
cultural a colectivitii, s se bucure de arte i s participe la
progresul tiinific i la binefacerile care rezult din acesta.
2. Fiecare are dreptul la protecia intereselor morale i materiale
care decurg din orice oper tiinific, literar sau artistic al crei
autor este.
Articolul 28
Fiecare persoan are dreptul s beneficieze, pe plan social i
internaional, de existena unei ordini care s permit ca drepturile i
libertile enunate n prezenta Declaraie s-i poat gsi o realizare
deplin.
Articolul 29
1. Individul are ndatoriri fa de colectivitate, numai n cadrul
acesteia fiind posibil dezvoltarea liber i deplin a personalitii
sale.
2. n exercitarea drepturilor i libertilor sale, fiecare persoan
este supus numai ngrdirilor stabilite de lege n scopul exclusiv al
asigurrii recunoaterii i respectului drepturilor i libertilor
celorlali i n vederea satisfacerii cerinelor juste ale moralei,
ordinii publice i bunstrii generale, ntr-o societate democratic.
3. Aceste drepturi i liberti nu vor putea, n nici un caz s fie
exercitate contrar scopurilor i principiilor Organizaiei Naiunilor

Unite.
Articolul 30
Nici o prevedere a prezentei Declaraii nu poate fi interpretat ca
implicnd pentru un stat, un grup sau persoan dreptul de a se deda la
vreo activitate sau de a svri vreun act care s conduc la
desfiinarea drepturilor i libertilor enunate n prezenta Declaraie.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Preamble
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the
human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the
conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and
belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against
tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human
rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have
determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the
promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full
realization of this pledge,
Now, therefore,
The General Assembly,
Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples
and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration
constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms
and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition
and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories
under their jurisdiction.

Article 1
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and
conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any
kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin,
property, birth or other status.
Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of
the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or
under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 6
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are
entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any
incitement to such discrimination.

Article 8
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the
fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in
the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Article 11
1.
2.

Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty
according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not
constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed.
Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal
offence was committed.

Article 12
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to
attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such
interference or attacks.

Article 13
1.
2.

Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State.
Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

Article 14
1.
2.

Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes
or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 15
1.
2.

Everyone has the right to a nationality.


No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

Article 16

1.
2.
3.

Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right
to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage
and at its dissolution.
Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by
society and the State.

Article 17
1.
2.

Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Article 18
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change
his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to
manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Article 19
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions
without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and
regardless of frontiers.

Article 20
1.
2.

Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.


No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

Article 21
1.
2.
3.

Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely
chosen representatives.
Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.
The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed
in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by
secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

Article 22
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through
national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each
State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of
his personality.

Article 23
1.
2.
3.
4.

Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of
work and to protection against unemployment.
Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his
family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of
social protection.
Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Article 24
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic
holidays with pay.

Article 25
1.

2.

Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and
of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and
the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other
lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in
or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Article 26
1.

2.

3.

Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and
fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional
education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all
on the basis of merit.
Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the
strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote
understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall
further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

Article 27
1.
2.

Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts
and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any
scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

Article 28
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this
Declaration can be fully realized.

Article 29
1.
2.

3.

Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his
personality is possible.
In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are
determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and
freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general
welfare in a democratic society.
These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of
the United Nations.

Article 30
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to
engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set
forth herein.