Sunteți pe pagina 1din 88
Lei 1100 ISBN 973-80-3071-6 EDITURA DIDACTICA $1 PEDAGOGICA, R.A, — BUCURESTI. 1995 a. \ MINISTERUL INVATAMANTULUI GEORGIANA FARNOAGA bors Buntkcty i : } MINISTERUL INVATAMANTULUI DORIS BUNACIU NG). +» where you MANUAL PENTRU CLASA A VIIL-A 7 : | ! | a EDITURA DIDACTICA $1 PEDAGOGICA, RA, ~ BUCURESTI ‘envalola fos eleborat kn anu 1989 gi revit in 1990 ISBN 973-30-3071-6 Controtul stlingtie a fost efectuat de BCATBRINA COMISRL, ineprctor ML. sl de cutodsa de speiaitate dole Seoala Ne. 8 din Bucuresti, Reducter Simons Rosetth Tclinwteabielos: Lom Mine _ READING PRACTICE Rete HOLIDAY PLACES Some towns on the English coast have only small populations in winter but during tho summer season thoy aro filled with thousands and thousands of holiday-makers. Most people in Britain have at least two weeks? holiday a year. July and ‘August are the most popular months for holidays end there is always a ot: of traffic on the roads to the seaside. In the south west of England, you can find small fishing villages where you can stay for a while in peace and quiet. In the north east. of England you can walk along the wild coast of. Nortitumberland without meeting anyone at all. On the south coast you ean lie on the beaches and enjoy the sun on the English Riviera. If you want a holiday with lots of people and lots of ‘uri then you will like fa really big holiday resort like Blackpool on the west coast, of England or Brighton on the south coast. Or you might like to g» to a holiday camp. ‘They aro to be found all over the country, especially nesr the populer resorts. A holiday camp is rather like a hotel. Everything is very well organized and thoy have dances, parties, special arrangements for children and plenty of seames and sport. You don't need to be lonely at a holiday camp. (Ge Merson et ab, This Bay) H, EXERCISES A. Answer the following questions about the text * Holiday Places”. ‘Then read questions 1-4, 8, 10— 12 again aud give your answers thinking of holidays in Romani. |. What happens to some towns on the English coast in summer? . How many weeks holiday do most people in Britain have every year? Which are the most popular months for holidays? . How muclt traffic is there on the roads to the seaside in summer? What kind of villages ore there in the south-west of England? 3. Where can you walk in the north east of England? 7. What can you do on the south coast? 8 What are the big hiotiday resorts in England? 9. Where is Blackpool? What about Brighton? 9) Teme marked are optional thronghont the book, 40, What is @ holiday camp? {1, Where are holiday camps to be found? 412, What arrangements are there at the holiday camps? B. Talk about your summer holiday by answering the following questions: 4. Where did you spend your summer holiday? 2. How long did you stay there? 3, Were you there alvne or with your parents (Friends) brothers? 4, Did you enjoy your stay? 5. Whab did you do every day? 8, What arrangements were there for children? ¢ opies for free conversation | composition: {. Talk about heliday places in England, 2. Deserihe a holiday place in Romania. 3, Activities in @ holiday eamp for children, & Your impressions about, your summer holiday. HL GRAMMAR REVIEW PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS 1. Choose one of the forms of to he oF 19 kuve given in brackets: 4. You (las, have) a flower in your right hoad 2, Tom (has, have) two penis, a green ane and a red one 5. Nick end Mary (has, hace) &n English lesson every Monday. 4 She (has, have) a Tot of Hooks 5. There is, are) piclures on the wall, 2 Pat in the corveet form of the verb in brackets Ezample: ‘The teacher (si), ‘The teacher ie siting. ‘The pupils (sit) in tho elossroom . They (rite) in their exercise-hooks. }. The teacher (stand) near the blackboard. He (speck) to the children 1 (play) now. You (play) with me We (play) tennis, She (read) a good book. . Ask questions {0 the Tollowing answers ushig whe, wilire, what and how many. Example ‘Their books are on their desks. Where are their hooks? {. She is sitting at her table 4, The teacher is speoking to the 2. We have books and pens in our childzen, eee schoolbags. : 5. Peter is writing . 5. Peter is writing his homework 3. The sponge and the chalk ere 6. There axe threw new cinemas in on the tnachor's desk bur tov ‘The Present Tense Simple (Tic yo, we, ey every day. 6. Tom (am, #8, are) in the new building. 1, you, we, dhe con TT am, he are) pil ; vou we Chey] don | Path and mother font 5 are) engineers ae same | a a ‘The Present Tense Continuous pee oe ere eee eee l a Do T, you, we, they | spoaking English He, she ‘on, we, they | are T ann Fite, aie in —} aot | reading « book “We. your they [are he, she playing tennis 4. Supply the correct form of the verbs in rackets, (en make the sentenees negative. Examples: 1 (like) pears. (apples) 1 lice pears. A don’t like apples. Jane (tke) apples. (plums) Tone Ickes apples She docsn’s Tige ploms. Soa pe en 4. 1 (like) tea. (milk) 2. He (understand) Fronch. (dnglish) 8, Mrs Smith (teach) English, (Prench) 4.1 (visit) my friends on Sundays. (on Saturdays) 5. Paul (rend) novels. (poems) 6. Thoy (study) geography. (history) f 17, My baby brother (cry) at night. (in the daytime) 8. She (like) classical music. (modern music) 9. He (write) posteards. (eters) 10. My friends (see) a film every week. (a play) ‘he words in italics are the answers : 5, Aske questions to whi 4. He sponds hie holidays at the seaside, 2, John works in a factory. 3, They wateh television in the evening. 4 They go to school in the afternoon 5. All my friends speak English well. 6. He sees a film overy week. 6. Make sentences from the following table : a ‘very morning | bee __)preaktast is having ew Me jis baviog | ERC cimsesianeeeee! She ‘writes ; wary wok Nick is writing _| eee at the moment. an reads every month, . 2 a book |__| is reading now. 7. Fill in the blonks with the right form of the vorb in brackets. Baamples: 1. Sho (walk) for half an bour every day. She walks for half on hour every day, 2 She (walk) at this moment. She is walking at this moment. A. We (practise) English now. 2, John and Tom (study) together every day. 1. Jane (write) a letter now. Clara (draw) a map for her Geography class now. ‘Tom and John (talk) for a while every day. They (talk) at this moment. 5. Attor reading each of the following situations answer the questions: What does he do? ‘What is he doing? Model: Jane is an English toacher. At the moment she has a letter in her hand. What does she do? Sho teaches English. What is she doing? She is reading a lett2r. A. Peter is @ worker in a shoe-factory. At the moment he is in his ear, on the way home. 2, Jack is a football player. He is at the restaurant now. The food is good, So is the wine. . 3. John Brown is a film director. At the moment he is or a plane, There is fa cup of coffes in front of him and a newspaper in his hand. 4 Tom has @ job as a driver. At the moment he is at the cinema. 5, Helen is very fond of reading novels. A book of poems is in her hand now, Use the Present Tenso Simplo for things that are done habitually, regularly, frequently: We go to school every day. We usually wateh TV in the evening. Use the Present ‘Tose Continuous for fan action going on at the moment of speak Look! Tt is raining. 17 ADDITIONAL READING: JACK PRATT, TAXI DRIVER Jock Pratt is one of London's taxi drivers. He always parks his taxi outside Vietoria Station because there are many tourists *here who want to drive round London, Jack is always vory friendly and helpful. He dvives the tourists to Buckingham Palace where the Queen lives. Then he drives to the Houses of Pasliament and number ten Downing Strost where the Primo Minister lives. After thnt he drives to St. Poul’s eathedzel and pethaps the Tower of London. Sometimes tourists want to stop in Trafalgar Square and feed the pigeons which fly round the status of Lord Nelson, Lond Nelson was a great English sca captain. ; Sometimes tourists want to go to Madame Tussaud's Waxworks where they can see wax models of many femous people: kings and quoons, fla stars, prime ministers and pop stars. Tack Pratt likes his job, He helps the tourists as much a8 he con } REVISION HT © READY ACTICE SPORTS AND GAMES In Britain all schoolgirls and schoolboys have to take part in some kind ‘The most papular games are hockey and netball for girls and football a for boys. In winter the boys usually play football and the girls hockey. In summer the boys play cricket and the girls netball. In some schools other sports are very popular too, for instance s\vimming, athleties and tennis. OF come in every school there ave some boys and girls who do not like sports and games at all and who always try and give excuses to the sports’ master to avoid playing. Bu most of the cbildren enjoy sports very much and some of them want to become famous chempions. In most British schouls each boy or gist belongs to a “Howse”. The “Houses”, which usually have their own names, compete against each other in sports and gnmos and sometimes in other activities, too. There are usually House Cap Gares during. the school year and there are also inter-sehool ieetings ani championships, The best players represent their schools in these. EXERCISES: A.* Answer the following questions shout the text: 4. Do all children in Britain have to take part in some kind of sport? 2. Which are the most popular games for girls? 3, What games do boys like best? 4, What games do boys play in winter? What about gists? 5. What games do they play in sumine 6. What other sports are popular in Briti 7. What do “the Houses” do? 8 Who represents the school in schools? er-school championships? B. Talk ahout games and sports ly answering the following questions: What gomes can you play? Which of them do you play best? Do you play it at school or,do you belong to a sports club? Does anyborty else in this class play the sume game? — Do you take part in inter-class championships? What about inter school meetings? 5. Do your classmates come and see you when you play? 6. Do you like ‘that? 7. How many times a week do you train? 8. When are matehes held, on Sundays only or on weekdays as well? 9. What about sports? Do you like swimming, for instance? 10, Which do y&& prefer, swimming in the sea, in a lake or in a swimming-pool? 44, Do you go swimming only in summer or in winter es well? 42. Do you go swimming alone or with your friends? 43, Are you a good swimmer? How far can you avi 44, Can you swim under water? 45, Why is it pleasant to swim under water 46. Is it difficult. or easy to learn how to swim? 47. When did you learn to swim? 48, How long did it take you to learn that? Who taug , Make sentences on the pattern: Vm fond of running. F'm fond of playing tennis. D.* sports and games Make several ists of sports and games: | you Ukr to watchs you ploy: |. You'd ike to play. ‘You may choose from the following: Volleyball ‘epmnastios sing football athletes skating handball boxing eyeling | beskethelt running rowing rugby jumping movnteineering -vater polo foe hockey . ML. GRAMMAR REVIEW PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE and CONTINUOUS La. Situal Tom: Has anybody seen my fountain pen? Nick: 1 haven't. Why? What's the matter? Tom: Pve lost it. Nick: When did you last have it? Tom: 1 haven't seen it since yesterday afternooi. Nick: Have you looked in your desk? fon ¢ is have (just) ae avert seen Helen ae ries ee invited him pee He met already. Lb. Rephrase the following sentences using Present 0 Tom: Yes, U've just looked and it isn’t there. Whore ean it bo? Nick: Have you brought it ta school? Tom: ¥ don’t remember. Niele: What pity! Have you had it for a long tine? Tom: Yes, since 1 started school. Pye been it for a long time. Tt was a prosont from my father, you know. Nick: Wait! What’s this in my coat pocket? Tom: My fountain pen. Of course, I lent it to you yesterday, Nick: And it’s heen in my pocket all the time, ‘The Present Perfect Tense Simple (She) Motels She ied tho table and is ready now, She has laid the table. |. She turned on the radio and it's on now She combed her hair and it’ |. John broke the window and it's broken now. . Mary washed hor dress and it’s clean now. - L wrote threo excreises in my book and hore they are. . He wont to the cinema vad is there now. Tom forgot the girl's nome and he still can’t remember it 7 | Hee Jost his fountain pen.and he still can’t find it Practise tho following dialogue with the words given helow : Model: TXT Knn hos broken her arm. B: Hos she? When wos that? Az She broke it on Wednesday They "see that film = on Saturday. Tom ring you up an hour ago. 1 read thet articla —-— Inst. week. Tom come back = yesterday. - They, meet your cousin — on: Monda: My friends — visit London —Jast_ summer. 4) | Say when ») Don't say [when | I saw Tom last night. I've seen Tom. + (1 ean tell you about him.) 1 lost my pon when Poe lost my pou was playing. (can't write Remember! 2) When Past Tense action took place. b) When Present Perfect is used we are interested in the prosont result of a past action. used, we specify when the past 3, [juet-+ Prevent Pesfect | and [ago + Past Tense. a) Practise the following dialogue with the words given below: ‘A: When did the train leave. B: It let three minutes ago. A: Oh, it has just lett, T. Film — start — threo winutes ago 2. You— see Tom —a few minutes ago. 3. You — hear the news on the radio — a quorter of an hout ago. 4, She — come to school —a day or two ago. d) Situation : “The lesson started at 9 and it is now 9.01. “You're late again” ‘tho teacher says. “But the lesson has just. started.” “It started a minute ago,” said the teacher. Make up sentences of your own using : ago + Past Tense Just + Present. Perfect, 4. A friend invites you to Tach. You had lunch at 12 30. Tt is now 1:00. What do you say? 2. Your friend went out at 5. [t's 5:10. You ask for him. What does his mother say? 3. The train for Brayov lett at 10: catch it? Why not? 4, Little Tommy is hungry again. He had a sandwich at 4:00, It is 4:45 now. What does his sister say? 5. Mary spoke-over the phone with Jane at 12:00. It's now 42:90 ‘and she wants to ring Jene up again. Whet does her father say? u 1. It is now 10.05, Con you still 4 [Present Povtect with already a) Situation "Tom has bought three Uickets for a very good film. He wants to invite Mery and Helen. He doesn’t know whether they have seen the film 0» not. He asks them: “HAVE YOU SEEN THE FILM YET” Mary says she'll come along because she hasn’t seen the 6 film yet. Helen says she isn't coming because she has already seen ions of your own and answer them in the affirmative or negative : 4, It’s 12:00. You ave laying the table for dinner. Your friend has just come, What does your mother ask? 2. You aro in the street, walking with your brother. You meet a elass- mate of yours and you are not sure if she knows your brother or aot. What do you ask? said she'd write her friend a letter. You would like to know what she hor done about it. 4 You know Helen lost her handbag some days ago, but she hoped she would find it, What do you ask her? (Adapted fram: R O°NCIN English se Situations.) }) Finish off the sentemees with yctjairendy. 4. T can’t give you the bonk, because 2 He can yo out and pley because 3. Don’t ask me to talle to him again. 1 4, L haven't told him about the match be 5. 1 want to meet your sister. You know [ 2.2... sent Perfect with: ever, never, always, seldom, ‘ someti t a) Practise the following dialogue with the words given below. your own answer using never, often, seldom, sometimes. ‘A: Pm going to skate next month. B: Have yon ever skated hefore? Az No, I've never skated in my life, 1, paint a picturejtomonow 5. use the tape reconder/next 2. see “Humlet"/on Sunday lesson. i 3. keep a diary}next year 6, ride @ bicycle/tomorrow. i 4, act in a play/on Monday i ive B. i) Make up sentences of your own expressing: 4, Something you have often done. 2. Something your teacher has never done. 3, Something your friends have always dons 4. Something you have seldom done, 5, Something you have always liked. FIN in the correct tense (Present Perfect Simple or Present Tenso 4, Father is at home. He (alreadylarriee) 2. The Browns oren't ready to leave, They (not get uplytt) 8. Father is at the office. He (stltfwork). 4, The plane is still in the air. 1 (not landjyet) 5. The Jonoses have never had coffee for breikfast. They (alirays! have tea). Jane isn't up yet. She (stil/step ). . Up to now Tom (neverfravel) by ship because he is afraid of get~ ting. droWaéd 8. During the last few years Mary (only write) poems but nov she (arrive) « novel. 8. Mr, Brown has told us he will see a film stutring Blizabeth Taylor tomorrow. He is very ourious what i will be like since he (never! see) her in a film before, 10. The teacher can’t tell us whether the test (ot correct dhemyet). ood or bad because [Present Pevieet with Toriinee | a) Rephrase the following sentences using present perfeet with “for” oF “sineo" "The Tast time T saw a good film was three weeks ay T haven't seen a good film for three weeks. "The Tast time I took @ test was on Mh T haven't taken a test since Monday. Tent @ Teluer to my friend was a month age, we saw his bratherwas ten yeurs ago. hhespoke French was five yearsago. she did her homework was a ‘ortnight ago. father worked Inte wos two months azo. wergave # party was six months ago. ‘The last time T met her oousin was in 1980, they querrelled was on his birthday. Tent him money was in Tuly. he missed the train was last Wednesday. she broke a plate was at the party. it rained was in August. ‘The tast time b) Put in since or for. Example: Tom has been here since 1989 but Goorge has only been hhere for a few months. 4. Mary has known Alice... three years, but I have only known Alico....New Year's Evo, 2. Thaven’t met my friend... Monday and he hasn't seen his friend s+ weeks Daisy hasn’t written to her grandmother... her birthday, so Grandmother hasa't heard from Daisy... three months. 4. Thaven't bought any pencils... two weeks; I haven't bought any pencils... March. . Lhiven’t had a cup of tea... yesterday and I haven't eaten any- thiag ... five hours 6. She has studied English... six years; she has studied this language ...a long time, 3. ‘The Present Porfect Continuous ‘Tense T Wo | have | been studving You | ve English ete five yours, They since} tast year. | for | thre days, aa LK; oreo half an hove] 7 Seamging| [2° | [alton ow She the plano 8. Uso the Present Perfect Continuous ‘Tense (ave teen ing Form) of the verb italicized in the first sentence of each pair: Example: We is tearing now. We has been learning for two hours, 4. They are studying verbs. They... Uhem for about. two months, Mary is «riting some letters, She... all mornin since two clock. 12 | 1 8. The children are reading in the lbrary. They - ' 4. The avtist palmting my portent." He... portraits for twenty years. 5. She is teaching Froneh. Sho... French for five years. 6. She fives in that block of flats. Shes. there since Sune ' “ | I t 9. Answer the following questions using Present Parfext Simple, Present Perfect Continuous or Past Tens 4, How long have you bean Tiving in this town? 2. How many times have you been to the seaside this year? ‘3. Did you go to the cinoma last week? What film éid you seo? 1% Have you done your homework for today? When did you do it? 5. How long have you heen studying English? 6. Have you been to the theatre lately? When did you last go to the theatre? 7. Have you had dinner yet? 8, Did you got up early or Inte yesterday? 9. How long have we been doing this exercise? 40. Whon did you last visit your grandparents? 41. Where did you bay your eoat? When did you buy it? How long have you been woating it? 49, Have you ever tried to learn Italian/Spanish/German? ‘Use the Present Perfoct : 8) to expross an action that has taken place quite elcse to the present moment: Tee just met him. ‘Pee already dane it. b) to express an action that took place in the past but whose result is relevant to the present: T've cleaned the house — It is clean now. “Why are you tired?” “I've been working a day.” ©) to express an action thot takes place (or doesn't) in a period of time ineluding the present moment: I've been studying English for three years T haven't seen her for wo swceks. He has been here since August. 4) Frequoney words oocur with Present Portoet to show repeated actions trom the past to the present. Lemples | —— Eeample: | ive often pall them visits, Tet them tio years ago, We've been good friends fortwo. Yeurs and T have alten paid them Other frequency words are: nover, seldom, always, semetimes. 18 10, Supply the eorreet t Sa © (Present, Bast, Present Poeet} 1. Me (rite) a tot of letters yesterday. 2. He already (write) two letters this morning. 3. Te (write) a letter now, 4 You (see) my peneil? 1 (lose) it 5. 1 (go) to the seaside last year 6.1 (read) many books when I was on holiday. 7. | (learn) English for the last two years, and now I (study) French too. 8. Now hy (paint) a portrait, It is the thind portrait he (paint) this + 9. 1 (live) in Bucharest since T was bom. LL Supply the correct tense ( Past, Past Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfeet Continous } 1, Last year they (begin) Ww build a new bioek of flats I (sce) you yosterday. You (crass) the street, but you (not see) me. He (work) here for five years. He works in the next room, Whon you (enter) the room, { (listen) to the radio. . He just. feome) home. “Whore is John?" “Hy (go) out ten minutes ago.” He (live) in London since 1980. 3, 5, 6 7. NV. ADDITIONAL READING SPORTS YESTERDAY AND TODAY If you try { find out where our sports ond games come from you will be surprifed at how many come from Britain, ‘They ployed golf in Sootland 600 years ago, and it was very pepulur among all kinds of people, For 500 years the English have played evicket ia their villages. Hockey, played on grass, is also a very old English game and now they play this gamo in almost every girls’ sehool in Britain, Football is of course anol English sport, too. And so ave tennis and badminton, | i I REVISION 1 1 READING PRACTIE GOING TO THE CINENA « people work hard during the week but over the weekend they visit thoirfrisnds, wateh television, go to a diseo or to the cinema In big cities, the fir performance or showing, ns it is called, boxing bout two o'look in the afternoon and the show goss on from then until about hnlf past ten, The cinema is not emptied between the ‘showings’, so that once you have paid for your seat you can stay inthe cinoma as long as you like, Thete is usually one main film, a shorter ofr, some advertisements nnd a ‘trailer telling about the film for the next week English childron like to see eartaons, adventure fms and comedies, (Adapted from: WF. Candin, Present Day English for Foreign Students) N. EXERCISES: A. Answer the following questions about the text: 1. What do young penple do in their free time? 2. When doss the first performance hevin? 3. Is the cinema emptied botaveen the ‘showing’? 4, What is shown at @ British cinema? 5. What kind of films do English children enjoy’ B, Talk about going to the cinema by answering thes> questions: 4, What is a cinema? 2. In our countey einemas are open all day or only in the evening? 3, What time do they open? What time do they close? 44, Where are the best seats, at the front or at the back? 5. Do you like to go to the cinema? Why? 6. How often do you uo to the cinema? 7. On which day# are the cinemas most crowded? Why is that? 8 9. 10. What sort of films do you like? Which is the biggest cinersa in your town? Have you been to the cinema this week? 41, When was the last time you went there? 12, What film did you go to see? 13. Did you enjoy it? What was it like? 14. What actor was in it? Is he your favourite actor? Ww ©. ‘Topies for tree conver »mposition: i eration / composition: {. Jane usually does her homework in the morning. How about yes- 1. Describe your fevourite cinema terday morning? 2, Tho cinema in Britain 2 We usually see Jane on the bus, How about on Monday? 3. The cineme in Romania 3. 1 asually have breakfast alone. How about yesterday morning? 4. Your favourite actorfactress 4 She wears the same raincoat every day. How akout, last week? 5. The lest film you save. 5. Tom always buys the newspaper in the morning. How about yes- torday morning? wu cramman peviews 6. They "usu spend sr lays a the soi How about Test The Past Tense simple 7. He reads « lot of English books. How about last year? Pee eee eee eee On CECE EC EE & They vide the bicyole to town every dey. How about ‘last Friday? [_1 (ou, he, Mary, she and I) | saw a film | yesterday. 9, She drinks tea every morning. How about last Sunday morning? Did__| T (you, we, John, he and 1) | see a film | yesterday? | 410. They take the bus to school. How about yesterday? ‘Moke up questions according to the model: He is working today. Did he work yesterday, too? Pens) -eet eee eee apg eeeere io] Tove, they, you and Tom) |. They are going out tonight. She is wearing a blue dress today. .. Father is coming home early today. They are riding to school today. |. He's reading the newspaper. ‘Tom is making a speoch tonight. 5. Auswor the following questions: 1, What are the three forms of tho following vorbs? {to have 4 to try 7. to ving 10. to eat 43. to play . to eat play 2. to take 5. to see 8. to cnt I. to spend 14 to tell 3. to teach 6. to shut 9. to meet. 12. to make 15. to know + 2. Rut the vorbs in brackets in the Past Tonse Simple : Example: 1 (go) to the festival yesterday. SS Eel 1 sen to the festival yesterday. Did he write a letier or a postcard yesterday? 1. The children (go) to a Fancy Dress Ball last night. He didn't write a postcard, he wrote a letter. 2, Jane (leave) home at seven o'clock. = 3, She (say) goodbye to her mother. 4, Then she (meet) Ann. 5, In the street they (see) Tom. 6. 2. & 9. 4. Did he work well or badly at school last year? 2. Did you get up carly or late during the holidays? 3, Did Tom speak to his mother or to his father? 4. Did she go there by train or by plane? 5. Did you buy @ new book or a now record? 6. What are the threo forms of the following verhst They first (get) some tickets at the ticket-offios. . They (go) to the Ball together. ‘Tom (pay) for the tickets. Be a ees wet : a all 16 Tab allen (0) Feet on a Liebe 8 we foe It. They (dance) and feat) cakes. 2 te leave ‘8. to fall 13. to show 12, Everybody (be) happy. 4. to rain 9. to ride 414. to hold is 5. to feel 10. to do 45. to say 3. Refor the following statements to the past : [The bal sonal singe ov 10 7. Put in tho past tense of the verbs in brackets. Example: Maria (write) to her friend. Mavia wrote to her friend . How about yesterday? | at 40 yesterday, too. Ty 19 eRe ERE SSRs tare 1, Maria (tell) her friend about the festival Sho (speak) about the songs and dances. Sho (write) a long letter, too. . Clara (sing) a beautiful song Inst. year. Everybody (ome) to soo tho fostival. ‘The festival (Begin ) at ten o'elock. It (take) the children two weoks to prepare the festival. ‘They (make) a lot of preparations. ‘The guests (sit) down when the festival (begin). 40. They (stand) up at the ond and (give) flowers to the children. . Ask questions beginning with shat, when, sohere, Example: 1 saw him yesterday, When did you see him? Yesterday, 4, She saw him in the street 6. He played foothall yesterday 2. They went to the festival. afternoon. 3, Father deank beer after dinner. 7. They had lunch at wo o'clock 4, She read @ poem last night. 8 He knew the poem well 5. Mother made the calirs last 9. Mother wrote @ Zetter last night. week. ‘The Past Tense Continuous cat corr mother came. renting] wen | "Ana | entered the rom, Nick | "phoned wore | working Change the following according to the pattorn: 1 (read) a book when he came in. 7 as reuding a book ahem he came in. A. I (read) « book when he phoned. 2. When you came in they (write). 3. It (rain) when I got up this mooning. 4 He (work) when E rang him up. 5, She cut her finger while she (sat) bread. 6. The children (write) when their father came home, 7. | wok another cake when you (not look). 10, Use the Past Tense Simple and the Past Tense Contimous in making up your own sentences with the words given below. Supply the ver Bsample: | homejimy old fend L wwas going home when I met my old friend. 1. in the garden/the telephone 4. a bath /the bell 2, tolevision/a ent through the back door 5. homefmy teacher 3. dinnerja telegram 6. al the bus stop/rain 8) ~ Use the Past Tense Simple to express actions completed at a definite time in the past eg When did you see the film? T saw it two days ago. Remember : yesterday: last. week/monthjyear: | ‘twojthree days ago: in 1984, ete. | — Use the Past Tense Simple to express past habits. e.g. He rend a lot when he was a student He often went te the cinema as pupil. 6) — Use the Past Tense Continuous far aetions thet were going om at a certain moment in the past. eat. He was reading af this time yesterday. He was roading when T ealied om him. He was reading while I was cooking. ara nced with Past Tense. 41. Fill in the Wanks with Past Tense Simple or Continuous : 1.1 (wateh) TV when the phone (ring). When the phone (ring), 1 (answer) it. 2. While Peter (work) in the garden yesterlay, it (start) to rain, When I (start) Aw rain, Peter (go) inside. The train (arrive) just as Peler (get) into the stetion. We (have breakfast) when Tom (come) home. While we (wulk) about the streets our friend (ao°k). He (open) the door, (look } out but (not see) aayone there. While he (try) to fall asleep he (Jiear) the same strange noise, 7 What you (do) when the rain (start)? 8 When I (urriee) at the cinema Mary (wait) for me. She (wear) a blue dress and (look) very pretty. a LB. 18. ue 22 PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Rephrase the follo ing sentences aceording to the model : He forgot to post tho letter. She was angey with him. She was angry with kim because he?d forgotten to post the letter. 1. He dida’t eat any breakfast. He felt hungry. 2. It rained a lot. The grass was wet, 3. She caught a cold. She coulda’t go to the party. 4. She used a dictionary. She did 2 very good exereise, 5. Tom lost his key. He couldn't open the door. 6. He didn’t understand the question. He gave the wrong answer. 16. Answer the following questions according to the model : | Why didn't you lay the table? Because someone else had already Inia it. 1. Why didn't she make the bed? 2, Why didn’t you ask that question? 3. Why didn't he lock tho door? 4. Why didn't you write the report? i 5. Why didn’t she take the letters? Connect the following sentences necordiug to the model Tread the letter three times. Then T understood it, Atter I had read the letter three times I understood it. i 3. [was late again, 1 couldn't see any of my friends (get there — the others leave) 4, I'got out of the train to buy a newspaper. When I came buok the train wasn't there. (come lack — train leave) 5, When they got to the theatre the doors were already closed and they ould hear the actors’ voices. (get there — play start). Pat the verbs in brackets into the right tense Three men (come) to New York on business. They (travel) the whole night and be) very tired, so they (stop) at the first hotel, Their room (be) on the thirty-ninth floor. After they (have) some rest they (go) out and come) back very late ‘T (be) very sorry’, e0id the clerk of the hotel, ‘but our lifts. (not work) tonight. You (have) to walk up to your roam or sleep in the hall.’ We (make) beds for you here." The three men said they eovld walle up {0 their room and they (start) on their way up. The men still (climb) the stairs when one of them, Frank by name, (have) an idea: ‘To mako our way easier, 1 (ell) you some jokes. Then you, John, (sing) us some songs and you, Robert, (dell) us an interesting story’. And he (start) telling them the first joke. After Pronk (tell) all his jokes and Joha (sing) his songs, the three friends, (be) alveady on the thiety-seventh floor, “Well” said John, ‘after all the jokes we (dea?) on our way here, 1'4 like ta listen to a story with a sad end. It’s your turn, Robert ‘T (tell) you a story that (Be) sed enough,” Robert replied. ‘We (leave) the key to our room down in Ube hall 2. Mary tried on four dresses. Then she bought ono. a = o SS RSSSESSEe 3. 1 talked to my parents. Then 1 talked to my friends. Pit a 4, He visited Prodoal. Thon he visited Brasov. We Wel 5. He worked as a teacher for 5 years. Then he changed his job. Mary ce — Mary" comes 6. He invited her to the einema thvee times. Then she accopted they | “Hl Thoy'tl ftuation John was supposed to so to London by plane. But when We | shall not We shan't | hie got to the airport, the plane was already in the air. i . a - fo. (reach the aizport — take off) Tom | wil not wort ‘When he reached the airport the plane had taken off. They | _| Do the sume with : {7i/Supply the Future Ponse of the verbs in brackets * 4, Tt was raining when I wont inside. T looked out later end the sun + Example: She... (clean) her 200m in the oflernoen. was shining. (look dnt — stop raining) She will (hol) elean her soem in the afternoon. 2. 1 had two tickels for a play, I inyited Mary to come with me but Fae eeE Vora) arpa q she said no. (invite her — see the play) 4. They... (spond) their holidays at the soaside, 4. We... (write) those letters tomorrow. 5. 1... (sce) you in front of your school. 6. The weather... (be) fine tomorrow. 18, Pil in the blanks with the right tense of the verb in brackets + Example: He (write) 9 letter now. He is writing a leter now. He... letter every day, He writes a letter every day. He... letter yesterday. He wrote a letter yerterday. He...a letier tomorrow. He will arite a letter tomorrow. He...a lot of letters, He has written a lot of letters lately 4. (hurt) He... himself badly last week 2. (tell) 1... you about it tonight, 3. (meet) We. just... him. 4 (play) He... the piano now. 5. (play) He... the piano at this time yesterday. 6. (stay up) They..-late every evening. 7. (work) They... very hard next year. B. (gel up) Sho... early every’ day. 9. (see) 1... good film two days ago. 10. (rain) Th. now 11, (cist) We... uur relatives next Sunday, 12, (wash) She. . her dress yesterday afternoon. 19, Use the correct tense of the verbs in rackets : 1, "Yesterday we (go) to a rubber plant.” 2. “You ever (be) o a rubber plant?” 3. “We (e) to other factories but not yet to a rubber plant.” 4. 8Wnat you (ser) there” 5. “An enutineer (show) us a lot of interesting things.” 5. “While he (sprak) we were very quiet and attentive.” 7. “We (go) to another factory noxt term.” 8. “What you (like) best at the factory you (visit) yesterday?” 1V*, ADDITIONAL READING vingo Fins Since the introduction of video films in Britain, children de not go to he cinema ax much as they did in the past. They simply have to go to a video shop to select their favourite film.’They ean rent it for a couple of pounds and koop it for one day. Also television companies now show many films in uirder to compete with cinemas and videos. As a result, the choice of films is very great, Because of this, a visit to the cinema is a special occasion. 4 one L VOCABULARY Pra A. Pronunciation Practice: stoptather 'step'fa:80} strange [sireinds] Dover ['douvo} Coarh-office ["koutf otis] 1 save [seiy] donkey Pdooki} fo agree [9 &ri:} to shout {faut} hin ftfin] to fly [Mai] Hew [fin flown (floun] ‘0 burst [a:sf}Inuesi[ho:st) burst [bat] Irightened (‘iraitand) 1B, Propositions of place: 7 Mothe® is in the dining-room. ‘Some children aro in the park, athers are in the strevt I ive in the country. He lives in the north. She lives in the mountains in Bucharest. In Romania Franklin Stree AU [Mother ie at hune. Father is a/ cork. The children are at school. | I bought these biscuits at me baker's. He spent his holidays at the seaside, He is waiting at the corner of the street They acrived at home. TO [The children are going 0 shoo! but: Mother is going home | Father is going to th factory. H ON Tih ‘on the table the pictures are om the wall On horseback. On foot. ie wont inl Whe ining ran | He jumped into the eart She was looking ont of the window. He Went out of the dining-room He dow fee Answor these questions: Father is in the room. Ho is sitting at the table. He is sitting on @ chair Mother is going to the room. Peter is going into the room. 4, Who did you run info when you were going to school yesterday? . 2, Who runs taster: a horse or « man? 3. When do you have @ running nose? 4, What do you do when you run out of bread? - 5. Is it advisable to ran after 0 bus? Mary is going out of the room. G. Arrange the following words and phrases in pairs of antonyms: ce Run ‘ 1, Kind a, hard A horse ean ran faster than a man. aay clean Bob has got a bad cold. He has a running nose and a high fever. 3 dirty e, unkind David Copperfield ran away from home. 4, long-legged 4. short-legged eiiin- sles rere evier the Pal 8. burst into tears ®. go out of the reoin As I was walking down the strent, I ran into an old friend of mine 8. go into the room f burst into Taughter ‘There was an accident here a few moments ago: a car ran into @ taxi 7 take the bpx to the cart g. bring the box ‘rom the cart Lean’t make a cake; I've rin ont of sugar. B. have a lot of food fh. run out of food, Duvid Qoppertield didn’t stop; he fell down, got up again and ran on. D. Fill in the blanks with the right proposition: ienaacecenice 1. 1 shall mest you... the comer... the street : 2 David Copperfield went... Dover. .. foot. 1, Situation,: There is @ new pupil in Class 8 A. Sho is introducing herself 3. | live... the country, but she lives... the seaside to the class, but Paul can't hear very well because the new He came... the room and sat down... the eouch, pupil is not speaking loudly enough. 5, The childsen were playing... the garden. 6. We are going... the theatre this evening. cample: [New Christine Stan. 7. The coach arvived ... Dover... five o'clock. Paul: What does she say? —| 8 1 put my hands... my pockets, She told me to take my hands... | “Adrian; Sho says her neme is Christine Stan my pockets. a | 9. The new shop is... Balvoseu street. i Ht peat tovreat eaeaoldl 10. She tok some money’... her bag. ites inh schol 1L. The map of Romar «the wall 12. Why aren't you... work now? I'm ill, T have to stay... bed. IB. David put the box... the cart. He put his money. his mouth. 1. David's money flew... his mouth ., . the young man’s hand. 2 3. My parents and I have just moved into « new flat. 4. 1 like my new home very much. 5, T came to this schoo! last year. 6 1 [like to Jeurn in this school E, Replace the words in italies by tho right form of the verb run: run away, }. L attended school No, 17 before coming here, run after, ele. 1, Dan brought a little eat home, but it eft the next day. Mother has finished all the butter; T must go and buy her some. 1 met John by chance the other day, when I was doing my shopping. The policemen were irying fo atch the thief ay to avoid the old woman, the ear collided with the bus. 6, David fell down, got up aga [NOTH] When the verb say or ells in thy Present or Prsent Perfo Tense, the vorb that comes after i doesn't change its tense: Bzample: “Vm i.” he says she is i. Direet Speoch : PRESENT TENSE — Indirect / Specd in the Past and continued running, PAST TENSE 26 on 2. Report the following sontonves using the verh say in the Past'Tense : ia" weather ie very bad™ A: What ite say? BE Ho cl th weather Was ory bad |. The bus stop is near the school, T have a cup of tea every morning, [do a lot of homework wvery evening T know French and English, . Lwateh television every evening. I don't go out very often 3. Read cach of the following situations, thon answer the questions according ‘to the model : [am very food at languages,” John said, and he was given the job why? Because h ld he was-good at languages. 1. “I know how to get there.” Peter said, and his fiend went with him. Why? 2. “The food is very good in thet restautant,” were your friend’s words so you went, theve. Why? “L can’t come” Mary said, and didn't go either. Why? “I like coffee.” she said, and you made some for her. Why? “T don't like John,” Helen said, and you didn't invite him to your party. Why? 6, *T'm still reading the book,” she said, ancl you didn’t pay them a visit. Why? 7. “We are going away.” your friends said, and didn't pay them a visit. Why? 8. “The car has a very good ening,” the mechanic said, and you bought it. Why? [Notez] When the reposting vorb isin tho Past Tense, the Present Tense that follows almost always becomes @ Past Tense. Examples: Yq tired, 1 know her, I don't like fish, I have a old, I'm | working. Tie was tired, hie know her, he didw't like fish, he had cold, he was working. He said He told me Direet Speceh— Present Perfect — Indirect Speech — Past Perfect in the Past {. Situation: The first thing Father does when he comes home is to ask Mother about John, ¥ Tas his room M: Well, he said he had cleaned it. Now do the same with : 1. do homework 6. finish — letter to uncle James 2 fix -Uelevision set 7 water — garden 3, repair — sadio 8 water — the flowers in the house 4. toke out. — dog. & beat — — carpets 5. clean ~ bike 10. serub = floor 1d then fell: 5. Report the following sentences using the verb say Model: “T've just come home.” A: What did he say? What did he tell you B: He said}told me had just come home, 1, My brother has alroady been here. 2. L haven't met your sister yet 3. They've done a lot of work this week. 4 We haven’t seen each other for a long time. 5. ‘The book has boon written by a famous writer 6. He has,been in Bucharest for # month, 7. I've been looking for you everywhere, 8, I've already read the article Direet Spooch — Past ‘Tense — Indirect Speeelt | — Past Pertect in the Past 6. Change the sentences below according to the example given He wrote the lettor and thon he told me about it. He told mo ke had written tho letter John got a four in Maths and then he told his father about it. . Mary lost her way and then she told us about it, David ran away from, home and then he told his aunt about it. Jack broke a cup and then he admitted it ‘They moved tv another town and then they wote to us. to us. She got married and then she announced ‘They bought a house and then they wrote us about it, Holon passed the exam and shen she fet us know about it. 29 7. Report the following soutenees using the verbs say and tel! Remember that: ’ Yesterday Two days ago becomes the day’ before. wo days before. Last week the week before, Last year the year before. Model: “T didnt see John yesterda What did he say/toll you? “SL was ill yesterday. I had @ fever last night.” . “She watched a film on TV yesterday mornin; |. "They moved to Bucharest three years ago.” “L met the Seotts two years ago.” - “They bought the television set last yoar.” “We didn’t arrive in time beeause of the traffie.” . “We saw our friends in the street a few moments ago.” 8. “I broke a window bwo days ago.” 8. Complete these sentences. Make all the necessary changes 41. Bill was delighted with his birthday present, He said that... (4 always wanted @ watch.” ) 2. Mary admitted that... (“L saw the accident".) 23. Peter was very late. He explained that... (“T missed the train”) nogeene 4, Yesterday was the first time I heard George admit that... (“I'ee made @ mistake”) 5. Twas surprised when John said that ... (*Z haven't read David Copper- field?) [Note=| Whon the reporting verb is in the Past, a PRESENT PERFECT, —— ora PAST TENSE following becomes PAST PERFECT as a rule. WL, READING, SPEAKING AND WRITING PRACTICE AL Reading: DAVID COPPERFIELD RUNS AWAY (Adapied from: David Copperfield by Ch. Dickens ) (David lived swith his mother and stepfather, Mr. Murdstone. When he was nine years old his mother died, leaving David with his stepfather, who was very unkind to him. Mr. Murdstone sent David to London to swork. The work wns very hard. David had to wash dirty bottles from morning til night, and earned 30 very litle for his work. Nobody taught him anything, nobody wok care of him. He began to think about running away.) T decided to run away to my aunt, Miss Betsy. I had never seen her bout 1 had heard of her from my mother. She had often spoken about Miss Betsy, calling hera strange but kind women. 1 had thought of it again and gain siner the night when Uhis idea first came to me. 1 did net even know where Miss Betsy lived. 1 only remembered Uaat it, was somewhere near the town of Dover. But where else could I go? So, one evening after work I went to my room to take my box. I had prepared all my things the day before. On my way home I looked for some- body to help me to carry the box to the conch office, for I had saved enough money. to go to Dover by coach. Thore was a long-logged young man with a liltle donkey-cart waiting at the comer of the street. “Do you want @ job?” T asked itn. “What job? seid the long-legged young man, “To move a box,” I answered “What box?” said the Jong-legged young man, told him it was mine, and asked him to carry it to the Dover coach- olfice for sixpence. The young man agreed and shouted, “Done for sixpence!™ 1 took him upstairs to my room and we brought the box down, and put it on his cart I was afraid to lose my money, so I put it into my mouth. Suddenly the long-lozged young man hit me under the chin and my money flew out of my mouth into his hand “You give me my money back, if you please,” I said, very much frigh- toned. But the young man jumped into the cart, sat on my box and drove away. I burst into tears and ran after him as fast as 1 could. Now I lost, , now T saw him, now I lost him again. I fell down, got up again and ‘Ab last, tired and frightened,t left the young man with my box and money and, crying, started out for Dover on foot. E B, Questions: 1. Who did David live with? 2. When did his mother die? 3. Where did Mr. Murdstone send David? Why? + 4 What did David have to do im London? What iden came to, him? 5. Had he ever seen his aunt? 6. What kind of woman was Miss Botsy? 7. Did David know where his aunt lived? 8 Who did David ask to carry his box to the coach*cffice? 9. Where did they put the box? 40. Why did David put his money into his mouth? a 11, What did the young man dof 12. Did David run after the eart? Did he got his box and money back? 43. What did he do in the end? €, Retell the story. 0 CHARLES DICKENS Charles Dickens is one of the greatest English novelists of the nine toonth bentusy : He was born at, Portsmouth where his father was a clerk. When Charles vas four years olé. the funfily moved to Chatham and the years they spent there were among the happiest in Dickens” lite Later the family settled in London and Dickens’ hard life began:his fathar was thrown into prison for debt. Charles Dickens, who was only twelve years old, was sent to work in fa boot-blavking factory, where he had to stick labols on bottles. In this way Dickens came into contact with the poorest classes of society and gained exporienée which he ueed later on in his novels. An unexpected small legacy from a distant relative who died at that time enabled John Dickens to yay his debts and get out of prison, after boing there for nearly half a yeae. Chavlex was with his family again and hie'left the factory to go to school. But after only two years he was taken from school and sent to work. again, this time in an attomey’s office. He continued his education alone, reading as much 5 he could and leerning shurthand during this time. This hholped him to become a newspaper reporter at the age of 19. From that moment he began to write articles and, little by little, these short articles changed into long novels that were immensely liked and brought fame to their author. In 1896 Diokonx published his first work “Sketches by Boz” (a colleetion of literary sketches and stories), The next year (1837) he published his first novel “The Pickwick Papers". After that a successful, though very hard life, followed. | i ' nN TWO 1. VOCABULARY PRACTICE Pronunciation Practice woak [wick dust [dast} hanger (hanga] to deseribe [dis'iraib? to tear (tsa] foro [to:] torn (to:n] surprise {sopreiz] mistress 'mistris] pophew ['nevju:] 4 shake [feild] shook (fuk to protect [pra'tekt] shaken (feika} cottage (‘kotids] Shake, shook, shaken ‘The litle boy was shaking with cold and fear. David was so tired thet fis lego shook under him. Father shakes the carpets every Saturday afternoon, ‘The children were shaking apples from the apple-tree. ‘Go away’, said Miss Betsy, shaking her head. Her voice shook with emotion, Whon you are introduced to somebody, you shake hands wth that person. ©. Adjostives — propositions Mary had guests, The room was full of péopk. Suddenly the lights went out. Everybody wos very surprised at tat, Little Jane, ‘who always is atrald of the dark, started to ery. She vas frightened by ‘the sudden,darkaess. Then the lights were on again. ‘The children were amused by the incident. They said Mary's party wes full of surprises, Even little Jone laughed ground [graund) Remomber: all amused] yy tired | oy afraid D, Finish the foRlewing sentences with the vorb shake: 4. When the gardener came along, the cltildren 2. Mise Trotwond wos very impressed; her voice . 33 8. He said good bye,.-..and left the room. 4. The old woman was very frightoned. Her hands 5. Father likes to help Mother. Every Saturday 8. She didn’t agree with him, she E, Make up sontonees with the following words, Use the right propositions: Example: full. people. The house was full of people. 4. afraid... dark. 4, tired «shopping. 2. full... mill. 6. surprised . . . weather. t 8. frightened .. . dogs. 6 amused... jokes. ‘What do poople say before special events? Read these: 4. Thank you, the — on New Year's Ree: [1 Happy New Year same to you! i —on somebody's birthday: |2. Many Happy ; Returns ! 2. (Oh) Thank you! : Happy Birthday ! E = before an exam: 3, Good luck ! } Thank you! OH | "f Bost of luck certainly need i. | ~ for a eticronets Ye ongtaaons! |, naan of . ‘Well done! 4, Thanks (a Jot). E — before going to a party) |5. Enjoy yourself | i ‘Thanks. q ona trip. Have « good time! | I'm sure ; twit, | hope @, Now auswer the following: . t 1) Good luck! b) Many Hoppy Retumst ©) Happy Now Your! @) Well done! ©) Enjoy yourself then tomorrow ~+ the next day here — there this that noxt week-» the next week these + those Model: (Bob; TH go on a trip tomorrow” What did Bob tell you? Tom: Bob told me he'd go on a trip the next day. 4. “1 will work harder next term.” 2. “They will be back tomorrow.” 3. “Pll move into @ new flat next year.” 4, “My brother will take an exam tomorrow. 5. “Well all be home tonight: 2, Rend each of the following situations, then answer the questions according to the mode “Pil be here at 7,” Mary said, and Peter waited for her. Why? Because she said she would be there at 7 'I help you,” John promised Ama, an Why? 2. “There will be « good film on television tonight,” Peter suid, end when evening came you switched on the television. Why? 3. *L won't come to the party,” Ann said, and her friend didn’t go either. Waye : 4, “1 pay you a visit tomorrow,” the next day. Why? “TIL do the washing up,” Ann promised, and Mother didn’t waeh the dishes, Why? [None] she waited for him to come. nn said, and Mary didn’t go anywhere {If the eeporting vorb is in tho past, « Futuro Tonse almost always becomes « Future in the Past. 2. Will and would — are moro and moro veal in the firet person singular and plural instead of shall end should. Example: 1 willfskall stay home and do my homework. 1 told him 1 would/should stay homy and 38 8. Road this dinlogue, Thon toll us what mother said. LL Pant is back home from school Mother: Helo, Paul. What's the matter with you? Pas! Tm tired, mum. Pm cold, I want to have a big lunch, I want to sleop in the afternoon, T ean do my lessons latar, Alice comes in. She asks mother: What did Poul say, mother? Mother: . Mother to Paul: 0.1K. Paul. Ul give you something to eat. I'll give you Ho said he was tired. He seid (You go on!) some hot soup aad same chicken and potatoes. Father comes in. He asks mother: What Mother replies: 1 s You'll be warm then. You will T said... (Vou go on!) feel muck better. id you say to Paul? T would give him something to eat. 3, Father is tolling mother what he did at work = T have a busy day. I began work very early. T hod an important meeting with my boss later. We talked about important things together. 1 left the factory quite late. Gransineother comes in, She asks mother: Mother telts he Direct Speach — Tndirect Specch: Diana? * Diana said she was tired. Diana told mother she had seen Ann, Diana to me: “T mot Ana at the chema.” Diana let me know she had met Ann at the cinema, Diana to Ws Diana explained to us Uhat she would come Xator. 36 iw tired” jana ta mother? “Tvs seen Ann” What di your husband say? He said... (You go ont) *Pit come later” He sald ho had had a busy day. "The verbs sayjiell, oto. are in the Past Tense Present Tense becomes Past ‘Tonse Presont Perfect hecomes Past Perfect Past Tense becomes Past Dertoct Future Tense becomes Puture-in-the- Past 6. situation : Grandmother doesn't hear very well, so Paula has to repeat everything she says. Complete the dialogue as shown in the example (No. 1). 4, Paula; Hello, grandma. | have come to see you. Grandma: Bh? What was that? Poula (louder): I said I had come to see you. Grandma: Well, that's very kind of you. 2. Paula: Tee been to school. Grandma: What did you say? Paula: T said .. And had my first Latin lesson. 3. Grundma: What was that, Paula? Paula: 1 said - I Chink 10 enjoy learning Latin. 4, Grandma: Sorry, 1 didn’t quite hear you. Pana: T said... T'm playing 4 lot of handball, too. . Grandma: Speak louder, Paula, Paula: 1 said Well, I'l have to go bome. 6. Grandma: What did you say? Paula: 1 said ...... can eateh the si 1. Grandma: Eh? Paula: 1 said ........ Goodbye, Grandma. Grandma: Goodbye, dear. Come again soon. o'clock bus. Re-write this story in Direct Speech: 1. Some farmers wore sitting in a village house one evening and among thor things they began to talk about echoes. 2. One of the farmers said that there was a wonderful echo in one of his fialds where there were some trees, : 3. The others eaid that they wanted to hear it 4. The farmer invited them, to come the next afternoon. 5. When the farmer arrived home, he sent for one of his men and told hhim to go behind a tree the next afternoon and to repeat everything he heard. 6, The next day tho farmor’s ftiends arrived late in the afternoon and the farmer told them to listen to the wonderful ocho. Then he shouted as loudly as ho could: “Sze you there?” ‘The answer come back: “Yes, I have been here for more than two hours.” 6. Put these dialogues into Jndirect Speech: 41. Vietor: Father, there is a black eat in the dining-room. Father: Yt dosen't matter, son. Black: eats are lucky. Vitor: This cat certainly is; it has eaten your dinner. 2. Little Batty: Mother, 1 cut my little finger a moment ago. Mother: I'm surprised you didn’t cry. Little Betty: Well, there «as nobody in the kitchen. 8. Mother: Nick, you are not allowed 10 go to Viotor’s house, He is a bad hoy. : ick: 10's all right, mother. Then he will come and see me. fmm; ll: READING, SPEAKING, AND WRITING PRACTICE A. Reading: DAVID COPPERFIELD FINDS HIS AUNT (Bor a cole week David walled to the town of Docer. He had no money, ‘0 he sold his buy bread. At night he slept in the fields.On the seventhday Ihe reached Dover, tired and weal ith hunger. His clothes «ere torn and dirty All day long he walked about Dover. He asked everybody if they knew Miss Betsy Trotwood.) At last, after T had walked for a whole day, 1 saw come houses in front of me. I went into a little shop ond asked if they knew where Miss Trotwood lived. A young woman, who was buying something at that moment, turned round quickly. ““My mistress?” she said. She asked mo what 1 wanted with her mistress, — F answered that I wanted to speak to Miss Trotwood. Taking her little Dasicet, the young woinan walked out of the shop and told me to follow her. She said she would show me where Miss ‘Trotwood lived. F followed the young woman. I was so tired and hungry that my legs shook under me. Soon wo came to a protty little cottage with a emall garden full of flowers in front of it. The young woman suid that it was Miss Trotwood’s house. She hurried into the cottage and left me standing at the garden gate. By this time my shoes, my shirt and trousers and my bot were torn and terribly dirly. My faco, neck and hands ware dark brown. I was covered with dust from head to foot. | stood still for some time, when a Indy came out of the house. T know at once that the lady was Miss Betsy, because she looked exactly fas my mother had described ber. 38 | Go uway,” said Miss Betsy, shaking her head, “go away, no boys i! aking from head to foot 1 watched her. She went to a corner of her i] started to dig up a flower. T went in quietly and stood behind garden 7 “If you please, Aunt,” I began. "Eh? ered Mss Delay in greot surprise wif you pleee, Aunty am your nephew? Ok Loed sod my aunt. Ani she att right down in the garden path, 1 bein to tll her tht {as David Capperili, that 1 had. been vary nhapoy tinge my mater Hed, that nobody Bad taught mo enything al! tis le’ that ny stepfather had been very unkind to ype and had sent me to we Tid that all tithad made me run aay 10 her because 1 hope Tewould prove me. Here 1 burs into tons. : ‘Whilo Twas takings my aunt sat on tho ground, woking at me in grat, orien til T begon to ory Then sho got up ina reat bury and tok me {nur hor house, repeating “Oh, Lord! every moment. 1B. Bxereises : 1. Question: 4. How long did it take David to reach Dover? 2. Why did he sell his coat? 8, Where did he sleep at night? 4, What were his clothes like? 5. Whore did he ask about Miss Trotwood? Who was in the shop? What was the woman doing there? What did she ask David? Did the young woman want to help David? What did she do? Where did David and the young woman come to? What did David look like? Who came out of the house? | What did his aunt sey and do? 4. 45, What did David toll hee? 16. 2, Fill in the blanks with the missing prepositions 4 How did David know that woman was his aunt? Why wus she s0 surprised when David stavted to spenk to her? Where did Miss Trotwood take David? the town... Dover. night he slopt ... the fields. the seventh day. He was tired and weak. 4, David walked. 2 3. He reached Dover... hunger. last he saw some houses. He went... little shop. 39 eo 5. He wanted to speak -...Miss Trotwood. 8 The young woman took her basket and walked . 7. They came... little eottage. The woman husvied 8. David was left standing... the garden gate. shop. the cottage, » 9. He was covered... dust .. head . .. foot. 10. Miss Trobwood came... the house. a 41. David knew... oneo the woman was his aunt. ‘ 42. His aunt was leuking... him... real surprise, David burst... eure, a 43, Then she got up...a great hurry and took David... the house, jf 8. Repiaeo the words in italies with words that have a similar meaning : 1. David started onus Maursiione was David's father by u later marriage. 3. David wont 9 Dover on foot 4. Miss Trotwood looked at David very much surprised. » David grunt after the young woman The young man, who had long legs, took David's box ant money and drove away. 7. David stood without mowing and Inoked at his aunt, 8. He lookrd atentively at. his aunt's movements. 4, Put the verbs in brackets in the eorreet tense (Past, Past Perfect, Future: inthe- Past). 1. David Copperfield decided ta run to his aunt, although he never (ser) hee 5 2. fis mother, who was dead now, often (speak) about Miss Betsy. David did not even know where Batay (live). | One evening David went to his roan to take his box, as he (prepare) all his things the day before. » David asked a young man if be (want) to help him. After the young man (disepprar), David started for Dover on frot. When ke (arrive) at Dover, David asked everybody if thoy (Anew) where Miss Trotwood (live). 5 A young woman asked David what he (want) with her mioteoss 9. She told David she (show) him where Miss Trotwood (Tee), 10. Whon David saw the Indy, he knew at once thet she (be) Miss Betsy, berause she (look) exactly as his mother (deseribe) hee. {1. David told Miss Trotwood he (be) her nephew. 12, He also told her that he (2e) very unhappy sinos his mother died, that nobody (tore) him anything, that his stepfather (be) very wikind to him, and (send) him to work. 13, He told his aunt he (come) to her because he hoped she (proteet) him 40 + nineteenth eontury, Although he er Aor Migs Trotwood (list) to David, she got up in ¢ great hurry a ‘und took him into the house. 5. Retell the story. All Dickens’ novels, whether happy or ead, show his eympathy for oor pape and their sulfering the PaGtiver Twist", for example, describes the miserable Tie of orphans jandovert eildxen in London oF arent ime shows the hand conditions under whigh not only. the rowwvup but also the litie childzen had to work in the mes and eotton- mills. nal tsi Copper Dike? on fxg nove “o dit it cea te ma See TE si fata Sicko in 69 po urd in Wont Abe. According Sea cin a esto Ke ean cone, ta ee Coat of jus | VoenaULanY PRACTICE A. mile (mail) = 1,600 metres straw [stra:] = dry geass Journey ['d3e:ni] = a longer trip (usually by train, bus or car) unhappy [,.nheepi] = not happy light lait) = not heavy to wear [weo}, wore [w9:}, worn fwo: to reply [1i'ploi] = to answer beside [bi'said) = very near, next to while [wail] = a short time to be dressed pole (paul..} Phe telephone poles are beside the road. Searecrow ['skeokrou]... There aré many scarecrows in this fila, to keep | tie birds asay from the crap. Open your mouth and say ‘Ah’ | Uf you want to answer this question you must use your brains. Yad [baedl}, worse (oo:s], worst [wo:0t]... The weather was bad yesterday, ‘int today it is worse than yesterday. Felruary follows. January. i Follow the road until you come to the hot to staf [staf]... She sfutfed all her clothes into the suitcase. fo foot [fc felt fete, Hot [felt] ... “Are you feeling beter?” “Yes, I eel fine now.” “What are his feelings?” “I think he loves you." Pind the words that mean those 1. 1,609 metres; 2. a longer trip; 3. a mon made of straw to keep the birds away; mouth [maul] Drains [Droinz} . {0 follox [talou) 4, to come afte 5. to pul many things into a bag; 6. to answer; 7. to be drossod. . Say these in another way + 1. This bag is not heavy. I can carry it. 2. “Are you butter?” “Yes, I'm fine, thank you.” 8. This hat is made of dry grass. 4. They are sitting nest fo the river 5. They walked on the road for another mite 6 He waited for a slort time and then she came. 7. He put all his clothe: into the bag. 8. He wae dressed in a blue coat last winter. 9. The weather is not fine today. 40. T atked him where to go but he didn’t answer. B, Look at these: vain = rainy day ‘sun — sunny day snow -» snowy Weather cloud + cloudy sky wind — windy day F, Now do this exe Example: (There are a lot of clouds in the sky. The aky 18. The sky is cloudy, 1. I'm afraid it will rain this afternoon, I don’t like this... weather. 2. Tho sun shines brightly in summer. Most summer day? are bright and... 3. The wind often blows in autumn. There are many... days in autumn. 4, When it reins, there are clouds in the sky. The shy is. 5. His shirt is as white as snow It is... white, @. How do you show feeling in what you aro saying? Real these: NEUTRAL: WITH FEELING “F STRESS FREALLY) | + DO/DID in CERTAINLY | «tfirmative son fences Diana really | | Diana did phone phoned me | me yesterday. yosterday. (im telling the ath!) T ceertatnly Hike | T do like this this: pre | dress. Hee righ TTaughed hen Tsaww yor wearing ti) ‘She talks a lot | She rally talke| She does talk a) in the classroom | a lot in the clas-| lot in the clase room, room Diana phoned 4) Diana phoned | ™e yesterday. me yesterday. 2) I like this 1 like this dress. ress 8) She tales a lot in the classroom, (You are wrong if you think she doesn't). ry HL, Show more feeling in the following situation: 1. Towrole my homework fast night. (This is the truth, But 7 left my notebook at home): . She likes English. (You are wrong if you think she doesn’t) He enjoyed the school outing in the mountains. (Aldough i wes raining heavily ) T sent the letter to my grandma yesterday. (7 don't know whey she hasn't received it yet). 5, She has a ticket for the show. (Although she can’t show it to you). L. Complote these sentonces with the right words: follows 1. Gonstanja is a town, .. the 360 straw 2. Number 6. umber & beside 3 This hat is made of straws i's 6. hat worse 4, Open your... and say ‘Ah’! mouth 5. The weather is bed today, but yesterday was = than tod Josey 6.108 a tinin trom Bucharest to agi footing 2. He can do thi difficult problem, He's got the... to do it ; . rains 8. Stlow axe you .. 2° “Dm fesling fine, thanke you.” stiffed 2, “Are you coming?" “Of course,” she... replied 10. Hes. bid shoes with newspaper. 1M, GRAMMAR PRACTICE ‘Lot's remember the Imperative (the 2nd person singular/plural) i) Don’t play now! don Negative: | 30 uot Attinmative: [verb] og. Read the lossoa! 1. Situation : Beforo leaving for work, mother tells you what t do Example: Tread | lessons | detective stories Read your lessons. Don't road dotective stort 4. learn / lessons / new s0ngs3 2. buy / some bread / icecream: 2. 3, eat) soup and steak j all the cake; 4. go to school { early / lates 5. cross the strest / carefully fin a hurry; 8, play doring the breaks / during the lessons, Roinamber how the Imperative ehanges in Indirect Speech: Attirmative Imperative ~+[To-t ob] Negative Imperative -» [aot to-+ v= | ‘ogg. Read the lesson, -» She asked me fo read the lesson, Don't play now. + She asked me not to play. Situation : Last Sunday your aunt invited you to dinner. Beforo leaving, mother asked you not to forget some (able rules. She said: 4. “Sit straight at table.” 2. “Wait until all are served.” 3, “Say ‘Yes, please’, if you want more Food.” 4, “Don't make breaid balls.” 5. “Don't talk with your mouth fol.” 6. “Don't make noises while eating.” Situation : [t's mother’s birthday. Father and the obildven are thinking of doing something special for mother: “Let me buy a nice present for mother”, says Alice, “Let us clean the house firsty” says father, “Zet me shake the carpets,” says Vingina. “No, no, let Paul do i, says father. “Then let the girls clean the rooms and let thera make n cake for mother,” saye Poul, “Let us better buy some icecream for mother and eaok a lovely meal,” says father, Answor those questions now : a) Whose birthday is it? b) What docs Alico say? ‘2) What. doot father say? 4) What docs Virginia want to do? What are her words? ©) What does Paul say the girls should do? 4) Wat docs father say in the ond? air the rooms | Paut (him); make the beds |Grandma. (her); make the tea /Grandma (her); wator the flowors Grandpa (him); 5. wash the vegetables! / Virginia and Paul (them); 6. take the dog out /Grandpa (him). 4, Situation : Alice comes in and asks Paul some questions, but he is not, Tistoning to her ashe is busy talking to Adsian, to Alice has to tay every: thing twvioo: ‘Alice: Te Viewor coming to soc you later? Paul: Pardon? What did you say? ‘Alice: T asked It Vietor «was coming to see you later. 4. Is he coming alone? 2. Is George coming with him? 3. Are they going to bring you any books? 4, Can they help you with your homework? 5, ave you time for them? (> 6. Are you going to watch TV together? | 1 May 1 join, you? Yes/No questions Ta the negative La} verb ae 4 INDIRECT she had. Jimi No Se ce Pe ‘ie TT. a a ae A. Situation : Ali bi i . mm? Alice is busy reading an interesting book today. She thinks | ee ee [Sane woe ST Bzample: | O® oa ‘mo not open the windows. * Brample: ot { Bi | enen them. “Can he speak English?" She asked { it he could speak English, 48 4a 6, Situation : Peter is a very polite boy. Whenever he asks something, he asks politely. Toll us what be asked Alice. Exariple: | Peter: May 1 dance with you, Alice? | Peter asked Alice if he might dance with her. 4, May 1 introduce you to my sister? 2. Can 1 see you back home? 2 Is it possibie to see you again? 4. May 1 ring you up sometimes? 5. Can 1 invite you to the cinema? 6. Are you going io bring me books to read? 7. Situation : The children are having their school festival, ‘The music is too loud and Alice doesn’t hear Peter's questions. Example: Peter: Do you like the musio? ice: What did you say? I can't hear you, Pater: 1 asked whether you liked the musi, 4. Do you dance? 2. Do you know my sister? 4 Does your brother know mo? 4, Do you want some Pepsi-cola? 5. Do you fool tired? Idon't need you, DO! | Thore’s ne question bere. Go back to Direct Speech, —@. DIRECT }, [Po jou..? Fi come with you SPEECH SPEECH = at Do yout 48 Braml*bo yous bin ten ase Hs im tn 8. Situation : You, Sylvia and your brother are talking in English, Sylvia is talking very quickly and your brother doean't unilevstand her Example: TSytoia: Do you like music? a Your brother: What did Sylvia ask you? You. She asked me whether I liked nvusie. 4. Do you like folk music? 2, Do you know the sang “Oh my davling Clementine”? 3. Do you usually listen to the radio on Saturdays? u watch Loredana Groza on TV? 5. Do you buy her songs? 8. Do you know how many people buy them? 4, Situation : Sometimes ducing the English class we play the game “The Curious Owl” (Bufnifa cea curioasé). A boy or a girl esks questions until he/she guesses what person or thing we have thouglt about. My desk- rate often asks me to repeat the questions: Boy: What is it ike’ Deskmate: What did she ask? i: He asked what it was fi 1. Where is it? 2. What colour is it? 3. When must [use it? 4, What can T do with it? 5. Why is it in the classroom? 6. Is ita mop? DIRECT SPEECH Peer eetl Special questions | Gola. questions) Do, Does, you stay in | Dire swiss. come here b Speech, Akl you Tete! of the vr rae (eaetemeeuaae Wheto? a when?) yf noice afin _ © sppecn | Bo =e Doss alte 49 Keamploxs 4, Shire is he?" She wanted to kmow where he was. 2. “What does he soy?” ‘She wanted to know what he said. 1 Complete these sentences 1, “Who is he?" The teacher had no idea... 2. “WWhere dows ine come from?" He asied |. 2. Can hee speok English?” He wondered. 4, “Has he been here long?” He didn’t know 5. “Why are you Inte?” He wanted to find out 6, “Do your parents koow about it?" He asked them . 7. "Ave yon going to tell thom about 42" He wanted to Know - 8. “Can you help me now!” He wondered .. . Il, READING, SPEAKING AND WRITING PRACTICE 4. Proquestions: Du yon Tike to read storias? What Kind of things ean happen in a story? Can only people talks in a story? 4 At the bezinning of a story something extraondinary usually hoppers tw the good people. Can you think of seme examples? Mave yuu ever felt sory for the bad people? Why / Why not? 16. Dons a story always have a happy end? Why? B. Readiugt ‘OW THE WAY To THE EHERALD CITY Dorothy snd Toto followed the Yellow Brick Road for many miles Aller w while they stopped beside a large maize field and sat desvn to rest In was a hvight sunny day aud a light wind was Blowing SNE Not too far away, bish on a pole; Dorothy could sew a Seareenay The Searecrow’s head ws small cif stuffing with slau. On its face oménne had painted two eyes, @ nose and a mouth. ‘The Searwerow ‘was dressed in a blue suit and wore black shoes and on old straw hat While Dorothy was looking at tho Searperow, she suddenly saw its eyes open and took at her. All this seemed very strange to her and she walled up to the searcerow, f i “Good afternoon,” said the Searecrow, “Did you speak?” asked Dorothy. “Cestainly,” answered the Scarecrow. “How are you?” “Pm very Well, thank you,” replied Dorothy, “How are you “['m not feeling very Well high on this pole,” suid the Scarecrow. “I can't get down.” Dorothy felt sorry for the Scarecrow arid helped it, down, “Thank you very much,” said the Searuerow. “I feel like a new man [All this seemed very strange to Dorothy. She had never seen a stuffed man who could walk and talk, “Who are you and where are you going?" asked the Seareerow “My name is Dorothy and fam going to the Emerald City to asic the Great Oz to send me back to Kansas.” But the Seareerow had never heard of the Great Oz or the Emerald City He axplained to Dorothy that heeause his head was stuffed with straw he had no brains. Dorothy folt very sory for the unhappy Searecraw. ‘Then the Seareerow wanted to know if he could join Dorothy on her journey to the Emerald City. He wondered if the Great Ox would give him some brains. He said to Dorathy, “Do you think that, iT go to the Emerald City with you, the Great Qz will give me some brains?” ©] cannot tell” she answered, “but you may come with me if you like. If Oa doos not give you any brains, you will he no worse off thon you are [And s0 the Scarecrow joined Dorothy and her dog Toto on their journey to the Emerald City. (Aitaptod from: Frank Bown — The Wisned of O=) ©. Bxoreisess 1, Look at the text agai 4. Read the sentences describing the Scarecrow. 2. Road the sentences about Dorothy's journey. 2 Answer these questions: |. Why did Dorothy and Toto stop beside the road? What could Dorothy see high on a pole? What happened while Dorothy was looking at the scarcerow? What. had Dorothy never soen before? Where was Dorothy going? Why? . Why didn't the Searecrow have brains? Why did the Scarecrow join Dorothy and hor dog Toto on their journey to the Emerald City? 51 3. Dalle about (one of) these : 1. Desevibe the Si 2. Tell the text. 8. What special things, that usually happen in stories, ean be found in this story? 4. What book fur ehildven have you read this year? Speak about: = the title of the book: = the name of the author; = the mast important person in the book: (the hero); ~ the place and time of the action = what happens (0 the hora; = happylunbappy end. 4. Ts if important to have “brains”? Comment on these sayings and give their Romanian treuslation + a) “Little brains in the head makes much work for the legs.” >) “First. think and then speale.” 5. Copy these sentences in the right order to tell the story of Dorothy, Toto sand the Seareerow : 4. He explained to Dorothy that because his head was stuffed with straw he had no brains. 2. The scarecrow nsked the giet who she was and where she was going 3. Dorothy and Toto stopped Beside a large maize field and sat down to rest 4, While Domthy was looking at the Scarecrow she suddenly saw its eves open sand look at her. 5. Not too far away, high on a pole, Dorothy evuld see a scarecrow. ©. Dorothy invited the scarecrow 10 yo with them to the Great Oz to et sone brains, 7. Anil so the Scarecrow journey to the Bere Pui the dlalogue between Dory and th Jpleed Dorothy ond er doz Toto on thee 6. Seareerow in Indireet Speech? The Searverows Dorothy: 1, How are yeu? 1. Tm very well, thank’ you, How are you? 2. Tm not fooling very well high 2. I'm somry for you. I help you on this polo. I can't yet down. down, 8. Thal you very much. [ feel 3, It's very strange’! I've never seen like a nea maa now. ‘stuffed man who can walk-and talk, 4, Who are you and where are 4. My name is Dorothy and 1 am you going? oing to the Emerald City. iene FE Se 6, [ve novor hoard of the Emer ald City. I have no brains. Can tho Great,,0z give me some brains, 100? 5. Tean't tell, but you may come with me if you like. 78 WHITE FANG after: Jack London At first White Fang did not like to have a mi But Weedon Soott was a good man, and soon White Fang began to like him, Later the “ike” became “love”. White Fang did not know what love ‘was, but knew that it was-a new fosling and that this feoling was not for Matt, the-dog driver. ‘White Fang bad to work. He worked in the sledge all day, and he stood on guar over his master’s Uhings all night. And he liked what he had to do. But spring came with great trouble. White Fang did not know what was happening. One day his master began to pack, but whose box was iL? ‘Who was ready to leave: his master or Matt? Who could he ask? ‘After Woodon Seott left, White Fang fell siek for tie First time in his life and Matt took him into the house. Thon Weedon Sco:t got a letter from Matt: “The wolf cannot work, cannot eat, I don’t know what to do with him.” er. One night Matt was reading a book when White Fang got to his feet and ran to the door. A minute later Weedon Seott walked fn “Where ie the wolf?” asked Soott. The wolf was near him. There was a bright Took in his eyes. “Ho did not look at me like that all the time you were away.” said Matt. Weedon Scots did not listen to Matt, [le was sitting on the floor and stroking the dog's head. White Fang was growling, it wos a nov growling, ke a song. : But that was not all. He was co happy that ke put his head on his hester'a arm and then became silent. ‘Tho two men looked at each othr. Seott’s eyes were shining. 4. LESSON FOUR, |. VOCABULARY PRACTICE A. century {'sent[ari] = one hundred years scientist [saiontist] = man of science physeinm [fzifn] = doctor assembly [o'sembl] = many people together Lealthy [eli] = not il to cure ['kjua] = to make healthy again B. medicine {'medsin}...1. Adrian is going to study medicine when he eaves schoo. 2. You must take this meticine three times a day. he patients are in the waiting room. They are waiting for the doctor to come: I'm not feeling very well. I have bad headache. My head aches ald coer. pain [pein]... The boy was orying with pain after he Broke his arm. diet [duit]. T mustn't eat sweets. I'm on a diet. Jaud [lend]... 1. Farmers work the land. 2. You ean travel from Bucharest to Suceava by air or by land. movement {'musvmont) «Twill teach you to dance if you copy my moves ments. native [‘neitiv]... Constantin Parkon seas born in Ctmpulung. Computunge is h’s native town, (used only as an attribute) The sick ehild entered the doctor's rovm, (But: The eld was ill). to publish (pabiif]... Many children’s books are published in Romania every year. ‘skeaibl.... The doctor preseribed a new matcine for the pain in my leg throughout (Great)... £1 rained throughout the night Many famous people have lived and worked in Romania throughout the centuries. patient [‘peifat].. ache [oil]. siek fsile] to preseribe (p €. Find the words that mean these: 41. the food a sick person must eats 2. your study this to become a doctor: 4. & person who goes to a doctors 5a A 4, to say what medicine to tak 5. many people togethers 6. a town where somebody was born, D. Say these in another way: 4, Gheorghe Marinesou was a well-Inown Romanian scientist. 2. Constantin Peshon wes a famous Romanian man of science, too. |. The doctor prescribed the right diet to his patisnt, 4, Now his pationt is, not il. 5. The dactor made him healthy again, %6, You can travel there by car, bus or train 1, What's the matter with grandpa? what must he doi Example: "Grandpa: Vve got a headache. (take an aspirin). Grandma: You must take an_aspi Grandpa: Grandma: 4. T'vo got a toothache. Ae cesses 80 a dentist, 2. Tve got a stomachache. Qe. keep ¢ diet. 3. I've got a headache. a take some medicine. 4, T've got a pain in my Tog. 4. ...... call the doctor. 5. I've got a pain in my back. 5. ...... lie down. 6. T've got a cold. 6 drinks hot tea. 7. 1 fee! ill. Te cesees stay it bed. ‘How do people talk about health? Read these: A; What's the matter with you? B: De gota. 1 feel aveful so sorry | ae ' ever 50 sorry! Why don’t you G. Look at the picture and make up dialogues like this: Pail: What's the matter with you? Adrian: Wve got a headache and I feel awl. Paul: Oh, I'm sorry. Why don't you take some medicine’ 58 Use: 1. lie downs 2. see a doctor; 8. eat somethings . Complete these sentences with entry -seientist orn took part in medicine native patient throughow published preseribo 2, eat, sootkache go to bed = tnke an aspirin; drink a cup of ten, ight words: 1, Charles Darwin was a famous E: 2. He lived and worked in the 19th . 8. He was Shrewhury, in February 18009, 4, Ho attended primary and secondary schoolin his... town, 5. After that he went to study... in Edinburgh, although he did not want to become a doctor, From 1831 to 1896 Darwin . san expe- dition to South America and Australia, 7. His interest in animals and in their changes ... the ages made him become a famous naturalist. 8, Although Darwin never cured a ... throughout his Jifeand did not... any medicineeither,heis famous all over the world for his book On the Origin of Species, which 1859, A GRAIIAR PRATT 1. Situation : Little Tudor saw the film The Wizard of Os on TV nut didn't ‘understand much. His little cousin didn’t understand tco much either: Tudor: Why did Dorey go to the Emerald Gy? | | Cousin: Twonder why she went to the Emerad Cty, too. | 4, Why did Dorothy stop beside a maize field? 2, Why did she speak to the scarecrow? 1. What did Dorothy ask the Séarecrow? Why did the Scarecrow feel rather unwell? Why did Dorothy holp the Scarecrow get down? 6. Why did the Searecros want-to join Dorothy? 7. Where did they go together? . Grandpa can’t always remember things very well. Example: [Baud Did Grandpa vee the film yesterday? ] Alice: He couldnt remesber if he hind seea it, |. Did Grandpa revei . Did he veply to it? Did ‘he post it? Did he foel well yesterday? Did he go to the doctor yesterday afternoon? . Did he take his medicine last night? 8. Make dialogues using these words : my letter yesterday? 4 3 4 ‘Alice [buy the tickets Paul: Has ATice bought the tickets? Adrian; Lasked hor if she had bought them but she didn’t answer, Example 4. Angela [road Tlie Catcher in the Rye: 2. George fentch any fish; 3. Vietor / shalce the carpets; 4, your. sister | find the books 5, the teacher | mark the tests; 6, Sylvia | visit the museum; 7. Dina / make the tea; 8 Eliza / meet your new neighbour. rT panes INDIRECT sprRCH cr | hw ane ania wel bes + ver 3rd form ‘D4a, stay un Direct Speech. Wh... come here ‘quietly 10 your place, before the noun. _-7 [INDIRECT SPEECH ee iti Ea ad Yn 1 wondered if yon had seen him. wanted to know whon you hed seen him, Eke ‘lave you seen’ him? “When did you see him?* ituation: Paul is going away on holidey. Grandmother is asking Grand- father questions about him, but Grandfether does not know what to say. Example: Grandma: When will Pant come back? Grandpa: It’s hard to say] I don't know when he will come back. 1. How long will he stay there? 2. When will he reosive our letter? 5. What will he do next? 3. When will he be back? 6. Where will he go then? 5. Grandfather and Grandmother are wondering about a lot of things : 4. When will he visit us? [ be in time for the tain ] Grandma: Will Paul be in time for the train, do you think? Grandpa: Well, I also wondered whether he would be in tirae for the trai 4, enjoy himself on the trip; 2. make many friends; 3. have good weather: 4, bebave himself; 5. stay up late every night; 6. come back soup. yRECT_SPEECH [ene 75 Then. 2 INDIRECT SPEECH T become would and go to my place after she subject: He wondered... 2 He didn’t know.. WOULD “© He asked. He trie to find out. When, how feng, come quickly here. Tneed you. INDIRECT SPEECH “When will she come?” He wanted to know when she would come. 6. Complete these sontonces, using Indirect Speech: 4, Alioe asked Angela... (“What's the time?) 2, Sho wanted to know... (*What time are we going to leave?" 3, Mother eamo anc askod Angela... (“What will you wear atthe party ) 4% Alico tied to find out... (“Who else «ill come?") 5, She wondered... (“Can we’ get there by bus?") 6. Alice wasn't sure... (“Do you know te address, Angela") ("Have you Been there before") “What present will you buy your friend?" ) UL READING, SPEAKING AND WRITING PRACTICE A, Proquestions: Do you fool well or ill most of the time? Do-you have @ healthy daily programme? ‘What time do you got up in the morning? Do you do any morning exereises before you have realefast? . Do you usually watch TV or go for a walk in the evening? What time do you go to bed? Where do you go or what do you do when you don’t feel well? 59 B. Reading: 1. Meny famous men of science have lived and worked on the Romanian Jand throughout the centuti 2, Such a man ofsoience was Constantin Parhon, a Romanian scientist famous all over the world. 3, Me was born in -ampuiung in 187 He attended primary school in his native tova, After finishing secondary school he went to Bucharest to study medicine. 4. Tn 1909 he publishod the first book in the world on endocrinology. Later hebecamea university professor in Tagi “and Bucharest and started studying the causes and mechanisms of old age, AIL his life he worked howl, trying to find ways of curing it. 5. As a physician, Cl. Pathon's working dag staeted at 8 o'elock in the morning. He always asked his patients why they had como to hospitel, to soe what thoir aches and pains were, ‘Then he prescribed medicines and diets to them to moke them healthy again. 6. Cl, Purhon was a great seiontist and university professor, worked hard all his life for Ue benefit of people around him. Exercises: 1. Look at the text again and say whielt paragraphs refer to : 8) Constontin Parhon’s education b) his activity as a physicians o) his ctivity as a university, professor. Read the most important sentence in each paragraph. 2. Answer thieso questions : 1. What was Constantin Parhon? 2. When and where was he born 3. Where did he study medicine? 4 When did he pablish the first. book in the world on endocrinology? 60 ro i | k I I £ I 5, What time did he start his working day ax a py 6. What did he do at hospital? 4. Tho teacher asked the pupils questions about C.f, Parhon. Here are their answers. Put in the feaeher’s questions : 4, What a 4. C1. Parhon was a famous scientist, a university professor and a physician, 2, Where and when...,..2 2. He was born in ¢ampulung in 1874, 3. When ? 2. In 4909 he published the first book in the world on endacrinology. 4, What. ? 4, He studied the causes and mechanisms ‘of old age, He always asked his patients what their aches anil pains ware 5, What........? 4. Complete these dialogues. What's the mstter with you? 1. Sylvia: V've a headache. Christine: Ym eo sovey. Why don’t you take an aspirin? 2. Paul: ee Adrian: Why don’t you stay in bed today? 3. Diana: a George: You must see a dentist 4. Martha 7 Angela: I'm gled to hear that, but be more careful in future. ‘You, must always keep # straight back. B. Vidor: eee eee Dan: My! Thon you can't wall, can you? 6. Blia _ Alice: I'm ever 80 sorry ! You'll have to keep diet, I'm afraid, 5. Talk about (one of) these 4A, Angela is rather fat. What do you advise her to eat or not to eat from. the following list? ‘carrots; bread; cakes You'd hetior eat more carrots. You'd better not ext { t00 much bread. too many cakes. Example: a1 1. sweets: 6, potatoes 41. pears: 2, salad 7, tomatoos, 12, grapes 3, fresh vegetables 8. foeoreem, 43, apples 4, plums 9, chocolate 14, fruit salad 5. soup 40. chicken 45. hiseuits 2. What do you think is the right diet for: = a dancer? =a farmer? a singer? a football player? =a worker? = somebody who has a eoldja stomachache? 3. What are the skills and moral qualities of a man of science? 6. Write about Constantin Parhon’s life and work. Use these words + = born /* ampulung | 18743 attend / primury school / native town; ~ stuily | medicine | Buchgrest; — 1900 | publish {first book j world / endocrinology — later / university professor / lagi and Bucharest; study / causes and mechanisms / old age; — physician / working doy /8 o'clock: — prescribe | medicine J diets | patients; 7. You didn’t fool well yesterday, so you went to the doctor. Writethe questions the doctor asked y' Sart liko this: He wanted to know .. {. Have you had this ache for a long time? 2. When did you feol it for the first time? What did you eat in tho morning? Have you alwoys eaten such a big breakfast? 5. When did you drink the tea? 6. Did you feel better after it? 8 Read with the dictionary : A CONNECTICUT YANKEE IN KING ARTHUR'S COURT after Mark Twain ‘As I was walking down the street, I stopped a young man ond said to him, “Good friend, will you answer my question, please? Are you a patient in this asylum or are you just visiting?” He looked at me stupidly and said, “Fair sir, me seemeth”... “That will do,” 1 suid. “You talk like the others, so you are a patient, e i i | walked on, trying to find someone who could tell me where 1 was A tall boy was coming towards mo. He wore tights and @ plumed cap.tle snid he was @ page and began to talk and leugh loudly until I stopped hint Me had just said thet ho was born in the year 513 ! Tlooked at him siupidly and wondered if I had heard him right. “Soy it again, please. When were you born?” T asked him.” “In five thioteen,” he replied, “Come on, my boy, stop this game, please. Do you really mean whet you are saying? 1 asked him. He said he did. “And this isn’t an asylum where they cure erazy people? I asked, He said it wasn’t “Well, then,” ¥ soi, “either Tam crazy myself or something just at avsful has happened, Now ean you tell me where 1 am?” “In King Arthus’s court,” he answered “And what year is it now?” ight — the twentieth of June.” he sai 1 alt 1 was slowly going mad, but I believed the boy. - don’t know why ing in me sdid they were all crazy, that this eouldn't be true. And 4yet, I had been knocked on the head in the nineteenth century and had woken up in the sixthi (SHON AY 1 READING PRACTICE [CHARLES DARV/IN (18091882) ‘The famous naturalist and thinker Charles Darwin was born on February 12, (809. His family lived not fer from the River Severn. Charles's father was a well-known docior and the son of a still greater doctor, poet and scientist — Krasmaus Darwin. Charles's father hoped that his ton would also become a doctor. Asa boy, Charles liked to go for walks in the fields and woods, watching nature and comparing what he saw with everything he hod read in natural science books, Hy was also fond of collecting. He collooted many things: birds, eggs, stones, leaves. iis father did uot like this, as Charles was not studying very well at sehool. ‘At sixteen, Charles was sent to Edinburgh University to become a doctor. But he was interested in natural history. ‘Then he was sent to Cambridge to study at the University, from which he graduated in 1831 Some time later he heard that the ship Beagle was going on a trip to Soath America and needed a naturalist, His biology professor advised him to go. He said the journey would be just the thing for Charles. So, when ther Beagle Jet England in December 1834, Chovles Darwin was on board. ‘The expedition Instad almost five years. The Beagle studied the waters near the east and west coasts of South America. It also visited New Zealand, Australia and islands in the Indian Qeean, Darwin saw many new plants and animals, He epllecied all kinds of plants, which ho sent home from the ports he visited. When he eame home, Darwin was warmly greoted by his father, his brothers and sisters ond many fiends. In 1842 Danwin went to live in Kent. There he continued his studies ‘of change in nature, Darwin understood that plants ond animals do not always remain the same, that they really chanye. By 1859 Barwin had finished his famous hook The Origin of Species. It made a great noise in the world of seionce. Darwin was attacked by the Church and oven by some scientists, But later, more and more scientists ‘agreed with him, ba In £871, Darwin published another book, The Descent of Man, which became almost as famous as The Origin of Species. In this book he explained the origin and development of man. There was « Jot of disussion after the ‘book was published, but Darwin did not take part in it. Darwin continued his soientific studies until he died,in 1882. He was uried in Westminster Abbey. ‘Tasks for individual stud 1. Read the passage. 2. Look up the new words in an English-Romanian dictionary. 8. Translate the text into Romanian. 1H. VOCABULARY REVIEW 5. Look at these antonyms and complete the sentences : interesting | poring easy # difficult : exciting a ight v6 wrong healthy | yi bade well dowdy #f heavy # light bright 4. Tho sky is cloudy. It is not . 2. This answer is wrong. It is not answer. 53. The lesson about shopping is interesting. It is not 4 5. 6 [find this lesson difficult to understand. Tt is not He isn’t ill. He is... . This suitease is not heary. It is 6. Which word does not go with the others? 1, Modern roads 3. When you are ill, ‘) boulevard 6) highway ) pain 6) cure ») path 4) motorway 1) publish 6) diet 2. Weather: 4, Jobs: a) windy 6) crazy @) pilot) on duty b) cloudy) rainy ») driver ©) physician Match theso sentences according to the meaning : 4, She never talks about her good marks. 2. T'm telling you the truth. 8. Dan never helps his mother. 4, Ho can't road French books. a) He is muck to lazy. b) He's pretty lad at French. ©) She ts very modest. a) I aid read the book. 65 5 LIMBA BNGLERA ANOL TV — cle A VEEEA 8. Talk about : 1. the weather in spring / summer / autumn / winter; 2. aches and pains; whet people must do thon; 3. special diets: sile people, fat people, some jobs. 9. Remember: Direct Speech Questions -> Indirect Speech Questions {after a verb in tha Past Tense) MAY, WILL (Yes /No Questions) eT BE, HAVE, CAD “Has he any books to read?” * pete oa CA he et ta son neo ht DO, DOES, DID. “When do you want to see him?” How does fe know about aid he phone you yex- terday?” (WH- Questions) Pwhen she wanted to | see him, how he knew about it, when he had phoned. you the day’ hefore. I asked 10. Situation : A well-known writer eame to Paul's schoo! last week and talled ‘to the children. As Paul was ill, he couldn't go to the meeting. Now he is asking his friend Adrian all kinds of questions. Adrian is not very a}tentive: Paul: What's his nane? “Adrian: What? What did you want to know? ‘Pant: I wanted to know what his name was. |. When was he born? . Where is he from? What are his books about? . Who gave him flowers? "What did he talle about? 7. When did he leave school? How many books has hw . Who went: with him? ten? 8. When will he come again? Goorge was taken to hospital yesterday, after an accident. When he woke ‘up, he asked the nurse a lat of questions and later the nurse told the doctor what he had asked Example: mn George: “Where am 1? Am 1 in hospital™ Nurse: He{ #sked me oe he was. wanted to kmow | if he, was in hospital 65 4. Why am J in hospitsl? 2, Who brought me here? 3. When did they bring me to hospital? 4 Do my parents know about it? 5. Have you told them about the acsident? 6 What did they say? 7. When are they going to come and see me? 8. May I have something to eat? 9. What. can 1 et? 410. Am I going to have an operation? 44, When will I got better? 12, May I go home then? Complote these sentences. Use Indirect Speech: 12. 1. Peter asked Alice... (“Am I late?”) 2. Alice answored ... (“You certainty are.” ) 3 She wondered... (“Where have you been?) & Then sho asked him... (“Why did it take you so tong?” ) 5. Petertold her... (“Peas to the postoffice because I wanted to send a parcel”) 6. Then he said... (“They asked me a lot of questions”) 7. First they had wanted to know... (“Where are you sending the parcels”) 8. Then they had asked him... (“What is your name? What is your adress") 9. They had also wanted to know... (“How many paretls are you send- ing?) 40, Potor had told them... (“I'm sending one parcel to ny grandmother. ‘She lives in Brasoo. Her aildrese is aritton on the parcel”) 41. Then he hnd asked them... (“How muck do 1 have to pay?") 42. After paying for the parcel, they had told him... (“That's all. Your grandmother will receive tke parcel tomorrow") and he had left the post-offee after thanking them politely. 18.¢ Translate info English 1. Profesoara la ntrebat. cum 1 cheomi 2. Ea voia sh glio unde locuieste. 3. Noi ne Intrebam cénd o si ving Adrian, 4 BI nu era sigur daed vizase filmul seu av. 5. EL nurgi aduoca aminte unde It vizuse 6. Bl iva latrebat co voi face duminica viitoare. * SIGHTS OF LONDON Visitors may have difficulty in finding their way about London. The British capital is a very old city. Each century brought new historical monu- mionts; the number of sights is now very great. Most visitors to London buy or ‘a plan of the town, to help them find their way about. The London trane- port eervice will also help them. London has hundreds of bus routes and the Underground is very convenient for getting from one district to another, Westminster is a convenient place to start. sightsesing. On the left bank of the Thames, near Westminster Bridge, sland the Houses of Partin. mont. In one of their beautiful toxcers, the Clock Tower, is the famous Rig Ben, the clock from which all people in Britain take the time. Near the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey, a very beautiful church, built aver nine hundred years ago. In the Abbey are the tombs of many great statesmen, scientists and weiters and also tho tomb of the Un- known Soldier,a memorial to the Britith soldiers who died in the First World War. From Parliament Square, Whitehall goos off to the North. This is where the big government offices ere situated:"On the left is Downing Streot, where the Prime Minister has his official residence. At the end of Whitehall is Tratalgar Square, in the middle of which rises the Nelson Column, a nionue ment to Admiral Nelson for his victories in the, war against Nepoloon. ‘On the other side of the square are the National Gallery and the Nation nal Portrait Gallery. Farther west {rom Trafalgar Square is the Mall, at the other end of which is Buckingham Palace, the residence of the Queen of England. The changing of the guard before Buckingham several times every day is watched by hundreds of people, especially tourists. Going on to the west, the visitor will see the Green Park and then, he ‘will come to Hyde Park. This is the largest park inside London and is visited by many Londoners overy day. ‘After visiting Hyde Park, it will be convenient to go back towards the east along Piccadilly to Piccadilly Circus. From here, a short walk to the south-east wifl take the yisitor to the National Gallery, and to the Strand, which, with Regent Street, is one of the best shopping centres {if you have 4 lob of money !). Or he ean go north to see the British Museum and the University of London. After the Strand comes Fleet Street, whore all the big newspaper offices used to be situated and some still aro. From the end of Fleet Street, one con seo Saint Paul's Cathedral, one ‘of the finest historical buildings in London. Not far away is the Mansion Housé, the residence of the Lord Mayor of London. If one then goes on towards the river, one will see the famous ‘Tower ot London, once the residence of the King, and now a museum. There also Tower Bridge stretches across the river. A trip up or down the river will make it possible to see other famous bridges such as Westminster Bridge, to know the busy life of the River Thames ‘and to get a view of all London, 63 5, LESSON FIVE | VOCABULARY PRACTICE A. Pronunciation Practice: united (ju'saitid) Michigan [‘mifigon] area [rh Pennspivania. [pensil'veinj] ‘kilomotro [‘kilomita} California ('keslitfo- mje) ‘Alaska (o'leska] however [n'val Texas [tekeos] Columbia (ko'Yanbi} Rhode Island [roud'ailond} Missouri ['mi'zo0ri] unsuitable [‘an sju:tabl] navigation [.neevi'geifo} Colorado ['koia'ra:dou] canyon ["keenjon] Canada ['keenods] int, [in‘hzehitant] auf] Pree [pa'st) Mexico ['meksikau] Detroit (atest) Chicago (fi 7 San Franciseo ['sn Superior {3ju'pioria) Los Angeles {ls'and: Haron [‘hjuren} Houston [‘hju:stan} Erie (iri) . Miami {mai'zmi} Ontario {on'teariau) to lie (lai) lay (lei},Jain [Lein] ‘Appalachian ['epa'leifjon] event [i'vent] Atlantie [ot‘lentik) 'siskou} 1 B. Arrange the following words in pairs of synonyms emt, area, territory (1, €) A. area 2) to consist of 2. inhabitants b) people’ 3, to make up ©) territory 4, great 4) principal 5. main ©) not good tor 6. unsuitable 4) important ito g) state 8. countey h) to be situated ©. Big, great, large @Big oof great size or volume e.g. a big room, a big book, a big city. 6 Great =a) much, more than usual: eG great care, great kindness. >) important: eG. a great man, @ great event, a great picture. eLarge = of considerable size, taking up much space, (less colloquial than big, seldom usod of porsons) eg, a large country, a large family, a large sum of money. [Now] The opposite of big is litte. ‘The opposite of large is small. D. Lie, lay, Jain He Bes in bed when ho is ill. Canada lis north of the United States. He lay on the grass yesterday, as it was a warm, sunny day, ‘The book lay open on the table ‘The ship was lying at anchor B. Pill in the blanks with big, great or large-in the right form (e.g. big, bigger, the biggest) 4. There are many... mountains and plains in the U.S.A, 2. A man with a. house, 3. A....sehoal has been built in our distviet. 4, New York is... than Washington D.C. 5. Tom is a... friend of mine. 6. Phe English-Romanian dictionary is. 7. She took ...eare.of the-little child. 8. The U.S. is one of the... countries in the world. 9. The Mississippi is one of the world’s family needs a book. F. Pill in the blanks with the Present or Past T ‘as required by the meani 4. The five Great Lakes 2. He 3. The road to Bragov...among tall trees south of the U.S. at anchor last week. se of the verb fo lie, lay, tain, in the north of the U.S. in bed yesterday, as he was ill 4, Mexico « 5, The ship 6. Some snow... on-top of the mountain last summer. ” G. How do people ask for information about places in tov 1 Ts thore [4 market) nearby? 1. Yes, there a bookshop | in the cantre? | yoy { next to a baker's [in this stroot? round the cores. anownd. hore? Dotieen one | at the end of.. Felis tee tse 2. | Go straight, on, then.. do Turn Heth. Cross the sireet then. Toke tae bus aad gel : off at. stop eae 3. {You're welcome, Thanks a lo Is all ght Its OK. Never sind. Not at all ‘You are in front of the dopartmont store. Ask your desiumite where’ each of these places is and how to got there. He will answor you, (Work in pairs). 4. the town hall; 2. the school; 3. the hotel; 4 the restaurant; 5. the sports building; 6. the market; 7. the theatro; 8. the baker's: 9. the toy-shop; 40. the airports 44. thy bus stop for the centre, n Tre man read 1 Positives | Comporatve Sopeintve: —] Ke to the Map 4, town hall 15, house 2, pane 16, school 3. resturant 47, Hibeary 4. hotel 18. polico station 5. cinema 419. utcher’s 6, theatre 20, greengrocer's 7. university 24. baker's 8, department store 22, market 9, cinema 23. shoe factory 10. posteotfice 24, railway station 44, toy shop 2. airport 42. TLV, and radio shop 26. hospital 48, playing fields 54, sports building . U. GRAMMAR PRACTICE Complete with the right adjective forms : T young younger ‘he youngest ala ? ? tall 2 2 2. happy Dappter the happiest busy 2 ? funny Teele ? 23. hot hotter the hottest fat 2 ? big ? > 4 large lasger the largest strange 2 2 . Complete with ajeetives iu the right form : . Bucharest is a large city. It is... «city in Romani n Bucharest is an old city, but Constanta is... than Bucharest. . Tn winter the days are shorter than in summer. December 22nd is ..« dey of the year. 5. In May the weather is quite warm, It is... than in April. July is... ...month in Romania. It is dower than June and August. 6 6, We like to go to the seaside in summer. We are happy there. Us e of year for us. Ee 7. The farmers are vory busy in spring. ‘Thoy ave much . . . than in winter. 8. Don't forget these irregular adjectives : Positive: | ‘Comparativ Superlative: 1. good better the best 8 al ‘more the most = 5. far tarther the farthest: 4 6 Now answer these questions + 4 2 3, 4 Is the weather worse or better today than yesterday? Have you mora or less time to play this year than last year? Do you live nearer to school or farther from it than your deskmate? ‘Who lives the farthest from school in your class? . Who is Aho best pupil in your class? Who got the best marks in your class Inst week? 7. On what day was the worst weather last week? Complete with the right form of the adjective : 4, Adrian: ‘This cake is good. Eliza: But that one is... then this one. Paul: 1 think the icecream is of all. 2. Aunt Martha: What. bad wenther | Uncle George: Well, yesterday it wes ... than today, Mother: ¥ thin ‘weather we have ever had wos two days ago. 3, Paul: Victor lives very far from school. ‘Alice: That's true, But Diane lives... than Vietor Adrian: And Robert lives... ...of us all. 1 takes him an hour to get to school We don't. have much spare time this week, do we? Well, we have . .. spore time this week than we had last woek, Woit until we get on holiday, then we'll have spare time, Grandmother is very ill, I'm, afraid 1: You know, she is than she did yesterday. Don't be afraid. She felt... .. last night, hut she is gotting better now. 6. Look at these plurals and then do the following exer wb He ett WetUtiees RACTITE Singular: Plarat: [As Reading: cat, book, boy cats, Books, boys factory, family factories, familfos tie WhNTBO STATES OF ctERICA potate, tomato ves potatoes, tomatoes box, branch, bus boxes, branches, buses The United States is a republic and is now one of the largest countries the world. Tt covers an area of 9 million square kilometres and has & population of more than 250 million people. Tho United States is made shelf, Teaf, knife shelves, Teaves, knives 7, Tudor is looking at # pleture book. Grandmother is asking him sbout the up of fifty different states: Alaska, in the north, is the largest in area, Pletares in the book. Teva, inthe eth, is tho second in sizg and Rhode Ielandy inthe eax aample: | Graniother’ To Far & Wala Your pidive Book? (eeeray| | We Smale. 10% | Grandmother: Ie there a wolt in your picture book? (several) | ‘The capital of the United States is Washington, in the District of Tudor? ‘There are several wolves. ____| |} Columbia. Thet is why it is called Washingion D.C. However, Washington .C. is not the biagest city, for Now York is much bigger. New Yorke is ‘Amerien’s largest city. Its population is over 48 milion inhabitants. ‘There are many large rivers, lakes and mountains in the United States. The Mississippi, in the central port of the country, is oxe of the world’s great rivers: it is abowt 6,210 kilometres! long, togethar with its main ! branch, the Misssouri River. The rivers in the west are unsuitable for navi 6, And the tree has one dry branch, hasn't it? (several) ion. The lar a ae eee ee tastiest) ian ‘he lng emeng ha the Clambia and the Caled, fw throw “Learn the irregular plurals and then say where these are : ‘Tho five Great Lakes tie in the north, hetween the Unitel States and Canada: Lake Superior, Huron, Michigan, Brie and Ontario. 4, Is there a bus in that street? (many) 2. There is a lone on the table, isn’t there? (four) 3. Can you see a big factory in the town? (two) 4, Hlas the little gicl a tomato in her hand? (three) 5. There is a leaf on that tree, isn't there? (many) eee et ‘The United States is crossed by the Appalackian Mountains in-the Iman meen) = om, Diba men [men] cast and the Rosky Mountains in the west svoman [suman] = femete ‘women {'winin} If you look at a map you can soe that north of the United States lies child {Yfild] — copid children ['yftden) another large country, Canada. The Atlantic Ocean is east of the United foot [fut] = picior tet {i | | States, and the Pacific, west of it, In the south, the United States borders tooth {ta:0] = dinte ‘tooth ( on Mexico, goose (gu:e) = gised geese gi ea mouse [mous] = soarcee rice [meis} beselens 1. 4. Wht is the United States of America? awe ata { ‘area of the country? | population? 8. How many stated is the U-S. Which is the { pares et Example: |The old man . made up of 4, little child / house; 6. big goase / streets smallest? 2 bigger children { garden; 7 little geese (yards 5. What is the capifal of the U.S.? 3. old woman J museum; 8. big’ mouse / kitcho 6. Which is Americh’s largest city? 4 young women | shop; 9. my lett foot J shoe; 7. What is the popylation of New York? 5. little mice [ cupboards 10. his feet / chair. 8. Name some impgrtant rivers in the U.S. ™ 6 4, Whore are the five Great Lakes? Nemo thom 40. What are the main mountain ranges in the U.S.? ‘41, What countzien does the U.S.A. border on? 2, Speak about Romania by answering these questions: 4. Where doos Romania lie? 2. What is the {#04 of our country? population? 3. Which is the largest city in Romania? 4. What is the population of Bucharest? 5. Name some important rivers in our country. 6. Which is the longest siver in Romenia? Is it navigable? 7. What can you say about the Carpathians? 8. Are there many Tnkes in our country? 8. What. countries does Romania border on? B.*Tead with the dietionary: ‘The capital of the U.S.A. is Woshington, in the Distriet of Columbia, ‘The US Congress has its seat in the Capitol, and the White House is the residence of the President ‘Washington is a beautiful administeative city, without much industry. Tehas many famous momuments: the Library of the Congress of the U.S.A. ‘the Washington Monument, the Abraham Lincoln Memorial, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and others New York is the lergett city and port. It is the financiel and business centre of the USA. It is famous for its sky-serapers. Boston, one ofthe frst tows founded on the Atlant coast of Americn, is historically farnous for the Boston Tea Party, which later developed into ‘the war for indepenctenoe. It is now an important port Chicago is one of the biggest industeal cities in the U.S.A. Tt is famous for its tinned meat factories. Philadelphia, near the east const, produces agricultural machines. Detroit, in the Great Lakes repion, is one of the biggest contres of the motorcar industry, famous for its Ford works. San Francisco, on the Pacifie Coast, ic a big port and ship-building contre, OF great interest aro its mine bridges over the Golden Gate Channel Detwveen the Pacific Occon and Son Francisco Bay. ‘Los Angele, in California, is an important centre of modem industries, ‘Not far from it is Hollywood, the world-Known centre of the US film business, rrr ET a 1. VOCABULARY PRACTICE sleep car (‘slispin, kad}... Wight traine usually have one or several looping ears. = People are standing on the platform, waiting for the train to arrive. booking-otfies {'bukig,ofis]... Mr. Pop is geting his train ticket from the hooking-otiee. Inggage [lagids} (always singular) ... Where areall my bags and suitcases? Where is my lugeag?? The porter is helping the old lady. He is carrying her Inggage (0 the train. eonduetor (kan'dakta} (especially American English)... When the train left the station, the eonduetor closed all the doors. nonsense [‘nonsons] (always singular)...“ ean’t go out dressed like this.” “Nonsense? you look fine Come and sit hare. There are several vacant seas It is polite t0 say “Thank you" when a person gives you something. AU the children laughed when they heard the joe, but Angela only smiled. plattorm. [‘plaetfa:m] porter ['posta]-- ‘vacant ['veikant] polite [pa'iit) . ‘to smile [smail} . Find the words that mean these: 4, you buy your train ticket there; 2. trains stop there; 3. you wait for the train there; 4, you sleep during your journey 5. all your bags and suitcase 6. he helps you with your luggage. . Mr, Pop lett Bucharest yesterday. Put his actions at the station in the right order: f) Then he asked a porter to help him with his luggage. ») First Mr, Pop bought his ticket at the hooking office. ©) He looked at the train timetable to eee what platform his train was at. 4) He asked the conductor which the sleeping car was. 2) He went to Platform Thres, where his train wos standing. "

S-ar putea să vă placă și