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26th International Conference of the

TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA


www.tocpractice.com

19-20 May 2016, Fukuoka, Japan

Development of

TOC Thinking Processes


and their application for
companies & individuals
Oded Cohen & Jelena Fedurko
Estonia & Israel
TOC Strategic Solutions
tocExpert
19 May 2016

Oded Cohen
Oded has over 35 years of experience in developing,
teaching and implementing TOC methodology,
solutions and implementation processes working
directly with Dr. Goldratt all over the world. Among the
countries to which Oded brings his expertise are the
USA, Canada, Japan, India, China, the UK, Poland,
Russia, Ukraine, Colombia, Chile, Peru, Turkey and
many others.
Oded has authored multiple TOC
contributed to numerous TOC books.

articles

and

Oded is the author of Ever Improve A Guide to


Managing Production the TOC Way, published in June
2010. Oded co-authored the book Deming & Goldratt:
The Theory of Constraints and the System of
Profound Knowledge The Decalogue.
Together with Jelena Fedurko Oded has co-authored
the book Theory of Constraints Fundamentals.
Oded is International Director of TOC Strategic
Solutions Ltd and Founder and Co-President of
TOCPA.
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oded.cohen.gs@gmail.com
www.tocexpert.com
www.toc-strategicsolutions.com
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26th International Conference of the TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA

Jelena Fedurko
Jelena Fedurko is a Co-Founder and Co-President of
TOC Practitioners Alliance TOCPA and International
Director of TOC Strategic Solutions.
Jelena has been involved in TOC since 1999. She is a
TOC expert, trainer and consultant, and provides TOC
implementation support in production, supply chain
and project management. Jelena has worked in various
countries all over the world, including Japan, Poland,
Germany, Switzerland, Turkey, Italy, Russia, Ukraine,
India, China, Chile, Colombia, Mexico.
Jelena is the author of four advances books on TOC
Thinking Processes: Behind the Cloud (2011), Through
Clouds to Solutions (2013), Typical mistakes in
working with TOC Logical Tools (2014), A Good
Strategy & Tactic Tree (2016). Together with Oded
Cohen Jelena has co-authored the book Theory of
jelenafedurko.gs@gmail.com
Constraints Fundamentals (2012). She has contributed
www.tocexpert.com
to a number of books on TOC, and has many www.toc-strategicsolutions.com
publications. Jelena translated and edited several
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major TOC books.
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26th International Conference of the TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA

What is unique about TOC?


1. Search for a logical reasoning
The use of Cause & Effect relationships to structure our thinking,
record our analysis and understand the suggested solution for
any problem (based on Convergence)
2. Resolve conflicts
A strong belief that there should be no conceptual conflict within
our reality hence striving to find a win-win solution to any
perceived no solution situation (Local & Global)
3. Seek for collaboration and contribution
The use of TOC logical tools logic to communicate to ourselves
and thereafter to the team with the view of working together to
achieve the desired improvement (based on Respect)
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26th International Conference of the TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA

Development of
TOC Thinking Processes

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26th International Conference of the TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA

Brief History of the Development of


The TOC Thinking Processes
1983 The realization of the Green Curve & Red Curve
of improvement patterns
1985 - The use of Cause and Effect (C&E) in Negative
Trees (for problems) and Positive Trees (for the
solutions)
End 1985 Strategy & Tactic structure (discontinued)
1986 the formalization of the 5 steps of focusing
1987 the Jonah Program (production based)
1990-1992 the development of the TP Map:
CRT Current Reality Tree
Core Cloud
FRT Future Reality Tree
PrT - Prerequisite Tree
TrT Transition Tree
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26th International Conference of the TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA

Brief History of the Development of


The TOC Thinking Processes
1993 Clouds for individuals problems
1995 MSW Management Skills workshops Daily TP
1995-1997 TP maps for the TOC Logistical Solutions
2001 Strategy & Tactic Tree round 2
2006 S&T Tree formalized
2006 The U-Shape
2007-2009 Standard S&T trees for DCE
2008-2010 Formalizing sets of injections for standard solutions
2008-2010 Injection implementation knowledge Ever Improve
2011 Mistakes and Rules for Working with Assumptions
Behind the Cloud
2013 Working with UDEs and UDE Clouds for system analysis
Through Clouds to Solutions
2014 Mistakes and Difficulties in working with TOC Logical Tools
2016 A Good S&T Tree
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26th International Conference of the TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA

Using Thinking Processes Tools

To create and enhance thinking/learning skills


To gain better decision-making
To handle dilemmas and conflicts with more
confidence and better outcome
To assist in evaluating conditions for achieving a
desired outcome
To assist in relationship between subordinates and
bosses

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26th International Conference of the TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA

6 Layers of
Resistance to Change
Disagreement on what the problem is
Disagreement with the direction of solutions
Disagreement that the solution will bring the
desired benefits

Application of the TOC


Thinking Processes

1.
2.
3.

Yes, but
4. Fear that the solution will result in negative
consequences (Risks)
5. Obstacles to implementation seem to be
impossible to overcome
6.

Say Yes and do nothing

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26th International Conference of the TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA

TOC Logical Tools


for building
thinking skills
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10

Major Thinking Skills

Comprehension understanding the meaning,


interpretation, ability to state a problem in ones own
words (while knowledge is ability to recollect and
reproduce data and information)
Analysis breaking down material/concepts into
components to detect relationship among the parts or the
parts and the whole (requires comparing and contrasting);
distinguishing between facts and inferences; recognizing
logical fallacies in reasoning
Synthesis forming a whole through building
up/connecting elements to create a larger and more
coherent pattern
Creative thinking ability to devise innovative solutions

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11

Comprehension
COMPREHENSION is ability to understand the meaning,
interpret, and state a problem in ones own words.

The Cloud
Understanding and verbalizing the situation in which a person or a system
is caught between two mutually exclusive actions or modes of behaviour.
B
A

The common objective


achieved by having
B and C

The need that is


satisfied by the
action in D

Action 1

Conflict
C

The need that is


satisfied by the
action in D

Action 2

In the Cloud we state what for we want to take an action, and what for we
want to satisfy the need. With that we claim that if we do something it will
give us a certain effect.
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12

Cloud Example
Dilemma of a Sales Director

To achieve what?

Ensure smooth
To
achieve functioning of
the company
what?

Prevent discipline
deterioration in the
sales department

Fire the star


sales person

Retain key
accounts

Do not fire
the star
salesperson

To achieve what?
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26th International Conference of the TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA

D
13

Comprehension
What keeps this Dilemma in place?

Assumptions behind the arrows in the Cloud


B-D: Seeing no punishment of the star sales person,
the other sales people will do the same.

Ensure smooth
functioning of
the company

Prevent discipline
deterioration in the
sales department

Fire the star


sales person

Retain key
accounts

Do not fire
the star
sales person

D-D: I cannot
predict the
response of
the key
accounts to
firing their
sales person

C-D: The key accounts buy from the company not


because of the product, service, or reliability, but
because of the star sales person.
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26th International Conference of the TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA

14

Comprehension
The Negative Branch
Understanding and verbalizing possible negative outcomes of a
decision/action.
Possible negative outcome
will happen
Exists/ will happen
independently

will happen

Exists/ will happen


independently

will happen

Exists/ will happen


independently

Decision/action
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15

Analysis and Synthesis

Analysis breaking down material/concepts into


components to detect relationship among the parts or
the parts and the whole (requires comparing and
contrasting); distinguishing between facts and
inferences; recognizing logical fallacies in reasoning.

Synthesis forming a whole through building


up/connecting elements to create a larger and more
coherent pattern.

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26th International Conference of the TOC Practitioners Alliance - TOCPA

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Analysis and Synthesis


A major TOC tool to assist with
Analysis and Synthesis the U-Shape

DE
UDE

DE
UDE

UDE

DE

DE

UDE

DE
UDE

UDE

D
B

D
C
A

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High Performance
Measurements

NBRs

DE

TOC Injections

PIVOT

TOC

Future Reality

Current Reality

Low Performance
Measurements

TOC
direction of
solution

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Creative thinking
Creative thinking ability to devise innovative solutions.
Major TOC tools to assist with
Creating Thinking:

Injection

Developing Injections to the


Cloud

C
Possible negative
outcome

Developing Supporting
Injections to trim identified
Negative Branches

+
Supporting
Injection

+
+

Injection
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Is there any difference


between
the full set of TOC TP,
the TOCfEs tools, and
the Management Tools?
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In which areas there is

NO difference
NO DIFFERENCE in the basic
assumption
they all proceed from the same
understanding of the governing role of
cause and effect in the behavior of
systems and individuals
NO DIFFERENCE in the source
they are all packages of the TOC TP
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In which areas there

ARE DIFFERENCES
The width
how many TP tools each package
contains
The depth
the level and the amount of detailed
work and precision required
The practical purpose
for what the packages is used
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TOC TP Jonah TOCfE


TOC Management Tools (MT)

Full TOC TP The full set of thinking processes tools for


dealing with all problems and managerial challenges:
Dealing with comprehensive and strategic issues as well as
daily and local issues.
The Jonah Program is geared towards recording the
current reality to present or discover a system solution.
TOC for Education focuses on TACT Thinking And
Communication Techniques with the view of developing
skills and applications of 3 basic TP tools: clouds, NBRs and
ambitious targets (a variation of IO maps).
TOC Management Tools lays the foundation for the
rigorous construction of the basics of TP especially in the
proper use of raising assumptions and finding injections. It
starts with daily problems and progresses to a full system
solution
th

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NOT IN COMPETITION!
Why a person who has studied and uses one specific package will benefit from
learning other packages:
A Jonah or a person who is working with TACT (TOCfE) will enjoy 5 level TOC
Management Tools (MT) because of the new detailed knowledge and practical
techniques on:
-

Typology of mistakes in building clouds (MT-1)

Different patterns of constructing different cloud types (MT-1)

Typology of mistakes and sets of rules for working with Assumptions (MT-1)

Typology of mistakes working with UDE Clouds (MT-1)

Consolidation process in the 3-UDE Cloud method to develop a Core Cloud


(MT-1)

Necessity and Sufficiency Logic in logical trees (MT-2)

Solving a two-sided conflict cloud by converting it into a series of inner


dilemma clouds (MT-3)

Building a good Strategy and Tactic Tree (MT-4)

Algorithm of checking and validating justification for decisions (MT-5)

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NOT IN COMPETITION!
Why a person who has studied and uses one specific package will benefit
from learning other packages:
A person who has completed TOC MT programs of different levels will enjoy
a Jonah program - because of the deep immersion into their specific area of
system analysis,
studying TOCfE tools because of learning the specifics of transferring the
knowledge of basic TP Tools in the educational process and ability to impact
a learning process of children and adults.

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The Management Tools


Strategy: Management enhance their ability to improve the performance
of the system under their responsibility
Tactics: Management employ the TOC Management Tools
Mindset & Basics

Current Reality

Future Reality

Transition

POOGI

Commitment to
Logic based
Management

Understanding
the problem

Establishing the
Solution

Implementing the
Solution

Continuous
Improvement

WHAT to Change

What to Change TO

HOW to Change

How to Grow

U-Shape

UDEs

Pivot

C&E

UDE Cloud

Direction

CLR

Consolidated
Cloud

Injections
DE

Detailed plan

Core Cloud

NBR

S&T

CRT

FRT

Inner Dilemma/
Conflict Cloud

Ambitious
Target

Fire-Fighting
Cloud

PRT

Inner Dilemma/
Conflict Cloud

Copyright 2016 by Oded Cohen & Jelena Fedurko

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