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Camshaft MATERIALS???


2. Camgear

3. Auto
The camshaft is responsible for the operation of poppet valves, which are used to
control the amount of gas or vapour that flows into the IC engine and the
duration of the gas flow. The camshaft is driven by the crankshaft. To ensure the
timing is correct with the crankshaft of the Honda GX160, there are two marks,
one on the camshaft and one on the crankshaft that should align when fitted.
Camshafts are commonly made from chilled iron castings as they can be made in
high volume and are wear resistant
1. Camshaft Lobes

Calculating timing of the lobes

Lobe lift

These are the camshaft lobes, also known as cams. They are responsible for
movement the poppet valves. Their teardrop shape allows the rotation of the
camshaft to control the timing of the opening and closing of the valves. When
the radius of the cam is at a maximum, the valve is pushed in allowing gas or
exhaust to flow in and out. In the Honda GX160, there are two lobes on the
camshaft; these are the exhaust lobe, for the control of the exhaust valve, and
the intake lobe, which controls the intake valve. The exhaust lobe is located at
the centre of the camshaft, and the intake located furthest from the crankshaft
2. Camgear
The camgear, similar to a bevel gear, meshes with the crankshaft gear allowing
the crankshaft to transmit torque to the camshaft. To increase performance, the
timing of the inlet cam can be advanced by moving the cam gear on the
crankshaft or by welding and machining the cam to achieve a new profile that
would open earlier in the cycle. It has been found that opening the inlet valve 4

degrees earlier than the standard position of the cam increases the performance
at higher speeds.

3. Auto-decompression mechanism
This mechanism located by the teeth on the camshaft is similar to a
decompression system. On the compression stroke of the IC engine, it opens up
the exhaust valves so the engine is easier to start. Once the engine starts, the
centrifugal force of the rotation of the camshaft will pull the weight of the system
out so that it no longer interferes with the exhaust valve.

Camshaft Lift Valve


explained in the principles of operation of a four stroke engine, located on the
homepage, the motion of the piston is coordinated by the otto cycle. The piston
is located in the cylinder of the engine and it is the motion of the piston in the
cylinder, caused by the combustion of fuel, that directly turns the crankshaft.
During the power stroke, which is when the compressed air fuel mixture is
ignited by the spark plug, the piston is forced down by the increased pressure
due to the heat from combustion. When the piston is forced down, this causes
the crankshaft to rotate. It is the inertia of the flywheel, caused during the power
stroke that enables the piston motion to continue until the next power stroke.
It is the various components that make up the piston that enable it to be so
effective for its purpose.
1. Piston rings
The function of the piston rings is to prevent the air fuel mixture escaping
from the combustion chamber via the sides of the piston, the rings create
a seal so there is no transfer of gases to the crankshaft. The rings also
help oil consumption regulation and with heat transfer between the piston
wall to the cylinder wall.
2. Piston
The piston itself is a hollow cylindrical shape, its motion causes the
combustion chamber to change in volume. Its circular face acts as one of

the walls in the chamber, which can be moved back and forth during the
otto cycle.
3. The piston pin connects the piston to a rod connected to the crankshaft,
allowing the transmission of torque to the crankshaft.
Spark Plug The spark plug is located at the top of the combustion chamber of
the engine and is used to ignite the air fuel mixture to form an explosion in the
combustion chamber forcing the piston down to bottom dead centre.
The spark plug main function is to create an electrical spark between two
electrodes, the centre electrode and side electrode, this electrical spark is what
ignites the fuel.
Important components
Insulator - The insulator is designed to insulate the centre electrode and provide
mechanical support for the electrode. It is most commonly made from sintered
alumina which is a ceramic material that has high electrical insulating properties.
Centre electrode The central electrode is connected to the terminal through an
internal wire and a ceramic resistor in series, the resistor is used to reduce the
emission of radio noise from the sparking. It comes to a sharp tip where it acts a
cathode, from which an electrical spark can jump from the central to the side
electrode. The tip is usually made from chromium, nickel-iron and copper.
Shell The shell of a spark plug is designed to remove heat from the insulator to
the cylinder head and to also act as the ground for the passage of electrical
sparks to the side electrode from the central electrode. The shell is usually made
from steel wire.
Side electrode This is the electrode that is earthed and so, the high current of
an electrical spark jumps from the central electrode to the side electrode. The
side electrode is usually made from high nickel steel.

Oil Dipper( Attached to piston rod)

Fan (Cooling) attached to flywheel helps reduce drag in race cars
E-19 90201-878- 003 Nut special, 14mm honda gx160 flange nut

Things to use;

e Gap