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TEACHING PORTFOLIO

Overview of the Theoretical and Methodological Approach

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The theoretical base for the design of this portfolio is the model of Input Processing (IP),
presented by Bill VanPatten (1996, 2003). One of the facts that decades of second language
acquisition (SLA) research have observed is that SLA is complex and contains several sets of
processes. These processes suggest that the learners brain has to process many things at one
time. However, due to the mechanisms in human brains that limit the amount of attentional
resources, it is not possible for learners to process all the information during these processes. To
address one of the processes, the model of IP explains how learners perceive and process the
language they hear and get the linguistic data from it.
The language that the learner hears is called input, which is meant to convey information.
As mentioned above, the learner can only attend to a certain amount of linguistic data in the
input and hold in their working memory. In other words, when processing input, the learners
brain is selective and tends to filter and sometimes alter what they hear in the input, which results
in intake, referring to what they actually derive from the input. The reason behind this is that
working memory has to discard some information to release space for more new information to
be processed by the brain. IP claims that the selectivity is due to the observation that the learner
always attends to the meaning of input before its form during the process of comprehension. On
this account, take lexical items and grammatical forms for example; when the learner processes
input, they tend to search for content words before anything else. In addition, when both a
content word and a grammatical item encode the same information, the content word is
preferable to the learner. To explain this, IP introduces the concept of communicative value,
which indicates how important a form is in terms of its contribution to the overall meaning of a
sentence. Specifically, when the learner can obtain meaning elsewhere, the communicative value
of a form disappears. Thus, in order for the acquisition of a form to happen, it is desirable that
the form has more communicative value in the input that the learner processes. Other factors that
IP suggests would affect acquisition include sentence location and word order. Finally, it is
important to note that intake is not equal to acquisition. Input processing is only one of the
processes that build up the learners developing system.
With the insight of IP, the pedagogical approach of Processing Instruction (PI) is
proposed to help the learner attend to the form by processing it on a meaningful basis, therefore
resulting in the intake of the form and ultimately leading to acquisition (VanPatten, 1996). The
first basic component of PI is that the instructor provides some information about a grammatical
form or structure. Second, the instructor informs the learners that there are some processing
strategies that might negatively affect their learning of the form or structure during online
comprehension. Finally and the most importantly, the instructor provides structured input that
pushes the learners to pay attention to the form or structure to obtain meaning. In other words,
input is designed and provided in a particular way that forces the learners attend to the form first
in order to get meaning, which is opposite to their natural processing tendencies.
Therefore, guided by IP and PI, the development of this portfolio takes into account of
the learners input processing strategies and the types of activities that would draw their attention
to both meaning and form in the input. A limited amount of linguistic items, either vocabulary or
grammar, are presented at a time to allow for learners attentional resources to be directed to the
targeted language. Meaning is always the focus of the activities, and learners should be able to
use the messages conveyed in the language to do something. Additionally, activities are built up
from the sentence level to the discourse level, and involve both oral and written input.

Mushan Huang Page 1 of 27

TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Proficiency Goal

By the end of the unit, students will be able to make a plan to hang out with their
classmates during Spring Break. They will be given a blank schedule to plan out the week. They
should plan according to their schoolwork and part-time work if any, family or friend time, and
personal time; namely, they should schedule for them to study and work, to stay with or visit
family and friends, and to do chores or relax by themselves. Then they will make a list of
activities that they personally prefer to do when hanging out with friends. After that, they will
walk around the class to get to know others schedules to find two people that they would be able
to hang out together. After they find each other, they need to decide the time and negotiate what
activities to do based on the preferences they make earlier. Finally, they will tell the class their
plan and the class will vote for the coolest plan that they would change their schedules to join.

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Subgoals:

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1. Students will be able to understand use the vocabulary of time expression and days of the
week to schedule a time to hang out together;
2. Students will be able to understand and use the vocabulary of activities that people
usually do during long break;
3. Students will be able to understand and use the vocabulary of activities that people
usually do when they hang out with friends;
4. Students will be able to understand and use the question particle ma or A-not-A
structure to ask Yes/No questions about their classmates schedules;
5. Students will be able to understand and use the modal verb yao to talk about things
they have planned or scheduled to do in the near future;
6. Students will be able to understand and use the modal verb xiang to talk about things
they want to do;
7. Students will be able to understand and use adjectives to talk about what they think of
some activities;
8. Students will be able to understand and use the adverb tai to modify adjectives to
express their feelings about some activities;
9. Students will be able to understand and use the adverb ye to mean also, either when
they talk about their schedule and things to do.

ACTFL Proficiency Level

To be able to do the final task, students should be from the Novice High to Intermediate
Low level.
The National Standards

Standard 1.1 Students engage in conversation conversations, provide and obtain


information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions.
Standard 4.1 Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through
comparisons of the language studied and their own.
Standard 5.1 Students use the language both within and beyond the school setting.

TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Vocabulary Input Lesson Plan
Introduction to lesson
Subgoal from the information-exchange tasks
In order for students to make a plan to hang out with their classmates during
Spring Week, students will be able to understand and use the vocabulary of activities that
people usually do during long break.

Lessons communicative goal


Students will know what the teacher and her family usually do during a long
break, and understand the vocabulary of the activities that people usually do on vacation (
). They will also know about what four celebrities usually do during holiday.

Theoretical justification
Binding is the cognitive and affective mental process of linking a meaning to a
form. During this process, the referential meaning of a lexical item is directly associated
with its form, instead of its corresponding translation in the learners L1. To promote
binding when students process input in this lesson, visuals are provided not only to help
with input comprehension, but also to enhance the here-and-now of the lexical items,
and make sure the referential meanings concrete. In addition, the instructor uses her
personal experience to present the input to make sure that the situation is familiar and
relatable to the students.

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Materials needed:
A: Pictures of activities that people usually do during a long break
B: Handout What Dont the Celebrities Do?

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Procedures:
00-20 minutes
Teacher will provide comprehensible input of the activities that people usually do
when they have a long break, e.g., a long weekend, or spring break. The teacher will tell
the class what her husband and she usually do when they have a long break by making
statements while showing pictures of the activity (see Material A). The teacher will check
comprehension by asking students who does something, e.g., ? (Who does
the laundry?). The teacher will pause and check comprehension when she makes two or
three statements. After the teacher presents all of the vocabulary, students will be asked
to answer Y/N questions, such as ? (Does Ms. Huang do the
laundry?).

TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Teachers script: statements with vocabulary input
Statements

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Pictures

20-35 minutes
Teacher will give students the pictures of the activities. Students will work in a
pair and listen to the teacher. In the first round, the teacher will shout out the word of an
activity, and students need to compete and grab the corresponding picture of that activity.
The person who gets the most pictures wins. The teacher will start another round where
she presents the words in sentences. 1

35-50 minutes
Teacher will read out short paragraphs about what four celebrities do when they
are on vacation. Students will be given handouts to indicate whether the celebrities do or
do not do the activities on the handouts based on what they hear.

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Teachers script: What dont the celebrities do?


Paragraph 1:
Paragraph 2:

Paragraph 3:
Paragraph 4:


1 The written form of the vocabulary will be presented and practiced in another lesson.

TEACHING PORTFOLIO

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Material A: Pictures2 of activities that people usually do during a long break


2
All the pictures in the portfolio are found on Google Images.

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Material B: Handout What Dont the Celebrities Do?

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Direction: Listen to the teacher reading about what the celebrities usually do when they are on
vacation. Mark under the pictures if they do the activities, mark if they do not.

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TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Structured Input Lesson for Grammar
Introduction to lesson
Subgoal from the information-exchange tasks
Students will be able to understand the modal verb yao to talk about things
they have planned or scheduled to do in the near future.

Lessons communicative goal


Students will be able to understand a sense of near future carried by the
grammatical form and that the activities following are usually scheduled or
planned. Students will also know about the things that the teacher has already finished
this week and what she is going to do for the rest of the week. Finally, students will know
who else in the class is doing the same thing as them tomorrow so that they could decide
whether they want to do it with them or not.

Theoretical justification
To direct the learners attention to the targeted form of in this lesson, the
instructor firstly structures the form in a short sentence and places it in sentence initial
position (right after the subject ). In addition, to make sure that learners attend to the
form to process the meaning, the instructor mixes the usage of the action completion
marker , which they have learnt in previous units, to force students to rely on the form
to interpret the meaning. Written form of the language is also provided to take into
account of both activity variety and individual variation.

Pictures of activities that people usually do during long break (reused from the previous
lesson, see Material A in the vocabulary lesson)
A: Handout Teachers To-do List
B: Handout ?

Procedures

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Materials needed

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00-10 minutes
Teacher will provide information about the how could be used as a modal verb
to indicate an event that is planned or scheduled in the near future. Students will be told
that unlike English, Chinese doesnt have verb conjugation to mark tense and people
normally just use time expressions to indicate tense. However, there are some modal
verbs, such as in this lesson, that we could use to indicate time. Although it is not
always necessary, we should use it to make our language sound more natural. The
processing strategy that students will be informed is the Preference for Nonredundancy
Principle.

TEACHING PORTFOLIO

10-20 minutes
Teacher will provide comprehensible input. The teacher will make a statement
about an activity that she is going to do next week. At the same time, the teacher will
show a picture of an activity. Students will listen and say dui (True) if the picture
matches the statement, or budui (False) if it doesnt. The purpose here is to provide
structured input of as well as reviewing the vocabulary.

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20-30 minutes
Teacher will hand out her to-do list (see Material A) for the week. She will make
statements about things on the list. She has already finished some of the things, and she
will do some of the things later in the week. Students need to listen and check the things
on the list that she has already finished.
Teachers script: statements about the teachers week
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)

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Teachers script: statements about the teachers planned activities next week
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)

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30-50 minutes
Teacher will give each student a short list of what he or she did yesterday and
what he or she is going to do tomorrow (see Material B). Students will be given 1-2
minutes to read their own slip. Teacher will stick the pictures of activities on the board in
a row. Teacher will ask the class questions, such as ? (Who read?), or
? (Who is going to read?). Students will stand up if they did or are going to do the
activity that the teacher asks. Teacher will only write down the names of the students who
respond that they are doing something under the corresponding pictures on the board.
Finally, the board will have the names of the students who are going to do certain
activities. Teacher will then ask the students who are under the same picture if they
would like to do that activity together, and students will respond by saying hao (yes)
or buhao (no).

TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Material A: Handout Teachers To-Do List

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(Cut out the to-do list for students)

TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Material B: Handout ?
(Cut out the slips for different students)

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TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Structured Output Lesson for Grammar
Introduction to Lesson
Subgoal from the information-exchange tasks
Students will be able to use the modal verb yao to talk about things they have
planned or scheduled to do in the near future.

Lessons communicative goal


Students will know about what type of weekend person (work-first or fun-first)
their teacher and classmates are.

Theoretical justification
While input is essential to create the learners developing system, it is not enough
for the learner to have access to language forms and structures in the system. In other
words, the learner needs the ability to express a particular meaning via a particular form
or structure. In addition, they should be able to put together forms or structures in
appropriate ways. Therefore, it is important to provide structured output practice to build
up their accuracy and fluency. In this lesson, activities are designed to involve the
exchange of information that is previously unknown to the students, and require students
to have access to the form to express plans that they have made for the weekend.

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Materials needed
A: Handout Weekend planner;
B: Handout Teachers to-do list;
C: Handout Objects needed for some weekend activities

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Procedures
00-10 minutes
Teacher will give students a blank weekend planner for them to plan out their
weekend. The teacher will remind them that they have both work (e.g., homework or
housework) and fun things to do, so they need to think of both when they are planning.
Students do not need to fill out every time slot and they should plan based on their real
situation as much as possible.
10-30 minutes
Teacher will tell the students that they will work in a pair to know about her
weekend schedule. However, the teacher doesnt have a weekend planner, and she only
has her to-do list, where she scribbles the time right after the events that she has planned
to do. Student A will have the list, and Student B will have the pictures of the objects that
are needed for some activities. Student A will tell B the things that the teacher has
scheduled to do, and B will pick the pictures from the pile (The pile also includes pictures
that the teacher will not need). When A finishes the list, B will start to ask about the
specific times when the teacher is doing the activities and rank the activities according to
the time. Finally, they will look at the ranking of the pictures and decide if the teacher is a
work-first or fun-first person.

TEACHING PORTFOLIO
30-45 minutes
Students then will look at their own weekend planner again and tell their partner
about their weekend plans. The person who listens can use the pictures to rank the order
of the activities and decide what type of weekend person their partner is.

45-50 minutes
The teacher will ask the class to share their findings and see if the class has more
work-first or more fun-first people.

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TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Material A: Handout Weekend planner
Direction: Write down your plans for the weekend based on your own situation.

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Material B: Teachers to-do list

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Material C: Handout Objects needed for some weekend activities

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(Cut out the pictures for students)

TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Lesson for Listening Comprehension
Introduction to Lesson
Subgoal from the information-exchange tasks
Students will be able to comprehend the time expressions and the vocabulary of
daily routines and develop skilled listening strategies for them to communicate with their
classmates to make a plan to hang out together.

Lessons communicative goal


Students will be able to comprehend time signals broadcast by a singer on a pop
music radio station and the corresponding events mentioned in the time signals. They will
use the information they hear on the radio to compare to their own routines.

Theoretical justification
Second language listening involves the processes of perceiving aural stimuli,
attending to it, and finally assigning meaning to it. The interpretation of the perceived and
attended aural stimuli is a process of comprehension that the learner relates the new or
incoming information to information already stored in memory. The process involves
personal, cultural, and linguistic matters interacting in complex ways. Therefore, it is
important that classroom instructions help students develop strategic skills to comprehend
listening. In this lesson, three pre-listening steps, namely schema activation, prior
knowledge activation, and vocabulary input, are developed to help students better
connect new and old information. In addition, the listening process is broken down and
the audio is repeated four times in order for students to attend to specific information and
eventually construct the whole picture. Finally, students need to do something with what
they understand from what they hear, because listening is essentially a part of the
communication that happens for a purpose.

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Materials needed
A: Projector and Slide
o http://slides.com/mushanhuang/deck-4
B: Website of Hit Fm Taiwan
o http://www.hitoradio.com/newweb/hito01_list.php
C: Handout The Word List
D: Pictures for the new vocabulary
E: Handout The Hour Sheet
F: Audio file Stefanie Sun on Hit Fm (script attached)
Procedures
00-05 minutes: Step 1 Activate schema listen to the radio for time
Teacher will project a slide as a background illustration (see the screen capture of
the slide in Material A), which has pictures of people listening to radio. She will then ask
the class if they listen to the radio. Follow-up questions would be when, how, and what
they listen to the radio. The questions will be asked in Mandarin, and students will

TEACHING PORTFOLIO
possibly be able to answer some of them in Mandarin, but they will be also allowed to
answer in English.
Questions asked:

Do you listen to the radio?


When do you listen to the radio?
How do you listen to the radio?
What can you hear on the radio?

Students will shout out the answers as a class and the teacher would write the
responses that are related to the topic on the board, possibly time and music. Teacher will
circle the topic time and let students know that they will be listening for time on a pop
music radio station.
05-15 minutes: Step 2 Activate prior knowledge
Teacher will introduce the pop music radio station, Hit Fm Taiwan, by visiting
the website (see the attached screen capture in Material B). Teacher will show students
the webpage Hito , which is a monthly activity that a pop singer would be a
guest broadcaster to report time signals. The webpage shows the month, the year and the
names of the singers, and students should be able to read the time expressions. Before
telling the class what a singer does in the monthly activity, the teacher would ask students
guess what they do. Here is also a moment of cultural contrast of radio stations between
different countries. Teacher then will ask the students to look at a list of words (see
Material C) and cross out those that they think will NOT appear in the broadcast.

15-25 minutes: Step 3 Vocabulary activity


Teacher will use pictures (see Material D) to give visuals when providing input of
the new vocabulary (five new words in total, i.e., ).
The teacher will make five statements about herself using the words, and she will check
comprehension by making new statements and asking them say true/false.

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Teachers script: statements about the teacher.

25-40 minutes: Step 4 Guided Interaction


Students will listen to the audio for the first time, and the teacher will ask them
who the singer is.
Students will listen to the audio for the second time, and they will circle words
they hear on the word list in Step 2, and try to write down words they hear but not on the
list. After that, they will check and compare their lists with their partners.

TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Students will listen to the audio for the third time, and they will fill in the hours
on the left column on the handout.
Students will listen to the audio for the last time, and they will fill in the
events/activities on the second column on the handout.

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40-50 minutes: Step 5 Assimilation


Students will use the handout with information they get from the radio and check
if they themselves do any of the typical activities suggested by the singer at the hours.
When they are done, they will compare the results with their partners. Finally, the teacher
will ask the class and announce the people who share the similar daily routines with the
singer.

TEACHING PORTFOLIO

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Material A: Slide Pictures of people listening to the radio (screen capture of the slide)

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Material B: Website of Hit Fm Taiwan (screen capture of the webpage)

TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Material C: Handout The Word List

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Directions:
1) Pre-listening: Cross out the words that you think will not appear in the audio.
2) During-listening: Circle the words that you hear in the audio, and add the new words
you hear to the list.

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Material D: Pictures for the vocabulary input

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Material E: Handout The Hour Sheet
Directions:
1) Listen to the audio and write down the hours that are broadcast.
2) Listen again and write down the events that the singer broadcasts.
3) Mark in the third column if you usually do the things during those hours; mark if
you dont.

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TEACHING PORTFOLIO
Material F: Script of Stefanie Sun on Hit Fm
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3
The underlined words are the events that are suggested by the singer in the audio; those words
in a bigger font are the new words that they need to learn through the input activity.