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ADICTIONARY OF BASIC JAPANESE GRAMMAR BE eras Michio Tsutsui ‘The apanTimes Preface "This is & disionary of basic Jpunese grammar doigned primary for Bot and econ year Japanese students and or echers of Jpanee, Aer ving ‘amined major tatoos bringin i Japan and the United State we ave hate what we belee tobe bai grammatical en, Out decripons and ‘planation have incorported the recent ndings in Japanese linguist which we fe were of practi signianee ‘Wie have spent the Jers al prepating this ictonary. Each of | iiity prepared half of the orga dra: spproinately 200 ete, Upon ‘mplein ofthe ft drt of the dinar oe, Entin,Appendnen, Char scree Japanese Grammar, nd rari Terr) cee exeoed, cased and improved our individual deat. Therefore, every pte of thi isinary has vial been writen by both of ws [Naturally we ove s great del to out predecesiors whose work re Sinted| in the refcences, Our heel hans oto them, although we cule nowlege them individually ia each etry whee we ned thee might ex with our calleagce athe Usnersty of Ini, Uana-Champaign anda the Summer Japanee School of Middlebury College, Middbury, Vermont. For fear of omision, we woul rather no atempt x comprehensive Ting of mae, ven so we woul Hike to mention fou idvidse whove techoia stance hat ae it pombe to publi this dinar: Fmt, Me. Burr Nelo of the University of Minis and Mis. Sharon Tau, who bave edited our English nd provided us with lable comments an sugseton frm the wer ew Pritt ho, Me Mamara Yoaiews, wh has ptiely and earacintiuny a sisted with the proofreading: and, lost but ot least Me. Muay of The Jagan Tine, whe har ene such concen eting; he fs been ‘TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface "To the Render List of Symbol Grama Tes (Charcteriies of Jpunse Grammar 1, Word Order pis etc Prose Pane Palteness and Formaiy Sentence Sal Parle Sound Symbolism and yiase Viewpine Maia Ences Appendixes 1. Basie Conjgntions 2 Semantic Clasistion of Verbs and Adjectives 7 ss 5% 5. Pais of Intramitve and Trantve Vets 4. Connection Forms of Important Expressions 5, Kemeds 6. Nurers and Counters, 7. Compound Words A. Improving Reading Sil by leiying an *Estended Stati (Grumeae Ider gl Index openese Index Referees g8ee8 eeees To the Reader “This dictionary omits of the fllowing pat: A Grammatical Terms contin bre explanations o informal deine of ‘the prams terms regu wed inthis bok. I the reader Bn tht hes ot fie with these ters, we get he fad this eton cael 1. Charalerites of Janse Grammar intrdnesthe exer 10 the jr ‘haracteriics of putes grammar ahd the important concept ivan "The rener should rend through ths scton before he stars to consul the inary. Some entries fom the Main Ent setion refer the render 10 ‘opie inthis section which provide roar perspectives a thine ei, (CMa Enric conten the cre of thin Book Hach entry i oped © (eney name) @ [pat of apeech] {& [meaing/ function] | @ [Engi counterpart) < [antonyn| © [elated expression) (W4Key Sentences) Formation Examples aNotes) (at Related Expressin’s} © eaey mame Bach ety i given in comand spling followed by is Invogna version. Enter ate alphabetically ordered based on the 1 smatized spel par of speck): Each entry i fllomed by its prt of speech Irseating/ fonction): “The poet mening or funtion a the entry Gren inthe bo blow the ery nme @ (Egan counterpart: nah expressions essen tothe etry are ‘he right af the hot. When the ety has an anonym ts 1 in (ANT. 0, ee (© ‘rls expresions)+ ems which are rated semantically t the etry relisted a (RE. saa; DDB; eee (440) Expressions in non-bold ype Tike at are expined inthe entry ander (Related Expresiona) (@) Expesians in bo type ike ove esti coparzns tthe ety under {Relea Expresion} freee. Parethesied expresons ike (date splined i the eve ety ‘#Key Bentence(s): Key sentences preset base setence pater in flames according %0 sentence structure. The pats in red calor ae tecurent element, The sme is tive of Formation, Formation: ‘The word formation ules conection forms fr exh item sre povided with example ‘Examples: Exarple vnencs ate provided fr each etry Notts: Noses contin important points concerning the ws ofthe ite [elated Expression(e]: Espremion which are semantcaly love to the entry are compared std ther difeenes are explained 1. Append contain infemtion sich ak tbls of vet adjective con fetony, lit of connection rule for important expressions and le of 1B, Tndves contin the indexes: the grammar inde, the English index and ‘he Jpatee index. The ener, thelr, hat thee meats of secs 0 the sword he locking up . eee a List of Abbreviations: [Adi ~Htpe active (shai "hieh, expensive’ atu “inxpenive’) Aajna)=na-ype adjective (eg. gents "heathy siz quiet") Adv.nadvers Af atinatve Con eonjuntin Cop copula (ao desu, aot | det) Pos =formal (=e, se.) LSV-=Lacation + Subject Verb N=Nown Nom.=nominlise (90 and koto) NP=Noun Phrae Pot poten Pret pees (ea, 0+ 90 politeness marker) Prepare REL."Reltd Expression S=Senence Sinf=Sentence tht eads with at ifr predist (eg Mibon 1 tof Aibon vik» desu “Ie that [am going to pan”) SLY = Sabie Location Ve So.-someone St-somehing SOV. Subject | Object Verb SV Subject Verb Skemateture Subst (6-59 “es, 99 “store Weverb ‘eond~ coin stem of Gr. 1 Verb (eg hanase of fanaa "i. aks) ‘intinformal form af verbs fe, anasy “talk, fanaa “lke Vinsssnmasvatem of Verb (e. hanast of hanahimacy"tlk) Vangeintral gui: sof Gr ‘veh fm hens. forer Soe ak) Vatem=stem of Gr. 2 Verb ea: tae of ber eat?) View teetn of Vers (eg. hanastie "talk ad ~' taGete “eat a ~', kite ome and ~ ait ‘do and ~) Veol= volitional farm of Verb (na56 “es alk boy "e's ent" oye ets came shi “les do") Wilowerd=an oteropave word 64 nan what, doko “where, ae “who ny when’, 6 Bow’ 936 why) List of Symbols See o fet The degree of unacceptably i indicted by the numberof question th, thee being the highest. *ngrammatiel oe unsccepe seca the aserihed setence) [A/BIC=AC oF BC (eg. IVIAGIN}ing Vink or Adin) ‘é=aero Gn ther words, nothing shold be ned a 4 place whese occ “Thon, Adie) (det) kamosirani i either Adie) kamostivanal Aino) dats kamera) Gin ter word, 0 mative opener woud Characteristics of Japanese Grammar Word Order Jaane is typlogiclly asifed at am SOV. ube Objects Ver ravage, where English ie clad ae SVO. An important fat about Japanete word order i hat each setence ends ina ver an adetve or for ofthe copula and that the otder of the other sentence element irl tively fe, exept forthe tope noun of noun phrase, which normally comes settee postion, A sample sentence follows. ‘Non | Panic] Subordinate Oe errs Sewenee | Conanetion Be ~ He | me oo) ton «itu toa aeaee | ‘ease To 10 Japan) WE ~ We | one ie Soh bee Wine © itu | feeedo arash | © ‘Although 1 go t0 Janae) suman | 0 we nA Ye ] : (Be Sith nen eu |_| BRS [teen [pier objet | Vet rae aease ob ‘Wen To 10 Fe) Suniarson | 0 Gee aiasx [a] ak |e | ww fe] waUcns, ae me |e Sumit wa | tion |e |nitooso | | bent (ir, Sth shy nor « to | na (Me: Sih i tudingJopase op) mame po no J) ne o \ Enent | Note: Ravine nme pee Lectin andthe Diet Ob an Be atch ut he Seb ei) So ed nd he Vets at noma bein seen nian semen! posto,