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Week 6 Summary

Chapter 11
10 points

What is cognitive behavior modification? List and explain the three

basic assumptions and goals of CBM.
a. Cognitive Behavior Modification is a term that deals with many
different interventions; such as problem solving, anger control, selfinstruction, self-control, etc. All CBM interventions share three basic
assumptions. Behavior us mediated by cognitive events, a change
in cognitive mediating events results in a change of behavior, and
all persons are active participants in their learning.


Discuss some advantages of teaching individuals to manage their own

behavior using CBM.
a. There are advantages of teaching students to manage their own
behavior, such as giving them control over their learning. An
advantage of having students manage themselves allows students
to learn techniques that will make them less dependent on the
teachers manipulations.


On page 297, Classroom Connection 11.1, read about Nick and a

classroom example of self-monitoring. What are the reinforcement
properties of Nicks self-monitoring program? How and why do you
think the element of being in control of your own data collection effects
Nicks behavior? Do you think Nicks data will be accurate, and do you
think that makes a difference? Can you think of examples of adults
monitoring their own behavior in an effort to control their behavior?
a. The reinforcement properties of Nicks program were him raising his
hand when he wanted to speak instead of blurting out. I think that
the element of Nick being in control of his data collection changed
his behavior because he thought about it more frequently. Having
control over not only the behavior but also the outcome of the
behavior gave Nick the motivation that he needed. In the data
collection, I think that Nicks data will be somewhat accurate. Nick
most likely will think that he raised his hands more times than he
did, and because of the reward system he would want more of that
reward. Adults monitor their behaviors more subtly. It is something
that becomes common in everyday practices to balance a normal
life. Controlling behavior becomes a common thing for all adults to
function in a working society.


Discuss the three components of self-management training: selfmonitoring, self-evaluation, and self-reinforcement.

a. Self-monitoring: students record the frequency of particular

behavior(s). A student must be aware of the behavior that they are
counting. Second the students must record what they have done.
b. Self-evaluation: students compare their behavior against a preset
standard to determine whether the performance meets a criterion.
c. Self-reinforcement: guidelines are the student should be fluent at
accurate self-monitoring. The student should be involved in setting
the criteria for receiving reinforcement and selecting reinforcers.
Teachers should provide reinforcement for target behaviors
displayed by the students. Matching requirements and teacher
evaluation should be faded over time. Opportunities for the
students to evaluate their performance, determine criteria for
reinforcement, select reinforcers, and administer reinforcement
should be systematically increased. Naturally occurring reinforcers
should be used throughout the process.

List and explain guidelines for increasing the effectiveness of selfmonitoring strategies.
a. Select a target behavior
b. Operationally define the target behavior
c. Monitor target behavior
d. Evaluate progress
e. Fade self-monitoring


Discuss procedures for encouraging the generalization of CBM

a. Model the strategies
b. Teach the strategies to mastery
c. Reinforce appropriate use of strategies
d. Program for generalization by giving homework assignments
e. Discuss the relevance of each strategy when it is taught


List and discuss the three basic assumptions shared by cognitive

behavior modification interventions. Think about and discuss how
these assumptions fit into your own philosophy of learning.
a. Behavior is mediated by cognitive events
b. A change in cognitive mediating events results in a change of
c. All persons are active participants in their learning


What is the turtle technique?

a. The turtle technique is an alternate response intervention
development by Robin, Schneider, and Dolnick. The technique is
teaching students to pull their arms and legs close to their bodies,
put their heads on their desks, and imagine that they are turtles
withdrawing into their shells. They are also taught to use this

technique when they felt frustrated. To relax during the exercise,

and eventually they students would learn to relax and imagine
withdrawing from the other students without having to make the

DZurilla and Goldfried (1971) present five steps that could be used to
teach problem-solving ability. List the 5 steps.
a. Orientation to the problem
b. Definition of the problem
c. Generation of alternatives
d. Decision making
e. Verification