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PV Elite 2010 January 2010

PV Elite is a Windows (XP/Vista/7) based program. This version has been developed and tested on Windows XP
and Windows Vista. This version should also run and install on Windows 7.

Notes:
Launching the program PVE.EXE starts PV Elite. Some of the new features in this version are:
Incorporated ASME Section VIII Division 1 and Division 2 09 addenda updates. The updates include changes
to:
ASME Part UHX For Shell And Tube Heat Exchangers
UG-37 for Split Repads
Modification to 'Area 2' for Hillside Nozzles per Appendix L example L-7
The Appendix 1 Thick Cylinder and Sphere equations
Updated ASME Section VIII Division 1 and Section II Part D updates. Tables 1A and 1B.
Updated ASME Section VIII Division 2 and Section II Part D updates. Tables 5A and 5B.
Added a Ligament Efficiency calculator per UG-53.
Added Seismic Codes per the PDVSA and Chile NCh2369.
Added the ability to change default angular orientation for Nozzles, Platforms, Clips etc.
Added the ability to analyze U-Tube tubesheets per EN-13445.
Added the ability to use the Kopp and Sayer method for expansion joint analysis.
Added the ability to use ASME Division 1, Table G to determine 'A' in lieu of the exact equation.
Added the ability to use The Division 2 Saddle analysis instead of the 'Zick' analysis.
Added the ability to analyze Ear type (vertical vessels) and perpendicular lifting lugs (horizontal vessels).
Included WRC Bulletin 297 with the other Local Stress Analysis options.
Updated the graphics to operate more efficiently upon exit from the nozzle, clip, platform dialogs etc.
Added the Bolt Shear Calculation to the Basering Calculation.
Updated the Help System in several places with some screens available in Spanish.
Enhanced the ASME Material Databases to include several new columns of information including low
temperature properties for low temperature materials.
Added the ASME U-4 form.
Added the Forming Strain equation from Division 2 for one piece doubly curved surfaces.
Changed the location of the 'System' folder to 'Public Documents' for improved compatibility with Windows
Vista and Windows 7.
Updated the Australian Wind and Seismic Codes to the latest version of those standards.
Implemented the Shear Force check in the Nozzle per UG-45.
Included Fiber Elongation calculations for ASME rolled plate nozzles.
Added an MDMT calculation summary table.
And many others...

Component CodeCalc Analysis Features:


Incorporated the ASME Section VIII Division 1 09 addenda updates. The updates include changes to:
ASME Part UHX for Shell and Tube heat Exchangers
UG-37 for Split repads
Modifications to 'Area 2' for Hillside Nozzles per Appendix L example L-7
The Appendix 1 Thick Cylinder and Sphere equations
Updated ASME Section VIII Division 1 and Section II Part D. Updated Tables 1A and 1B.
Updated ASME Section VIII Division 2 and Section II Part D. Updated Tables 5A and 5B.
Added the Kopp and Sayre method for Thick Expansion Joint analysis
Included WRC Bulletin 297 comparison of stresses to allowables, based on Div. 2.
Moved the WRC-297 module local stress analysis results to display on the input screenl
Changed the location of the 'System' folder to 'Public Documents' for improved compatibility with Windows
Vista and Windows 7.
Included Fiber Elongation calculations for ASME Rolled Plate Nozzles.
Please note that periodically we will post fixes to the software on our web site at the location sited below. If you are
having trouble with a particular calculation, check the COADE web site to see if there is a later version available
that may fix your problem (also available from the PV Elite help menu). You should always run the latest version of
the software.

Contacting COADE
We welcome your comments and suggestions regarding PV ELITE. Problems, comments, and suggestions should
be directed to the PV ELITE development staff. Our current contact information is:
(phone)

281-890-4566

(fax)

281-890-3301

(e-mail)

techsupport@coade.com

(web)

http://www.coade.com

Best Regards,
PV Elite Development Staff
Issued January 2010

2010 PV Elite User Guide

PV Elite LICENSE AGREEMENT


Licensor: COADE/Engineering Physics Software, Inc., 12777 Jones Road, Suite 480, Houston, Texas 77070

ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS OF AGREEMENT BY THE USER


YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS BEFORE USING THIS
PACKAGE. USING THIS PACKAGE INDICATES YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THESE TERMS AND
CONDITIONS.
The enclosed proprietary encoded materials, hereinafter referred to as the Licensed Program(s), are the property of
COADE and are provided to you under the terms and conditions of this License Agreement. You assume
responsibility for the selection of the appropriate Licensed Program(s) to achieve the intended results, and for the
installation, use and results obtained from the selected Licensed Program(s).

LICENSE GRANT
In return for the payment of the license fee associated with the acquisition of the Licensed Program(s) from COADE,
COADE hereby grants you the following non-exclusive rights with regard to the Licensed Programs(s):
1

Use of the License Program(s) on one machine. Under no circumstance is the License Program to be executed
without a COADE External Software Lock (ESL).

To transfer the Licensed Program(s) and license it to a third party if the third party acknowledges in writing its
agreement to accept the Licensed Program(s) under the terms and conditions of this License Agreement; if you
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THIS LICENSE DOES NOT GIVE YOU ANY RIGHT TO USE COPY, MODIFY, OR TRANSFER THE
LICENSED PROGRAM(S) OR ANY COPY, MODIFICATION OR MERGED PORTION THEREOF, IN WHOLE
OR IN PART, EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED IN THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT.
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The Software communicates with COADE servers for the purpose of checking for and performing updates and
ensuring that you are using the Software with a valid license that COADE has created and directly provided to you.
This process does not collect any proprietary information. COADE shall not sell any of the information it gathers in
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This License Agreement is effective upon acceptance and use of the Licensed Program(s) until terminated in
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termination to destroy the Licensed Program(s) together with all copies, modifications and merged portions thereof
in any form.

LIMITED WARRANTY
The Licensed Program(s), i.e. the tangible proprietary software, is provided "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED AND EXPLICITLY EXCLUDING ANY IMPLIED
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the quality and performance of the Licensed Program(s) is with you.
Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of limited warranties, and, in those jurisdictions the above exclusions
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COADE does warrant, however, that the CD(s), i.e. the tangible physical medium on which the Licensed Program(s)
is furnished, to be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal use for a period of ninety (90) days
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COADE warrants that any program errors will be fixed by COADE, at COADE's expense, as soon as possible after the
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eligible to receive the corrected version of the program.

ENTIRE AGREEMENT
This written Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between the parties concerning the Licensed Program(s).
No agent, distributor, salesman or other person acting or representing themselves to act on behalf of COADE has the
authority to modify or supplement the limited warranty contained herein, nor any of the other specific provisions of
this Agreement, and no such modifications or supplements shall be effective unless agreed to in writing by an officer
of COADE having authority to act on behalf of COADE in this regard.

LIMITATIONS OF REMEDIES
COADE's entire liability and your exclusive remedy shall be:
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the replacement of any CD not meeting COADE's "Limited Warranty" as defined herein and which is returned to
COADE or an authorized COADE dealer with a copy of your receipt, or

if COADE or the dealer is unable to deliver a replacement CD which is free of defects in materials or
workmanship you may terminate this License Agreement by returning the Licensed Program(s) and associated
documentation and you will be refunded all monies paid to COADE to acquire the Licensed Program(s).

IN NO EVENT WILL COADE BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY LOST
PROFITS, LOST SAVINGS, AND OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT
OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE LICENSED PROGRAM(S) EVEN IF COADE OR AN
AUTHORIZED COADE DEALER HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, OR
FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY OTHER PARTY.
SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT PERMIT LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR
INCIDENTAL AND CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES SO THAT THE ABOVE LIMITATION AND
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PURPORT TO DISCLAIM ANY LIABILITY FOR PERSONAL INJURY CAUSED BY DEFECTS IN THE CDS
OR OTHER PRODUCTS PROVIDED BY COADE PURSUANT TO THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT.

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You may not sublicense, assign, or transfer your rights under this License Agreement or the Licensed Program(s)
except as expressly provided in this License Agreement. Any attempt otherwise to sublicense, assign or transfer any
of the rights, duties or obligations hereunder is void and constitutes a breach of this License Agreement giving
COADE the right to terminate as specified herein. This Agreement is governed by the laws of the State of Texas,
United States of America.
The initial license fee includes 1 year of support, maintenance and enhancements to the program. After the first 1year term, such updates and support are optional at the then current update fee.
Questions concerning this License Agreement, and all notices required herein shall be made by contacting COADE in
writing at COADE, 12777 Jones Road, Suite 480, Houston, Texas, 77070, or by telephone, 281-890-4566.

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international and national laws that apply to the Software, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations and
the Department of Treasurys Office of Foreign Asset Control (OFAC) restrictions and policies, as well as all enduser, end-use, and destination restrictions issued by the U.S. and other governments. In particular, you will not
export, transship, re-export or otherwise transfer, or permit the export, transshipment, re-export or transfer of, the
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C2_EULA 0409

DISCLAIMER
Copyright (c) COADE/Engineering Physics Software, Inc., 2010, all rights reserved.
This proprietary software is the property of COADE/Engineering Physics Software, Inc. and is provided to the user
pursuant to a COADE/Engineering Physics Software, Inc. program license agreement containing restrictions on its use.
It may not be copied or distributed in any form or medium, disclosed to third parties, or used in any manner except as
expressly permitted by the COADE/Engineering Physics Software, Inc. program license agreement.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED. COADE/ENGINEERING PHYSICS SOFTWARE, INC. SHALL NOT HAVE ANY LIABILITY TO
THE USER IN EXCESS OF THE TOTAL AMOUNT PAID TO COADE UNDER THE COADE/ENGINEERING
PHYSICS SOFTWARE, INC. LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR THIS SOFTWARE. IN NO EVENT WILL
COADE/ENGINEERING PHYSICS SOFTWARE, INC. BE LIABLE TO THE USER FOR ANY LOST PROFITS
OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF USE OR INABILITY TO
USE THE SOFTWARE EVEN IF COADE/ENGINEERING PHYSICS, INC. HAS BEEN ADVISED AS TO THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. IT IS THE USERS RESPONSIBILITY TO VERIFY THE RESULTS OF
THE PROGRAM.

HOOPS' License Grant


COADE grants to PV Elite users a non-exclusive license to use the Software Application under the terms stated in the
Agreement.
PV Elite users agree to not alter, reverse engineer, or disassemble the Software Application. PV Elite users will not
copy the Software except: (i) as necessary to install the Software Application onto a computer(s)...or (ii) to create an
archival copy. PV Elite users agree that any such copies of the Software Application shall contain the same
proprietary notices which appear on and in the Software Application.
Title to and ownership of the intellectual property rights associated with the Software Application ADA any copies
remain with COADE and its suppliers.
PV Elite user are hereby notified that TechSoft3D, L.L.C. 1301 Marina Village Parkway, Suite 300, Alameda CA
94501 ("TechSoft3D") is a third-party beneficiary to this Agreement to the extent that this Agreement contains
provisions which relate to PV Elite users' use of the Software Application. Such provisions are made expressly for the
benefit of Tech Soft America and are enforceable by TechSoft3D in addition to COADE.
In no event shall COADE or its suppliers be liable in any way for indirect, special or consequential damages of any
nature, including without limitations, lost business profits, or liability or injury to third persons, whether foreseeable
or not, regardless of whether COADE or its suppliers have been advised of the possibility of such damages.

TRADEMARKS
HOOPS' is a trademark of TechSoft3D, L.L.C. Windows (95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP/Vista/7), Access, SQL Server,
Excel, and Word are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Oracle is a trademark of Oracle Corporation. Other
trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Contents
PV Elite LICENSE AGREEMENT...................................................................................................2
ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS OF AGREEMENT BY THE USER...................................................2
LICENSE GRANT ............................................................................................................................2
TERM................................................................................................................................................3
LIMITED WARRANTY...................................................................................................................3
ENTIRE AGREEMENT ...................................................................................................................3
LIMITATIONS OF REMEDIES ......................................................................................................3
GENERAL ........................................................................................................................................4
EXPORT RESTRICTIONS ..............................................................................................................4
DISCLAIMER...................................................................................................................................5
HOOPS' License Grant......................................................................................................................5
TRADEMARKS................................................................................................................................5

Chapter 1

Introduction

1-1

What is the Purpose and Scope of PV Elite? ............................................................................................ 1-2


What Distinguishes PV Elite From our Competitors? .............................................................................. 1-3
What is PV Elite?...................................................................................................................................... 1-3
About the Documentation ......................................................................................................................... 1-3
What Applications are Available? ............................................................................................................ 1-4
Program Support / User Assistance .......................................................................................................... 1-8
Updates ..................................................................................................................................................... 1-8
COADE Technical Support Phone Numbers ............................................................................................ 1-8

Chapter 2

The Installation/Configuration Process

2-1

Overview................................................................................................................................................... 2-2
System and Hardware Requirements ........................................................................................................ 2-2
External Software Lock ............................................................................................................................ 2-3
Starting the Installation Procedure............................................................................................................ 2-3
Installing PV Elite..................................................................................................................................... 2-5
Network Installation / Usage..................................................................................................................... 2-9
Software Installation on a Network Drive ..................................................................................... 2-9
ESL Installation on a Network................................................................................................................ 2-10
Windows Server Installation ....................................................................................................... 2-10
Network ESL Notes ................................................................................................................................ 2-11

Chapter 3

Tutorial/Master Menu

3-1

Program Structure and Control ................................................................................................................. 3-2


A Road Map for PV ELITE ...................................................................................................................... 3-2
The Input Processor .................................................................................................................................. 3-3
Error Checking.......................................................................................................................................... 3-6
Analysis .................................................................................................................................................... 3-7
Other Input Processors.............................................................................................................................. 3-8
Tools Menu ............................................................................................................................................. 3-11
Output Review and Report Generation ................................................................................................... 3-13
Design and Analysis of Vessel Details ................................................................................................... 3-15

Contents
Input Menu.............................................................................................................................................. 3-18
Main Menu.............................................................................................................................................. 3-21
File Menu................................................................................................................................................ 3-21
Analyze Menu......................................................................................................................................... 3-24
Output Menu ........................................................................................................................................... 3-25
Tools Menu ............................................................................................................................................. 3-26
Create / Review Units.................................................................................................................. 3-33
Edit / Add Materials .................................................................................................................... 3-34
Calculator .................................................................................................................................... 3-35
ASME Form ................................................................................................................................ 3-36
Diagnostics Menu ................................................................................................................................... 3-37
View Menu ............................................................................................................................................. 3-38
Inspecting the Model in 3D ......................................................................................................... 3-40
Help Menu .............................................................................................................................................. 3-43
PV Elite Quick Start................................................................................................................................ 3-44
Entering PV Elite......................................................................................................................... 3-44
Defining the Basic Vessel............................................................................................................ 3-45
Adding Details ........................................................................................................................................ 3-46
Recording the Model - Plotting the Vessel Image .................................................................................. 3-47
Specifying Global Data - Loads and Design Constraints........................................................................ 3-49
Performing the Analysis ......................................................................................................................... 3-52
Reviewing the Results............................................................................................................................. 3-52
Analyzing Individual Vessel Components Details.................................................................................. 3-53
DXF File Generation Option .................................................................................................................. 3-56
Setting Up the Required Parameters ....................................................................................................... 3-57
User Border Creation................................................................................................................... 3-57
DXF File Generated by PV Elite During Runtime ................................................................................. 3-58
Invoking the Drawing.................................................................................................................. 3-58

Chapter 4

Element Data

4-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................... 4-2
Element Basic Data................................................................................................................................... 4-3
Element's From Node .................................................................................................................... 4-3
Element's To Node ........................................................................................................................ 4-4
Element's Diameter........................................................................................................................ 4-4
Distance or Straight Flange Length ............................................................................................... 4-4
Finished Thickness ........................................................................................................................ 4-5
Internal Corrosion Allowance........................................................................................................ 4-5
External Corrosion Allowance ...................................................................................................... 4-5
Wind Load Diameter Multiplier .................................................................................................... 4-5
Material Name ............................................................................................................................... 4-6
Joint Efficiency for Longitudinal and Circumferential Seams ...................................................... 4-6
Design Internal Pressure................................................................................................................ 4-7
Design Temperature for Internal Pressure ..................................................................................... 4-7
Design External Pressure............................................................................................................... 4-7
Design Temperature for External Pressure .................................................................................... 4-7
Diameter Basis............................................................................................................................... 4-7
Element Additional Data........................................................................................................................... 4-8
Cylindrical Shell ............................................................................................................................ 4-8
Elliptical Head ............................................................................................................................... 4-8
Head Factor ................................................................................................................................... 4-8
Inside Head Depth ......................................................................................................................... 4-9
Sump Head?................................................................................................................................... 4-9

Contents

Torispherical Head.................................................................................................................................. 4-10


Crown Radius .............................................................................................................................. 4-10
Knuckle Radius ........................................................................................................................... 4-10
Sump Head?................................................................................................................................. 4-11
Spherical Head ........................................................................................................................................ 4-11
Sump Head?................................................................................................................................. 4-11
Conical Head or Shell Segment .............................................................................................................. 4-12
Toricone Dialog........................................................................................................................... 4-13
Toriconical................................................................................................................................... 4-13
Small End Knuckle Radius.......................................................................................................... 4-13
Large End Knuckle Thickness..................................................................................................... 4-14
Large End Knuckle Radius.......................................................................................................... 4-14
Half Apex Angle.......................................................................................................................... 4-14
Cone Length ................................................................................................................................ 4-14
To End Diameter ......................................................................................................................... 4-14
Welded Flat Head ................................................................................................................................... 4-15
Attachment Factor ....................................................................................................................... 4-15
Non-Circular Small End Diameter .............................................................................................. 4-16
Appendix 14 Large Opening ....................................................................................................... 4-16
Flange Analysis....................................................................................................................................... 4-17
Body Flange................................................................................................................................. 4-17
Flange Input Data ........................................................................................................................ 4-17
Skirt Support with Basering.................................................................................................................... 4-18
Inside Diameter at Base............................................................................................................... 4-19
Basering Dialog ........................................................................................................................... 4-20
Basering Analysis ................................................................................................................................... 4-21
Brownell and Young Method of Design...................................................................................... 4-21
Tailing Lug Input Data............................................................................................................................ 4-22
Perform Tailing Lug Analysis ..................................................................................................... 4-22
Centerline Offset ......................................................................................................................... 4-22
Tail Lug Type .............................................................................................................................. 4-22
Tailing Lug Analysis ................................................................................................................... 4-22
Lug Thickness ............................................................................................................................. 4-23
Pin Hole Diameter ....................................................................................................................... 4-23
Weld Size Thickness ................................................................................................................... 4-23
Lug Height (only if no Top Ring)................................................................................................ 4-24
Discussion of Results................................................................................................................... 4-24

Chapter 5

Vessel Detail Data

5-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................... 5-2
Assigning Detail ....................................................................................................................................... 5-4
Detail Definition Buttons .......................................................................................................................... 5-5
Defining the Details .................................................................................................................................. 5-7
Rings ......................................................................................................................................................... 5-8
Ring Inside Diameter..................................................................................................................... 5-9
Ring Outside Diameter ................................................................................................................. 5-9
Ring Thickness .............................................................................................................................. 5-9
Ring Material................................................................................................................................. 5-9
Moment of Inertia........................................................................................................................ 5-10
Cross Sectional Area ................................................................................................................... 5-10
Distance to Ring Centroid ........................................................................................................... 5-10
Name of Section Type ................................................................................................................. 5-10
Nozzle Dialog Data................................................................................................................................. 5-12

Contents
Nozzle Analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 5-14
Nozzle Input Data ................................................................................................................................... 5-16
Nozzle Description ...................................................................................................................... 5-16
Centerline Tilt Angle or Radial Nozzle Specification ................................................................. 5-16
Offset Distance from Cylinder/Head Centerline (L1) ................................................................. 5-16
Class for Attached B16.5 Flange ................................................................................................. 5-16
Grade for Attached B16.5 Flange ................................................................................................ 5-17
Modification of Reinforcing Limits............................................................................................. 5-17
Physical Maximum for Nozzle Diameter Limit........................................................................... 5-17
Physical Maximum for Nozzle Thickness Limit ......................................................................... 5-17
Do you want to set Area1 or Area 2 to 0 ..................................................................................... 5-18
Nozzle Material Specification ..................................................................................................... 5-18
Nozzle Diameter Basis ................................................................................................................ 5-18
Actual or Nominal Diameter of Nozzle....................................................................................... 5-18
Nozzle Size and Thickness Basis ................................................................................................ 5-18
Actual Diameter and Thickness................................................................................................... 5-18
Nominal Diameter and Thickness ............................................................................................... 5-19
Minimum Diameter and Thickness ............................................................................................. 5-19
Actual Thickness of Nozzle......................................................................................................... 5-19
Nominal Schedule of Nozzle ....................................................................................................... 5-19
Nozzle Corrosion Allowance....................................................................................................... 5-19
Joint Efficiency of Shell Seam through which Nozzle Passes..................................................... 5-19
Joint Efficiency of Nozzle Neck.................................................................................................. 5-19
Insert Nozzle or Abutting Nozzle ................................................................................................ 5-20
Nozzle Outside Projection ........................................................................................................... 5-20
Weld Leg Size for Fillet Between Nozzle and Shell or Pad ........................................................ 5-20
Depth of Groove Weld Between Nozzle and Vessel ................................................................... 5-20
Nozzle Inside Projection.............................................................................................................. 5-20
Weld Leg Size Between Inward Nozzle and Inside Shell ........................................................... 5-20
Local Shell Thickness.................................................................................................................. 5-20
Shell Tr Value.............................................................................................................................. 5-21
Tapped Hole Area Loss ............................................................................................................... 5-21
Overriding Nozzle Weight........................................................................................................... 5-21
Nozzle Orientation....................................................................................................................... 5-22
Nozzle Loading Analysis............................................................................................................. 5-29
Additional Reinforcing Pad Data........................................................................................................... 5-32
Pad Outside Diameter along Vessel Surface ............................................................................... 5-32
Pad Width .................................................................................................................................... 5-32
Pad Thickness.............................................................................................................................. 5-32
Pad Weld Leg Size as Outside Diameter ..................................................................................... 5-32
Depth of Groove Weld between Pad and Nozzle Neck ............................................................... 5-32
Pad Material................................................................................................................................. 5-33
ASME Code Weld Type.............................................................................................................. 5-33
Flange Type ................................................................................................................................. 5-33
Flange Material............................................................................................................................ 5-33
Lugs ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-34
Distance from Vessel OD to Lug Midpoint................................................................................. 5-35
Lug Bearing Width ...................................................................................................................... 5-35
Radial Width of Bottom Support Plate........................................................................................ 5-35
Length of Bottom Lug Support Plate........................................................................................... 5-35
Thickness of Bottom Plate........................................................................................................... 5-35
Distance between Gussets ........................................................................................................... 5-35
Mean Width of Gussets ............................................................................................................... 5-35
Height of Gussets ........................................................................................................................ 5-35
Thickness of Gussets ................................................................................................................... 5-35

Contents

Radial Width of Top Plate/Ring .................................................................................................. 5-35


Thickness of Top Plate/Ring ....................................................................................................... 5-35
Overall Height of Lug.................................................................................................................. 5-36
Overall Width of Lug .................................................................................................................. 5-36
Weight of One Lug ...................................................................................................................... 5-36
Number of Lugs........................................................................................................................... 5-36
Perform WRC 107 Calc............................................................................................................... 5-36
Pad Width .................................................................................................................................... 5-36
Pad Thickness.............................................................................................................................. 5-36
Pad Length................................................................................................................................... 5-36
Bolting Data................................................................................................................................. 5-36
Weights ................................................................................................................................................... 5-37
Miscellaneous Weight ................................................................................................................. 5-37
Offset from Centerline................................................................................................................. 5-37
Is this a Welded Internal .............................................................................................................. 5-37
Is this a Piping Detail?................................................................................................................. 5-38
Forces and Moments ............................................................................................................................... 5-39
Force in X, Y, or Z Direction ...................................................................................................... 5-39
Moment about X, Y, or Z Axis.................................................................................................... 5-40
Acts During Wind or Seismic...................................................................................................... 5-40
Force/Moment Combination Method .......................................................................................... 5-40
Platforms................................................................................................................................................. 5-41
Platform Start Angle (degrees) .................................................................................................... 5-41
Platform End Angle (degrees) ..................................................................................................... 5-41
Platform Wind Area..................................................................................................................... 5-42
Platform Weight .......................................................................................................................... 5-42
Platform Railing Weight.............................................................................................................. 5-42
Platform Grating Weight ............................................................................................................. 5-42
Platform Width ............................................................................................................................ 5-42
Platform Height ........................................................................................................................... 5-42
Platform Clearance ...................................................................................................................... 5-42
Platform Force Coefficient .......................................................................................................... 5-42
Platform Wind Area Calculation [Installation \ Misc. Options] .................................................. 5-42
Platform Length (Non- Circular) ................................................................................................. 5-43
Saddles.................................................................................................................................................... 5-44
Width of Saddle........................................................................................................................... 5-44
Centerline Dimension (B)............................................................................................................ 5-45
Saddle Contact Angle (degrees) .................................................................................................. 5-45
Height of Composite Stiffener..................................................................................................... 5-45
Width of Wear Plate .................................................................................................................... 5-45
Thickness of Wear Plate .............................................................................................................. 5-45
Wear Plate Contact Angle (degrees)............................................................................................ 5-45
Saddle Dimension A.................................................................................................................... 5-45
Perform Saddle Check ................................................................................................................. 5-45
Material Yield Stress ................................................................................................................... 5-45
E for Plates .................................................................................................................................. 5-45
Baseplate Length ......................................................................................................................... 5-46
Baseplate Width........................................................................................................................... 5-46
Baseplate Thickness .................................................................................................................... 5-46
Number of Ribs ........................................................................................................................... 5-46
Rib Thickness .............................................................................................................................. 5-46
Web Thickness ............................................................................................................................ 5-46
Web Location .............................................................................................................................. 5-46
Height of Center Web.................................................................................................................. 5-46
Trays ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-47

Contents
Number of Trays.......................................................................................................................... 5-47
Tray Spacing................................................................................................................................ 5-47
Tray Weight Per Unit Area.......................................................................................................... 5-47
Height of Liquid on Tray............................................................................................................. 5-47
Density of Liquid on Tray ........................................................................................................... 5-47
Legs......................................................................................................................................................... 5-48
Distance from Outside Diameter: or Diameter at Leg Centerline ............................................... 5-48
Leg Orientation............................................................................................................................ 5-49
Number of Legs ........................................................................................................................... 5-49
Section Identifier ......................................................................................................................... 5-49
Length of Legs............................................................................................................................. 5-49
Vessel Translates During Occasional Load ................................................................................. 5-49
Packing ................................................................................................................................................... 5-50
Height of Packed Section ............................................................................................................ 5-50
Density of Packing ...................................................................................................................... 5-51
Liquid...................................................................................................................................................... 5-52
Height/Length of Liquid .............................................................................................................. 5-52
Liquid Density ............................................................................................................................. 5-52
Insulation ................................................................................................................................................ 5-54
Height/Length of Insulation / Fireproofing ................................................................................. 5-54
Thickness of Insulation or Fireproofing ...................................................................................... 5-54
Insulation Density........................................................................................................................ 5-54
Lining...................................................................................................................................................... 5-56
Height/Length of Lining .............................................................................................................. 5-56
Thickness of Lining ..................................................................................................................... 5-56
Density of Lining......................................................................................................................... 5-56
Half Pipe Jacket ...................................................................................................................................... 5-57
Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 5-57
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis............................................................................................ 5-57
Discussion of Input Data ............................................................................................................. 5-58
Clip Analysis........................................................................................................................................... 5-61
Lifting Lug Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 5-62

Chapter 6

General Vessel Data

6-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................... 6-2
Design Data............................................................................................................................................... 6-3
Installation Options................................................................................................................................... 6-7
Design Modification ............................................................................................................................... 6-10
Nozzle Design Modifications.................................................................................................................. 6-13
Wind & Seismic Data ............................................................................................................................. 6-15
Wind Data ............................................................................................................................................... 6-15
ASCE Wind Data.................................................................................................................................... 6-16
UBC Wind Data...................................................................................................................................... 6-18
NBC Wind Data...................................................................................................................................... 6-19
ASCE 95 Wind Data............................................................................................................................... 6-20
IS 875 Wind Code................................................................................................................................... 6-22
User-Defined Wind Profile ..................................................................................................................... 6-24
Percent Wind for Hydrotest ......................................................................................................... 6-24
Wind Profile Data........................................................................................................................ 6-24
Mexican Wind Code 1993 ...................................................................................................................... 6-25
British Wind Code BS-6399 ................................................................................................................... 6-30
Brazilian Wind Code NBR 6123 ............................................................................................................ 6-33
China's Wind Code GB 50009................................................................................................................ 6-36

Contents

EN-2005.................................................................................................................................................. 6-37
NBC-2005 Wind Data............................................................................................................................. 6-38
Seismic Data ........................................................................................................................................... 6-39
Seismic Design Code................................................................................................................... 6-39
ASCE 7-88 Seismic Data........................................................................................................................ 6-40
ASCE7-93 Seismic Data......................................................................................................................... 6-42
UBC Seismic Data .................................................................................................................................. 6-43
NBC Seismic Data .................................................................................................................................. 6-44
India's Earthquake Standard IS-1893 RSM and SCM ............................................................................ 6-46
ASCE - 95 Seismic Data......................................................................................................................... 6-47
Seismic Load Input in G's ....................................................................................................................... 6-47
UBC 1997 Earthquake Data.................................................................................................................... 6-48
IBC-2000 Earthquake Parameters........................................................................................................... 6-50
Response Spectrum................................................................................................................................. 6-52
China's GB 50011 - 2001........................................................................................................................ 6-57
AS/NZ-1170.4 - 1993/2007 .................................................................................................................... 6-58

Chapter 7

PV Elite Analysis

7-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................... 7-2
Calculating and Displaying Vessel-Analysis Results ............................................................................... 7-3
Optional Steps........................................................................................................................................... 7-8
Component Analysis................................................................................................................................. 7-9

Chapter 8

Output/Review

8-1

Generating Output..................................................................................................................................... 8-2


The Review Screen ................................................................................................................................... 8-3
Using Review............................................................................................................................................ 8-4
Component Analysis................................................................................................................................. 8-5

Chapter 9

HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................... 9-2
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis......................................................................................................... 9-3
Analyzing Heat Exchangers...................................................................................................................... 9-4
Building Heat Exchangers ........................................................................................................... 9-13

Chapter 10

Component Analysis Tutorial

10-1

Purpose of this Chapter ........................................................................................................................... 10-2


Starting CodeCalc from PV Elite............................................................................................................ 10-3
Main Menu.............................................................................................................................................. 10-4
File Menu .................................................................................................................................... 10-4
Edit Menu .................................................................................................................................... 10-6
Analysis Menu............................................................................................................................. 10-7
Output Menu................................................................................................................................ 10-8
Tools Menu.................................................................................................................................. 10-8
Diagnostic Menu ....................................................................................................................... 10-19
View Menu ................................................................................................................................ 10-19
Help Menu ................................................................................................................................. 10-20

Contents
Performing an Analysis......................................................................................................................... 10-21
Reviewing the Results - The Output Option ......................................................................................... 10-29
Printing or Saving Reports to a File .......................................................................................... 10-30
Summary - Seeing Results for a Whole Vessel .................................................................................... 10-31
Tutorial Problem Printout ..................................................................................................................... 10-32

Chapter 11

SHELLS

11-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 11-2
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis....................................................................................................... 11-2
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 11-4
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 11-4
Pop-up Input Fields ..................................................................................................................... 11-7
Results................................................................................................................................................... 11-11
API 579 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 11-13
Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis.................................................................................................... 11-14
Discussion of Input Data....................................................................................................................... 11-17
Discussion of Results............................................................................................................................ 11-26
Example ................................................................................................................................................ 11-26
Jacket .................................................................................................................................................... 11-27

Chapter 12

NOZZLES

12-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 12-2
Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis...................................................................................................... 12-3
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 12-4
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 12-4
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................. 12-10
Discussion of Results............................................................................................................................ 12-14
Actual Nozzle Diameter Thickness ........................................................................................... 12-14
Required Thickness of Shell and Nozzle................................................................................... 12-14
UG-45 Minimum Nozzle Neck Thickness ................................................................................ 12-14
Required and Available Areas ................................................................................................... 12-14
Selection of Reinforcing Pad ..................................................................................................... 12-14
Large Diameter Nozzle Calculations......................................................................................... 12-15
Effective Material Diameter and Thickness Limits ................................................................... 12-15
Effective Material Diameter and Thickness Limits ................................................................... 12-15
Minimum Design Metal Temperature ....................................................................................... 12-15
Weld Size Calculations.............................................................................................................. 12-15
Weld Strength Calculations ....................................................................................................... 12-15
Failure Path Calculations........................................................................................................... 12-16
Iterative Results Per Pressure, Area , And UG-45.................................................................... 12-16
Example ................................................................................................................................................ 12-16

Chapter 13

FLANGES

13-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 13-2
Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis...................................................................................................... 13-2
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 13-4
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 13-4
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................. 13-12
Discussion of Results............................................................................................................................ 13-15

Contents

Example ................................................................................................................................................ 13-19

Chapter 14

CONICAL SECTIONS

14-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 14-2
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis....................................................................................................... 14-3
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 14-4
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 14-4
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................... 14-7
Discussion of Results............................................................................................................................ 14-10
Internal Pressure Results ........................................................................................................... 14-10
External Pressure Results .......................................................................................................... 14-10
Reinforcement Calculations Under Internal Pressure................................................................ 14-10
Reinforcement Calculations Under External Pressure............................................................... 14-11
Example ................................................................................................................................................ 14-11

Chapter 15

FLOATING HEADS

15-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 15-2
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis....................................................................................................... 15-3
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 15-4
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 15-4
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................. 15-11
Discussion of Results............................................................................................................................ 15-13
Internal Pressure Results for the Head:...................................................................................... 15-13
External Pressure Results for Heads:......................................................................................... 15-13
Intermediate Calculations for Flanged Portion of Head: ........................................................... 15-13
Required Thickness Calculations: ............................................................................................. 15-13
Soehren's Calculations:.............................................................................................................. 15-13
Example ................................................................................................................................................ 15-13

Chapter 16

HORIZONTAL VESSELS

16-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 16-2
Discussion of Input ................................................................................................................................. 16-2
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 16-2
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................... 16-6
Discussion of Results............................................................................................................................ 16-13
Saddle Wear Plate Design..................................................................................................................... 16-14
Example ................................................................................................................................................ 16-16

Chapter 17

TUBESHEETS

17-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 17-2
Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis...................................................................................................... 17-2
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 17-5
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 17-5
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................. 17-17
Discussion of Results............................................................................................................................ 17-28
Example ................................................................................................................................................ 17-31

10

Contents

Chapter 18

WRC 107\FEA

18-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 18-2
Discussion of Input ................................................................................................................................. 18-2
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 18-2
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................... 18-7
WRC 107 Additional Input........................................................................................................ 18-13
FEA Additional Input ................................................................................................................ 18-14
Discussion of Results............................................................................................................................ 18-16
WRC 107 Stress Calculations.................................................................................................... 18-16
WRC107 Stress Summations..................................................................................................... 18-18
ASME Section VIII Division 2 - Elastic Analysis of Nozzle .................................................... 18-18
Finite Element Analysis (FEA): ................................................................................................ 18-21
Example ................................................................................................................................................ 18-22
Example ................................................................................................................................................ 18-24

Chapter 19

LEGS and LUGS

19-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 19-2
Discussion of Input ................................................................................................................................. 19-2
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 19-2
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................... 19-5
Vessel Leg Input ................................................................................................................................... 19-11
Leg Results ........................................................................................................................................... 19-12
Support Lug Input ................................................................................................................................. 19-13
Lifting Lug Input .................................................................................................................................. 19-16
Output ................................................................................................................................................... 19-20
Baseplate Input ..................................................................................................................................... 19-21
Main Input Fields ...................................................................................................................... 19-21
Baseplate Results .................................................................................................................................. 19-23
Trunnion Input ...................................................................................................................................... 19-24
Main Input Fields ...................................................................................................................... 19-24
Trunnion Results................................................................................................................................... 19-27
Example ................................................................................................................................................ 19-27

Chapter 20

PIPES and PADS

20-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 20-2
Discussion of Input ................................................................................................................................. 20-2
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 20-2
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................... 20-4
Output ..................................................................................................................................................... 20-7
Example .................................................................................................................................................. 20-7

Chapter 21

BASE RINGS

21-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 21-2
Calculations ............................................................................................................................................ 21-2
Calculation Techniques ............................................................................................................... 21-2
Discussion of Input ................................................................................................................................. 21-7

Contents

11

Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 21-7


Pop-up Input Fields ................................................................................................................... 21-11
Tailing Lug Analysis............................................................................................................................. 21-14
Discussion of Input ............................................................................................................................... 21-14
Tailing Lug Input....................................................................................................................... 21-14
Discussion of Results............................................................................................................................ 21-15
Example ................................................................................................................................................ 21-15

Chapter 22

THIN JOINTS

22-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 22-2
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis....................................................................................................... 22-2
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 22-2
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 22-2
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................... 22-6
Example .................................................................................................................................................. 22-8

Chapter 23

THICK JOINTS

23-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 23-2
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 23-4
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 23-4
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................... 23-8
Discussion of Results.............................................................................................................................. 23-9
Example .................................................................................................................................................. 23-9

Chapter 24

ASME TUBESHEETS

24-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 24-2
Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis...................................................................................................... 24-3
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 24-4
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 24-4
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................. 24-15
Discussion of Results............................................................................................................................ 24-23
Example ................................................................................................................................................ 24-24

Chapter 25

HALF-PIPES

25-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 25-2
Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis...................................................................................................... 25-2
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 25-3
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 25-3
Discussion of Results.............................................................................................................................. 25-5
Example .................................................................................................................................................. 25-6

Chapter 26

LARGE OPENINGS

26-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 26-2
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis....................................................................................................... 26-2
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 26-3
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 26-3

12

Contents
Example Problem.................................................................................................................................... 26-3

Chapter 27

RECTANGULAR VESSELS

27-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 27-2
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis....................................................................................................... 27-2
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 27-8
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 27-8
Pop-Up Input Fields .................................................................................................................. 27-11
Discussion of Results............................................................................................................................ 27-14
Ligament Efficiency Calculations ............................................................................................. 27-14
Reinforcement Calculations ...................................................................................................... 27-14
Stress Calculations..................................................................................................................... 27-15
Allowable Calculations.............................................................................................................. 27-15
Highest Percentage of Allowable Calculations.......................................................................... 27-15
MAWP Calculations.................................................................................................................. 27-15
External Pressure Calculations .................................................................................................. 27-16
Example Problem.................................................................................................................................. 27-16

Chapter 28

WRC 297/ANNEX G

28-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 28-2
Discussion of Input Data......................................................................................................................... 28-3
Main Input Fields ........................................................................................................................ 28-3
Additional Input for PD 5500, Annex G...................................................................................... 28-6
Sample Calculation ................................................................................................................................. 28-8
Discussion of Results.............................................................................................................................. 28-8

Chapter 29

Appendix Y

29-1

Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 29-2
Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis...................................................................................................... 29-2
Gasket and Gasket Factors...................................................................................................................... 29-2
Example .................................................................................................................................................. 29-2

Chapter 30

Miscellaneous Topics

30-1

Heading Edit ........................................................................................................................................... 30-2


Heading Manipulation and Material Properties ...................................................................................... 30-2
Discussion of Input ................................................................................................................................. 30-5
Input Data .................................................................................................................................... 30-5
Nominal Density of this Material ................................................................................................ 30-7
P Number Thickness.................................................................................................................... 30-7
Yield Stress, Operating................................................................................................................ 30-7
UCS-66 Chart Number ................................................................................................................ 30-7
External Pressure Chart Name..................................................................................................... 30-8
Carbon Steel Materials ................................................................................................................ 30-8
Heat Treated Materials ................................................................................................................ 30-8
Stainless Steel (High Alloy) Materials ........................................................................................ 30-8
Non Ferrous Materials ................................................................................................................. 30-8

Contents

Chapter 31

13

Vessel Example Problems

31-1

Vessel Example....................................................................................................................................... 31-2

CH AP TER

Chapter 1 Introduction
In This Chapter
What is the Purpose and Scope of PV Elite? .............................. 1-2
What Distinguishes PV Elite From our Competitors? ................ 1-3
What is PV Elite?........................................................................ 1-3
About the Documentation........................................................... 1-3
What Applications are Available? .............................................. 1-4
Program Support / User Assistance ............................................ 1-8
Updates ....................................................................................... 1-8
COADE Technical Support Phone Numbers.............................. 1-8

1-2

Introduction

What is the Purpose and Scope of PV Elite?


Calculations in PV Elite are based on the latest editions of national codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code, or industry standards such as the Zick analysis method for horizontal drums. PV Elite offers exceptional
ease of use, which results in dramatic improvement in efficiency for both design and re-rating.
PV Elite features include:
Graphical User Interface, which lists model data and control with a vessel display.
Horizontal and vertical vessels may be composed of cylinders, conical sections, body flanges as well as
elliptical, torispherical, hemispherical, conical and flat heads.
Saddle supports for horizontal vessels. Leg and skirt supports at any location for vertical vessels.
Extensive on-line help.
Deadweight calculation from vessel details such as nozzles, lugs, rings, trays, insulation, packing and lining.
Wall thickness calculations for internal and external pressure in accordance with the rules of ASME Section VIII
Divisions 1 and Division 2, PD 5500 and EN-13445. Stiffener rings are evaluated for external pressure.
Wind and seismic data using the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) standard, the Uniform Building
Code (UBC), and the National (Canadian) Building Code, India Standards as well as British, Mexican,
Australian and European Standards.
User-defined unit system.
A complete examination of the vessels structural loads combining the effects of pressure, deadweight and live
loads in the empty, operating and hydrotest conditions.
Logic to automatically increase wall thickness to satisfy requirements for pressure and structural loads and
introduce stiffener rings to address external pressure rules.
Structural load evaluation in terms of both tensile and compressive stress ratios (to the allowable limits).
Detailed analysis of nozzles, flanges, and base rings.
Material library for all three-design standards.
Component library containing pipe diameter and wall thickness, ANSI B16.5 flange pressure vs. temperature
charts, and section properties for AISC, British, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Australian and South African
structural shapes.
Printed output from PV Elite is clear and complete, with user definable headings on each page. User comments
and additions may be inserted at any point in the output.

Chapter 1 Introduction

1-3

What Distinguishes PV Elite From our Competitors?


COADE treats PV Elite more as a service than a product. Our staff of experienced pressure vessel engineers are
involved in day-to-day software development, program support and training. This approach has produced a program,
which most closely fits today's requirements of the pressure vessel industry. Data entry is simple and straightforward
through annotated input screens and/or spreadsheets. PV Elite provides the widest range of modeling and analysis
capabilities without becoming too complicated for simple system analysis. Users may tailor their PV Elite installation
through default setting and customized databases. Comprehensive input graphics confirms the model construction
before the analysis is made. The program's interactive output processor presents results on the monitor for quick
review or sends complete reports to a file, printer or Word document. PV Elite is an up-to-date package that not only
utilizes standard analysis guidelines but also provides the latest recognized opinions for these analyses.
PV Elite is a field-proven engineering analysis program. It is a widely recognized product with a large customer base
and an excellent support and development record. COADE is a strong and stable company where service is a major
commitment.

What is PV Elite?
PV Elite is a PC-based pressure vessel design and analysis software program developed, marketed and sold by COADE
Engineering Software. PV Elite is a package of nineteen applications for the design and analysis of pressure vessels
and heat exchangers, and fitness for service assessments. The purpose of the program is to provide the mechanical
engineer with easy to use, technically sound, well documented reports with detailed calculations and supporting
comments, which will speed and simplify the task of vessel design, re-rating or fitness for service. The popularity of
PV Elite is a reflection of COADE's expertise in programming and engineering, as well as COADE's dedication to
service and quality.

About the Documentation


Chapter 2 gives you information on the hardware and software required to run PV Elite, instructions on how to install
the program, and how to prepare your computer to run the program.
Chapter 3 tells you how to launch PV Elite on your computer. Use Chapter 3 to learn the structure of the program, and
the keystrokes needed to operate the software. Each of the applications operates the same way, so you will only need
to learn these skills one time.
Chapter 4 discusses the PV Elite element input data for each basic element. The details added to these elements are
explained in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 describes the general vessel input data.
Chapter 7 discusses the Analyze options of PV Elite while Chapter 8 discusses how to review or generate output for
the job. This chapter also focuses on the capabilities of the review processor
Chapter 9 contains information needed to analyze shell and tube type heat exchangers. .
Chapter 10 contains a complete tutorial, which leads you through the use of one application of the PV Elite
Component Analysis Module.

1-4

Introduction

Chapter 11 gives a more detailed description of several features associated with the spreadsheet input program merging shell data, selecting materials, editing materials properties, and inserting or deleting analyses.
Chapters 11 through 29 contain the technical descriptions for each of the PV Elite module applications. The
information provided for each application includes:
The purpose and scope of the application and its technical basis
Notes on the input to the program and results of the program
A figure showing the relevant geometry
One or more example problems
Chapter 30 describes miscellaneous topics included in PV Elite.
Chapter 31 provides additional information, which will be helpful as you use PV Elite. These include heat exchanger
design cases, hand calculations for selected programs, a bibliography of pressure vessel texts and standards.

What Applications are Available?


The following applications are available in PV Elite.

General Vessels
Enables users to perform wall thickness design and analysis of any vessel for realistic combinations of pressure,
deadweight, nozzle, wind and seismic loads in accordance with ASME Section VIII Division 1 rules, Division 2
rules, PD 5500, and EN-13445. These calculations address minimum wall thickness for pressure and allowable
longitudinal stress (both tension and compression) in the vessel wall for the expected structural load combinations.

Complete Vertical Vessels


Enables users to define vessels supported by skirts, legs or lugs for complete dead load and live load analysis.
Stacked vessels with liquid are also addressed. Enables users to specify Hydrotest conditions for either vertical or
horizontal test positions. Vessel MAWP includes hydrostatic head and ANSI B16.5 flange pressure limitations.

Complete Horizontal Vessels


Enables stress analysis of horizontal drums on saddle supports using the method of L. P. Zick. Results include
stresses at the saddles, the midpoint of the vessel and in the heads.
The following applications are available in PV Elite:

Shells & Heads


Enables users to perform internal and external pressure design of vessels and exchangers using the ASME Code,
Section VIII, Division 1 rules. Components include cylinders, conical sections, elliptical heads, torispherical heads,
flat heads, spherical shells and heads. This program calculates required thickness and maximum allowable internal
pressure for the given component. It also calculates the minimum design metal temperature per UCS-66, and
evaluates stiffening rings for external pressure design.

Chapter 1 Introduction

1-5

Jackets covering the shell can also be analyzed. These jackets are addressed in Appendix 9 of the ASME Sec. VIII
Div. 1.
Implements API-579 for Fitness For Service evaluations (FFS) Sec. 4, Local Thinning, Sec. 5, General Metal Loss
and Sec. 6 Pitting Corrosion.

Nozzles
Enables users to calculate required wall thickness and reinforcement under internal pressure for nozzles in shells and
heads, using the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 rules and including tables of outside diameter and wall
thickness for all nominal pipe diameters and schedules. The program checks the weld sizes, calculates the strength
of reinforcement and evaluates failure paths for the nozzle. Hillside, tangential and Y-angle nozzles can also be
evaluated.

Conical Sections
Enables users to perform internal and external pressure analysis of conical sections and stiffening rings using the
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 rules. Complete area of reinforcement and moment of inertia calculations for
the cone under both internal and external pressure are included.

Floating Head
Enables users to perform internal and external pressure analysis of bolted dished heads (floating heads) using the
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 1 rules. The program also enables users to use an additional
calculation technique allowed by the Code - Soehrens calculation. MAWP and MAPnc are also computed.

Flanges
Enables users to perform stress analysis and geometry selection for all types of flanges using the ASME Code,
Section VIII, Division 1 rules. This program both designs and analyzes the following types of flanges:
All integral flange types
Slip on flanges and all loose flange types with hubs
Ring type flanges and all loose flange types without hubs
Blind flanges, both circular and non-circular
TEMA channel covers
Reverse geometry weld neck flanges
Flat faced flanges with full face gaskets
Users can input the external forces and moments acting on the flange and alternate mating flange loads.

Tubesheets (TEMA and PD 5500)


PV Elite performs an analysis of all types of tubesheets using the 8th Edition of the Standards of the Tubular
Exchanger Manufacturers Association and PD 5500. The program takes full account of the effects of tubesheets
extended as flanges, and for fixed tubesheets also includes the effects of differential thermal expansion and the
presence of an expansion joint. Expansion joint can be designed within this module. For a fixed tubesheet exchanger

1-6

Introduction

the program can analyze multiple loads cases for both the corroded and uncorroded conditions. If an expansion joint
is added, then corresponding expansion joint load cases will also be run.

Horizontal Vessels
Enables users to perform stress analysis of horizontal drums on saddle supports using the L.P. Zick method. Results
include stresses at the saddles, the midpoint of the vessel and in the heads. Stiffening rings used in the design of the
vessel are also evaluated. Wind and seismic loadings are also considered. Additionally, the saddle, webs and
baseplate are checked for external seismic and wind loads. Users can also specify friction and additional longitudinal
forces on the vessel.

Legs & Lugs


Enables users to perform analysis of vessel support legs, support lugs, trunnions and lifting lugs based on industry
standard calculation techniques, and the resulting stresses are compared to the AISC Handbook of Steel Construction
or the ASME Code. A full table of 929 AISC beams, channels and angles is included in the program. WRC 107
analysis to check local vessel stresses around the trunnion and the support lug is also available from within this
module. Various wind and seismic codes are available for Leg and Lug supported vessels.

Pipes & Pads


Enables users to calculate required wall thickness and maximum allowable working pressure for two pipes, and
branch reinforcement requirements for the same two pipes considered as a branch and a header. Based on ANSI
B31.3 rules, this program includes tables of outside diameter and wall thickness for all nominal pipe diameters and
schedules.

WRC 107/FEA
Enables users to calculate stresses in cylindrical or spherical shells due to loading on an attachment, using the
method of P.P. Bijlaard as defined in Welding Research Council Bulletin 107, including a stress comparison to VIII
Div. 2 allowables for 3 different loading conditions. This module also contains an interface to the Finite Analysis
Program (Nozzle Pro from The Paulin Research Group).

Baserings
Enables users to perform stress and thickness evaluation for skirts and baserings. Results from both the neutral axis
shift and simplified method for basering required thickness is reported. Required skirt thickness due to weight loads
and bending moments are also displayed. Tailing Lugs attached to the basering can also be analyzed.

Thin Joints
Enables users to perform stress and life cycle evaluation for thin walled expansion joints (bellows kind) in
accordance with ASME VIII Div. 1 appendix 26. MAWP and MAPnc is also computed.

Thick Joints
Enables users to perform stress, life cycle and spring rate calculations for flanged and flued expansion joints in
accordance with ASME VIII Div. 1 appendix 5. The spring rate computation is per TEMA eighth edition.

Chapter 1 Introduction

1-7

ASME Tubesheets
Enables users to determine required thickness of tubesheets for fixed, floating or U-tube exchangers per the ASME
Code Section VIII division 1 section UHX. You can use the program to analyze multiple loads cases for both the
corroded and uncorroded conditions. MAWP and MAPnc for the shellside and Tubeside are determined.

Half-Pipe
Enables users to determine required thickness and MAWP for half-pipe jacketed vessels per the ASME Code Section
VIII division 1 appendix EE.

Large Openings
Enables users to analyze large openings in integral flat heads per the ASME Code Section VIII division 1 appendix 2
and appendix 14. Required thickness, MAWP and weights are computed for geometries with or without an attached
nozzle.

Rectangular Vessels
Enables users to analyze non-circular pressure vessels using the rules of the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1
and Appendix 13. Most of the vessel types in Appendix 13 are analyzed for internal pressure, including reinforced
or stayed rectangular vessels with a diametral staying plate. All membrane and bending stresses are computed and
compared to the appropriate allowables.

WRC 297 / PD5500 Annex G


Enables users to perform the stress analysis of loads and attachments according to the Welding Research Council
bulletin 297 and the British Standard Annex G PD:5500. The WRC 297 bulletin, published in 1984, attempts to
extend the existing analysis of WRC 107 for cylinder-to-cylinder intersections. PD:5500 Annex G provides an
analysis of stress in cylindrical or spherical shells due to attachment loads. Complete material databases for ASME
Sec VIII and Div-1, 2; and PD 5500 are available.

Appendix Y Flanges
Enables users to perform a stress evaluation of Class1 category 1, 2, or 3 flanges that form identical flange pairs,
according to the latest version of the ASME Code Section VIII Division 1 Appendix Y.

Summary
Enables users to display a description and evaluation of all the components of a pressure vessel or heat exchanger.
Design pressure, temperature, material, actual thickness and Maximum Allowable Working Pressure are shown for
each component.

1-8

Introduction

Program Support / User Assistance


COADE's staff understands that PV Elite is not only a complex analysis tool but also, at times, an elaborate process
one that may not be obvious to the casual user. While our documentation is intended to address the questions raised
regarding pressure vessel/heat exchanger/FFS analyses, system modeling, and results interpretation, not all the
answers can be quickly found in these volumes.
COADE understands the engineer's need to produce efficient, economical, and expeditious designs. To that end,
COADE has a staff of helpful professionals ready to address any PV Elite issues raised by all users. PV Elite support is
available by telephone, e-mail, fax, Website discussion forum, and by mail; literally hundreds of support calls are
answered every week. COADE provides this service at no additional charge to the user. It is expected, however, that
questions focus on the current version of the program.
Users who wish to be informed of the latest build/updates for the program can register their copy of PV Elite at
www.coade.com/updates.htm.
Formal training in PV Elite and pressure vessel analysis is also available from COADE. COADE conducts regular
training classes in Houston and provides in-house and open attendance courses around the world. These courses
focus on the expertise available at COADE modeling, analysis, and design. For more information about these
courses visit www.coade.com.

Updates
The version number identifies the PV Elite update set. The current release of PV Elite is Version 2010. COADE
schedules and distributes these updates every December or January. The purchase price includes unlimited access to
PV Elite and one year of updates, maintenance, and support. Updates, maintenance, and support are available on an
annual basis after the first year.

COADE Technical Support Phone Numbers


Phone: 281-890-4566

Email: techsupport@coade.com

Fax: 281-890-3301

WEB: www.coade.com (http://www.coade.com)

CH AP TER

Chapter 2 The Installation/Configuration Process


In This Chapter
Overview .................................................................................... 2-2
System and Hardware Requirements .......................................... 2-2
External Software Lock .............................................................. 2-3
Starting the Installation Procedure.............................................. 2-3
Installing PV Elite....................................................................... 2-5
Network Installation / Usage ...................................................... 2-9
ESL Installation on a Network.................................................... 2-10
Network ESL Notes.................................................................... 2-11

2-2

The Installation/Configuration Process

Overview
PV Elite is installed on the system hard disk using the program setup located on the CD. The installation program has
been designed to allow total installations, diagnostic checks of the installation and ease of updating. This section will
explain the process of running the PV Elite setup application.
For users upgrading to a new version of PV Elite, the installation program can be instructed to place the new files in
the same directory where the current version resides. The new version files will overwrite the old version files where
appropriate.
PV Elite can be run from anywhere on the system hard disk. It is recommended that job files be kept in one or more
data or project directories separate from the installation directory.
The installation process consists of the following steps:
1

Copying of files from the program DVD to the hard disk.

Extraction of PV Elite from these compressed files.

Verification of the extracted files.

Installation of the External Software Lock (ESL) drivers.

Configuring of PV Elite.

System and Hardware Requirements


The specific system resources necessary to run PV Elite are listed below:
Intel Pentium processor (or equivalent)
Microsoft Windows (XP or higher) Operating System
512 Mbytes RAM (recommended)
100 Mbytes of disk space
CD-ROM Drive
1.5 GigaHertz CPU or better
Note: PV Elite is designed for 1024x768 or higher resolution. All of the dialogs may not fit on the screen at lower
resolutions.

Chapter 2 The Installation/Configuration Process

2-3

External Software Lock


The External Software Lock (ESL) is the security protection method used by COADE. The program cannot execute
unless an appropriate ESL (green USB) is attached to the PC locally, or to another computer in the network (red USB
ESL).
The ESL contains the PV Elite licensing data, and other client-specific information. This information includes the
client company name and user ID number. Additional data may be stored on the ESL depending on the specific
program and the specific client.
The ESL can be attached to the USB port in a matter of seconds.

Starting the Installation Procedure


Insert the program CD into the CD drive. The installation program should start automatically. If so, proceed to the
section entitled "Installing PV Elite". If not, it may be started manually using the following procedure.

Installing PV Elite Manually


Click the Windows Desktop Start button and select SETTINGS/ CONTROL PANEL.

Opening Control Panel

2-4

The Installation/Configuration Process

From the Control Panel window click Add/Remove Programs or Programs and Features.

Control Panel Window

Click the Install button to start the installation process.

Add/Remove Programs Window

Chapter 2 The Installation/Configuration Process

2-5

The next screen prompts for the folder where PV Elite is to be installed. Users may modify and control the folder by
clicking Browse. The folder may be the location of an existing PV Elite installation, or a new location.
This starts the installation process by prompting you to place the CD in the CD drive and clicking Next.
Add/Remove Programs searches for the SETUP.EXE file located on the CD and prompts the user for verification of
the file to be installed. Clicking Finish runs the setup program.

Installing PV Elite
Launch the installation routine by responding to the on-screen prompts and then clicking Next.

The Destination Folder dialog prompts users for the folder where PV Elite will be installed.

2-6

The Installation/Configuration Process

Click Change...'to specify a different folder than the default folder C:\Program Files\COADE\PV Elite\. The folder
may be the location of an existing PV Elite installation or a new location.

Destination Folder Window

Select the ESL color. Selecting the correct ESL color ensures that the correct drivers are loaded during installation.

Select ESL Color Window

Chapter 2 The Installation/Configuration Process

After selecting the ESL color, the Next button becomes enabled and allows users to continue the installation.

Ready to Install the Program Window

2-7

2-8

The Installation/Configuration Process

Click Install and installation will begin. When installation is complete, the InstallShield Wizard Complete dialog
displays.

Final Installation Screen

Click Show me the readme file if you wish to review information regarding the new version or click Finish to
conclude the installation

Chapter 2 The Installation/Configuration Process

2-9

Network Installation / Usage


COADE products can be run on network file servers as easily as on stand-alone workstations. There are two different
installation configurations, which must be considered.
Network drive installation The software is installed on a network drive and a network ESL is installed and
accessed by multiple users.
Network drive installation (each user has a ESL) The software is installed on a network drive and both local
ESLs and network ESLs are present.
COADE software supports two ESLs. The green USB devices are intended for local usage. The red USB devices are
intended for network usage. Do not attempt to put a local green USB ESL on a network server - the system will
crash.

Software Installation on a Network Drive


Setup treats a network drive no differently than a local hard drive. Simply specify the target installation drive and
directory and the software will be installed as specified.
Some networks protect installation directories from subsequent modification by users. This involves setting the
access rights in the installation directory to usually "read", "share" and "scan". Since COADE software utilizes data
files specific to the installation (i.e., accounting, files, material files, etc.), which a user may need to modify, these
files cannot be located in the "protected" installation directory. These data files are located in a sub-directory named
SYSTEM, under the "Public Documents" folder. This folder can be found by typing in %Public% in the address bar
of Windows Explorer and then double clicking on the Public Documents folder. Users should be given all access
rights to this SYSTEM directory. While the person installing the software can specify the actual name of the
program's installation directory, the SYSTEM sub-directory name is fixed, and is automatically created. Renaming
this sub-directory will cause the software to fail and generate an error report.
Note: The SYSTEM sub-directory is not the primary top level SYSTEM directory containing the network
operating system.
Once the software has been installed on the network drive, the installation program invokes the configuration
program, which generates a default configuration file. Once the installation directory is write protected this file
cannot be modified. Leaving this file as read only would insure the configuration file can then only be used as a
starting template to generate other configuration files located in the various user data directories.

2-10

The Installation/Configuration Process

ESL Installation on a Network


COADE software supports two different ESL types, local and network. Both types of ESLs are intended to be
attached to the USB ports of the applicable computers. Local ESLs provide the maximum flexibility in using the
software, since these devices can be moved between computers (for example, between desktops and laptops). If your
computer uses a local ESL, the remainder of this section can be skipped.
Network ESLs must be attached to the USB port of any machine on the network (this can be a workstation or the file
server). The file server is a better location for this ESL, since it will usually be up and running. If the network ESL
is attached to a workstation, the workstation must be running and/or logged onto the network before anyone can use
the software.
In order for the network to recognize the ESL, a utility program must be loaded on the machine controlling the ESL.
The actual utility used depends on whether the ESL is on the file server or a workstation and the type of network.
The drivers for network ESL usage can be found in the sub-directory ASSIDRV beneath the PV Elite program
directory. The documentation files in this sub-directory contain instructions for a variety of networks and operating
systems. Note that there are periodic updates to these ESL drivers and they can be downloaded from the COADE
website.

Windows Server Installation


For Windows Server installation, please refer to the documentation files NETHASP.TXT and ESL_RED.TXT found
in the ASSIDRV subdirectory for network specific instructions.

Chapter 2 The Installation/Configuration Process

2-11

Network ESL Notes


There are advantages and disadvantages in utilizing a network ESL. The prime advantage is that many users (up to
the number of licenses) have access (from a variety of computers) to the software on a single server.
The prime disadvantage is that users cannot transfer the ESL between machines in order to take PV Elite home or to
another remote location.
Since both a network and several local ESLs may be initialized on the same system (there is no network-specific
version of the software), it is suggested that only 70 to 80 percent of the desired licenses be assigned to a network
ESL. The remaining 20 to 30 percent of the licenses should be assigned to local ESLs. This enables the local ESLs
to be moved between computers, to run the software at remote locations. Alternatively, if all of the licenses are on
the ESL, a user must then be logged into the network to access the software. A few local ESLs provide much greater
operating flexibility.
Note: The number of licenses assigned to a network ESL is not a parameter that can be modified remotely by COADE
software.
Local users running the software from a network drive should run the file "Netuser.bat" one time to update all
locations.

CH AP TER

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu


In This Chapter
Program Structure and Control ................................................... 3-2
A Road Map for PV ELITE........................................................ 3-2
The Input Processor .................................................................... 3-3
Error Checking ........................................................................... 3-6
Analysis ...................................................................................... 3-7
Other Input Processors................................................................ 3-8
Tools Menu................................................................................. 3-11
Output Review and Report Generation....................................... 3-13
Design and Analysis of Vessel Details ....................................... 3-15
Input Menu ................................................................................. 3-18
Main Menu ................................................................................. 3-21
File Menu.................................................................................... 3-21
Analyze Menu............................................................................. 3-24
Output Menu............................................................................... 3-25
Tools Menu................................................................................. 3-26
Diagnostics Menu ....................................................................... 3-37
View Menu ................................................................................. 3-38
Help Menu .................................................................................. 3-43
PV Elite Quick Start ................................................................... 3-44
Adding Details ............................................................................ 3-46
Recording the Model - Plotting the Vessel Image ...................... 3-47
Specifying Global Data - Loads and Design Constraints............ 3-49
Performing the Analysis ............................................................. 3-52
Reviewing the Results ................................................................ 3-52
Analyzing Individual Vessel Components Details ..................... 3-53
DXF File Generation Option ...................................................... 3-56
Setting Up the Required Parameters ........................................... 3-57
DXF File Generated by PV Elite During Runtime ..................... 3-58

3-2

Tutorial/Master Menu

Program Structure and Control


A typical PV Elite hard disk configuration is structured as follows:
PVELITE:

Root Installation PV Elite directory

Project #1:
Project #2:
\SYSTEM:
\EXAMPLES:

Data files for Project #1


Data files for Project #2
Program database & control files
Sample input files

Most files in the data subdirectories are identified by a user-defined filename with a given extension. The remaining
files hold data controlling the program's operation. These files and their description follow:
jobname.PVI
jobname.PVU
jobname.TAB
jobname.T80
jobname.CCI
units.FIL
*.BIN
UMAT1.BIN

PV Elite input file


Form information results file
Temporary results file
Results file used by the output review processor
Input file for component analysis
User units file (relating user's units and program units)
PV Elite Material Database
Binary file holding the user-defined materials

A Road Map for PV ELITE


There are many PV Elite functions that are not addressed here. This section focuses on the structure and control of the
fundamental units of the program - input, analysis and output. By understanding these basic concepts, a firm
foundation for understanding PV Elite is assured.
Input, analysis, output; it is as simple as that. Input - collect information required to define the vessel, its service
requirements and its design guidelines. Analysis - translate the input into appropriate data for the design and analysis
algorithms, correctly apply the rules of appropriate Code or Standard and generate results. Output - present those
results with explanation in a way that the final report is comprehensive and meaningful.

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-3

The Input Processor


Input is broken down into basic elementsheads, shells, cones, etc. A quick look at the default PV Elite input screen
(below) shows the data defining one element. Except for the From Node and To Node, the data is common to all
vessel wall thickness calculations. The From and To Nodes are necessary to assemble the individual elements into
the complete vessel and are automatically assigned by PV Elite. A complete vessel is required if all dead and live
loads are to be included in the design or analysis however, PV Elite will run wall thickness calculations on elements
without constructing the entire vessel.

PV Elite Completed Input Screen

The Input screen has a Main Menu across the top, which controls navigation through the processor. These items
File, Input, Analyze, Output, Tools, etc. may be accessed directly from this menu at any point in the processor.
In a row directly below the Main Menu is a series of toolbars and buttons specific to the current screen. In the screen
above, the buttons manipulate the elements (Insert, Delete, Update), specify unique data (Material, Share), or change
the view or input method (Zoom, Layout view). The three toolbars control the data file, add elements and add details
to the current element. These toolbars and buttons may be relocated on the screen.
The body of the screen contains either two or three areas - a table of the Element Basic Data, a table of the Element
Additional Data (when required) and the graphic area which contains an image of the current status of the entire

3-4

Tutorial/Master Menu

vessel or the current element. A status bar displays across the bottom of the screen and displays the element count,
the position and orientation of the current element, quick internal pressure calculations for the current element.
How are the menu selections made? How are the buttons pushed? How is the data entered? Most operations are
obvious when using a mouse; point to the item and click the left mouse button to open drop down menus from the
menu line, activate the button commands, pick a tool or move control to one of the screen areas. All buttons and
toolbars have tool tips, which are activated when the mouse rests on the button.
When users click in the data area(s), the Tab key moves the highlight (and control) through its input cells. In most
element data areas, Enter registers the data and will move the focus to the next field. The exception is at combo
boxes where clicking the arrow displays the available choices. An example of a combo box is found on the Input
screen shown on the previous page where the element is chosen from a list of available types. Throughout the
program, [F1] displays help for the highlighted data item. Once familiar with these screen controls, a combination of
mouse and keystroke commands will provide the most efficient navigation through the program.
Some of the data input in PV Elite is controlled through a data grid. To enter the data click the mouse on the data
text, such as Inside Diameter, and type the input value. The cursor will not blink over the numeric/alphanumeric
values until typing has begun. After the data is entered, press the Enter or Tab to proceed. Arrow keys can also be
used to navigate between the input fields.
Note: The right mouse button is used to select vessel details on the vessel graphic. Combo boxes have the down
arrow button at the right end of the input cell.

Input Screen Layout

When the graphics area of the Input screen is active, a few more keys are available. No special highlight will appear
but the string PgUp/PgDn/Home/End will display at the bottom graphics area. This indicates that these keys are
now active. The image in the graphics area shows the current state of the input for the vessel model with its elements
and the details on these elements. One element is highlighted. This is the current element and the element data

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-5

(Element Basic Data and Element Additional Data) shown on the screen defines this element. By pressing PgUp or
PgDn, the highlight changes from one element to the next through the vessel. Press the Home and End keys to move
the highlight to the first and last elements in the vessel. Clicking the left mouse button while selecting the element
will also highlight it. Once an element is highlighted detail information for that element may be accessed. With the
mouse, click the right mouse button for the existing detail image to display. To add details to the current element,
click the appropriate detail on the toolbar and enter the necessary data.

Detail Pop-up Screen

Once the control of this screen is understood, all the remaining input processors will present no difficulties as they all
have the same control structure with mouse and keyboard commands.

3-6

Tutorial/Master Menu

Error Checking
The input processor makes many data consistency checks during the input session. For example, the processor will
create an error message if the user tries to specify a nozzle 20 feet from the bottom of a 10-foot shell element. Not all
data can be confirmed on input. For that reason, a general error processor is executed prior to the analysis. This error
processor can be run in a stand-alone mode as well. The error checker may be accessed from the Analyze menu. In
addition to the notes that are presented on the screen during error checking, these error messages appear in the output
report, are accessible through the output review processor. As with all engineering and designing, the vessel analyst
must use common sense to insure the model is basically correct. This is a great advantage of the 3D graphics as it
reveals obvious errors.

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-7

Analysis
PV Elite can be used to confirm a safe design for a proposed or existing vessel. The program also provides direct
design capabilities with which the wall thickness of individual elements is increased to meet the code requirements
for internal and external pressure and longitudinal stress from a variety of dead and live loads. Whether or not the
program changes wall thickness during the analysis is controlled through a DESIGN/ANALYSIS CONSTRAINT
specification under Design Modification. For more information see DESIGN/ANALYSIS CONSTRAINTS. A simple
analysis run (no design) occurs when the flags for Select t for ... are all unchecked. If any of these boxes are
checked, the program will automatically increase the wall thickness until the constraint is satisfied. The user's input
in the resulting output report is automatically updated to reflect any changes made during the analysis. In addition to
wall thickness, a fourth flag can be set - Select Stiffener Rings for External Pressure. In this case, rather than
increasing the wall thickness, stiffener rings are located along the vessel to satisfy the external pressure requirements.
As with the wall thickness changes, these stiffener rings are added to the model input for this analysis.
PV Elite will analyze each element to determine the required wall thickness for internal and external pressure based
on the Section VIII Division 1 rules, Division 2, PD:5500 or EN-13445 rules. The program then calculates the
longitudinal stresses in the wall due to four categories of vessel loads: pressure, deadweight, deadweight moments
from vessel attachments or applied loads, and moments due to the live loads - wind and earthquake. These four
categories are set for three different load conditions: empty, operating, and hydrotest. The sensible combination of
these various categories and conditions produce the default set of 19 load cases that are found in the
DESIGN/ANALYSIS CONSTRAINTS processor. For each load case, PV Elite will calculate the maximum longitudinal
stress around the circumference of the elements and compare these values to the allowable stress for the material,
both tensile and compressive. If stresses in the vessel wall exceed the design limits, PV Elite will proceed according
to the design modification settings in the input.
Once the program finishes a pass through the analysis, a check is made for any program design modifications. If
PVElite changed any data, then the program automatically re-runs the complete analysis to review the impact of the
changes.
There are several additional analysis controls that should be reviewed here. These controls, however, are more
general in nature and are not defined for the individual job. Instead, these seven computational control directives are
set for all jobs executed in the Data sub-directory. These controls are viewed and modified through the Tools menu
item on the Main Menu. Here, click Configuration to display the Setup Parameters dialog.

3-8

Tutorial/Master Menu

Other Input Processors


The other menu items listed under Input indicate the other types of data that may be necessary for an analysis.

Input Menu

Other than the Vessel Data there are four other categories of vessel input, which must be addressed - Component
Analysis Data, Report Headings, the Vessel Design or Analysis guidelines, and live (Wind and Seismic) load
definitions. These input topics are part of the tabbed input data view. Please note that these tabs can be organized and
moved. The Design/Analysis Constraints data is important here as this is where the overall analysis for this vessel is
defined and controlled.
Finished thickness is a required input for each vessel element but users may allow the program to increase the
element thickness so that each element passes the requirements for internal pressure, external pressure, the combined
loads of pressure, dead and live loads. Remember that the status bar lists internal pressure information about the
current element including the required thickness. A switch is also available to locate stiffener rings on the vessel to
satisfy the external pressure requirements.
The Component Analysis Data option allows users to enter data and analyze without building a vessel. These are
COADE's CodeCalc analysis modules, some of which are not incorporated directly into PV Elite. CodeCalc, COADE's
popular vessel component analysis package is included in PV Elite through the Component Analysis menu option.
Users can launch the input data screens by clicking the tab associated with a specific item. Notice the tabs at the
bottom of the Design/Analysis Constraints Screen graphic shown below.

Report Headings Screen

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

Design/Analysis Constraints Screen

3-9

3-10

Wind Data Screen

Seismic Data Screen

Tutorial/Master Menu

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-11

Tools Menu

Tools Menu

The Tools Menu can be used to make changes to configuration settings, units, materials, nodes, model orientation,
stiffening rings and ASME forms.

3-12

Setup Parameters and DXF Options Screens:

Tutorial/Master Menu

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-13

Output Review and Report Generation


Output is stored in a binary file having the same name as the input file but with the extension of ".T80".
Once the output file is created, it can be examined through the Review item under the Output option from the Main
Menu. Each analysis module creates its own report in the output file. The reports of interest are selected with the
mouse and can be sent to the screen, a printer or a file. Most of the reports take the form of tables with the rows
related to the elements and the columns holding the values such as thickness, MAWP, and stress.

PV Elite Output Review Screen Internal Pressure Report

These are some reports available from PV Elite. Depending on the type, position, geometry and configuration
settings the list of reports will vary.
Step 0
Cover
Title
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3

Vessel Element Error Checking


Cover Sheet
Title Page
Vessel Input Echo
XY Coordinate Calculations
Internal Pressure Calculations

3-14
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Step 14
Step 15
Step 16
Step 17
Step 18
Cone 1-N
Nozl 1-N
Step 20
Step 21
Step 22

Tutorial/Master Menu
External Pressure Calculations
Weight of Elements & Details
ANSI Flange MAWP
Natural Frequency Calculations
Forces & Moments Applied to Vessel
Wind Load Calculation
Earthquake Load Calculation
Wind and Earthquake Shear, Bending
Wind Deflection
Longitudinal Stress Constants
Longitudinal Allowable Stresses
Longitudinal Stresses Due to Load Components
Stress Due to Combined Loads
Basering Calculations
Center of Gravity Calculation
Conical Sections
Nozzle Calculations
Nozzle Schedule
Nozzle Summary
Vessel Design Summary

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-15

Design and Analysis of Vessel Details


At this point in the analysis the vessel details have been defined only so that their weights could be included in vessel
calculations. With the structural analysis of the vessel complete and the wall thickness set, vessel details can be
evaluated.
To access the Input Processor for these vessel details, use the pull down menu under Input and select COMPONENT
ANALYSIS DATA. This will bring up the processor from which the component is selected and defined.

Component Selection Screen from the Component Pull-down Menu

3-16

WRC 107 Input Screen

Tutorial/Master Menu

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

WRC 107 Results

3-17

3-18

Tutorial/Master Menu

Input Menu

Input Menu

The Input menu controls the general input processes. The following options are available:
Input File Menu Options

Description

Vessel
Data,
Report
Headings, Data items located on the tabbed dialog palette as shown below.
Design/Analysis Constraints, Load Cases, Click the desired tab to view or change the input for that set of data
items.
Wind Loads, and Seismic Loads
Component Analysis Data

Includes those (CodeCalc) processors, which are not integrated into


the main vessel analysis. These processors are described in
Chapters 9 thorough 28.

Report Headings

Enables users to input and edit a three line heading, which will be
placed in the first three lines of each report page. It will also print
on the title page of the report. A 60-line heading can also be
entered.

Design/Analysis Constraints

Enables users to input and edit the global data, which includes the
general vessel description, design control data and the structural
load analyses to be performed. This is where ASME Section VIII
Division 1, Division 2, PD:5500 or EN-13445 is specified as the
design code. If the user does not select this option, the program will
set the default data. Note that the vessel design code can be changed
from the Design Code pull down on the Units/Code toolbar.

Display the List Dialog

Displays the detail data in Excel grid style format.

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

Design/Analysis Constraints Dialog

3-19

3-20

Tutorial/Master Menu
Live Load DataSwitches to the wind or seismic data edit mode where the wind loads and seismic loads are
defined through the specification of the appropriate load parameters.

Live Load Wind Data Dialog

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-21

Main Menu
PV Elite starts with the Vessel Data Input screen. Across the top of this screen is a line of items called the Main
Menu. The Main Menu controls the major functions of the program. This chapter reviews the functions available in
each of these menu items.

File Menu

File Menu

File options control the general operations of PV Elite files. Options that are displayed in the menu with an ellipsis
() cause a file manage window to appear when selected. The following options are available from the Main Menu
item - File:

3-22

Tutorial/Master Menu
New - There is a choice for selecting the design code. When one is selected this will start a new file.

File New...

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

File Open Dialog

SaveCauses the current file to be saved in its present condition.

Save As Dialog

3-23

3-24

Tutorial/Master Menu

Option

Description

Save As

Allows the user to either save a file that has not been named or to save the current
file under another name.

Print

Sends the current vessel graphic image directly to a printer.

Print Preview

Displays the page that will be sent to the printer (see above)

Print Setup

Displays the standard Windows printer setup screen.

Exit

Exits PV Elite. A message window will display prompting to save any changes to
the current job.

Export Menu Option

Description

Graphics to PCX

Stores the vessel image in a standard PCX format file. This file can be printed at a
later date or added to other documents. The name of the PCX file defaults to the
name of the current job with the extension of PCX.

Screen to PCX

Builds a PCX file for later manipulation and printing. In this case, the entire
contents of the screen are saved in the file.

The File Menu will also list the last several vessel input files. Any of these files may be opened with a mouse click.

Analyze Menu

Analyze Menu

The Analyze menu has the following options:


Menu Option

Description

Analyze

This option saves the input data and begins error checking. If no errors are detected, the
program will continue the analysis process. A description of the PV Elite analysis is
found in Chapter 7 of this user guide. The output from the analysis processor, whether
error messages or results, may be examined in the Output Processor. Once an analysis is
completed, the program will automatically switch to the Output Review processor.

Error Check Only

This option will only process the error checking, and will not implement the analysis
process. The error report may be examined in the Review option found in the Output
item from this Main Menu.

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-25

Output Menu

Output Menu

The Output menu enables the previously generated output to be reviewed as well as the following options:
Field Name

Description

Review

Reviews the analysis results of the current job, if these results are already
available.

Review the DXF file

Launches any program capable of viewing this file type on the computer
system.

Review the Access Database

If a database has been created, it can be reviewed directly using Microsoft


Access.

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Tutorial/Master Menu

Tools Menu

Tools Menu

The Tools menu controls utility processors. Options that display on the menu with '...' cause a window to appear
when selected.

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3-27

Configuration allows the user to define a variety of system variables for the program:

Configuration Dialog

These controls let you set some options in some programs that control the results of some computations. Following is
a description of the options:

Print Water Volume in Gallons?


Normally the volumes computed by the program are in diameter units.

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Tutorial/Master Menu

If you want to use US gallons instead of cubic diameter units check this directive. The program will use cubic units if
the default value if it is not checked.

Round Thickness to Nearest Nominal Size?


If you would like to have your thicknesses rounded to the nearest 1/16 of an inch (if you are in English units) or the
nearest 1mm (if you are in mm units) check this directive.
The program will increase the thickness of an element if you specify for it to do so in the Design/Analysis
Constraints and the element thickness is inadequate.
If this directive is not checked then no thickness rounding will be performed.

Print Equations and Substitutions?


By default PV Elite will provide you with formulas and substitutions for internal and external pressure calculations. If
you do not want these formulas and substitutions, do not check this box.

Increase Blind Flange Thickness for Reinforcement?


For Section VIII Division 1, paragraph UG-39(d)(2) provides a consideration for bypassing reinforcement of a single
opening of a flat end connection. This effectively increases the required thickness of the blind flange cover. Please
note that this can only be used if there is only 1 nozzle located in the blind flange.

Do Not Use the Bolt Correction Factor.


For the design of heat exchanger flanges and tubesheets, TEMA (like Taylor-Forge) provide a correction factor when
the actual bolt spacing exceeds the allowable bolt spacing. The correction factor is then multiplied by the moment to
design a thicker flange. The use of this term is very standard in industry and is used in other pressure vessel design
Codes such as PD:5500 however, ASME Section VIII does not specifically address this subject. Thus, for a pure
flange design per Appendix 2, there is no bolt-spacing correction factor. If you do not wish to use the factor, then
check this box.
The default is to use the bolt space correction factor.

Use ASME Code Case 2260/2261.


Use of this code case calculates required thickness of elliptical and torispherical heads. The required thickness is less
than that of the equations in UG-32 or Appendix 1 for these heads.

Use EigenSolver
The natural frequency of a structure can be calculated using more than 1 method. The traditional method is the
analysis technique of Freese or Rayleigh-Ritz. For the skirt-supported freestanding structure, this method provides
acceptable results. When the support configuration is not the skirt/base type such as legs, lugs, or intermediate skirt,
this analysis may not provide accurate results.
To solve this problem generically, PV Elite has a natural frequency solver that uses numerical methods to solve the
general equations motion. Namely, the program must solve the following: [ [K] - w 2[M]] {a}={0}. Which for the

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3-29

general case is a set of n homogeneous (right hand side equal to zero, in this case abs[ [K] - w 2[M]] {a}=0. This
requires an iterative solution.
After building a stiffness [K] and mass [M] matrix of the model with appropriate boundary conditions (anchors at
skirts, bottom of legs, at support lugs etc.) the program can extract a number of modes that is meaningful in the
solution of the dynamics problem, particularly the modal response spectrum analysis. Using this generic frequency
Eigensolution method, PV Elite can accurately extract modes of vibration for models that do not fit neatly into the
cantilever beam model required for the Freese integration codes. The natural frequency of the vessel is used in
several of the wind and seismic method. For PV Elite files earlier than 4.3, the default is to use the Freese method.
The default version for 4.3 and later is to use the EigenSolver. Enable or disable this box as necessary.

Use Pre-99 Addenda Division 1 only.


As of January 2000, the 1999 Addenda of the ASME Code are mandatory. This mandatory revision includes changes
to the material properties of many materials used for Division 1 vessel construction found in Section 2 Part D.
Namely; the allowable stresses were increased in certain ranges. PV Elite contains 2 databases of material properties.
The default behavior is to use the current higher allowable stress database. If you are re-rating an older vessel to
the pre 99 Addenda and would like to use the older material allowables, then you should check this box.
Since the program uses this directive to connect to the database, it should be checked before any vessel modeling
occurs. This directive will not affect other design codes.

No MDMT / No MAWP Calculations


To disable the MAWP or MDMT check the corresponding check box as required.

Use Bolt Load Instead of Bolt Area Times Bolt Allowable Stress
This option may be used in the design of annular baserings. Choosing this option will instruct PV Elite to use the
computed value of the bolt load instead of the bolt area times its allowable stress. Checking this box will lead to a
less conservative basering/bolting/chair cap thickness calculation.

Syntax Highlighting in Output Reports


By default PV Elite will color the data reports to highlight failures and illustrate problem areas more clearly. If this
action is not desired, un-check this box.

No Extended ASCII Characters in Output


Some equations that PV Elite prints use extended ASCII characters such as the single character and others. For
some non-English versions of Windows these characters may not be displayed correctly. If that is the case, then uncheck this box. The extended characters will be replaced multiple characters that represent the same value.

Metric Output is in Consistent Units


Entering data in Metric and in English units causes it to be inconsistent. For example units of stress may be
displayed in MPa and pressure in Bar. For coherent output these units should be the same. Enabling this box allows
PV Elite to change the units so that they are consistent.

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Tutorial/Master Menu

Use Code Case 2286


This ASME Code Case uses a different methodology for determining allowable external pressure and allowable
compressive stress for combinations of external pressure, bending and axial stress. Users of this option should be
very familiar with this Code Case before using it. Note that this option is not compatible with the ASME STS Steel
Stack design option.

No Corrosion on Inside Welds


By default PV Elite will always corrode the inner fillet weld when computing the area available in the inside welds. If
the inside weld will not corrode or you do not wish to remove the corrosion allowance when computing the area, and
then check this box. The default method is the most conservative because the area under the weld is corroded in
accordance with figure UG-37 of the ASME Code.
This directive has no effect when using the PD:5500 or EN Codes.

Use AD-540.2 Sketch B and Not Sketch D For Normal Limit (pre 07 addenda)?
This setup parameter is used for computation of the vertical thickness limit. The formulas for computing these limits
are found in paragraph AD-540.2 of the ASME Code Section VIII Division 2. Sketch (b) of Fig. AD-540.1 shows an
integral connection with a smooth radius. Figure (d) shows a similar geometry with an alternative pad plate and fillet.
By default PV Elite uses sketch (d) to compute the vertical thickness limit. However, if you would like to use sketch
(b) then check this directive.

Compute Increased Nozzle Thickness?


In many cases pressure vessels are designed and built long before the piping system is attached to them. This means
that the nozzle loadings are unknown. If this field is checked, then your minimum nozzle thickness (trn) will be the
maximum of:
trn = max (.134, trn for internal pressure ) <=Nps 18
trn = max (OD/150, trn for internal pressure) > Nps 18
By using such a requirement in addition to UG-45, the piping designers will have some additional metal to work with
to satisfy thermal bending stresses in systems these vessels are designed for.
Note carefully, that these formulae are not in the ASME Code. They are used in industry.
You can also specify the minimum wall thickness of the nozzle (Trn) in the Nozzle input. If you do so, that will
override this calculation.

Compute and Print Areas for Small Nozzles?


The Code paragraph UG-36 discusses the requirement of performing area replacement calculations when small
nozzles are involved. The Code states:
Openings in vessels not subject to rapid fluctuations in pressure do not require reinforcement other than that inherent
in the construction under the following conditions:
3.5" finished opening in a shell or head .375 inches thick or less

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3-31

2.375" finished opening in a shell or head greater than .375 inches


If your geometry meets this criteria and this parameter is not checked, then the nozzle reinforcement areas and
MAWPs will not be computed.

Compute Chord Length in Hillside Direction


By default PV Elite will use the actual length of removed material for hillside nozzle calculations. If you wish to use
the chord length to compute the included angle, check this box. Generally, the difference is very minor.

Compute Areas per PD 5500:2003 3.5.4.9


If you wish to perform the pressure times area calculations per 3.5.4.9 then check this box. Please note that the
standard calculations per the design section 3 will always be computed.

Allowable Tower Deflection


This setup directive applies to vertical tower geometries. By default PV Elite uses a criterion of 6 inches per 100 feet
for the allowable tower deflection. If your design specification requires a different value of allowable deflection then
enter it here.

Wind Shape Factor


Based on the wind design specification, PV Elite will compute the wind shape factor. If your design requirement calls
for a specific value for the shape factor that does not correspond to the calculated value, then enter that number here.
For cylindrical structures it is typically 0.7.

Use 2004 A-06 for Division 2


If this box is checked and the model is Division 2, the older Code rules will be used in the analysis. This box should
be checked prior to entering in any vessel data.

For ASME, use the MAWP to Compute the MDMT


If this box is checked PV Elite will use the overall vessel MAWP to compute the stress ratio for the MDMT
reduction per UCS-66.

ASME VIII-1 MDMT Option


The UCS-66 curves are very precisely fitted. If you however wish to use the tabular table data, select the table data
option from this pull down selection.

Use the MAWP to Compute the MDMT


This directive causes PV Elite to use the MAWP for the vessel when determining the required thickness to be used
in the temperature reduction calculation per UCS 66.1 (Div. 1) or Section 3.11.2.5 (Div. 2 2007 Edition or later). The
MAWP also includes MAWPs determined during nozzle calculations. If this box is not checked, the design pressure
on the element will be used to determine the MDMT reduction for that element.
If the pressure specified on each element is the MAWP, it will be necessary to insure this box is not checked.
Otherwise, the temperature reduction will be conservatively low.

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Tutorial/Master Menu

Note: For PD 5500 and EN-13445 and Division 2 pre 2007, this setting is ignored.

Do not Use Interpretation VIII-1-01-37


This directive allows you to control the MDMT calculation of the nozzle to shell junction.
Interpretation: VIII-1-01-37
Subject: Section VIII, Division 1 (1998 Edition, 2000 Addenda); Fig UCS-66.l
Date Issued: March 9, 2001
File: BC01-106
Question: A nozzle neck with a nominal noncorroded thickness that is heavier than that of the shell is attached
to the shell with corner joint, and thus the shell becomes the governing thickness as defined in UCS66(a)(1)(b). When evaluating the nozzle joint per UCS-66(b) of Section VIII, Division 1, are the tr and tn
thicknesses those of the shell?
Reply: Yes.

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

Create / Review Units

Create/Review Units Dialog

3-33

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Tutorial/Master Menu

Edit / Add Materials


Enables users to create and edit a user-defined material in the PV Elite material database. Clicking this menu option
displays the dialog below:

Edit/Add Materials Dialog

To use the processor, click the


areas. Click the

button. Next enter the material properties under the General and the Stresses

button to add another material if desired. When all of the materials have been entered, click

button to add these materials to the end of the materials supplied in the PV Elite material database. The
the
material list from the main database can also be imported into this processor. A material from this list can be
imported into the user material database. Use the

button on the toolbar to accomplish this task.

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

Calculator
Launches the Windows calculator and optionally pastes the results in the input at the cursor location.

Windows Calculator - Scientific View

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Tutorial/Master Menu

ASME Form
PV Elite in conjunction with Microsoft Excel, can produce an ASME U-1 form for the vessel. The dialog below
gathers specific information for this vessel. Once PV Elite has analyzed the vessel, the intermediate results file (.pvu)
is written. This file is read by a macro contained in the Excel spreadsheet when the button "Import Latest Results"
is clicked. Once the data is read in, the fields are populated with the computed results. The Excel spreadsheet is
invoked from the Output processor by pressing the Excel button on the toolbar.

Here is the above referenced button.

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

Diagnostics Menu

Diagnostics Menu

The Diagnostic Menu enables users to perform a cyclic redundancy and version checks.
Field Name

Description

CRC Check

This option performs a cyclic redundancy check on each of the supplied PV Elite
files.

Build Version Check

This option checks the revision level of the PV Elite executable files.

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Tutorial/Master Menu

View Menu

View Menu

The View menu allows users to specify the toolbars to be displayed. The following options are available:
ToolbarsDisplays a variety of toolbars users can access.
Standard BarAllows the user to open, save and print.

Standard Bar

Element BarAllows users to create a vessel with default data by clicking an icon on the Element Toolbar.

Element Bar

Detail BarAllows users to add certain details i.e., stiffeners, nozzles, forces, moments, lining, half-pipe jackets
and tubesheets etc. to the current element when applicable.

Detail Bar

Utility BarEnables users to insert, delete, update, share and flip elements.

Utility Bar

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3-39

Auxiliary BarAllows manipulation of the model, create drawings and databases and others.

Auxiliary Bar

Field Name

Description

Pipe Properties

Enables users to access the database of pipe dimensions. After clicking OK, the
current diameter and thickness will be replaced with the current selection.

List Dialog

Enables users to obtain a list of the vessel's details. Items can be added or
removed from the list.

f
List Dialog

The List dialog allows the editing of some types of vessel details. One feature of the list is that the location of the
detail can be specified from the datum position. To use the List dialog, select the type of detail to edit by clicking its
tab. Then simply enter the data as necessary for each cell. If the list is empty, then press (+) to add a row.

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Tutorial/Master Menu

The entry of the "From Node" is optional. The program will assign that value automatically. The description is a
mandatory input. If it is not entered, the program will treat that row as if it did not exist and that data will be lost. All
of the other data must be entered as required.
Rows of data can be duplicated from one row to the next. Click on the listing number of the item to copy. That row
should turn black (selected). Next copy the data to the clipboard by pressing [Ctrl-C]. Next paste it to a blank line by
using [Ctrl-V]. Change any data that might be different for that detail.
Status Bar - Displays a variety of critical information about the current vessel component such as MAWP and
required thickness.

Status Bar

Field Name
Split

Analyze Bar

Description
Allows the user to split the screen for simultaneous viewing of the 2D and
3D graphics as well as the information for the current element.
Allows the user to analyze the current model, review previous results,
error-check the model, or review the previously created DXF file.

Analyze Bar

Inspecting the Model in 3D


Enable or disable 3D viewing by clicking
on the PV Elite Auxiliary toolbar. A vessel model will display after
the button is clicked. The 3D model displays next to the 2D model.
The 3D viewer is an integrated application that can render any PV Elite input file showing the actual vessel geometry
in 3 dimensions. In addition to showing the outer surfaces, the model can also be viewed in wire frame and hidden
line mode. Different shading modes such as flat shaded, Gourard and Phong are all supported. Other operations such
as panning, zooming and model rotation are also supported. You can also double click on various details to display
that detail's dialog box.
Pressing the right mouse button anywhere on the 3D View window will display a floating menu where several
commands can be executed. These same commands are also active from the 3D Menu option when the 3D View
window has the focus. The toolbar for performing some basic operations should appear in a vertical position on the
right side of the applications frame.

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3-41

Listed below is an explanation of the buttons on the toolbar. By default, this toolbar displays vertically on the right
side of the 3D graphics window.

3D View Icons

Option

Description
Changes the current view to front, back, top, bottom, left, right view or a standard isometric view.

Pre-defined Views
Resizes the model so that it fits in the current window.

Zoom Extents
Zoom Window

Allows users to use the mouse to draw a window around the portion of the model that you want to
zoom in on. This is a rubber band zoom. Alternately, spin the mouse wheel to zoom in and out.

Orbit

Allows users to rotate the model using the mouse. Click the right mouse button and move the
mouse to rotate the model.

Pan

Allows users to translate the model in the direction the mouse is dragged. Pressing the mouse
wheel and holding it down while moving the mouse will also pan the model.

Zoom Camera

Enables users to zoom in or out. Click this button then press the left mouse button and move the
mouse diagonally across the screen to zoom in or out. Alternately, spin the mouse wheel to zoom
in and out.
Allows the selection of a detail for further manipulation. This is the cursor icon.

Select By Click
Insert Cutting Plane

Enables users to insert a cutting plane when you click this button and then click anywhere in the
window. Users can then rotate the cutting plane after it has been initiated. The rotating plane will
then expose the various layers of the vessel. The visibility of the cutting plane can then be turned
off once the view is set. To restore the model, right click in the 3D window and choose Delete
Cutting Plane.
The main exterior shells of the model will be transparent.

Transparency
Displays list of nozzles in a list box. The list allows a nozzle to be located in the model for editing.

Show Nozzle List


Options

Element and detail colors are supported using the Options selection. After being set, the program
will recall them in subsequent sessions. This option is also available by right clicking on the model
window and selecting properties. The Options dialog displays below. If any of the colors are
changed, be sure and press the Apply button at the top of screen area. This will update the new
color selections right away.

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Tutorial/Master Menu

3D Options

When in 3D viewing mode, a detail's dialog can be requested by double clicking on the detail. It may be necessary to
click the cursor icon beforehand.

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3-43

Help Menu

Help Menu

The Help menu displays on-line help and information on how to obtain technical support for PV Elite. The options
available are as follows:
Option
Tip of the Day

Description
Provides tips for running PV Elite.

PV Elite Help Topics

Starts the help facility.

View Documentation

Displays this manual online.

PV Elite Quick Start

Displays a quick start guide for new users.

Foundation 3D Help

Reviews the foundation 3D interface specification.

Check for Updates

Checks COADE's web site for a later build of the current version. You must have live Internet
connection for this to work.

E-Mail PV Elite Support

Starts your E-Mail program and enters various machine parameters that help the PV Elite
support staff diagnose problems.

On-Line Registration
Desktop (on-line) Help
What's New in this Version
About PV Elite

Registers this product electronically with COADE.


Allows a COADE support person to connect to your computer and assist with support issues.

Provides a link to a file that explains what was added to PV Elite during the last year.
Provides information on the best ways to contact COADE personnel for technical support and
provides a link to COADE's Web Site.

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Tutorial/Master Menu

PV Elite Quick Start


Entering PV Elite
Before starting PV Elite, most users will collect the necessary data for the vessel design or analysis. PV Elite breaks
the vessel into an assemblage of individual elementsheads, shells, cones, body flanges, and/or a skirtand the
components on these elements. Vessels are defined one element to the next - from bottom to top for vertical vessels
and from left to right for horizontal vessels. Collecting data to define these elements before starting the program is
not required but it will make the most efficient use of the designer's time. Typical input items include actual or
proposed values for vessel material, inside diameter, operating temperatures and pressures, wind and seismic site
data, nozzle and ring location to name a few. If necessary, the input processor can be terminated at any time and
restarted later if any missing data need be collected. With the program's graphic display of the vessel input, it is easy
to recall the current state of an unfinished model or identify where data is missing or incomplete.
Start PV Elite by clicking on the icon on the desktop or selecting the item from All Programs.
PV Elite will start with a Vessel Input Screen for the job currently called "Untitled."

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-45

Defining the Basic Vessel


PV Elite displays the Element Basic Data, empty graphic areas, three toolbars (File Handling, Elements, and
Details) and a button bar. Disabled items cannot be used. Users should build vertical vessels from bottom to top and
horizontal vessels from left to right. It is not necessary to build an entire vessel if only the thickness for pressure is
desired. The Element Basic Data must be specified before the first element can be placed on the screen. Start with
the Inside Diameter, as both the Node Numbers and the Element Type will be set by using the Element toolbar.
Once the Basic Data is entered, elements are quickly assembled one after another by clicking the Element toolbar
and making any changes to the Basic Data. The complete vessel is created from the following elements (in their
toolbar order):
Shell
Elliptical Head
Torispherical Head
Spherical Head
Cone
Welded Flat Head
Body Flange
Skirt
If the vessel begins with a skirt element it will be a vertical vessel. Both vertical vessels on legs and horizontal
vessels would start with a head element. If that first head element is improperly oriented for the vessel in mind
(horizontal or vertical), click the FLIP button to correct the orientation. Once the second element is added, the vessel
can no longer be flipped between horizontal and vertical. Later, if heads, body flanges or cone elements show
incorrect orientation, use the FLIP button to fix them. From Nodes and To Nodes are automatically assigned by the
program; they start with node 10 and are incremented by 10's throughout the model. The element data set at the
beginning of the session carries forward from one element to the next. Any data changes on the last element will
carry forward onto any new elements that are added. The element data displayed belongs to the highlighted element
in the vessel image. Use the mouse to change the highlighted and displayed element by clicking on the element of
interest.
Data may be updated one element at a time but there are more efficient ways to change an item through several
elements. Say, for example, the circumferential weld joint efficiency for the skirt (from node 10 to 20) is set at 0.7. If
this value was not changed to 1.0 on the bottom head as it was created, this (incorrect) value is carried from one
element to the next in the Build Mode to the top of the vessel element (say, From Node 50 To Node 60). In this
situation, it is easiest to change the data on the bottom head element (20 to 30) and then use the SHARE button to
"share" this item through the elements in the list with "From Node" 30 through "From Node" 50. Certain data is
automatically "shared". Inside diameter, for example is automatically changed for all elements (stopping at cones)
attached to the element where the change occurs. Some changes to the element data do not immediately appear on
the vessel image. To refresh the image press [F5]. For more information refer to the Quick Start guide available on
the Help menu.

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Tutorial/Master Menu

Adding Details
With the elements defined, enough information exists to run through the pressure calculations but the total vessel
weight is not yet set. Much of this information is specified as element details. Nozzles, insulation, operating fluid,
platforms and the like are all entered as details on the various elements. PV Elite will calculate the weight of each of
these items and account for them in the various analyses. Details such as saddles, lugs and legs are also used to locate
support points on the vesselimportant data for load calculations.
Details can only be specified on the current element. To enter the first detail, highlight (make current) the element,
which will hold the detail and click the appropriate DETAIL button. Allowing the cursor to rest on the toolbar
button will produce a tool tip definition of the button. Select the detail and enter the data in the screen that follows.
Use the Help button on the detail screen or press [F1] to learn more about the requested data. Define all details
necessary to develop the proper total vessel load.

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-47

Recording the Model - Plotting the Vessel Image


At any point during the input process a standard PCX file with the vessel image is available through the Output item
on the Menu Bar. This file can then be incorporated into reports or printed directly (on all printers) through most
Microsoft Windows packages with graphics capabilities (such as Microsoft's Word for Windows or
Paintbrush). Examples of the graphic dump and screen dump appear below following the illustration of the pulldown menu under File. Note that the 3D graphic can also be plotted. Click on the background of the 3D window
before pressing the print button.

The vessel graphic may also be sent directly to the printer by clicking Print on the File menu.

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Graphics to PCX

Tutorial/Master Menu

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-49

Specifying Global Data - Loads and Design Constraints


Although default values allow the analysis to proceed, other data should be set before the analysis continues. These
data are the required live loads & design constraints and the optional vessel identification and report headings. These
data are accessed and entered through the Input item on the Menu Bar. The pull down menu under Input shows the
Report Headings, Design/Analysis Constraints, and Live Load Data along with the vessel and component
analysis data. The heading input allows the specification of three lines of data, which will appear at the top of each
page in the printed output. The heading data also includes title page entry, which will appear at the beginning of the
input echo report.
Clicking the Design Constraints tab on the floating input data grid will instantiate the design data.
Design Data includes vessel identification along with items, which will affect the design and analysis of the vessel;
items such as type of hydrostatic testing and degree of radiographic examination appear here. It is important to note
that this is where the design code is set - Division 1, Division 2, PD:5500 or EN 13445.
The Design Modification area holds four flags, which control the redesign of the vessel should the user-entered wall
thickness are insufficient for the analyzed loads. If a box is checked, the program will increase the element's wall
thickness so that it meets or exceeds the requirements for that load category. There are four boxes for three load
types - one box for internal pressure, two boxes for external pressure (either increase the wall thickness or locate
stiffener rings along the vessel to satisfy the buckling requirements), and one box for the variety of structural loads
which develop longitudinal stresses in the vessel wall. The program provides the option of rounding up a required
thickness to a nominal value (such as the next 1/16 inch or 1 mm). (Use the Configuration item from the Utility
menu on the Menu Bar.
The Load Case tab displays seventeen default structural load cases for the analysis. These twelve cases cover the
extent of structural loads on the vessel wall. Each case contains a pressure component (axial) 1, a weight component
(both axial and bending), and a live load component (bending). The axial stresses are combined with the bending
stresses to produce a total stress in the vessel wall. Both tensile and compressive stresses are compared to their
allowable limits. Refer to the table and screen image below for a definition of terms used in the Load Case input.
Note: These pressure calculations should not be confused with those used for the wall thickness requirements
defined in ASME Section VIII and PD:5500. Here, internal and hydrostatic pressures are used to calculate a
longitudinal, tensile stress in the vessel wall and the external pressure a similar compressive stress in the wall.
The fourth area, Nozzle Design Modification, is used to set the overall pressure requirements for the nozzles on this
vessel and also to include the maximum allowable pressure - new and cold (MAP nc) case in the nozzle checks.
There is also a button on this screen - Installation | Misc. Options. Clicking this button will produce a screen which
allows the user to specify where certain vessel details will be added - either at the fabrication shop or in the field.
This data is used to properly set the detail weights for the empty and operating conditions.
Pressure

Weight

Live Load

NP - No Pressure
IP - Internal Pressure
EP - External Pressure
HP - Hydrostatic Pressure

EW - Empty Weight
OW - Operating Weight
HW - Hydrostatic Weight
CW - Empty Weight No CA

WI - Wind
EQ - Earthquake
HI - Wind at Hydrostatic Weight conditions
HE - Earthquake at Hydrostatic Weight conditions
VF - Vortex Shedding Filled

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Pressure

Tutorial/Master Menu

Weight

Live Load
VO - Vortex Shedding Operating
VE - Vortex Shedding Empty
WE - Wind Bending Empty New and Cold
WF - Wind Bend Filled New and Cold
CW - Axial Weight Stress New and Cold
FS - Axial Stress, seismic
PW - Axial Stress Wind

Design Analysis Constraints Screen

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3-51

Wind and earthquake information can be entered by clicking the Wind Data or Seismic Data tabs. PV Elite generates
live loads based on the criteria established by one of many standards, including - the American Society of Civil
Engineers (ASCE), the Uniform Building Code (UBC), the (Canadian) National Building Code (NBC), and the
Indian National Standard. Wind loads may also be specified directly by the user as a wind pressure profile. PV Elite
references these codes for live loads only. ASME Section VIII or PD 5500 rules apply for all other calculations. The
screen below shows the data required for the default codes. PV Elite will use these criteria to set the magnitude of the
live load and bending moment on each element of the vessel.

Live Load Data Screen

Once the element, detail, and global data is entered and checked, the model is ready for error processing and
analysis.

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Tutorial/Master Menu

Performing the Analysis


The pull down menu under Analyze on the Menu Bar shows two options - Error Check Only and Analyze. Use the
Error Check Only option immediately after any questionable data is entered.
Analyze automatically performs an Error Check before the analysis starts. Comments from an Error Check may be
examined through the Review function under Output on the Menu Bar (discussed below).
Note: Errors must be corrected before the analysis can proceed.
As the analysis proceeds, PV Elite displays the step or component being analyzed. If any Design Modifications were
set (e.g. Select Wall Thickness for Internal Pressure), PV Elite resets the thickness to the necessary value and exports
these increased thicknesses to all output reports and in all other calculations. For example, if the user-entered wall
thickness of 1/2 inch is insufficient for the load and the design flag is enabled, the program will calculate the required
thickness (say, 5/8 inch) and replace the user-entered input value (1/2) in the output report with the calculated
required thickness (here, 5/8). The program does not change the original model data. PV Elite will check the element
wall thicknesses for the various pressure cases (internal, external, and hydrostatic) and then assemble the axial and
bending loads to construct each load case defined in the Global Design data. PV Elite will also calculate the
longitudinal stress on both sides of the vessel (e.g. both windward and leeward for loads with wind) and compare the
calculated stresses with the allowable stresses, both tensile and compressive. PV Elite will display the windward or
leeward side stress, which is closest by ratio to the allowable limit, again either tension or compression.
Once the analysis is complete, the Review processor displays the results of the analysis on the screen.

Reviewing the Results


The PV Elite output is stored in a binary data file, which requires interpretation by a processor. In PV Elite this
processor is called Output. Output is invoked at the end of the analysis and may also be accessed directly from the
Output item on the Menu Bar. Review lists every report contained in the output from input echo through stress
reports. One or more reports are selected by highlighting their titles through mouse clicks. Reports can be reviewed
on the screen or sent to a printer or file by using the appropriate toolbar button. Note that the screens are
configurable and the default position for the Report List is on the left side of the screen.

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-53

Analyzing Individual Vessel Components Details


PV Elite provides for the analysis of a variety of vessel components that are not included in the overall vessel
analysis: Appendix Y Flanges, Floating Heads, Lifting Lug, Pipe & Pad, WRC 107 and 297, Thin Joints, Thick
Joints, ASME Tubesheets, TEMA Tubesheets, Halfpipe Jackets, Large Openings, and Rectangular Vessels. To enter
the component data select Component Analysis Data from the Input Menu. On the Component screen select a
component type from the Component Menu and build the input for the analysis. Each component, once entered,
may be analyzed and reviewed by selecting Analyze from the Tools Menu.

Component Analysis Menu

3-54

Component Analysis Shell/Head Input Screen

Tutorial/Master Menu

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

Shell/Head Results

3-55

3-56

Tutorial/Master Menu

DXF File Generation Option


As of Version 4.00 PV Elite provides an option to write out Data Interchange Files (3 all together). This type of file is
termed a DXF file. The DXF file is a text file that contains commands for generating a 2D CAD drawing of the
vessel. This drawing is on a one to one scale and the border and text are scaled by the diameter conversion constant
and the scale factor generated by the program or typed in be the user. Many popular drawing programs such as
AutoCad and MicroStation read and process these files. The DXF files produced by PV Elite are release 12
compatible. Any version of AutoCad including release 12 and after should be able to read the DXF file.
Three files will be produced: the vessel drawing, the nozzle schedule, and the Bill of Material. The files will be
written in the directory where the input file for the vessel file is located. These files are written at the end of the
program's calculation execution. Please note that nearly every individual has his/her own way of drafting. A
conscious effort was made not to be too specific. This approach allows the drafter to take the vessel drawing file and
edit it as necessary.

Chapter 3 Tutorial/Master Menu

3-57

Setting Up the Required Parameters


In order for PV Elite to generate these files, you must instruct it to do so. This is accomplished by clicking the red
CAD Icon on the Auxiliary toolbar, its look like a red letter A. Optionally, you can use the menu option FILE>EXPORT->GENERATE DXF FILE to set this option. If the scale factor is not set the DXF Options dialog will appear
prompting for the scale factor and any other necessary options. These options should be entered after the vessel has
been completely modeled. This is due to the fact that the scaling factor is based on the overall height/length of the
vessel. It is best to check the scaling factor at the conclusion of the data input and before the model is analyzed. The
DXF Options are available under the TOOLS->CONFIGURATION menu. Click the second tab and enter the options as
necessary. The following options are in the dialog.
Option Name

Description

Create a Default Border

Checking this box instructs the program to put a border around the drawing. The
border style differs based on the border size. You can create your own border styles.
The borders are located in the PV Elite\System subdirectory. They are named
ANSI_A.txt and so fourth. These text files are essentially the core of ACAD Release
12 DXF files. See the user border creation section for more information.

Create a Nozzle Schedule

Check this to create a Nozzle Schedule. The nozzle schedule contains information
pertaining to the size and thickness of nozzles, their mark number and the necessity
of reinforcing.

Create a Bill of Material

Causes the program to generate a Bill of Material for the major components of the
vessel including shells, heads, conical sections etc.

OD Lines Shown Only

Normally the DXF file will contain ID as well as OD lines for the major shell
sections. If you do not want to see the ID lines, then check this box.

Show Dimensions

If you would like tail dimensions for the major shell courses, then check this box. The
element diameters and thicknesses are shown in the BOM.

Drawing Size

Select A, B, C or D. Each size has a different style.

Scale Factor

It is best to let the program select this value. We then recommend rounding up to the
nearest typical scale factor.

User Border Creation


In order to do the following, you must be able to use your Windows Explorer, AutoCad and Notepad. If you cannot,
seek help from a seasoned support person.
Start AutoCAD and open your border. The border should be ANSI standard dimensions 8 by 11 and so fourth
scaled for the non-printable area of the paper. After the border drawing is open, save it as a release 12 DXF file.
After the file has been saved it will be necessary to edit it with a text editor such as Notepad. Since the main drawing
will have a DXF header, it will be necessary to delete the one in the border drawing. The DXF header ends on about
line 960 with the word Entities. Delete through this line. Next delete the last 4 lines in the file. This is the end of file
marker. Save the file with a txt extension. Next rename the file in the PV Elite\system directory that you will be
replacing. We suggest putting a new extension on it. Save/Copy your border in the PV Elite\system directory and then
rename it replacing our default border. You should now have new ANSI_?.txt file in the PV Elite\System
subdirectory.
It may be wise to review our border drawing text files before you start. Also please note that the border drawings
must not contain any block attributes. These are not supported in our current implementation.

3-58

Tutorial/Master Menu

DXF File Generated by PV Elite During Runtime


Invoking the Drawing
If you have a drawing tool on your computer that supports DXF files, PV Elite can invoke it directly. On the Analyze
toolbar, there is a blue "A" button. If the button is active, the DXF file for this job was created during the last run.
Clicking the button will submit the file to Windows, which will launch your drawing tool. If the input is altered, the
analysis must be run in order to generate a new DXF file.

CH AP TER

Chapter 4 Element Data


In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 4-2
Element Basic Data..................................................................... 4-3
Element Additional Data ............................................................ 4-8
Torispherical Head...................................................................... 4-10
Spherical Head............................................................................ 4-11
Conical Head or Shell Segment .................................................. 4-12
Welded Flat Head ....................................................................... 4-15
Flange Analysis .......................................................................... 4-17
Skirt Support with Basering........................................................ 4-18
Basering Analysis ....................................................................... 4-21
Tailing Lug Input Data ............................................................... 4-22

4-2

Element Data

Introduction
PV Elite has eight basic element types from which all vessels are constructed. PV Elite terms for these elements are as
follows:
Cylindrical
Elliptical
Torispherical
Spherical
Conical
Welded
Flange
Skirt

Cylindrical Shell
Elliptical Head
Torispherical Head
Spherical Head or Shell
Conical or Shell Segment
Welded Flat Head
Body Flange
Skirt Support with Base Ring

PV Elite does not require the complete construction of a vessel for the analysis. Individual elements or groups of
elements may be defined and at least partially analyzed. Only complete vessels, that is, vessels with proper supports,
can be analyzed for deadweight and live loads.
Except for the skirt element, all elements can be used to create either horizontal or vertical vessels. Models for
vertical vessels are built from bottom to top and models for horizontal vessels are built from left to right. The vessel
orientation is established with the first element. If starting with a skirt, it's a vertical vessel. If starting with a head,
the head may be "flipped" between a bottom head (vertical model) and a left head (horizontal model) by clicking the
FLIP button. Once the second element is added to the model, the orientation is fixed. Skirts are the only vessel
supports that are modeled as elements. Other supports such as legs and lugs for vertical vessels and saddles for
horizontal vessels are modeled as "details" on the elements. These vessel details are in the next chapter.

Chapter 4 Element Data

4-3

Element Basic Data

All elements share a common set of parameters:

Element's From Node


Enter a number associated with the starting point and ending point of this element. For Heads, the From and To
Nodes mark the straight flange attachment to the head, not the overall extent of the head. (The straight flange length
cannot equal zero.)

Head From and To Nodes

4-4

Element Data

The 'From' node number for this element will also be used to define details such as nozzles, insulation, and packing
which are associated with this element. The location of the 'To' node will be calculated by the program by adding the
length of this element to the location of the 'From' node. The From and To nodes establish the overall organization of
the vessel.
When creating a vessel model in the BUILD mode, node numbers are automatically assigned to each element. The
BUILD mode starts with node 10 and increments by 10 throughout the vessel. When DELETEing elements, the
program will "reconnect" the vessel elements by changing the From node of the following element to the To node of
the previous element. When INSERTing elements, PV Elite will ask for the new (added) To node number and again
"reconnect" the elements so that the From and To nodes match with the previous and next elements in the model.
The program defines a vertical vessel from the bottom to the top. If the vertical vessel were on a skirt, the first
element would be the skirt. If it is on legs or lugs, the first element would be a head and the legs or lugs are defined
as details on the appropriate shell element.
The program defines a horizontal vessel from the left end to the right end. The first element in a horizontal vessel is
usually a head, and the support saddles are defined as details on the appropriate shell element.

Element's To Node
This is the number associated with the starting point of this element, the 'From' node. Note that the program will
generate this value automatically.

Element's Diameter
Enter the appropriate diameter of the element. When using ASME VIII-1 the diameter may be specified as either ID
or OD. Use the pull down to flip between the ID and OD basis.
For elliptical, torispherical and spherical heads, this should be the diameter of the straight flange.
For cones, this is the diameter at the From node end.
For flanges, this is the diameter of the body flange. For blind flanges this should always be the OD.
For skirts, this is the diameter at the top of the skirt.

Distance or Straight Flange Length


Enter the distance between the 'From' Node and 'To' Node.
For a cylindrical shell, enter the length of the shell from seam to seam.
For an elliptical or torispherical head enter the length of the straight flange. The straight flange length cannot
equal zero. For a spherical head the distance can be zero.
For a conical head or shell segment, enter the length of the cone (including tori-conical sections, if any) from
seam to seam.
For a welded flat head, enter the thickness of the head.
For a body flange, enter the through thickness of the flange including the weld neck, if any.
For a skirt support, enter the distance from the bottom of the basering to the skirt/head/shell seam.

Chapter 4 Element Data

4-5

Finished Thickness
Enter the finished thickness of the element. This is typically the nominal thickness minus any mill undertolerance,
and taking into account any thinning due to forming.
Note: The corrosion allowance is automatically subtracted from the finished thickness by the program and should
not be subtracted by the user.
For elliptical, torispherical and spherical heads, you may have to reduce the nominal thickness of the plate used
in order to take into account the thinning of the head due to forming.
For cylindrical shells made from pipe, you will have to subtract the maximum possible mill undertolerance from
nominal pipe wall thickness.
For welded flat heads, enter the through thickness of the flange portion, but do not include the hub and weld
neck.
For a skirt, this is typically the nominal thickness minus any mill undertolerance, and taking into account any
thinning due to shaping. For cylindrical skirts made from pipe, you will have to subtract the maximum possible
mill undertolerance from the nominal pipe wall thickness.

Internal Corrosion Allowance


Enter the internal corrosion allowance for this element. The various element's dimensions (diameters and
thicknesses) will be modified by the corrosion allowance. Some elements in jacketed vessels may have both an
internal and external corrosion allowance.
Use of the corrosion allowance applies to all vessel codes used by PV Elite including PD: 5500, EN-13445 and
ASME.

External Corrosion Allowance


Most vessels do not normally have an external corrosion allowance specification, but some vessels, such as jacketed
types need the consideration of an external corrosion allowance.
If an external corrosion allowance is specified, PV Elite will change the dimension as appropriate for that
calculation. For example, the OD of a cylinder would be reduced by 2 times the external CA for the external pressure
calculation. For most element types the inclusion of this term is fairly straightforward. For flanges the large and
small end hub dimensions will be corroded in addition to the flange thickness. The external CA will be added to the
element's final required thickness.
Use of the corrosion allowance applies to all vessel codes used by PV Elite including PD: 5500, EN-13445 and
ASME.

Wind Load Diameter Multiplier


The value entered here will be multiplied by the element outside diameter in order to determine the overall element
diameter to be used in wind load calculations. The element outside diameter will include the insulation.

4-6

Element Data

When a number greater than 1 is used, it should be carefully chosen to account for the tributary area of external
attachments such as nozzles, piping, or ladders. The typical multiplier used to determine wind load diameter is 1.2.
Thus if the actual element OD was 50 inches, the overall wind load diameter for this element would be 50 * 1.2 = 60.
The range of this value is normally greater than 1 and less than 2. However in some cases it can be used to turn the
wind loads off of certain elements. You can disable the wind load on the current element by setting this value to 0. A
vessel that is supported by an intermediate skirt whose lower elements are protected from the wind would see no
wind load on those elements.

Material Name
Enter the material specification as it appears in the material allowable tables. Alternatively, the material can be
selected from the Material Database by clicking the [Mat] button from the toolbar. Selecting one of the material
names from the list will display the significant material parameters for the analysis. If the current element
temperature is outside the valid temperature range for the material, the material may not be specified or selected.
(Likewise, a temperature may not be entered if it exceeds the limits for the material.)
Pressing Enter while on this field will display the material properties of the current element or detail. Note that if the
material is newly selected, the data displayed here are directly from the program's material database; otherwise the
data is from the data structure of the current element or detail. If a newly selected material can not be found in the
program's material database, the program will assume that it is a user-defined material, in this case the user must
define all material properties in this window.

Joint Efficiency for Longitudinal and Circumferential Seams


Enter the efficiency of the welded joint for shell section with welded longitudinal seams. This will be the efficiency
of the longitudinal seam in a cylindrical shell or any seam in spherical shell. Elliptical and torispherical heads are
typically seamless but may require a stress reduction, which may be entered as a joint efficiency. Refer to Section
VIII, Div. 1 Table UW-12 for help in determining this value.
The Joint Efficiency in this (and all other) ASME Code formula is a measure of the inspection quality on the weld
seam. In general, weld seams that receive full radiography have a joint efficiency of 1.0. Weld seams that receive
spot radiography have a joint efficiency of 0.85. Weld seams that receive no radiography have a joint efficiency of
0.7. Seamless components have a joint efficiency of 1.0.
In addition to the basic rules described above, the Code requires that no two seams in the same vessel differ in joint
efficiency by more than one category of radiography. For example, if circumferential seams receive no radiography
(E=0.7) then longitudinal seams have a maximum E of 0.85, even if they receive full radiography. The practical
effect of this rule is circumferential seams, which are usually less highly stressed may be spot radiographed (E=0.85)
while longitudinal seams are fully radiographed. This results in the same metal thickness at some savings in
inspection costs.
Except for the skirt, these values should be set to 1.0 for PD:5500 and Division II through A-06. For EN-13445 they
are defined and should be greater than 0 and less than or equal to 1.

Chapter 4 Element Data

4-7

Design Internal Pressure


Enter the design internal pressure for the component. This pressure need not include any pressure due to the liquid
head, as that value is calculated automatically by the program through the Liquid Detail definition. For skirts, this
value is preset to zero and cannot be modified.

Design Temperature for Internal Pressure


Enter the metal design temperature for the internal pressure condition. This value will be used to collect the material
allowable stress in the operating condition.
PV Elite will check the entered value against the valid temperature range for the current element material. The
program will not allow the entry of a temperature outside the material's range. This value will be used to determine
the material allowable stress. When a temperature is entered in, PV Elite will re-compute the allowable stress for the
selected material and other properties at this temperature.

Design External Pressure


Enter the design pressure for external pressure analysis. This should be a positive value, i.e. 15 psig. If you enter a
zero in this field the program will not compute required thickness due to external pressure, but will compute the
external MAWP for each of the elements. For skirts, this value is preset to zero and cannot be modified. Examples of
external pressure:
0
15 psig

No external pressure calculation for the element


External pressure of one atmosphere (full vacuum)

Design Temperature for External Pressure


Enter the design temperature for external pressure. This value will be used as the metal design temperature for
external pressure calculations. When performing these calculations, the program will use the external design
temperature along with the external chart name (found on the material edit window) to access the material tables and
thus determine the allowable external pressure.
The maximum design temperature will be used for the allowable compressive stress on each element unless this has
been overridden on the Load Case parameters tab.

Diameter Basis
Select ID (Inside Diameter) or OD (Outside Diameter)
Changing this selection will change the diameter basis from the inside diameter basis to the outside diameter basis or
vice versa. This function is only active for ASME VIII Division 1. ASME VIII-2 2004 A-06 formulas are based
strictly on ID formulas.

4-8

Element Data

Element Additional Data


Several elements require more information for complete definition. Once the element is set, the Element Additional
Data window appears below the Element Basic Data.

Cylindrical Shell
There is no additional data for cylinders.

Elliptical Head

Elliptical Head Additional Data

Head Factor
Enter the aspect ratio for the elliptical head. A value of 2 is typical, that is, the major axis (vessel diameter) is twice
the minor axis (two times the head height). For example, a 60-inch diameter elliptical head would extend 15 inches
beyond the straight flange.

Chapter 4 Element Data

4-9

Inside Head Depth


Enter the inside depth of the elliptical in this field. This value is in the new condition and does not include the
corrosion allowance. PV Elite will compute the outer depth H and uses this item in the calculation of the parameters
needed to compute the required thickness of the ellipse. This depth value is only required for PD:5500.

Sump Head?
Check the box to indicate that this element is a sump head. When the pull-down is active the program will list all
available nozzles. All of the nozzles on the vessel must be defined before the sump head. The best strategy is to
completely define all of the elements and details and then create the sump element last. If the sump elements are not
last, PV Elite will not analyze the model.

4-10

Element Data

Torispherical Head

Torispherical Head Additional Data

Crown Radius
Enter the crown radius of the torispherical head. For a standard ASME Flanged and Dished head, this is equal to the
outside diameter of the shell. See the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 1-4, figure 1-4(b). The crown
radius is 'L' in this figure. For PD:5500, this is equal to the outside diameter of crown section of torispherical end
measured to tangent between crown and knuckle, as shown in Figure 3.5.2.1.

Knuckle Radius
Enter the knuckle radius for the toroidal portion of the torispherical head. For a standard ASME Flanged and Dished
head, this is equal to 6 percent of the crown radius. Allowable values range from 6 percent of the crown radius to 100
percent of the crown radius (hemispherical head). See the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 1-4,
figure 1-4(b). The knuckle radius is r' in this figure.

Chapter 4 Element Data

4-11

Sump Head?
Check the box to indicate that this element is a sump head. When the pull-down is active the program will list all
available nozzles. All of the nozzles on the vessel must be defined before the sump head. The best strategy is to
completely define all of the elements and details and then create the sump element last. If the sump elements are not
last, PV Elite will not analyze the model.

Spherical Head
Sump Head?
Like ellipsoidal and torispherical heads, spherical heads can also be sump heads. Check the box to indicate that this
element is a sump head. When the pull down is active the program will list all available nozzles. All of the nozzles
on the vessel must be defined before the sump head. The best strategy is to completely define all of the elements and
details and then create the sump element last.

4-12

Element Data

Conical Head or Shell Segment

Conical Additional Data

Chapter 4 Element Data

4-13

Toricone Dialog

Additional Data for toriconical sections (Flare and Knuckle)


The Toricone dialog lets the user input and edit the data of the knuckles, which are parts of a cone component. The
following options are available:
Delete

Resets the input fields to values of 0.

OK

Saves the data then closes the window.

Cancel

Closes the window without saving the data.

Help

Displays the button definitions.

Toriconical
Check this field if this cone has either a flare (at the small end) or a knuckle (at the large end). See ASME Code,
Section VIII, Division 1, Paragraph UG-33, Figure UG-33.1 for an illustration of a toriconical section. Checking the
field, displays the Toricone dialog.

Small End Knuckle Radius


Enter the bend radius of the toroidal knuckle at the small end. Note that the Code requires this radius to be no less
than 6 percent of the outside diameter of the head, nor less than three times the knuckle thickness (ASME Code,
Section VIII, Division 1, Paragraph UG-31(h)).

4-14

Element Data

Large End Knuckle Thickness


Enter the minimum thickness after forming the toroidal knuckle at the large end. For ASME Section VIII Division 2
vessels, there is also a choice for the type of curvature of the large end knuckle.

Large End Knuckle Radius


Enter the bend radius of the toroidal knuckle at the large end. Note that the Code requires this radius to be no less
than 6 percent of the outside diameter of the head, nor less than three time the knuckle thickness (ASME Code,
Section VIII, Division 1, Paragraph UG-31(h)). The 3 choices are:
1

Hemispherical

Elliptical (2:1)

ToriSpherical

If the selection is torispherical, the Crown Radius will need to be entered in the Crown Radius input field. If this is
a "standard" geometry, click the button with the ellipses (...) and PV Elite will automatically fill in these values.

Half Apex Angle


Based on the geometry PV Elite can determine the half apex angle of the cone. Refer to the ASME Code, Section
VIII, Division 1, paragraph UG-33, figure UG-33.1 for a sketch of the half apex angle for some typical geometries.
For internal pressure calculations the half apex angle should not be greater than 30 degrees, though the program will
give results for up to 60 degrees. For external pressure calculations it must not be greater than 60 degrees.
If the conical section and the cylinders attached do not have a common centerline, it may be necessary to compute
the greater of the angles and enter it in this field.

Cone Length
Enter the design length of the cone along the axis of the vessel. The program will calculate the effective length of the
cone for internal and external pressure calculations.
For a regular transition cone, the cone length will be equal to the element length. For the case of a conical head this
will be the length of the sloped section while the element distance is the length of the straight flange.

To End Diameter
The diameter entered in the Element Basic Data for a cone is the inside diameter of the cone at the 'From' end of the
cone. Enter the inside diameter of the cone at the 'To' end here. For a conical head, either the 'From' node or 'To' node
will have a diameter equal to zero or two times the small end knuckle radius.
Note that this should not be the diameter at the point where a knuckle or flare intersects the conical section, but at the
point where the knuckle or flare intersects the cylindrical section.

Chapter 4 Element Data

4-15

Welded Flat Head

Welded Flat Head Additional Data

Attachment Factor
Enter the flat head attachment factor, calculated or selected from the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, or the
British Standard PD:5500. For PD:5500, enter the factor C computed per figures 3.5.5(1-2). Typical values are 0.35
or 0.41. For ASME Code, refer to Paragraph UG-34, Figure UG-34. Some typical attachment factors are as follows:
0.17
0.20
0.20
0.13
0.20
0.33
0.20
0.30

(b-1)
(b-2)
(c)
(d)
(e f g)
(h)
(i)
(j k)

Head welded to vessel with generous radius


Head welded to vessel with small radius
Lap welded or brazed construction
Integral flat circular heads
Plate welded inside vessel (check 0.33*m)
Plate welded to end of shell
Plate welded to end of shell (check 0.33*m)
Bolted flat heads (include bending moment)

4-16

Element Data

0.30
0.25
0.75
0.33

(m n o)
(p)
(q)
(r s)

Plate held in place by screwed ring


Bolted flat head with full face gasket
Plate screwed into small diameter vessel
Plate held in place by beveled edge

Non-Circular Small End Diameter


If the flat head is circular, this field should be zero. However, if the flat head is non-circular, the program can still
calculate the required thickness, etc., using the formulas in the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Paragraph
UG-34. In this case the program assumes that the larger dimension of the flat head was entered in the Diameter
field, and that the smaller dimension of the head was entered here. Note that the 3D graphic display will not show
this.

Appendix 14 Large Opening


If the selected Code is ASME VIII - 1, you can specify that you have a large centrally located opening per Appendix
14. Check the box and a dialog appears that will allow the specification of the opening size, material, hub
dimensions and other parameters that the program needs to perform the large opening calculation.

Chapter 4 Element Data

4-17

Flange Analysis
Body Flange

Body Flange Additional Data

PV Elite calculates actual and allowable stresses for all types of flanges designed and fabricated to the ASME Code,
Section VIII, Division 1, VIII-2, PD 5500 and EN-13445. Click the Perform Flange Calculation check box to
describe the input of a custom body flange or fill in the flange class and grade for an ANSI B16.47/B16.5 standard
flange.
For a discussion of flange input, design and analysis, refer to The Flange Module (see "FLANGES" on page 13-1).

Flange Input Data


For a discussion of Flange input, design and analysis, refer to The Flange Module (see "FLANGES" on page 13-1).

4-18

Element Data

Skirt Support with Basering

Skirt Support with Base Ring

Chapter 4 Element Data

4-19

Inside Diameter at Base


Enter the inside diameter at the bottom of the skirt. This value is generally larger than or equal to the inside diameter
at the top of the skirt.

4-20

Element Data

Basering Dialog

The Basering dialog allows the input of basering and tailing lug data.
Note:

Use the Plot button to get a detailed sketch of the geometry you entered.

Chapter 4 Element Data

4-21

Basering Analysis
The PV Elite Basering module performs thickness calculations and design for annular plate baserings, top rings,
bolting, and gussets found on skirts for vertical vessels. These calculations are performed using industry standard
calculation techniques as described in, The Base Ring Module. This chapter also describes the theory and method of
analysis as well as the input values.

Brownell and Young Method of Design


The Brownell and Young Method computes the required thickness of the baseplate, the gussets and the top plate or
top ring (if there is one). Brownell and Young discuss this method in the book, Process Equipment Design. Dennis
R. Moss also discusses it in the book, Pressure Vessel Design Manual. This baseplate design method is based on
the neutral axis shift method and will in general design a thinner basering than the method discussed in the previous
paragraphs.

4-22

Element Data

Tailing Lug Input Data


Perform Tailing Lug Analysis
Select this check box to perform the Tailing Lug analysis.

Centerline Offset
Enter the offset dimension (OS) for the dual tailing lug design only.

Tail Lug Type


Select the type of tailing lug (single or dual) used.

Tailing Lug Analysis

Tailing Lug Input Data

The Tailing Lug calculation is included in the basering analysis for single or dual type designs as depicted in the
figure on the following page. The designs are based on a lift position where no bending occurs on the tailing lug. The

Chapter 4 Element Data

4-23

main considerations for the designs are the section modulus, shear and bearing stress at the pinhole and the weld
strength.
The location of the center of the pinhole will be assumed radially at the edge of the outer most of the top ring or the
basering, which ever is larger. In the absence of the top ring/plate the height of the tailing lug is required. The tailing
lug material is assumed to be the same material as the gusset or basering. Note that all input fields pertain to one tail
lug.
In order for the program to perform this analysis it must be instructed to perform the rigging analysis. To do this
select the Input menu option, then select Load Cases and then click the Installation/Misc Options button. Then
enter the lug distances and impact factor. When this is complete, PV Elite will compute the tailing lug force.

Lug Thickness
Enter the thickness of the tailing lug(s).

Pin Hole Diameter


Enter the pinhole diameter. The center of the pin hole will be placed radially in line with the larger of the outer most
edge of the top ring or the basering (OD).

Weld Size Thickness


Enter the fillet leg weld size that connects the lug to the basering and the skirt.

4-24

Element Data

Lug Height (only if no Top Ring)


Enter the tailing lug height measured from the top of basering.

Tailing Lug Geometry

Discussion of Results
The tailing lug design consists of a three-part analysis:
the basering assembly (basering, skirt and top ring),
the strength of the weld
the tailing lug itself
It is assumed that there is no bending in the tailing lug. In the absence of the top ring only the basering and the decay
length (e) are considered for the section modulus calculation.
The table below lists the allowable stresses used to check the design strength.
Stress Type

Allowable Value

Shear at Pin Hole

0.4 Sy

Bearing Stress

0.75 Sy

Weld Stress

0.49 Sallow

CH AP TER

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data


In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 5-2
Assigning Detail ......................................................................... 5-4
Detail Definition Buttons............................................................ 5-5
Defining the Details.................................................................... 5-7
Rings........................................................................................... 5-8
Nozzle Dialog Data..................................................................... 5-12
Nozzle Analysis .......................................................................... 5-14
Nozzle Input Data ....................................................................... 5-16
Additional Reinforcing Pad Data............................................... 5-32
Lugs ............................................................................................ 5-34
Weights....................................................................................... 5-37
Forces and Moments................................................................... 5-39
Platforms..................................................................................... 5-41
Saddles........................................................................................ 5-44
Trays ........................................................................................... 5-47
Legs ............................................................................................ 5-48
Packing ....................................................................................... 5-50
Liquid ......................................................................................... 5-52
Insulation .................................................................................... 5-54
Lining ......................................................................................... 5-56
Half Pipe Jacket .......................................................................... 5-57
Clip Analysis .............................................................................. 5-61
Lifting Lug Analysis................................................................... 5-62

5-2

Vessel Detail Data

Introduction
PV Elite vessel models are composed of the basic elements (heads, shells, cones, etc.) with details added to these
elements. Vessel details are included for two reasonsto develop the total vessel deadweight loads, and to collect
information for the analysis of vessel components. Not all of these details are sensible additions to every element.
The following table defines the application of these vessel details to the different elements.
Cylinder

Elliptical
Head

Tori
Head

Spherical
Head

Flat
Head

Skirt

#1

Nozzle

Lugs

Weight

Forces/Moments

Platform2

Saddle

Tray2

Y/N

Legs

Y/N4

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Packing

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Liquid

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Insulation

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N
Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Half Pipe Jacket

Y/N

Lifting Lugs

Y/N

Tubesheet

Y/N

Clips

Y/N

Lining

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Y/N

Relationship of Elements and Details

# Indicates that this element type may have several of these details defined
Vertical vessels only
3
Horizontal vessels only
4
Y/N (Yes or No) indicates that this element may have this detail enabled or disabled
5
Vertical vessels only and only if no skirt is defined
2

Body
Flange

Ring

Cone

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-3

It is also useful to note here the positioning of certain vessel "details" are applied at a point, such as over a length of
the element. A good example is insulation. For a bottom (or left) head, the insulation (element detail) actually starts
before the "From" node and covers the head to the "T" node. For a 60-inch diameter elliptical bottom head, the start
point of the insulation is 15 inches below the "From" node (enter -15 for the "Distance from From Node"). If the
head has the standard 3-inch straight flange, then the insulation covers 18 inches of the element (enter 18 for the
"Height/Length of the Insulation"). For more information see the chapter on Details.

Insulation Details

5-4

Vessel Detail Data

Assigning Detail
Details may be assigned to elements by selecting them from the Detail toolbar located at the top of the vessel input
screen. The first step in this process is to make the element of interest the current element by clicking on it. Next,
click the appropriate detail icon for the detail you need to add. A dialog box will display. Enter all of the information
then click OK and PV Elite will update the graphic image showing your new detail. Since the image is scaled you can
see if you placed your detail in the correct location.

Detail Toolbar

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-5

Detail Definition Buttons


Details are selected by pressing the appropriate button on the detail toolbar. The stiffening ring dialog is shown
below:

The individual detail windows generally have the following buttons available:
Previous Ring

Goto Next Ring

Delete

Saves the current details data and displays the previous details data. If there is no previous
detail, an error message will be displayed.
Saves the current details data and displays the next detail of the same type for the element.
If no additional detail of this type exists, the program will create a default detail for the
user's modification. PV Elite registers details by the Detail ID. If the current detail does not
have a Detail ID defined, the program will display an error message if this button is used.
Deletes the current detail and displays the data of the next detail of this type, if it exists. If
there is not a next detail, the data of the previous detail, if it exists, will be displayed on
the window. If no previous detail exists for the element, a new detail listing will be
created.

5-6

Vessel Detail Data


OK

Cancel

Ring Material

Help

Saves the data of the current detail and closes the window. Note that the program will
generate an error and not save the data if no Detail ID is specified.
Closes the dialog. Since the detail dialogs contain lists of the detail data previously
changed data will be saved even if the Cancel button is clicked.
Launches the material database. Clicking on a material name from the program's database
will close the material selection window and bring that material name into the detail data.
As not all details require a material definition, not all detail edit windows contain this
button.
Displays general help for the detail window.

Other buttons not shown in the illustration above:


SECTIONID

FULL

ALL

Displays the database names for the wide variety of cross section data stored in PV Elite.
As with MATERIAL..., clicking on a name in the database will close the database and
copy the selected name to the Section ID field. This option is available for leg details.
Appears with those details, which involve some length such as insulation, packing and
liquid. These details require a start position and end position (entered as a distance from
the From node and height/length of detail). If the detail extends throughout the element,
clicking this button will automatically calculate and enter these values so that the detail
"covers" 'the entire element. This feature is very useful for heads where these two terms
(distance and height/length) may not be obvious. Remember that the From node and To
node mark the ends of the straight flange portion of the head element and the head itself
starts before or extends beyond this node pair. This leads to negative distances from the
From node or a larger height/length of the detail.
Allows some detail types such as insulation to be applied over the entire vessel at one
time. Of course the detail type can be edited on an individual basis on any element if the
ALL feature has been used.

Note that only the details of the current element are accessible. To review or define details on other elements, the
element of interest must be made current by clicking on it first or the List dialog can be invoked.
Note: Users may also access the Detail Edit window directly from the graphic image found in the Build and
Define modes. Click the left mouse button on the element to make it current and then click the right mouse button on
the detail of interest. For details that cannot be right clicked such as liquid, click the detail on the detail toolbar and
its associated edit dialog will display.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-7

Defining the Details


Three items appear with every element detail. The From Node of the current element, the distance from the element's
From Node (or Offset from Vessel Centerline for heads), and the label given to the detail or Detail ID.

From Node
The From Node is an element identifier that cannot be entered or modified. The From Node (and the highlighted
element on the graphic) indicates the element which contains the detail.

Distance from "From" Node or Offset from Vessel Centerline


Enter the axial or longitudinal distance from the "From" Node to the start of the item to be defined. Be aware that for
heads this may be a negative value; for example, insulation on a bottom head starts before the "From" node since the
"From" node marks the beginning of the straight flange. For nozzles on heads, enter the radial distance between the
vessel centerline and the centerline of the nozzle. Use the table below to determine the detail and the axial distance.
For the Detail...

Enter axial distance between From node and the following location:

Ring

Centerline of the ring

Nozzle

Centerline of the nozzle

Lug

Centroid of the lug attachment weld

Weight

Point at which the weight acts

Force/Moment

Point at which the force or moment acts

Platform

Axial distance from the node to the bottom of the platform

Saddle

Vertical centerline of the saddle

Trays

Bottom of the lowest tray

Legs

Centroid of the leg attachment weld

Packing

Start of the packed section

Liquid

Start of the liquid section

Insulation

Start of the insulated section

Clip

Center of the clip

Lifting Lug

Centroid of weld group

Lining

Start of the lined section

Detail ID
Enter any alphanumeric string to identify the detail. While not required, it is suggested to assign unique names for
unique items for clear reporting. For example, nozzles should be unique as their individual identification is important
while insulation on all elements, if consistent throughout, may be named INSUL on each element. Some consistency
will help your naming process. You may wish to use the From node number with an alphabetical extension showing
the detail type and the number of such details if needed. For example, for a nozzle, insulation and ring defined on the
element From node 20 To node 30 you may have Detail IDs of "NOZL A", "INSUL", and "20 RING 1 of 2",
respectively. No two details should have the same name.

5-8

Vessel Detail Data

Rings
The Stiffening Ring dialog allows data entry and analysis of stiffening rings which are attached to the current
element. These data are used in the calculation of the weight of the ring and, for external pressure checks, in the
calculation of the ring area and inertia. Each stiffening ring should have a different Detail Description.
When using the ASME Code, the Stiffening Ring dialog displays.

As the stiffening ring data is entered, PV Elite automatically computes the inertias required and available, provided it
is not a cone to cylinder junction ring. For bar rings, the program will size a new ring based on a default thickness of
0.375 inches or the value given in the Miscellaneous Options dialog located on the Design/Analysis dialog.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-9

The Section Calculator button allows inertia, area and centroidal distance to be computed for non-standard or built
up sections. This button is only available when the Section Type ring is being analyzed. The Check Standards Bars
button helps users select a suitable ring. As you cursor through the rings, the program computes the results and
places them in the display area near the bottom of the dialog. Rings that meet Code requirements display in blue and
failed rings display in red along with a failed message. Users should verify that the entire vessel is modeled prior to
placing and sizing the rings. The Bar Selection dialog is shown below. Use the mouse, space bar, and/or arrow keys
to navigate this tree.

Ring Inside Diameter


Enter the inside diameter of the stiffening ring. This value is usually equal to the outside diameter of the shell, except
for the relatively rare case of a stiffening ring inside of the vessel.

Ring Outside Diameter


Enter the outside diameter of the stiffening ring. This value is usually greater than the outside diameter of the shell.

Ring Thickness
Enter the axial thickness of the stiffening ring.

Ring Material
Enter a name of the ring material from the program's material database or select the material name by first clicking
on the Ring Material button. Individual material parameters may be viewed and modified by pressing Enter when
the cursor is in this field.

5-10

Vessel Detail Data

PV Elite allows entry of the generic entry of any type of stiffener. To do this you must know the cross sectional area
of the stiffener as well as the moment of inertia and the distance from the shell surface to the ring centroid. If you are
using an American type structural shape simply click the Section Type button and then click the type of geometry
being used. If a non-American type section ring is being used, enter in the properties for your section type or use the
database selection and choose a ring from the database of interest.

Moment of Inertia
A property of the stiffener typically taken from a structural handbook. Units of inertia are length to the 4th power.

Cross Sectional Area


This is the cross sectional metal area of the ring.

Distance to Ring Centroid


This is the distance from the surface of the shell to the center of the rings area. This property is typically taken from a
structural handbook.

Name of Section Type


This value is used for documentation purposes and it is used to look up the total height of the stiffener for the
horizontal vessel analysis if it was left as zero or not specified.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

When using British Standard PD:5500 for a cylindrical section, the following screen displays:

5-11

5-12

Vessel Detail Data

Nozzle Dialog Data


The Nozzle Dialog allows input, editing and interactive analysis of nozzles which are attached to the current
element. These nozzles will add to the total deadweight of the vessel. Even if the deadweight is not significant,
entering the nozzles may be very important as the data entered here will be used to evaluate the flange's and vessel's
Maximum Allowable Pressure (MAWP). The nozzle flange MAWP will be set according to the element temperature,
the nozzle class and the flange grade according to ANSI B16.5 or DIN specifications.
If one of the nozzles controls the vessel's MAP and a vertical hydrotest is carried out in accordance with ASME UG
99(c), be sure to enter the correct "Flange Distance to Top" in the Global Design Data. Flange distance to top will be
the distance from the controlling flange to the top of the vessel. See the Global Data chapter for more information.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-13

The orientation of the nozzle is also controlled by the user in the radial and hillside directions. This feature gives the
user versatility in the use of this program. The Layout button can also be used to enter in hillside nozzles whose
centerline does not correspond with a global direction.

5-14

Vessel Detail Data

Nozzle Analysis
PV Elite calculates required wall thickness and area of reinforcement for a nozzle in a pressure vessel shell or head,
and compares this area to the area available in the shell, nozzle and optional reinforcing pad. The program also
calculates the strength of failure paths for the nozzles. This calculation is based on the ASME Code, Section VIII,
Division 1, Paragraph UG-37 through UG-45. The calculation procedure is based on figure UG-37.1.
The program calculates the required thickness (for reinforcement conditions) based on inside diameter for the
following vessel components:
Component

Paragraph

Limitations

Cylinder

UG-27 (c) (1)

None

2:1 Elliptical Head

UG-32 (d) (1)

None

Torispherical Head

UG-32 (e) (1)

None

Spherical Head or Shell

UG-27 (d) (3)

None

Note: PV Elite also analyzes a large nozzle in a welded flat head, which is found in this user manual where the flat
head is discussed.
The program evaluates nozzles at any angle (less than 90 degrees) away from the perpendicular, allowing evaluation
of off angle or hillside nozzles.
NOZZLE takes full account of corrosion allowance. You enter actual thickness and corrosion allowance, and the
program adjusts thicknesses and diameters when making calculations for the corroded condition.
NOZZLE also performs UCS-66 Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) calculations for nozzles.
As the nozzle data is entered, PV Elite will automatically perform the ASME area of replacement or PD:5500/EN13445 nozzle compensation calculations. A calculation is performed every time the cursor is moved in between input
cells. If there is any error in the input that will not allow the analysis to be performed, a status of failed will appear at
the bottom of the Nozzle dialog. The calculation is initiated once the pipe size is specified. If you are changing data,
such as the pad thickness and are not moving between cells, press F5 to force PV Elite to re-calculate and display the
results. If the calculation has failed, the result will appear in red. A nozzle that has passed will have blue results. The
result is typically the area and minimum nozzle overstress per 1-7. The program will display the text failed in
brackets, even though the area of replacement may be sufficient. To effectively use this feature, we suggest that the
entire vessel be modeled first, along with the liquid and nozzle pressure design options set. Also, for vessels that
have ANSI or DIN flanges note that the flange pressure rating will be shown at the bottom of the nozzle dialog.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

The figure below displays the Nozzle Module geometry.

5-15

5-16

Vessel Detail Data

Nozzle Input Data


Nozzle Description
Enter a 15 character or less description of this nozzle. If you type in the description "MANWAY" the UG-45 check
for minimum nozzle neck thickness will not be performed. The text #SN in the description will cause PV Elite to
compute the areas if this is a small nozzle. Another directive #X in the description will force PV Elite to not compute
PD:5500 Enquiry case 122 results.

Centerline Tilt Angle or Radial Nozzle Specification


Non-radial nozzles can be specified by entering the angle between the vessel and nozzle centerlines, and the offset
from vessel centerline. This vessel-nozzle centerline angle can vary from 0 to a limiting value depending upon
specific geometry. For nozzles on top heads, this value will generally range between 0 and 90 degrees. On bottom
heads, this value would be between 90 and 180 degrees. The figure below illustrates this.

Please refer to the section below: Nozzle Orientation, where the alternative method of entering hillside and radial
nozzles is discussed in detail. Please refer to this chapter, as it gives the designer greater control over the positioning
of nozzles, especially hillside nozzles that point in any direction. Much greater versatility is available by using the
alternative method of orientating nozzles in heads and cylinders.

Offset Distance from Cylinder/Head Centerline (L1)


Enter the distance from the center of the head to the nozzle centerline.

Class for Attached B16.5 Flange


From the pull-down menu, select the class of nozzle flange you will be using. The following flange classes are
available:CL 150, CL 300, CL 400, CL 600, CL 900, CL 1500, CL 2500
PV Elite will use the class and grade to determine the MAWP of the ANSI flange. Note that DIN specifications can
also be selected as some vessel have both ANSI and DIN flanges.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-17

Grade for Attached B16.5 Flange


Select the appropriate Grade from the pull-down. Note that DIN "grades" can be selected as well. The list below is a
partial list of all of those available.
GR 1.1
GR 1.2
GR 1.4

Med Carbon Steel


High Carbon Steel
Low Carbon Steel

Austenitic Steels:
GR 2.1
GR 2.2
GR 2.3
GR 2.4
GR 2.5
GR 2.6
GR 2.7

Type
Type
Type
Type
Type
Type
Type

304
316
304L,316L
321
347,348
309
310

Alloy Steels:
GR 1.5
C-1/2Mo
GR 1.7
1/2Cr-1/2Mo, Ni-Cr-Mo
GR 1.9
1-1/4Cr-1/2Mo
GR 1.10 2-1/4Cr-1Mo
GR 1.13 5Cr-1/2Mo
GR 1.14 9Cr-1Mo
High Alloy Steels
GR 3.1 NI-FE-MO-CB
GR 3.2 NI Alloy 200
GR 3.4 NI CU 400, 500
GR 3.5 NI-CR-FE 600
GR 3.6 NI CR-FE 800
GR 3.7 NI-MO B2
GR 3.8 Nickel Alloys

Modification of Reinforcing Limits


You may enter any physical limitation, which exists, on the thickness available for reinforcement or the diameter
available for reinforcement. An example of a thickness limitation would be a studding pad or nozzle stub which
would not extend normal to the vessel wall as far as the thickness limit of the nozzle calculation. An example of a
diameter limitation would be two or more nozzles close together, or a vessel seam for which you did not want to take
an available area reduction.

Physical Maximum for Nozzle Diameter Limit


Enter the maximum diameter for material contributing to nozzle reinforcement. An example of a diameter limitation
would be two nozzles close together, or a vessel seam for which you did not want to take an available area reduction.

Physical Maximum for Nozzle Thickness Limit


Enter the maximum thickness for material contributing to nozzle reinforcement. An example of a thickness limitation
would be a studding pad or nozzle stub which would not extend normal to the vessel wall as far as the thickness limit
of the nozzle calculation.

5-18

Vessel Detail Data

Do you want to set Area1 or Area 2 to 0


In some vessel design specifications it is mandated that no credit be taken for the area contributed by the shell or
nozzle. You can enter the text "A1" or "A2" in this field. If you do so, that area will be set equal to 0. You can also
enter "A1 A2". This would give you no credit for Area1 - available area in the vessel wall or Area2 - available area
in the nozzle wall.
Another option is to neglect the area available in the cover weld (ACWLD).

Nozzle Material Specification


Enter the ASME Code Material Specification as it appears in the ASME Material Allowable tables. Alternatively,
the material can be selected from the Material Database by clicking the Matl... button next to the nozzle material. If
a material is not contained in the database, its specification and properties can be entered manually by clicking the
Triangle button located next to the Nozzle material name.

Nozzle Diameter Basis


Select the appropriate basis from the pull down menu. Nozzles can be specified on either the Inside or Outside
diameter basis. When a nozzle is selected based on Nominal Schedule and Size, the ID or OD selection tells the
program which equation to use to determine the required thickness due to internal pressure.

Actual or Nominal Diameter of Nozzle


This field displays the diameter of the nozzle. If you specify nominal or minimum for the nozzle size and thickness
basis, then you must enter the nominal diameter of the nozzle in this field. Valid nominal ANSI Imperial diameters
are:
0.125
2
10

0.25
2.5
12

0.375
3
14

0.5
3.5
16

0.75
4
18

1
5
20

1.25
6
24

1.5
8
30

PV Elite contains databases for ANSI Imperial as well as ANSI Metric and DIN standards. Click the ... button next to
the Nozzle Diameter Input field to select the nominal diameter from the list. ANSI Metric and Imperial can be
changed using the list dialog.

Nozzle Size and Thickness Basis


Select the appropriate basis for the nozzle diameter and thickness, Actual, Nominal or Minimum. If the nozzle is
fabricated from plate, then use the Actual basis selection.

Actual Diameter and Thickness


The program will use the actual diameter entered in the field above and the actual thickness entered in the field
below.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-19

Nominal Diameter and Thickness


The program will look up the actual diameter based on the nominal diameter entered in the nozzle size and thickness
basis field, and will look up the nominal thickness based on the schedule entered in the nominal schedule of nozzle
field.

Minimum Diameter and Thickness


The program will look up the actual diameter based on the nominal diameter entered in the Nozzle Size and
Thickness Basis field, and will look up the nominal thickness based on the schedule entered in the Nominal
Schedule Of Nozzle field. It will then multiply the nominal thickness by a factor of 0.875 if the nozzle database is
ANSI Imperial or ANSI Metric. If the DIN (Metric Standards) database is being used, then the mill tolerance is
computed according to EN 10216 specifications.

Actual Thickness of Nozzle


Enter the minimum actual thickness of the nozzle wall. Enter a value in this field only if you selected ACTUAL for
the nozzle diameter and thickness basis. Otherwise enter a schedule in the field below.

Nominal Schedule of Nozzle


Enter the schedule for the nozzle wall. Enter a value in this field only if you selected NOMINAL or MINIMUM for
the nozzle diameter and thickness basis. Otherwise enter a thickness in the thickness field. Select the nozzle schedule
from the pull-down. Available nozzle schedules are:
SCH 10
SCH 20
SCH 30
SCH 40

SCH 60
SCH 80
SCH 100
SCH 120

SCH 140
SCH 160
SCH 10S
SCH 40S

SCH 80S
SCH STD
SCH X-STG
SCH XX-STG

Note that all schedules of pipe may not have a corresponding diameter associated. In this case, PV Elite will return an
error stating the thickness of the nozzle was not found. DIN schedules are also available.

Nozzle Corrosion Allowance


Enter the corrosion allowance. The program adjusts both the actual thickness and the inside diameter for the
corrosion allowance you enter.

Joint Efficiency of Shell Seam through which Nozzle Passes


Enter the seam efficiency. The seam efficiency is used in the Area Available calculations to reduce the area available
in the shell. Note that for shell and nozzle wall thickness calculations, the seam efficiency is always 1.0. This value
should correspond to the value given in the Element's input data.

Joint Efficiency of Nozzle Neck


Enter the seam efficiency of the nozzle. The seam efficiency is used in the UG-45 calculation to determine the
minimum required thickness of the nozzle due to internal pressure. Note that for shell and nozzle wall internal
pressure thickness calculations, the seam efficiency is always 1.0.

5-20

Vessel Detail Data

Insert Nozzle or Abutting Nozzle


The nozzle type and depth of groove welds are used to determine the required weld thicknesses and failure paths for
the nozzle. If the nozzle is welded to the outside of the vessel wall, it is abutting the vessel wall. If the hole in the
vessel is bigger than the nozzle OD and the nozzle is welded into the hole, it is inserted. Figure UW-16.1 shows
typical insert and abutting nozzles.

Nozzle Outside Projection


Enter the distance the nozzle projects outward from the surface of the vessel. This will usually be to the attached
flange or cover. This length will be used for weight calculations and for external pressure calculations. Also, if this
value is less than the calculated thickness limit, this value is used when computing the area available in the nozzle
wall.

Weld Leg Size for Fillet Between Nozzle and Shell or Pad
Enter the size of one leg of the fillet weld between the nozzle and the pad or shell.

Depth of Groove Weld Between Nozzle and Vessel


Enter the total depth of the groove weld. Most groove welds between the nozzle and the vessel are full penetration
welds. Thus the depth of the weld would be the same as the depth of the component, that is the thickness of the
nozzle. If the nozzle is attached with a partial penetration weld, or just a fillet weld, enter the depth of the partial
penetration or a zero, respectively, in this field.

Nozzle Inside Projection


Enter the projection of the nozzle into the vessel. The program uses the least of the inside projection and the
thickness limit with no pad to calculate the area available in the inward nozzle. Therefore, you may safely enter a
large number such as six or twelve inches if the nozzle continues into the vessel a long distance.

Weld Leg Size Between Inward Nozzle and Inside Shell


Enter the size of one leg of the fillet weld between the inward nozzle and the inside shell.

Local Shell Thickness


Some vessels have insert plates, which are thicker than the surrounding shell. If your vessel uses insert plates, enter
the thickness of the plate here. This value will be thicker than the shell course thickness this nozzle is located on. The
maximum of this value and the element thickness will be used in the nozzle reinforcement calculations. A basic
assumption here is that the diameter of the insert plate is greater than the diameter limit of reinforcement, which is
roughly twice the diameter of the finished opening.
On the other hand, if the area immediately adjacent to the opening is corroded to a greater degree or locally thinner
than the rest of the shell, the thinner value can be entered in as well.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-21

Shell Tr Value
For some vessel designs the nozzle reinforcement is governed by bending and normal stresses in the local shell area
where the nozzle is located. Normally the value of Tr (shell required thickness) is based on internal pressure
requirements. Some specifications call out for "Full Replacement." If this is the case, enter in the actual shell
thickness less the corrosion allowance.
For another option, review the Nozzle Design Modification Section in the Design/Analysis Constraints. The Base
Nozzle tr on Max. Stress ratio check box can also satisfy external loading criteria by computing the exact
requirement for tr. If you enter the Shell Tr, this is the value the program will use. If you do not wish to use this
value, enter a 0. This directive is for vertical vessels only. This option should not be checked if the vessel is a
horizontal vessel.

Tapped Hole Area Loss


This entry is for the exclusion of area needed when holes are tapped into studding outlets and other similar
connection elements. The traditional industry standard is to increase the area required by the tapped area loss. Values
for tapped area loss can be found in the table below adapted from the Pressure Vessel Design Manual.

Tapped Hole Area Loss S in2


ds

\"

"

^"

1"

1_"

1"

1a"

1"

1\"

1"

1^"

2"

2"

1.280

1.840

2.500

3.280

4.150

5.120

6.200

7.380

8.660

10.05

11.55

13.10

16.60

Please note that PV Elite will not multiply the tapped area loss by 2. It will simply use the value that has been
supplied.

Overriding Nozzle Weight


Normally the program calculates the weight of the nozzle from the information the user has already entered and from
internal tables of typical weights. If your nozzle is significantly different from a standard weight nozzle, you can
enter the weight here, and it will override the program calculated weight.

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Vessel Detail Data

Nozzle Orientation
The Alternative (more versatile) Method
This alternative method of orientating nozzles, especially in cylinders gives the user complete control over the
direction in which the nozzle points. By using this method, the user is not confined to only having nozzles point in
the coordinate system of the 3D model. By this, we mean that nozzles may only point in the X, Y and Z directions
like this:

In the above figure, the hillside nozzles are only pointing in four directions, aligned with the major co-ordinates of
the cylinder. The alternative method presented in this section shows how the nozzles can be placed to point in any
hillside direction with greater ease.

Using the Layout Button in the Nozzle Dialog Screen - Alternative Method
We discuss how a hillside nozzle may be made to point in any direction as indicated below:

The above figure shows that the direction of the nozzle is not controlled by the four axis directions of the cylinder,
but may be made to point in any direction within the 360 position around the cylinder. Note the difference between
the Reference Angle, and the Layout Angle.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-23

Starting the Alternative Nozzle Layout Method


At the bottom of the Nozzle dialog in the Nozzle Properties frame is the Layout... button. Clicking this button
displays the Nozzle Layout screen. Enter the nozzle description, size, schedule and other parameters before clicking
Layout.

Nozzle In a Cylinder
Radial and Hillside Nozzles in Cylinders
If the nozzle is to be installed in a cylinder, the following dialog box displays:

Three different orientations are available for the nozzle:


Radial Nozzle
Hillside Nozzle
Lateral Nozzle
Select the orientation by clicking the appropriate radio button.

5-24

Vessel Detail Data

Radial Nozzle in Cylinder Data Entry


Reference Angle Alpha

Enter the reference angle alpha. As this is a radial nozzle, the centerline of the nozzle passes through the centerline
of the parent cylindrical shell.
Projection Dimension "Proj"

Enter the projection from the centerline of the parent cylinder to the end of the nozzle. Once this is entered, PV Elite
automatically calculates the projection ho, and this value replaces the red message Please enter a valid "Proj" value
to compute ho with the computed value of ho.
Click OK to return to the main Nozzle dialog. The appropriate values have been entered in the Layout Angle and
Projection boxes.
Hillside Nozzle in Cylinder Data Entry

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-25

Reference Angle alpha:


Enter the reference angle. Note, the reference angle is not the layout angle. The reference angle displays in the figure
below.

Nozzle Offset Dimension


Enter the Offset Dimension. To clarify matters, the figure below displays the offset dimension.

Projection Dimension "Proj"

Enter the projection from the centerline of the parent cylinder to the end of the nozzle. Once this is entered, PV Elite
automatically calculates the projection ho, and this value replaces the red message Please enter a valid "Proj" value
to compute ho with the computed value of ho.
Click OK to return to the main Nozzle dialog. The appropriate values have been entered in the Layout Angle and
Projection boxes.

5-26

Vessel Detail Data

To clarify matters, the figure below displays the layout angle the program calculates:

Lateral Nozzle in Cylinder Data Entry

Reference Angle Alpha


Enter the reference angle alpha. This is the angle between the nozzle centerline and the parent cylinder centerline. It
is illustrated on the input screen.
Note: You have to return to the main Nozzle dialog to enter the projection from the surface of the cylinder.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

Nozzle In a Head
Radial and Hillside Nozzles and Heads
If the nozzle is to be installed in a head, the following dialog box displays:

The available nozzle orientations are:


Radial Nozzle
Hillside Nozzle
Users can select the orientation by clicking the appropriate radio button.
Radial Nozzle in Head Data Entry

5-27

5-28

Vessel Detail Data

Reference Angle Alpha - The Direct Method


Enter the reference angle alpha as indicated in the following illustration:

Computing the Reference Angle Alpha Data Entry

Using this method to derive the reference angle, PV Elite will compute the reference angle alpha from the coordinate
X-Y location chosen by the user. This method is useful, as nozzle locations on heads are often given in the X-Y
coordinate system.
Enter the appropriate values of X and Y in any of the four angle quadrants.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-29

Projection Dimension "Proj"

Enter the projection from the centerline of the parent cylinder to the end of the nozzle as illustrated on the screen.
Once this is entered, PV Elite automatically calculates the projection ho, and this value replaces the red message
Please enter a valid "Proj" value to compute ho with the computed value of ho.
Click OK to return to the main Nozzle dialog. The appropriate values have been entered in the Layout Angle and
Projection boxes.
Hillside Nozzle in Head Data Entry
For more information, refer to Radial Nozzle in Head in the previous section for entry of this data.
Notes and Advantages for Hillside Nozzles
Often, hillside nozzles in heads are arranged such that the flange faces are all level in the same plane, as in the
illustration below:

Using the alternate method of entry for hillside nozzles in a head makes this arrangement very simple.

Nozzle Loading Analysis


On the Nozzle dialog there is a tab titled Local Stress Analysis [WRC 107 or Annex G]. Click this tab to enter
local loading information. PV Elite allows local loads to be entered for computing stresses to the British Code and
both local and global loads for computing stresses per the WRC 107 bulletin. Local loads are entered according to
the sketch that appears on the screen or according to the sketch shown in the 107 bulletin or Annex G as applicable.
When global loads are referenced, PV Elite is able to check loads against allowables using the guidelines in ASME
VIII-2. To do this, the global system of input must be utilized. The loads must be categorized into sustained,
expansion and occasional.
The piping loads are determined from a pipe stress analysis using CAESAR II. Notice in the picture below there are 2
icons under each column of loads. The Gold Pipe Intersection icon opens a text file that has allowable nozzle

5-30

Vessel Detail Data

loadings. This file is manipulated using the Excel icon at the lower right hand corner of the screen. This file can be
edited for various flange classes and projects. Different projects may have different allowable loads. When the
Gold Pipe Intersection icon is clicked, a project selection prompt appears and then PV Elite adds those loads directly
to the edit boxes. Note that in the Excel file the PV Elite main program directory must be specified properly. It
would normally be something like c:\program files\COADE\PV Elite. This will give you the maximum nozzle
loads to design for. When the adding of loads to the Excel file is complete, the Total Rows of Data cell must be
filled and then click the button Create Nozzle Load Text File to finish. Excel can then be closed.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-31

Another scenario is that actual piping loads are given. In this case the nozzle loads can be pulled directly out of the
CAESAR II output file. To do this you will need to know the nozzle node number on the CAESAR II model and the
direction cosines of the nozzle. Once the cosines and node numbers are entered, click the Piping Loads Lookup
icon. Browse for the C2 or ._A file as appropriate and select the load case from whose results are needed. These
values will then be placed into the column above the button that was clicked. Note that any load case can be
selected, but it is important to select the correct load case type from the CAESAR II output. After the loads are in the
input cells, the WRC 107 analysis will be performed.

5-32

Vessel Detail Data

Additional Reinforcing Pad Data


Pad Outside Diameter along Vessel Surface
Enter the outside diameter of the pad. The diameter of the pad is entered as the length along the vessel shell - not the
projected diameter around the nozzle, although these two values will be equal when the nozzle is at 90 degrees.

Pad Width
In many cases the desired pad width is known and the diameter is not known. When the pad width is entered, the
program will compute the pad outer diameter and update the screen accordingly. Internally PV Elite works with the
pad diameter and not the width.

Pad Thickness
Enter the pad thickness. Any allowances for external corrosion should be taken into account for the pad thickness.

Pad Weld Leg Size as Outside Diameter


Enter the size of one leg of the fillet weld between the pad OD and the shell. Note that if any part of this weld falls
outside the diameter limit, the weld will not be included in the available area.

Depth of Groove Weld between Pad and Nozzle Neck


Enter the total depth of the groove weld. Most groove welds between the pad and the nozzle are full penetration
welds. Thus the depth of the weld would be the same as the depth of the component, that is the thickness of the pad.
If the pad is attached with a partial penetration weld, or just a fillet weld, enter the depth of the partial penetration or
a zero, respectively, in this field.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-33

Pad Material
Enter the applicable code material specification as it appears in the material allowable tables. Alternatively, the
material can be selected from the Material Database by clicking the Pad Material button. If a material is not
contained in the database, its specification and properties can be entered manually.

ASME Code Weld Type


In many cases the Code does not require weld strength/path calculations for full penetration groove welds for
pressure loadings. If your weld detail is per UW-16.1 sketch (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f-1), (f-2), (f-3), (f-4), (g), (x-1),
(y-1) or (z-1) and you do not wish the program to perform the weld strength calculation, enter in a designation such
as A. If you wish PV Elite to perform this calculation regardless of the type of weld, leave this field blank. If it is a
type I, J, K, L, X-2, Y-2, Z-2 weld, then PV Elite will perform the additional weld size calculations per UW-16(d)(1).
This field is not applicable for PD 5500 or EN-13445.

Flange Type
This is the type of nozzle flange. This value is not used by the program, but is echoed out for documentation
purposes.

Flange Material
This is the material the flange is constructed of. This value is not used by the program, but is echoed out for
documentation purposes. The flange material should correspond to the type listed for the flange grade.

5-34

Vessel Detail Data

Lugs
The Support Lug Input dialog allows the entry of the support lug data. If no skirt or legs are defined for a vertical
vessel, the lowest set of lugs will be used as the vessel support point for dead load and live load calculations.

PV Elite allows the entry of one of three types of support lug geometries:
1 - simple geometry with gussets
2 - gusseted geometry with top plate
3 - gusseted geometry with continuous top ring
Depending on the type of geometry selected, additional data will need to be entered.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-35

Distance from Vessel OD to Lug Midpoint


This is the radial distance from the wall of the vessel to the point where the lug attaches to the structural steel.

Lug Bearing Width


This is the width of the structure that is in contact with the bottom lug support plate.

Radial Width of Bottom Support Plate


This is the distance the bottom support plate extends from the OD of the vessel. This value must be greater than or
equal to the average gusset width.

Length of Bottom Lug Support Plate


This value is typically equal to the distance between gussets plus two times the gusset plate thickness.

Thickness of Bottom Plate


This value is the thickness of the bottom support plate.

Distance between Gussets


This is the distance between the insides of the gusset plates.

Mean Width of Gussets


This value is equal to the gusset width at the top plus the gusset width at the bottom divided by two. PV Elite uses the
mean gusset width in order to compute the actual stresses in the gusset plates.

Height of Gussets
Enter the height of one gusset.

Thickness of Gussets
Enter the thickness of the gusset plate.

Radial Width of Top Plate/Ring


This is the radial dimension from the OD of the shell to the edge of the top plate. This value should be less than or
equal to the mean gusset width.

Thickness of Top Plate/Ring


Enter the thickness of the top plate, which sits above the gussets.

5-36

Vessel Detail Data

Overall Height of Lug


Enter the distance from the bottom of the support lug to the top.

Overall Width of Lug


Enter the width of the support lug.

Weight of One Lug


The program does not gather enough information to be able to do the detailed calculation of the support lug weight.
Therefore you must enter the actual weight of one support lug.

Number of Lugs
Enter the number of support lugs around the periphery of the vessel at this location.

Perform WRC 107 Calc


If the box is checked to perform the WRC 107 local stress and analysis, you will need to fill out the pad dimensions
(if there is a pad).

Pad Width
The reinforcing pad width is measured along the circumferential direction of the vessel. The pad width must be
greater than the attachment width. The length of the attachment is measured along the axis of the vessel. If the box is
checked to perform the analysis and the pad properties are filled in, the program will compute the stresses at the edge
of the attachment and the edge of the pad.

Pad Thickness
Enter the thickness o of the pad. Any allowances for the external corrosion should be taken in to account for the pad
thickness.

Pad Length
Enter the outside diameter of the pad. The diameter of the pad is entered as the length along the vessel shell - not the
projected diameter around the nozzle, though these two values will be equal when the nozzle is at 90 degrees.

Bolting Data
PV Elite also determines requirements for the bolting area for lug supported vessels. When the vessel is in an uplift
situation, there must be sufficient bolting area. Enter the following additional data:
Bolt Material Specification
Thread Type (TEMA, UNC etc.)
Nominal Bolt Diameter
Root Area of a Single bolt (if using user defined root area of a single bolt)
The information supplied above enables the program to determine the bolt area requirement.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-37

Weights
The Weight Dialog allows the entry of miscellaneous weight that cannot be entered by using any of the other
methods. Note that this is not an applied force, but a static mass that will affect the natural frequency of the vessel
and axial stress calculations. Piping can be modeled using the Weight Dialog. The area and mass of the piping will
be considered in the same manner as a weight.

Miscellaneous Weight
Enter a weight value. This could be generated by an attached piece of equipment such as a motor, by internals such
as piping, or by externals such as structural elements. Note that this value will affect the seismic analysis.

Offset from Centerline


Enter the distance of this generic weight from the centerline of the vessel. The value will be multiplied by the weight
to obtain a moment that will be a part of the stress calculations.

Is this a Welded Internal


This parameter tells PV Elite which category to add the weight.

5-38

Vessel Detail Data

Is this a Piping Detail?


The piping detail section of the Weight dialog allows the entry of piping data. Piping adds weight and increases the
effective wind area of the vessel. If the Piping Detail box is checked the following data items must be entered:
Pipe Outside Diameter
Pipe Thickness
Fluid Specific Gravity
Insulation Thickness
Insulation Density
After these items are entered, click Compute Weight and Area. This will compute the weight of this section of
pipe. The pipe length is assumed to be the length of the attached element.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-39

Forces and Moments


The Force/Moment Edit window allows input and editing of forces and moments that act on the vessel. In most
cases these are operating loads imposed on the vessel; usually piping loads on nozzles.

Force in X, Y, or Z Direction
Enter the force in the selected direction. Note that the Y direction is always vertically up, the X direction is from left
to right, and the Z direction is out of the page. Loads perpendicular to the vessel will be resolved into a single vector
and applied to create the worst combination with the live load. Unlike miscellaneous weight, this force is not
included in the seismic analysis.

5-40

Vessel Detail Data

Moment about X, Y, or Z Axis


Enter the moment about the selected axis. The rules stated for the forces apply here as well.

Acts During Wind or Seismic


If the force or moment acts during either the Wind or Seismic case, check the appropriate box. Please note you can
check both boxes but you must at least check one.

Force/Moment Combination Method


The Algebraic method gives the most accurate results. It accounts for signs on the forces that cause bending about
the skirt, lugs or legs. The SRSS method disregards the signs and will generate more conservative results. This
option is not used when the vessel is horizontal.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-41

Platforms
The Platform Dialog allows the entry of platform information for platforms which are attached to the current
element.

Platform Start Angle (degrees)


Enter the angle between the designated zero degree line of the vessel, and the start angle of the platform.

Platform End Angle (degrees)


Enter the angle between the designated zero degree line of the vessel, and the ending angle of the platform.

5-42

Vessel Detail Data

Platform Wind Area


Enter the tributary wind area of the platform if you do not agree with the program's computed value. Typically this
value will be the greatest span of the platform perpendicular to the vessel multiplied by a nominal platform height,
between 12 and 36 inches on the handrails and other equipment on the platform.

Platform Weight
Enter the weight of the platform if you wish to override the program's computed weight value.

Platform Railing Weight


Enter the weight of the railing in units of force/length in this field. The platform width, grating weight and railing
weight are used to compute the weight of the platform automatically when entering data on the dialog.

Platform Grating Weight


The grating is the plate that one stands on while standing on a platform. The platform width, grating weight and
railing weight are used to compute the weight of the platform automatically when entering data on the dialog.

Platform Width
Enter the radial width of the platform. The platform width, grating weight and railing weight are used to compute the
weight of the platform automatically when entering data on the dialog.

Platform Height
The platform height is the distance from the floor plate to the top handrail. This dimension is usually 42 inches. The
program uses this value to compute the wind area when one of the Wind area calculation buttons is clicked.

Platform Clearance
The platform clearance is distance between the outer shell surface and the inner diameter of the platform. The value
is used to compute the floor area of the platform.

Platform Force Coefficient


The force coefficient is a term used to compute the wind area and consequently the wind force acting on a platform.
This value is taken from ASCE7-95 from Table 6-9 and is referred to as Cf. A typical value for Cf is 1.2. This value
should always be greater than or equal to 1.0.

Platform Wind Area Calculation [Installation \ Misc. Options]


PV Elite can perform platform area wind calculations in one of four ways. The methods are
The height times the width times the force coefficient (conservative).
One half of the floor plate area times the force coefficient.
The height times the width times the force coefficient divided by 3.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-43

The projected area of the platform times the force coefficient divided by 3. Note that this option will yield the
same results as option 3 for platforms that have a sweep angle of greater than 180 degrees.
To have the program compute the area, enter the required data such as the platform height, width, start and end
angles and the force coefficient. As you enter the data the program will compute the result and insert it into the wind
area cell. If you want to use your own values, check the User Computes and Enters the Platform Area box.
Note: This option is not available on the Platform dialog, but is globally available in the Installation/Miscellaneous
Options dialog which is found under the Load Cases tab.

Platform Length (Non- Circular)


If the platform is the non-circular top head type, enter the long dimension of the platform.

5-44

Vessel Detail Data

Saddles
The Saddle Dialog allows data entry of saddle information for saddles that are attached to the current horizontal
cylinder. The size and location of the saddles are important for the Zick calculations of local stresses on horizontal
vessels with saddle supports. For proper Zick analysis, only two saddles may be defined and they do not have to be
symmetrically placed about the center of the vessel axis. If no saddles are defined for a horizontal vessel, the dead
load and live load calculations will not be performed.

Width of Saddle
Enter the width of the saddle support. This width does not include any wear pad on the vessel side.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-45

Centerline Dimension (B)


Enter the distance from the base of the saddle to the centerline of the vessel. This is referred to as dimension "B" in
some pressure vessel texts. This value is used in determining additional saddle loads due to wind or seismic events.

Saddle Contact Angle (degrees)


Enter the angle contained between the two 'horns' (contact points) of the saddle, measured from the axial center of
the vessel. Typically this value ranges from 120 to 150 degrees.

Height of Composite Stiffener


Enter the overall height of the composite stiffener over the saddle (if there is one).

Width of Wear Plate


Enter the width of the wear plate between the vessel and the saddle support.

Thickness of Wear Plate


Enter the thickness of the wear plate between the vessel and the saddle support.

Wear Plate Contact Angle (degrees)


Enter the angle contained from one edge of the wear plate to the other edge, measured from the axial center of the
vessel. Typically this value is approximately 130 degrees.

Saddle Dimension A
This distance is the length between the centerline of the saddle support and the tangent line of the nearest head. This
dimension is usually labeled A in most pressure vessel texts.

Perform Saddle Check


By checking this box and entering the following information PV Elite will perform a structural design check on the
saddle supports.

Material Yield Stress


Enter the yield stress for the saddles at their design temperature.

E for Plates
Enter the modulus of elasticity for the material used to make the saddles.

5-46

Vessel Detail Data

Baseplate Length
This is the long dimension of the baseplate, which is in contact with the supporting surface. This value is comparable
with the vessel diameter.

Baseplate Width
This is the short dimension (Width) of the baseplate.

Baseplate Thickness
This is the thickness of the baseplate support.

Number of Ribs
The ribs run parallel to the long axis of the vessel. Enter the number of ribs on one saddle support.

Rib Thickness
Enter the thickness of the rib supports.

Web Thickness
The web is the part of the support structure to which the ribs are attached. Enter the thickness of the web here.

Web Location
There are 2 possible locations for the webs, center or side. Pull down and select the appropriate choice.

Height of Center Web


Enter the distance from the bottom of the center rib to the top plus the thickness of the shell.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-47

Trays
The Tray Dialog allows the user to enter and edit one set of equally spaced trays with a set liquid height for the
current element. The Distance from "From" Node will be to the bottom of the lowest tray. Trays may only be entered
for vertical vessels.

Number of Trays
Enter the number of trays for the current element.

Tray Spacing
Enter the vertical distance between trays.

Tray Weight Per Unit Area


Enter the unit weight of each tray. Do not enter the total weight, since the program will multiply the unit weight by
the cross sectional area of the element.

Height of Liquid on Tray


Enter the height of the liquid on each tray.

Density of Liquid on Tray


Enter the density of the liquid on each tray.

5-48

Vessel Detail Data

Legs
The Leg Dialog allows the user to input data for the legs that are attached to the current element. Legs may be
entered for vertical vessels that have no skirt element.

Distance from Outside Diameter: or Diameter at Leg Centerline


For shell elements enter the distance between the centerline of the leg to the element outside diameter. Usually, this
data is the half value of the leg's width. For heads where the legs may not necessarily attach at the vessel OD but
somewhere else along the head, enter the distance between the centerlines of two legs that are opposite to one
another. If there are an odd number of legs (therefore no two are opposite), then enter the diameter of a circle drawn

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-49

through the centerlines of the legs; this would be the outside diameter at the head attachment elevation plus the depth
of the leg.

Leg Orientation
Select the orientation of the leg to the centerline. Weak, Strong and diagonal are acceptable selections.

Number of Legs
Enter the number of legs. This value should be greater than or equal to 3.

Section Identifier
Enter the section identifier for the vessel. The program has several databases of structural shapes. The Section ID
database may be displayed by clicking the Section ID button. The section identifier can be selected directly from the
database.

Length of Legs
Enter the distance from the attachment point of the leg to the base.

Vessel Translates During Occasional Load


If the Perform WRC 107 Analysis check box has been enabled, the translation check box will be active. The state
of this check box informs PV Elite how the longitudinal moment is to be calculated. When the box is checked, this
will produce a more conservative longitudinal moment than when the box is left unchecked. If you are unsure, verify
the box is checked.

5-50

Vessel Detail Data

Packing
The Packing Dialog allows the entry of packing data.

Height of Packed Section


Enter the height of the packed section on this element. This value is used only to calculate the weight of the packed
section. For seismic calculations the weight center of the packed section will be taken at half this height.
Note that if you have a packed horizontal vessel (rare) the value entered in this cell will be the length of the packed
section.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-51

Density of Packing
Enter the density of the packing. The following table lists some typical densities, shown in lbs/ft3. Note that the
densities should be converted if you are using another units system.
Size (in.)

Density (lb/ft3)

Size (in.)

Density (lb/ft3)

Ceramic Raschig Ring

Carbon Raschig Ring

1/4

60.0

1/4

46.0

3/8

61.0

1/2

27.0

1/2

55.0

3/4

34.0

5/8

56.0

27.0

3/4

50.0

1 1/4

31.0

42.0

1 1/2

34.0

1 1/4

46.0

27.0

1 1/2

46.0

23.0

41.0

Carbon Steel Pall Ring


3

37.0

5/8

37.0

36.0

30.0

1 1/2

26.0

24.0

Carbon Steel Raschig Ring


1/4

133.0

3/8

94.0

Plastic Pall Ring


1/2

75.0

5/8

7.25

5/8

62.0

5.50

3/4

52.0

1 1/2

4.75

39.0

4.50

1 1/2

42.0

4.50

37.0

25.0

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Vessel Detail Data

Liquid
The Liquid Dialog allows entry and editing of liquid data in the model.

Height/Length of Liquid
Enter the height or length of the liquid on this element. This value is used only to calculate the weight of the liquid
section. For seismic calculations the weight center of the liquid section will be taken at half this height. This value is
also used to calculate the operating pressure at all points below the liquid.

Liquid Density
Enter the density of the liquid. Some typical specific gravities and densities are shown below in lbs/ft3. Note that the
densities should be converted if you use another units system.
Name

Gravity

Density (lb/ft3)

Ethane

0.3564

22.23

Propane

0.5077

31.66

N-butane

0.5844

36.44

Iso-butane

0.5631

35.11

N-Pentane

0.6247

38.96

Iso-Pentane

0.6247

38.96

N-hexane

0.6640

41.41

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-53

Name

Gravity

Density (lb/ft3)

2-methypentane

0.6579

41.03

3-methylpentane

0.6689

41.71

2,2-dimethylbutane

0.6540

40.78

2,3-dimethylbutane

0.6664

41.56

N-heptane

0.6882

42.92

2-methylheptane

0.6830

42.59

3-methylheptane

0.6917

43.13

2,2-dimethylpentane

0.6782

42.29

2,4-dimethylpentane

0.6773

42.24

1,1-dimethylcyclopentane

0.7592

47.34

N-octane

0.7068

44.08

Cyclopentane

0.7504

46.79

Methylcyclopentane

0.7536

46.99

Cyclohexane

0.7834

48.85

Methylcyclohexane

0.7740

48.27

Benzene

0.8844

55.15

Toluene

0.8718

54.37

Alcohol

0.7900

49.26

Ammonia

0.8900

55.50

Benzine

0.6900

43.03

Gasoline

0.7000

43.65

Kerosene

0.8000

49.89

Mineral oil

0.9200

57.37

Petroleum oil

0.8200

51.14

5-54

Vessel Detail Data

Insulation
The Insulation Edit Dialog allows the user to input and edit the data of the insulation, which is attached to the
current element.

Height/Length of Insulation / Fireproofing


Enter the height or length of the insulation on this element. This value is used only to calculate the weight of the
insulation. For seismic calculations the weight center of the insulated section will be taken at half this height.
Note that if you have insulation on a horizontal vessel the value entered in this cell will be the length of the insulated
section. Note also that the only distinction between insulation and lining, from the program's point of view, is that
insulation is on the OD of the element, while lining is on the ID of the element. Therefore, use the insulation field to
enter OD fireproofing, and the lining field to enter ID fireproofing.

Thickness of Insulation or Fireproofing


Enter the thickness of the insulation or fireproofing.

Insulation Density
Enter the insulation density. The following table lists some typical densities, shown in lbs/ft3. Note that the densities
should be converted if you are using another units system.
Name

Density

Calcium Silicate

22.5

Foam Glass

16.0

Mineral Wool

14.0

Glass Fiber

11.0

Asbestos

30.0

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-55

Name

Density

Careytemp

18.0

Kaylo 10

22.0

Perlite/Celo-temp 1500

23.0

Polyurethane

4.0

Styrofoam

3.0

5-56

Vessel Detail Data

Lining
The Lining Edit Dialog allows the user to input and edit the data of the lining, which is attached to the current
element.

Height/Length of Lining
Enter the height or length of the lining on this element. This value is used only to calculate the weight of the lined
section. For seismic calculations the weight center of the lined section will be taken at half this height.
Note that if you have lining in a horizontal vessel the value entered in this cell will be the length of the lined section.

Thickness of Lining
Enter the thickness of the lining or fireproofing. Note that the only distinction between insulation and lining, from
the program's point of view, is that insulation is on the OD of the element, while lining is on the ID of the element.
Therefore, use the insulation field to enter OD fireproofing, and the lining field to enter ID fireproofing.

Density of Lining
Enter the density of the insulation, lining, or packing. The following table lists some typical densities, shown in
lbs/ft3. Note that the densities should be converted if you are using another units system.
Name

Density (lbs/ft3)

Alumina Brick

170.0

Fire Clay

130.0

High Alumina

130.0

Kaolin

135.0

Magnesite

180.0

Silica

110.0

Concrete

140.0

Cement

100.0

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-57

Half Pipe Jacket


Introduction
PV Elite is capable of performing the analysis of half-pipe jackets in accordance with ASME Code, Section VIII,
Division 1 rules Appendix EE. The half-pipe jacket can be installed on cylindrical shells, and the jacket pitch, total
length and half-pipe nominal diameter are taken into account.

Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis


PV Elite performs required thickness and Maximum Allowable Working Pressure calculations for cylindrical shells
with half-pipe jackets attached. The module is based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII,
Division 1. Specifically, the calculation is based on the rules in Paragraph EE-1, Appendix EE.
It is important to note the limitations of this analysis. First, the half-pipe jacket analysis performed is only valid for
the cylindrical geometries shown in Figure EE-4. These are the only two geometries addressed by paragraph EE-1.
The second limitation of the HALF-PIPE analysis is the acceptable Nominal Pipe Sizes. Appendix EE only includes
charts for Nominal Pipe Sizes 2, 3, and 4. Nominal Pipe Sizes greater than 4 or less than 2 will not be accepted in the
input. Although there are no charts for Nominal Pipe Sizes 2.5 and 3.5, the HALF-PIPE Module will accept these
sizes and perform iterations between the given charts. Additionally, if the half-pipe is a nonstandard pipe size or has
a formed radius, the actual radius is used in the calculations.
The HALF-PIPE module takes full account of corrosion allowance. Actual thickness values and corrosion
allowances are entered, and the program adjusts thicknesses and diameters when making calculations for the
corroded condition.

Figure A - HALF-PIPE Module Acceptable Geometries

5-58

Vessel Detail Data

Discussion of Input Data


Before attempting to add a half-pipe, ensure the component to which the half-pipe is to be attached is a cylindrical
shell; otherwise, PV Elite will not be able to work.

Click

to activate the Half Pipe Jacket Input screen.

Main Input Fields


Jacket Description
Enter a description that will be used in the report generated by PV Elite.
Distance from "From" Node
Use the illustration below to enter the distance in this field.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-59

Length along Shell of Jacket section


Enter the Length along the shell as illustrated above.
Pitch Spacing
Enter the pitch between the centers of adjacent half-pipes.
Jacket Design Temperature
Enter the Design Temperature of the half-pipe jacket (this is not necessarily the design temperature of the parent
shell).
Jacket Design Pressure
Enter the Design Pressure of the fluid inside the half-pipe jacket.
Jacket Material
Clicking

enables users to select the desired material from the drop down list.

Jacket Corrosion Allowance


Enter the internal corrosion allowance of the half-pipe jacket.

Pipe Dimension from the PV Elite Internal Pipe Dimension Database


Click Pipe... to display the Pipe Selection dialog and select a standard pipe.

5-60

Vessel Detail Data

Nominal Pipe Diameter (in)


Select the nominal diameter of the pipe.
Pipe Schedule
Select the pipe schedule number
Deduct Mill Tolerance from Thickness?
If the mill undertolerance (usually 12-1/2% on pipe thickness), then check this box. PV Elite will then reduce the
thickness by the mill undertolerance.
For Users Preferring to Enter the Pipe Dimensions follow these instructions:
Jacket Thickness
Enter the actual half-pipe wall thickness.

Inside Radius of Formed Jacket / or / Nominal Pipe Size


The user is given the option of choosing a nominal pipe diameter from the PV Elite internal pipe database,

or users may enter the actual internal radius of the half-pipe.

Nominal Pipe Size

This is an alternative drop down list box where users can select a standard pipe from the PV Elite Internal Pipe
database.
Contents Specific Gravity
Enter the specific gravity (SG) of the fluid inside the half-pipe jacket. This value is used when PV Elite computes the
vessel weights.
Calculator
Enables users to see the half-pipe analysis computation without having to analyze the whole vessel. A mini-screen
displays containing the calculation results, thus allowing the user to see where problems with the design may exist.

Chapter 5 Vessel Detail Data

5-61

Clip Analysis
The Clip dialog allows entry of clip support information on cylinders as well as elliptical, torispherical and spherical
heads. Clips are used to carry load from piping, ladders, platforms etc. These loads along with the pressure cause
local stress at the support location. Bulletin WRC 107 is used to compute these local stresses which are then
compared to calculated allowables.

Based on the figure in the upper right portion of the dialog enter the dimensions and other clip properties. The
sustained, expansion and occasional loads on the clip must be determined from an appropriate analysis and entered
in. Clips that support piping will generally need to have loads in all categories, while platform clips will generally
have only sustained and occasional loads.

5-62

Vessel Detail Data

Lifting Lug Analysis


PV Elite addresses both flat and ear type lifting lugs. The perpendicular type is used on horizontal vessels and the flat
type is used on vertical vessels. When the Lifting Lug button is pressed, the following dialog will be invoked.

Perpendicular Lifting Lug Dialog

As with other details fill out the dimensional and other data for the lifting lugs as required in the dialog. Based on
the placement of the lugs, PV Elite will determine the reactions on each lug and determine the stresses in the lug itself
as well as the stress in the welds. Additionally, the stress in the shell will be determined using the WRC 107 method.
For vertical vessels, the lug type will be flat. Flat lugs are generally placed near the top head. Great care should be
used to insure there is adequate room in which to fit the lifting shackle. For flat lugs, PV Elite assumes that a
spreader bar is used to insure there is no inward (weak axis) bending on the lug. If there will be an inward force, the
tangential force needs to be computed and entered in on the dialog. The analysis of the lifting event is taken from 0
to 90 degrees. The reactions and stresses in the lugs are computed at 1 degree increments. The worst case stresses
are displayed in the report. like the perpendicular lug calculation, the stresses in the shell are calculated using the
WRC 107 method.

CH AP TER

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data


In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 6-2
Design Data ................................................................................ 6-3
Installation Options..................................................................... 6-7
Design Modification ................................................................... 6-10
Nozzle Design Modifications ..................................................... 6-13
Wind & Seismic Data ................................................................. 6-15
Wind Data................................................................................... 6-15
ASCE Wind Data........................................................................ 6-16
UBC Wind Data.......................................................................... 6-18
NBC Wind Data.......................................................................... 6-19
ASCE 95 Wind Data................................................................... 6-20
IS 875 Wind Code ...................................................................... 6-22
User-Defined Wind Profile......................................................... 6-24
Mexican Wind Code 1993 .......................................................... 6-25
British Wind Code BS-6399 ....................................................... 6-30
Brazilian Wind Code NBR 6123 ................................................ 6-33
China's Wind Code GB 50009.................................................... 6-36
EN-2005 ..................................................................................... 6-37
NBC-2005 Wind Data ................................................................ 6-38
Seismic Data ............................................................................... 6-39
ASCE 7-88 Seismic Data............................................................ 6-40
ASCE7-93 Seismic Data............................................................. 6-42
UBC Seismic Data...................................................................... 6-43
NBC Seismic Data...................................................................... 6-44
India's Earthquake Standard IS-1893 RSM and SCM ................ 6-46
ASCE - 95 Seismic Data............................................................. 6-47
Seismic Load Input in G's........................................................... 6-47
UBC 1997 Earthquake Data ....................................................... 6-48
IBC-2000 Earthquake Parameters............................................... 6-50
Response Spectrum..................................................................... 6-52
China's GB 50011 - 2001............................................................ 6-57
AS/NZ-1170.4 - 1993/2007 ........................................................ 6-58

6-2

General Vessel Data

Introduction
The information on the Design Constraint tab allows entry of global design data that the program will use as
defaults before the model is created. Depending on the design code, the information gathered may differ slightly
examples could include the hydrotest type, construction type and degree of radiography.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-3

Design Data
Following is a discussion of the design data parameters that are used for overall vessel analysis:

Design Internal Pressure


Enter the specified design internal pressure for the vessel. This value is used as general design data and also to set the
UG-99(b) footnote 33 hydrotest pressure.

Design External Pressure


If the vessel is required to be rated for vacuum conditions, enter the design external pressure here. PV Elite will use
this value as a default when the model is constructed.

Design Internal Temperature


This value is used by the input echo to help insure the correct design data was entered. The analysis portion of the
program does not use this value.

Design External Temperature


If the vessel is required to be rated for vacuum conditions, enter the design external pressure here. PV Elite will use
this value as a default when the model is constructed.

Datum Line Distance


Enter the location of the datum line from the first elements from node. After this is done you can use the list
command to enter the locations of nozzles, platforms, etc. from the datum line.

Hydrotest Type
The Internal Pressure Calculations report from PV Elite will list hydrotest pressures for all three test types described
below. It is important to properly identify the information requested throughout this input group. That is, even
though Hydrotest Test Position, Projection from Top, Projection from Bottom, and Flange Distance to Top are not
used for ASME UG-99(b) or for ASME UG-99(b) footnote 33, these data are necessary to report the proper
hydrostatic test pressure for ASME UG-99(c).
Select the hydrotest type. The analysis program provides three different ways to determine hydrotest pressure:
1 - ASME UG-99(b)
The hydrotest pressure will be 1.3 times the maximum allowable working pressure for the vessel multiplied by
the lowest ratio of the stress value Sa for the test temperature to the stress value S for the design temperature.
This type of hydrotest is normally used for non-carbon steel vessels where the allowable stress changes with
temperature starting even at a somewhat low temperature. If Appendix body flanges have been specified, the
bolt allowable stresses are included in determining Sa/S.
2 - ASME UG-99(c)
The hydrotest pressure will be determined by multiplying the minimum MAP by 1.3 and reducing this value by
the hydrostatic head on that element or flange. If the vessel is tested in the horizontal position, the hydrostatic

6-4

General Vessel Data


head will be based on the maximum shell diameter plus the Projection from Top plus the Projection from Bottom
specified later in this input group. If the vessel is tested in the vertical position and a vessel element sets the
minimum MAP, then the hydrostatic head is set by the distance of that element from the top of the vessel plus
the Projection from Top. If the vessel is tested in the vertical position and a flange has the minimum MAP, the
hydrostatic head is composed of the Flange Distance to Top plus the Projection from Top.
3 - ASME UG-99(b) footnote 33
The hydrotest pressure will be 1.3 times the Design Internal Pressure specified at the beginning of this input
group, multiplied by the lowest ratio of the stress value Sa for the test temperature to the stress value S for the
design temperature.

Hydrotest Position
This input is required so that the total static head can be determined and subtracted in accordance with UG-99(c).
This field is used in conjunction with the Projection from Top, Projection from Bottom, and Flange Distance to
Top fields to determine the total static head.
Select one of the following Hydrotest Positions.
Hydrotest Position

Description

Vertical

The vessel would be tested in the upright or vertical position. Note that not very many
vessels are tested in the vertical position.

Horizontal

This is the position for the majority of vessels tested. The vessel would normally be on
its side (in the case of a vertical vessel) or in its normal position (for a horizontal vessel).

Projection from Top


Enter the distance from the outer surface of the vessel in its test position to the face of the highest flange in the test
position. This distance is added to the height (for vertical test positions) or to the maximum diameter of the vessel
(for horizontal test positions) to determine the static head for the UG-99(c) hydrostatic test.

Projection from Bottom


Enter this distance from the outer surface of the vessel in its test position to the face of the lowest flange in the test
position. This distance is added to the height (for vertical test positions) or to the maximum vessel diameter (for
horizontal test positions) to determine the static head for the UG-99(c) hydrostatic test.

Min. Metal Temperature


Enter the specified minimum design metal temperature for the vessel. This value is listed in the Internal Pressure
Calculations report for comparison with the calculated UCS-66 minimum temperature.

Flange Distance to Top


If a flange controls the MAP of the vessel, the hydrostatic head associated with that flange may be important in
determining the overall MAP of the vessel. The value entered here will be used by PV Elite to calculate the
hydrostatic head at this point and adjust the UG-99(c) MAP for vertically tested vessels. Once the controlling flange
is identified (usually through a previous analysis) the distance from that flange to the top of the vessel is entered in
this field. If the vessel is to be tested in the vertical position in accordance with UG-99(c), this value and the
"Projection from Top" will be used to adjust hydrostatic test pressure should a (the) flange govern.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-5

Construction Type
Select the type of construction to be included on the nameplate. This data is for information only; it is reported in the
input echo. Available types of construction display below:
Type

Description

Welded

Welded

Pressure Welded

Pressure Welded

Brazed

Brazed

Resistance Welded

Resistance Welded

Special Service
Select the type of special service in which the vessel will be used. This data is for information only; it is reported in
the input echo. Available types of special service display below:
Field Name

Description

None

None

Lethal

Lethal Service

Unfired Steam

Unfired Steam Boiler

Direct Firing

Direct Firing

Non-stationary

Non-stationary Pressure Vessel

Degree of Radiography
Select the symbolic representation of the degree of radiography. This data is for information only; it is reported in the
input echo. Options include:
ASME VIII-1

Description

RT-1

When the complete vessel satisfies the full radiography requirements of UW-11(a) and when the spot
radiography provisions of UW-11(a)(5)(b) have not been applied.

RT-2

When the complete vessel satisfies the full radiography requirements of UW-11(a)(5) and when the
spot radiography provisions of UW-11(a)(5)(b) have been applied.

RT-3

When the complete vessel satisfies the spot radiography requirements of UW-11(b).

RT-4

When only part of the vessel has met the other category requirements, or when none of the other
requirements are applied.

Miscellaneous Weight
Many designers like to include extra weight to account for vessel attachments and internals not otherwise included in
the models. The total weight of the vessel is multiplied by 1.0 plus this percent (i.e., 1.03, 1.05). The two most
common choices are 3.0 or 5.0.

6-6

General Vessel Data

Use Higher Longitudinal Stresses?


Checking this selection will increase the allowable stresses for vessel loads which include wind or earthquake by
twenty percent. The ASME Code (Section VIII, Division 1, Paragraph UG-23(d)) allows the allowable stress for the
combination of earthquake loading, or wind loading with other loadings to be increased by a factor of 1.2.

Consider Vortex Shedding?


For vertical vessels, which are susceptible to wind induced oscillations, check this field. This will cause the program
to compute fatigue stresses based on loads generated by wind flutter. The program will then go on to compute the
number of hours of safe operation remaining under the wind vibration conditions.

User Defined MAWP/MAPnc


Normally PV Elite computes the MAWP and the MAPnc based on pressure ratings for the elements and ANSI
flanges. In some cases it may be necessary to override the program's generated results with a pre-defined value.
If this value is zero it will be ignored by the program. This is the default behavior.

User Defined Hydrostatic Test Pressure


Normally the program computes the hydrostatic test pressure. It is then used to determine the stresses on the
elements when subjected to this pressure. If this value is greater than 0, PV Elite will use this pressure plus the
applicable hydrostatic head, which will be computed based on the hydrotest position. If this value is 0, the program
will use the computed value based on the hydrotest type and position.

Corroded Hydrotest?
By default PV Elite uses the uncorroded wall thickness when the stresses on the elements during the hydrotest are
computed. In some cases it is necessary to hydrotest the vessel after it has corroded. If you wish to use a corroded
thickness in the calculations, check this box. Please note that longitudinal stresses due to Hydrostatic test pressure
will also be computed in a similar manner.

Is This a Heat Exchanger


If the Dimensional Solutions 3D file interface button is checked, PV Elite will write out an ASCII text file that
contains the geometry and loading information for this particular vessel design. If this box is checked, the program
will simply write this data out to the Jobname.ini file created in the current working directory.

Hydrotest Allowable is 90 percent of Yield


If you wish to ignore using 1.3 times Sa for the allowable, then check this box. This applies only for Division 1
vessel designs. Checking and un-checking this box will cause PV Elite to recompute the hydrotest allowable.

ASME Steel Stack


If you are designing a cylindrical ASME Steel Stack and wish to have PV Elite analyze allowables and stress
combinations per ASME STS-2006, then check this box. Please note the design code must be set to ASME VIII-1.
Otherwise, the program will not attempt to analyze per STS-2006. Note that on the grid, next to the ASME Steel
Stack heading there is a list expansion button. When pressed it will either collapse or expand the remaining stack
entries. These are the ASCE wind exposure and the importance factor. Please note that other wind codes can be
used, but the exposure is a required entry.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-7

Installation Options
The installation options shown below allow the specification of where the equipment such as platforms, insulation,
lining, etc. will be installed. This information is used to calculate the center of gravity of the vessel in both the shop
and the field (operating) positions.
Additionally, when computing such items as the fabricated weight, operating weight, empty weight, etc., PV Elite will
consider these detail weights as appropriate for the various weight cases.

Platform Area Calculation Method


PV Elite uses the area of the platforms in the computation of forces that are applied to the vessel during the wind
loading analysis. Unfortunately, there is no standard method for computing the amount of area that a platform
provides for wind load calculations. Select one of the 4 options in the pull down box: This selection will be used to
compute the wind area for all platforms specified in this job. If you decide to change this option after the model has
been created, you will need to recompute the areas for these platforms. Click the list button and once the list dialog
appears, all of the platform wind areas can be recomputed by clicking the button.

Stiffener Type
For ASME VIII-1 and VIII-2 the program has the ability to determine the maximum stiffener spacing and add rings
to the model. If you have selected this position to model, it can select an appropriate stiffener from the AISC or
selected database. If you have a non-AISC database selected, be sure the selected stiffener type exists in the database.
The stiffener types are:
Equal Angle
Unequal Angle (hard way shown)
Double Angles with large or small sides back to back
Channels
Wide Flanges
Structural Tees
Bar
For the bar ring design, the program will design a ring with an aspect ratio of 10 to 1.00.
The height of the ring is 10 times its thickness. The minimum ring width the program will start out with is 0.5 inches
or 12mm.

For Angle Sections Rolled the Hard Way


If the stiffener above is an angle type, they are frequently rolled to have the strong axis of the ring perpendicular to
the vessel wall. If they are rolled the hard way check this box.

Bar Thickness to Use Designing


When the Bar Ring option is selected the program must have a thickness to use when computing a suitable ring. For
the ring design, the program will generate a ring with a 10 to 1 aspect ratio. In other words, the width of the ring will
be 10 times bigger.

6-8

General Vessel Data

This value can be left blank. If it is left blank, the program will use a default thickness of 0.375 inches or 9 mm.
When computing the ring width to meet the moment of inertia requirements.

Rigging Data
The rigging analysis calculates and locates the bending and shear stresses created during erection process. Where the
vessel is lifted from the horizontal position at two lifting points up to the vertical position where the vessel is set onto
the foundation. The safety of the maximum combined stresses is also analyzed using the unity check method. This
analysis however, does not evaluate the design of any rigging attachment such as, lugs, shackles, cables etc
Rigging analysis is performed when the vessel is in the horizontal position where the combinations of stresses are at
its maximum. The torsional effect is not considered in this analysis. The vessel is erected using two lifting points
where the tail and lifting lugs are located. The design weight of the vessel is calculated by multiplying the erected
empty weight, including internals and externals, with an impact factor to simulate the initial lift.
The rigging analysis reports the field and design weight of the vessel, the center of gravity, the reaction forces at the
lifting points, the location for the maximum bending and shear stresses, and the unity check. As a comparison, the
allowable bending (per UG-23) and shear (0.4 Sy @ ambient) stresses are also reported, and can be plotted with the
fore-mentioned parameters.
The stresses are calculated in 1-foot increments along the vessel taking into account the varying diameter and
thickness of the shell. A circular cross sectional shape is assumed throughout the vessel sections with no corrosion
allowance included for the thicknesses. Node numbering starts at the base of the vessel and ends at the top section of
the vessel where the straight line ended. For elliptical heads, the end node is the end of the straight-line portion. Thus
the total height of the vessel is the elevation of the last node.

Impact Factor
PV Elite can perform a rigging (combined shear plus bending stress) analysis granted that the vessel has a support
such as a skirt and the impact factor and lug elevations defined.
When the vessel is lifted from the ground, it may be yanked suddenly. The impact factor takes this into account. This
value typically ranges from 1.5 to 2.0, although values as high as 3.0 may be entered in. The impact factor effectively
increases the overall weight of the vessel by the impact factor. If you do not wish to perform the rigging analysis, set
the impact factor to 0.

Lug Distances from Base


You will have to enter two distances (one in each field) to perform the rigging analysis. These distances are
measured from the bottom of the vertical vessel or from the left end of the horizontal vessel. It does not matter which
dimension goes in which box. The lesser distance will be the minimum of the two values.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-9

Select from Standard Bar Ring List


If this box is checked and the program is set to add reinforcing rings during runtime, PV Elite will check all rings
from smallest to largest and determine the minimum ring that will satisfy the moment of inertia requirements per
UG-29(a) or Appendix 1-5 or 1-8 in the case of cone cylinder junction ring design. A list of sizes is shown in the
table below:
Ring Thickness (in.)

Ring Width (in.)

1/4

1.5

1.75

2.0

2.5

...

3/16

2.5

...

...

...

...

3/8

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

1/2

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

5/8

5.0

6.0

...

...

...

3/4

5.0

5.5

6.0

8.0

...

7/8

6.0

8.0

...

...

...

6.0

8.0

10.0

11.0

...

1.25

8.0

10.0

12.0

...

...

1.5

8.0

10.0

12.0

...

...

12.0

18.0

...

...

...

30.0

...

...

...

...

Saddle Calculation Option


Choose the appropriate option, ASME VIII-2 or PD-5500. Either option will work for any code.

Use New Metal Weights for Saddle Calcs.


By default PV Elite uses the corroded metal weight when determining saddle loads for the operating condition. If you
wish to use the new metal weight to determine the saddle load, check the box.

Number of Intermediate Support to be used during the Hydrotest


When some larger vessels are hydrotested after construction, a number of intermediate supports may be placed under
the vessel to keep the saddle stresses below their allowables. If this is the case, type in the number of intermediate
supports that will be used. This value can range from 0 to 20.

6-10

General Vessel Data

Design Modification
Select Wall Thickness for Internal Pressure
If the user toggles on this button and the required element thickness for internal pressure exceeds the user's finished
thickness for the element, the program will increase the user's finished thickness to meet or exceed the thickness
required for internal pressure. PV Elite will exceed the required thickness only if the round off switch is activated in
the program configuration (the round off will bump the thickness up to the next 1/8 inch in English units or to the
next millimeter in metric units). The program will perform this calculation automatically as the model data is being
typed in. Check this box before any part of the vessel has been modeled. If the given thickness is greater than the
required thickness, then the program will not alter the given value.
Note that during the input phase, the program cannot check the required thickness for flanges. That check will be
performed during the analysis phase.

Select Wall Thickness for External Pressure


If this check box is checked the program will calculate the required thickness of each element (or group of elements)
and increase the given thickness appropriately for the external pressure. Note that if the user selects this button, the
program will not calculate stiffening rings for the external pressure.
After the analysis the program may prompt stating that the input file has been modified. If any of the elements have
been thickened, simply select "yes" to the prompt and your model will be updated with the current changes.

Select Stiffening Rings for External Pressure


If the user toggles on this button, the program will calculate the location and size stiffening rings needed for the
external pressure. Note that if the user selects this button, the program will not modify thickness for the external
pressure.
After the analysis the program may prompt stating that the input file has been modified. If any rings have been
added, simply select "yes" to the prompt and your model will be updated with the current changes.
Please note that in order to do this the program computes the allowable length between stiffeners. This result must
come out to be some reasonable value. If the maximum stiffened is too small, the program will not be able to add
rings. In that case, you must increase the thickness of the shell and try the design again. Also note that the heads
must also be properly designed for external pressure. Please verify that the thickness for external pressure is
adequate.

Select Wall Thickness for Axial Stress


If the user toggles on this button he program will calculate the required thickness of each element (or group of
elements) for longitudinal loadings (wind, earthquake, weight of vertical vessels) and increase the given thickness
appropriately for the axial stress. PV Elite will exceed the required thickness only if the round off switch is activated
in the program configuration (the round off will bump the thickness up to the next 1/8 inch in English units or to the
next millimeter in metric units).

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-11

Load Case
The program performs calculations for various combinations of internal pressure, external pressure, hydrotest
pressure, wind load, and seismic load. You can define up to twelve combinations of these loadings for the program to
evaluate. Load cases are defined by a string that shows the loads to be added, i.e. "IP+OW+WI", which would be the
sum of internal pressure plus operating weight plus wind. Typical definitions for the load cases are shown below,
followed by the definition of the load case abbreviations:
Load Case Abbreviations
NP

No Pressure

IP

Internal Pressure

EP

External Pressure

HP

Hydrotest Pressure

EW

Empty Weight

OW

Operating Weight

HW

Hydrotest Weight

WI

Wind Load

EQ

Earthquake Load

HE

Hydrotest Earthquake

HI

Hydrotest Wind

WE

Wind Bending Empty New and Cold

WF

Wind Bending Filled New and Cold

CW

Axial Weight Stress New and Cold

FS

Axial Stress due to Applied Axial Forces (Seismic Case)

FW

Axial Stress due to Applied Axial Forces (Wind Case)

BW

Bending Stress due to Lat. Forces for the Wind Case, Corroded

BS

Bending Stress due to Lat. Forces for the Seismic Case, Corroded

BN

Bending Stress due to Lat. Forces for the Wind Case, UnCorroded

BU

Bending Stress due to Lat. Forces for the Seismic Case, UnCorroded

If you checked the box to perform vortex shedding calculations, the following load case descriptors may be used:
Load Case Descriptors
VO

Bending Stress due to Vortex Shedding Loads (Ope)

VE

Bending Stress due to Vortex Shedding Loads (Emp)

VF

Bending Stress due to Vortex Shedding Loads (Test No CA.)

The live loads (wind and earthquake) are calculated for two conditions - operating and hydrotest. In both cases, the
basic loads calculated are identical but the hydrotest live loads are usually a fraction of the operating live load. These
hydrostatic fractions (percents) are entered in the live load definitions.

Use Load Case Scalars


The Use and allow Editing of local scalars in the Load Cases check box must be checked in order to use load case
scalars as described below. If the box is not checked the values will not be used and the global scalars will be used
instead.

6-12

General Vessel Data

PV Elite version 2007 allows individual load case descriptors to have their own scale factors. These factors scale the
stresses produced by the corresponding load case component. For example 1.25EQ would produce an earthquake
stress 1.25 times higher than the design earthquake stress. An example of a complete load case would be:
IP+OW+0.7143EQ+FS+BS
This facility allows designers to comply with a variety of loading scenarios. Another application of this may be that
fractions of wind and seismic loads can be added together in the same load case. ASME states that doing this is not
required; however, some design institutions mandate this practice. Here is another example:
0.7EQ+0.25WI+OW
Notice that there is no need to put a star (*) in front of each descriptor. If this box is not checked then values of 1.0
will be used for scalar multipliers. However, if there is a global scalar for wind or seismic specified, that value will
be used. Please note that this is for vertical vessels only. During the stress calculations, the maximum stress is
saved at the location of the support (skirt base, lug, leg). Knowing the section properties, the moment needed to
create that stress can be computed and used in the skirt, lug or leg calculation as required.
Any load case component can have a scalar specified. It is not meaningful to have a value in front of the NP
component. It is important to specify NP for any case that does not have pressure.
It is often stated that the required thickness of the skirt is needed. It is not valid to directly compute this number
based on bending stress and axial stress equations. This is because the section modulus is needed and the element
OD or ID is still unknown. While it is possible to make an assumption, this will not generate a correct mathematical
result. Also, realize the non-linearity of the compressive allowable stress calculation (factor A and factor B). A small
change in the thickness can change the allowable compressive stress in a very non-linear fashion. In the British Code
PD 5500 there is a paragraph in Annex B paragraph B.1.5 that also briefly discusses this information.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-13

Nozzle Design Modifications


PV Elite has three mutually exclusive options for determination of the pressure where the nozzle is located. The
fourth design option allows reinforcing calculations for the geometry to be made in the new and cold condition
helping to satisfy hydrotest requirements. The last option deals with compliance with nozzle design for wind and
seismic considerations. Check the option(s) you wish the program to use.

Nozzle Design Modifications, Design Pressure, M.A.W.P. + Static Liquid Pressure


Computes the internal pressure on the nozzle on the bottom of the element where the nozzle is located. This pressure
is the MAWP of the vessel plus the static head to the bottom of that element. Thus, the design pressure can vary for
nozzles located on different elements. This option is OK to use if you know for certain that your nozzle locations will
not vary during the design process. If you use this option and a nozzle is lowered in the vessel and under additional
pressure due to liquid head, you need to rerun the analysis in order to determine if your nozzle geometry is
satisfactory.

Nozzle Design Modifications, Design Pressure, Design Pressure + Static Liquid Pressure
Computes the exact internal pressure at the nozzle location. Normally, this option would be used for re-rating
vessels. This would allow one to get the exact results for each nozzle, because the overall pressure on each nozzle is
computed on an individual basis.

Nozzle Design Modifications, MAWP + Static Liquid Pressure to the Bottom of the Element that is
Governing the MAWP
Computes one single design internal pressure for all of the nozzles located on the vessel. If the nozzle location on a
vessel changes due to a client request, there would be no need to rerun nozzle calculations since the pressure used in
the calculations would not change. This design option is ideal for designing new vessels.

MAWP + Static Liquid Pressure to the Nozzle


Computes the MAWP of the vessel and then adds the static liquid pressure from the liquid surface to the nozzle
location. For nozzles at different elevations, the design pressure will vary.

Nozzle Design Modifications, Consider MAP nc in Analysis


Some design specifications require that nozzle reinforcement calculations are performed for the MAP new and cold
condition. PV Elite will check to see if the nozzle is reinforced adequately using the MAPnc generated during the
internal pressure calculations. When the area of replacement calculations is performed for this case, cold allowable
stresses are used and the corrosion allowance is set to 0. Designing nozzles for this case helps the vessel to comply
with UG-99 or appropriate (hydrotest) requirements. Check your design requirements to see if your client requires
this.

Modify Tr Based on the Maximum Stress Ratio


Some Nozzle designs need to comply with ASME Section VIII Division 1 paragraph UG-22 that deals with
supplemental loadings. One factor in ASME nozzle design is the required thickness of the shell (tr). Usually internal
pressure (hoop stress) governs. In some cases, such as when a nozzle is located on a shell course at the bottom of a
tall tower, longitudinal stresses will govern. In this case the shell required thickness must be based on longitudinal
stresses and not the hoop stress. If you check this option, PV Elite will look at all of the defined load cases and select

6-14

General Vessel Data

the highest stress ratio. It will then use this number as a multiplier on the shell thickness. Thus the nozzle design is
based on the precise loading at the bottom of that shell course.
Note: Optionally, for full replacement options, you can type in your own value of tr for each nozzle. That value
will override this directive.

Consider Code Case 2168 for Nozzle Design


For Div. 1 nozzles of integral construction, the Code in Code Case 2168 allows a different set of rules to be used
from those in UG-37. If it is within the project specifications to use these rules enable this box.

Redesign Pads to Reinforce Openings


If this box is checked and pad defined geometries are inadequately reinforced, PV Elite will determine the diameter
and thickness of the pad required to reinforce the opening. If the program has changed the pad data during the
analysis, it will prompt you to reload the file so that you can view the new changes. Note that this functionality is
restricted to ASME VIII analysis at this time.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-15

Wind & Seismic Data


Wind data is available when the Wind tab is clicked. The seismic data works in the same manner.

Wind Data
Wind Design Code Select one wind of the design codes:
ASCE
UBC
NBC
User Defined Wind
Profile
ASCE-7
95/98/02/05/IBC-03
Mexico 1993
BS-6399 1997
AS/NZ
Euro Code
Brazil
China GB 50009
No Wind Loads
IBC-06
EN-2005
NBC-2005
IS-875

American Society of Civil Engineers Standard 7 (formerly ANSI A58.1) The program
implements ASCE 7-93.
Uniform Building Code 1991 Edition.
National Building Code of Canada 1995 Edition.
Instead of supplying the wind parameters required by the above codes, the user may
specify the elevation vs. wind pressure directly.
The American Society of Civil Engineers Standard 7 1995/1998. This revision includes a
new calculation for the gust factor as well as the wind pressure at height Z. These
calculations are based on a 3 second gust.
Mexico's National Wind Code
Standard Wind Code of Britain, replaces CP3
Design Wind Code of Australia and New Zealand, 2002 Edition
Design Wind Code for several European Countries including France.
Design Wind Code for Brazil NBR 6123
China's Wind Design Specification.
If the vessel has no wind loads (shielded), select this option.
International Building Code 2006.
European Norm 2005.
National Building Code of Canada 2005.
India's National Standard Wind Design Code 1987 Edition.

The remaining wind load data required by PV Elite changes based on which Wind Design Code is selected. These
data requirements are reviewed here according to the design code specification.

6-16

General Vessel Data

ASCE Wind Data


Design Wind Speed
Enter the design value of the wind speed. These will vary according to geographical location and according to
company or vendor standards. Typical wind speeds range from 85 to 120 miles per hour. Enter the lowest value
reasonably allowed by the standards you are following, since the wind design pressure (and thus force) increases as
the square of the speed.

Exposure Constant
Enter an integer indicating the ASCE-7 Exposure Factor:
Entry

Definition

Exposure A, Large city centers

Exposure B, Urban and suburban areas

Exposure C, Open terrain

Exposure D, Flat unobstructed coastal areas

Note that most petrochemical sites use a value of 3, exposure C.

Base Elevation
Enter the elevation at the base of the vessel. This value will be used to calculate the height of each point in the vessel
above grade. Thus, for example, if the vessel is mounted on a pedestal foundation, or on top of another vessel, it will
be exposed to higher wind pressures than if it were mounted at grade.

Percent Wind for Hydrotest


Enter the fraction of the wind load (not wind speed) that will be applied during the hydrotest. This is typically as low
as one-third the design wind load, since it can be assumed that the vessel will not be hydrotested during a hurricane
or severe storm.

ASCE 7-93 Importance Factor


Enter the value of the importance factor that you wish the program to use. Please note the program will use this value
directly without modification.
In general this value ranges from .95 to 1.11. It is taken from Table 5 of the ASCE standard.

Category

100 mi. from


Hurricane Oceanline

< 100 mi. from


Hurricane Oceanline

1.00

1.05

II

1.07

1.11

III

1.07

1.11

IV

0.95

1.00

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

Category

Classification

Buildings and structures not listed below

II

Buildings and structures where more than 300 people congregate in one area.

III

Buildings designed as essential facilities, hospitals etc.

IV

Buildings and structures that represent a low hazard in the event of a failure.

6-17

Note that most petrochemical structures are Importance Category I.

ASCE Roughness Factor


Enter an integer indicating the ASCE-7 Roughness Factor (from ASCE 7-93, Table 12 Force Coefficients for
Chimneys, Tanks, and Similar Structures, Cf)
Entry

Definition

Round, moderately smooth

Round, rough (D'/D = 0.02)

Round, very rough (D'/D = 0.08)

Where: D' is the depth of protruding elements such as ribs and spoilers and D is the diameter or least horizontal
dimension.
Note that most petrochemical sites use a value of 1, moderately smooth, except that some designers use a value of 3,
very rough, to account for platforms, piping, ladders, etc. instead of either entering them explicitly as a tributary
wind area or implicitly as an increased wind diameter. The value Cf will vary between 0.5 and 1.2 depending on the
type of surface and height to diameter ratio.

6-18

General Vessel Data

UBC Wind Data


Design Wind Speed
Enter the design value of the wind speed. These will vary according to geographical location and according to
company or vendor standards. Typical wind speeds range from 85 to 120 miles per hour. Enter the lowest value
reasonably allowed by the standards you are following, since the wind design pressure (and thus force) increases as
the square of the speed.

Exposure Constant
Enter an integer indicating the UBC Exposure Factor as defined in Section 2312:
Entry

Definition

Exposure B, Terrain with buildings, forest or surface irregularities 20 feet or more in


height covering at least 20 percent or the area extending one mile or more from the site.

Exposure C, Terrain, which is flat and generally open, extending one-half mile or more
from the site in any full quadrant.

Exposure D, The most severe exposure with basic wind speeds of 80 m.p.h. or more.
Terrain, which is flat and unobstructed facing large bodies of water over one mile or more
in width relative to any quadrant of the building site. This exposure extends inland from
the shoreline 1/4 mile or 10 times the building (vessel) height, whichever is greater.

Note that most petrochemical sites use a value of 3, exposure C. This value is used to set the Gust Factor Coefficient
(Ce) found in Table 23-G.

Base Elevation
Enter the elevation at the base of the vessel. This value will be used to calculate the height of each point in the vessel
above grade. Thus, for example, if the vessel is mounted on a pedestal foundation, or on top of another vessel, it will
be exposed to higher wind pressures than if it were mounted at grade.

Percent Wind for Hydrotest


Enter the fraction of the wind load (not wind speed) that will be applied during the hydrotest. This is typically as low
as one-third the design wind load, since it can be assumed that the vessel will not be hydrotested during a hurricane
or severe storm.

UBC Wind Importance Factor


Enter the value of the UBC Importance Factor. Please note the program will use this value directly without
modification. This value is taken from Table 23-L of the UBC standard:
Entry

Definition

1.15

Category I: Essential facilities

1.15

Category II: Hazardous facilities

1.0

Category III: Special occupancy structures

1.0

Category IV: Standard occupancy structures

Most petrochemical structures have an Importance Factor of 1.0. The four Occupancy Categories (I-IV) are defined
in Table 23-K of the code.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-19

NBC Wind Data


Design Wind Speed
Enter the design value of the wind speed. These will vary according to geographical location and according to
company or vendor standards. Typical wind speeds range from 85 to 120 miles per hour. Enter the lowest value
reasonably allowed by the standards you are following, since the wind design pressure (and thus force) increases as
the square of the speed.

Exposure Constant
Enter an integer indicating the NBC Exposure Factor:
Entry

Definition

Exposure A, open or standard exposure

Exposure B, urban and suburban areas

Exposure C, centers of large cities

Most petrochemical sites use a value 1, Exposure A, also these exposure factors are reversed from those of ASCE-7
or UBC.

Base Elevation
This value will be used to calculate the height of each point in the vessel above grade. Thus, for example, if the
vessel is mounted on a pedestal foundation, or on top of another vessel, it will be exposed to higher wind pressures
than if it were mounted at grade.

Percent Wind for Hydrotest


Enter the fraction of the wind load (not wind speed) that will be applied during the hydrotest. This is typically as low
as one-third the design wind load, since it can be assumed that the vessel will not be hydrotested during a hurricane
or severe storm.

Critical Damping Ratio


The dynamic gust evaluation in NBC requires the user assign a critical damping ratio for the tower. NBC
recommends the use of the value 0.0016 (dimensionless) for tall metal unlined stacks, but says that these values will
go up for shorter towers. We recommend the following:
Entry

Definition

0.0016

For tall towers ( L/D > 7 )

0.0032

For moderately tall towers

0.0064

For short towers ( L/D < 1) or horizontal

Roughness Factor
Enter an integer indicating the NBC Roughness Factor as found in Figure B-15.
Entry

Definition

Round, moderately smooth surface

Round, rough surface (rounded ribs, h = 2%d)

Round, very rough surface (sharp ribs, h = 8%d)

Most petrochemical sites use a value of 1, moderately smooth, except that some designers use a value of 3, very
rough, to account for platforms, piping, ladders, etc. instead of either entering them explicitly as a tributary wind area
or implicitly as an increased wind diameter.

6-20

General Vessel Data

ASCE 95 Wind Data


Percent Wind for Hydrotest
Enter the fraction of the wind load (not wind speed) that will be applied during the hydrotest. This is typically as low
as one-third the design wind load, since it can be assumed that the vessel will not be hydrotested during a hurricane
or severe storm.

Design Wind Speed


The design wind speed will vary according to geographical location and according to company or vendor standards.
Typical wind speeds range from 85 to 120 miles per hour. Enter the lowest value reasonably allowed by the
standards you are following, since the wind design pressure (and thus force) increases as the square of the speed.

Base Elevation
Enter the elevation at the base of the vessel. This value will be used to calculate the height of each point in the vessel
above grade. Thus, for example, if the vessel is mounted on a pedestal foundation, or on top of another vessel, it will
be exposed to higher wind pressures than if it were mounted at grade.

Exposure Constant
Enter an integer indicating the ASCE Exposure Factor:
Entry

Definition

Exposure A, large city centers

Exposure B, urban and suburban areas

Exposure C, open terrain

Exposure D, flat unobstructed coastal areas

Most petrochemical site use a value 1, Exposure A. Note also that these exposure factors are reversed from those of
ASCE-7 or UBC.

Importance Factor
This value varies between .087 and 1.15 and is found in Table 6-2 of ASCE 95.

Roughness Factor
Enter an integer indicating the Roughness Factor as found in Table 6-7:
Entry

Definition

Round, moderately smooth surface

Round, rough surface

Round, very rough surface

Most petrochemical sites use a value of 1, moderately smooth, except that some designers use a value of 3, very
rough, to account for platforms, piping, ladders, etc. instead of either entering them explicitly as a tributary wind area
or implicitly as an increased wind diameter.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-21

Height of Hill (H)


Height of Hill or Escarpment relative to the upwind terrain.

Distance to Site (x)


Enter the distance ( upwind or downwind ) from the crest to the building site

Height above Ground


ASCE defines this value as height above local ground level.

Crest Distance
This is the distance upwind of the crest where the difference in ground elevation is half the hill or escarpment height.

Type of Hill
None
2-D ridge
2-D escarpment
3-D axisymmetric hill

Damping Factor
Enter the structural damping coefficient (percentage of critical damping). The damping factor is used in the
calculation of the gust response factor. Additionally, if you wish to run another case empty or filled (or both), specify
the values of the damping factor (beta) for these cases. By entering these values PV Elite will compute the gust
response factor for each case and the subsequent wind loads. The results will be displayed in the Wind Load
Calculation and Wind Shear and Bending reports.
Technical Note: Computation of h/d from table 6-7.
For vessels that have a constant diameter the value of h/d is straightforward. The ratio is merely the total height of
the vessel divided by the insulated outside diameter. This computation is more difficult for vessels of more than 1
diameter (i.e.: vessels that have cones). The first step is to compute the total height h. Next the total cross sectional
area of the vessel is computed. To get a properly weighted value for h/d we square the maximum height and divide
by the total area. Finally to get Cf we index into the table as needed and interpolate for the final value. If you have a
shape factor specified and do not wish to use the computed value, specify your own shape factor in the Tools,
Configuration option from the Main Menu.

6-22

General Vessel Data

IS 875 Wind Code


Percent Wind for Hydrotest
Enter the fraction of the wind load (not wind speed) that will be applied during the hydrotest. This is typically as low
as one-third the design wind load, since it can be assumed that the vessel will not be hydrotested during a hurricane
or severe storm.
Enter the design value of the wind speed. These will vary according to geographical location and according to
company or vendor standards. Typical wind speeds range from 85 to 120 miles per hour. Enter the lowest value
reasonably allowed by the standards you are following, since the wind design pressure (and thus force) increases as
the square of the speed.

Base Elevation
Enter the elevation at the base of the vessel. This value will be used to calculate the height of each point in the vessel
above grade. Thus, for example, if the vessel is mounted on a pedestal foundation, or on top of another vessel, it will
be exposed to higher wind pressures than if it were mounted at grade.

Wind Zone Number


India is divided into 6 wind zones. Refer to figure 1 in the IS-875 code to determine which wind zone the vessel will
operate in. The program will gather the basic wind speed based on the zone. However, this value can be overridden
by typing in a basic wind speed in the Design Wind Speed field.

Risk Factor
This is the value of K1 and it varies between 1.05 and 1.08 depending on which zone has been entered above.

Terrain Category
The terrain category varies between 1 and 4.

Category 1
Exposed open terrain with few or no obstructions including open sea coasts and treeless plains.

Category 2
Open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights between 1.5 to 10 meters. This category is generally used for
design purposes.

Category 3
This is terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions, which have buildings up to 10 M in height. This includes
well-wooded areas, towns and industrial areas fully or partially developed.

Category 4
Terrain consisting of large closely spaced obstructions. This category includes large urban centers and well
developed industrial centers.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-23

Equipment Class
This field accepts a value of 1, 2, or 3.
Class A - 1
Class B - 2
Class C - 3

Consider Gust Response Factor


If you wish to include the gust response factor per IS-875, check this box. However, since this factor increases the
wind load 3 to 6 times, it may lead to a very conservative wind design.

6-24

General Vessel Data

User-Defined Wind Profile


Percent Wind for Hydrotest
Enter the fraction of the wind load (not wind speed) that will be applied during the hydrotest. This is typically as low
as one-third the design wind load, since it can be assumed that the vessel will not be hydrotested during a hurricane
or severe storm.

Wind Profile Data


With this selection, PV Elite will forego all code calculations and simply use the user's profile of height versus wind
pressure. Enter the profile in the area below the standard wind design code data. Enter the height above grade (in
length units) in the left cell, and the wind pressure at that height in the right cell. If you have more cells available
than you need to describe the profile, simply enter zeros in all the remaining cells. Zero elevation corresponds to the
bottom of the skirt or leg supports for a vertical vessel and to the bottom of the saddle, which supports a horizontal
vessel.
Note: When entering this data, you need to multiply the wind pressure at each elevation by the shape factor you
wish to use. If you do not do this, your wind loads will be higher (conservative) than they really are.
The first Elevation field should not be zero. If it is zero the program will not compute the wind loads on the
following elements. The input should follow the convention below.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-25

Mexican Wind Code 1993


Percent Wind for Hydrotest
Enter the fraction of the wind load (not wind speed) that will be applied during the hydrotest. This is typically as low
as one-third the design wind load, since it can be assumed that the vessel will not be hydrotested during a hurricane
or severe storm.

Design Wind Speed


Enter the design value of the wind speed. These will vary according to geographical location and according to
company or vendor standards. Typical wind speeds range from 85 to 120 miles per hour. Enter the lowest value
reasonably allowed by the standards you are following, since the wind design pressure (and thus force) increases as
the square of the speed.

Base Elevation
Enter the elevation at the base of the vessel. This value will be used to calculate the height of each point in the vessel
above grade. Thus, for example, if the vessel is mounted on a pedestal foundation, or on top of another vessel, it will
be exposed to higher wind pressures than if it were mounted at grade.

Prrafo 4.6.1
Tabla 1.1 CATEGORIA DEL TERRENO SECUN SU RUGOSOIDAD
Cat.

Descripcin

Ejemplos

Limitaciones

Terreno
abierto,
prcticamente piano y sin
obstrucciones

Franjas costeras planas, zonas de pentanos,


Campos areos, pastizales y tierras de
cultivo sin setos o bardas alrededor.
Superficies nevadas planas

La longitud mnima de este tipo de terreno en la


direccin del viento debe ser de 2000 m 0 10 veces la
altura de las construccin por disear, la que sea mayor.

Terreno plano u ondulado


con pocas obstrucciones

Campos de cultivo o gran jas con pocas


obstrucciones tales como setos o bardas
alrededor,rboles y construcciones dispersas

Las obstrucciones tienen Alturas de 1.5 a 10 m, en una


longitud mnima d 1500 m.

Terreno cubierto por


numerosas obstrucciones
estrechamente espaciadas

reas urbanas, suburbanas y de bosques, o


cualquier
terreno
con
numerosas
obstrucciones estrechamente espaciadas. El
tamao de las construcciones corresponde
al de las casas y viviendas.

Las obstrucciones presentan Alturas de 3 a 5 m. La


longitud mnima de este tipo de terreno en la direccin
del viento debe ser de 500 m o 10 veces la altura de la
construccin, la que sea mayor.

Terreno con numerosas


obstrucciones largas, allas
y
estrechamente
espaciadas

Centros de grandes ciudades y complejos


industriales bien desarrollados.

Por lo menos el 50% de los edificios tiene una altura


mayor que 20 m. Las obstrucciones miden de 10 a 30 m
de altura. La longitud mnima de este tipo de terreno en
la direccin del viento debe se la mayor entre 400 m y
10 veces la altura de la construccin.

Prrafo 4.6.2 MAPAS DE ISOTACAS VELOCIDAD REGIONAL, VR


La velocidad regional del viento, VR, es la mxima velocidad media probable de presentarse con un cierto periodo
de recurrencia en una zona o regin determinada del pas.
En los mapas de isotacas que se incluyen en este inciso con diferentes periodos de retorno, dicha velocidad se refiere
a condiciones homogneas que corresponden a una altura de 10 metros sobre la superficie del suelo en terreno piano
(Categora 2 segn la tabla I.1); es decir, no considera alas caractersticas de rugosidad locales del terreno ni la

6-26

General Vessel Data

topografa especifica del sitio. Asimismo, dicha velocidad se asocial con rfagas de 3 segundos y toma en cuenta lo
posibilidad de que se presenten vientos debidos a huracanes en las zonas coteras.
La velocidad regional, VR, se determina tomando en consideracin tanto la localizacin geogrfica del sitio de
desplante de la estructura como su destino.
En las figures I.1 a I.4 se muestran los mapas de isotacas regionales correspondientes a periodos de recurrencia de
200, 50 y 10 anos, respectivamente.
La importancia de las estructuras (vease el inciso 4.3) dictamina los periodos de recurrencia que debern
considerarse para el diseo por viento; de esta manera, los Grupos A, B y C se asocian con los periodos de retorno de
200, 50 y 10 anos, respectivamente. El sitio de desplante se localizara en el mapa con el periodo de recurrencia que
corresponde al grupo al que pertenece la estructura a fin de obtener la velocidad regional. En el Tomo III de Ayudas
de diseo se presenta un tabla con las principales ciudades del pas y sus correspondientes velocidades regionales
para diferentes periodos de retorno.

Prrafo 4.6.3 FACTOR DE EXPOSICION, FR


El coeficiente Fm refleja la variacin de la velocidad del viento con respecto a la altura Z. Asismo, considera el
tamao de la construccin o de los elementos de recubrimiento y las caractersticas de exposicin o de los elementos
de recubrimiento y las caracterstica de exposicin.
El factor de exposicin se calcula con siguiente expresin:
F" = FC FRZ
en donde:
FC=

se el factor que determina la influencia del tamao de la construccin,


adimensional, y

FRZ=

el factor que establece la variacin de la velocidad del viento con la altura


Z en funcin de la rugosidad del terreno de los alrededores,
adimensional.

Los coeficientes FC y FRZ se definen en los incisos 4.6.3.1 y 4.6.3.2, respectivamente.

Prrafo 4.6.3.1 to 3 Factor de tamao, FC R T U


El factor de tamao, FC, es el que toma en cuenta el tiempo el que la rfaga del viento acta de manera efectiva
sobre una construccin de dimensiones dadas. Considerando la clasificacin de las estructuras segn su tamao
(vease la tabla I.2), este factor puede determinarse de acuerdo con la tabla I.3.
Clase de estructura

FC

1.0

0.95

0.90

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-27

Tabla I.4 VALORES DE R T U


S
Clase de estructura
Categora de terreno

0.099

0.101

0.105

245

0.128

0.131

0.138

315

0.156

0.160

0.171

390

0.170

0.177

0.193

455

no - es la altura, media a partir del nivel del terreno de desplante, por encima de la cual la variacin de la velocidad del
viento no es importante y se puede suponer constante; a esta altura se le conoce como altura gradiente; n y Z estn
dadas en metros, y moel exponente que determina la forma del la variacin de la velocidad del viento con la altura y es
adimensional.
m - Los coeficientes m p n estn en funcin de la rugosidad terreno (tabla I.1) [see above please]. En la tabla I.4 se
consignan los valores que se aconsejan para estos coeficientes. En la figura III.1 del tomo de Ayudas de diseo se
muestra la variacin del factor Fm con la altura, con la categora del terreno y con la clase de estructura.

Prrafo 4.5.4 FACTOR DE TOPGRAFIA, FT


Este factor toma en cuenta el efecto topogrfico local del sitio en donde se desplantara la estructura. As, por
ejemplo, si la construccin se localiza en las laderas o cima de colina o montanas de altura importante con respecto al
nivel general del terreno de los alrededores, es muy probable que se generen aceleraciones del flujo del viento y, por
consiguiente, deber incrementarse la velocidad regional.

Tabla I.5 FACTOR DE TOPOGRAFIA LOCAL FT


Sitios

Topografa

FT

Protegidos

Base de promontorios y faldas de serranas del lado de


sotavento.

0.8

Valles cerrados.

0.9

Terreno prcticamente plano, campo abierto, ausencia de


cambios topogrficos importantes, con pendientes menores
que 5%.

1.0

Terrenos inclinados con pendientes entre 5 y 10%, valles


abiertos y litorales planos.

1.1

Cimas de promontorios, Colinas o montanas, terrenos con


pendientes mayores que 10%, caadas cerradas y valles que
formen un embudo o canon, islas.

1.2

Normales

Expuestos

Expertos en la material debern justificar y validar ampliamente los resultados de cualquiera de estos
procedimientos.

6-28

General Vessel Data

Prrafo 4.6.5 W LA RELACION ENTRE LOS VALORES DE LA ALTITUD hm


Altitud (msnm)

Presin baromtrica (mm de Hg)

760

500

720

1000

675

1500

635

2000

600

2500

565

3000

530

3500

495

Nota: Puede Interpolarse para valores intermedios de la altitud, hm.

Prrafo 4.8.2.12 COEFICIENTE DE ARRASTRE Ca PARA CHIMENEAS Y TORRES

COEFICIENTE DE ARRASTRE Ca
Relacin H/b

Seccin transversal

Tipo de superficie

Circular (bVd q 6 m2/s)

Lisa o poco rugosa (d/b r 0.0)

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.7

Rugosa

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.2

1
(d/b r 0.02)

Muy rugosa

25

W40

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.2

Circular (bVd < 6 m2/s)

Cualquiera

0.7

0.8

1.2

1.2

Hexagonal u octagonal

Cualquiera

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.4

Cuadrada (viento normal a una


cara)

Cualquiera

1.3

1.4

2.0

2.2

Cuadrada
esquina)

Cualquiera

1.0

1.1

1.5

1.6

(viento

sobre

una

(d/b r 0.08)

b es el dimetro o la dimensin horizontal de la estructura, incluyendo la rugosidad de lo pared; para determinar


el producto bVD, este dimetro ser el que se localiza a dos tercios de la altura total, a partir del nivel del
terreno, en m.

d es la dimensin que sobresale de las rugosidades, tales como costillas o spoilers, en m.

VD es la velocidad del viento de diseo (inciso 4.8), convertida a m/s, y valuada para los dos tercios de la altura
total.

Para valores intermedios de H/b y d/b se permite la interpolacin lineal.

Prrafo 4.9.3.2 LAS VARIABLES u v n:

Tabla I.29 FACTORES Y [


Categora

1.224

1.288

1.369

1.457

-.032

-.054

-.096

-0.151

245

315

390

455

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-29

Las variables uv n, adimensionales, dependen de la rugosidad del sitio de desplante, y n es la altura gradiente en m.
Estas variables se definen en la tabla I.29.
Las variables kr w
kr es un factor relacionado con la rugosidad del terreno:
Para terrenos con gatera

1 = 0.06,

Para terrenos con gatera

2 = 0.10,

Para terrenos con gatera

3 = 0.06, y

Para terrenos con gatera

4 = 0.06

6es el coeficiente de amortiguamiento critico:

Para construcciones formadas por marcos de acero = 0.01, y para aquellas formadas por marcos
de concreto = 0.02.

VALORES DE R kR
Categora de terreno

a'

kR

0.13

0.06

0.18

0.08

0.245

0.10

0.31

0.14

VALORES DE \
Nota:

Para construcciones formadas por marcos de acero

0.01

Para aquellas formadas por marcos de concreto

0.02

6-30

General Vessel Data

British Wind Code BS-6399


British Wind Code BS-6399-97
BS 6399-97 - The British Wind Code - Loadings for buildings - Part 2: Code of practice for wind loads. The year of
issuance of this code is 1997 and it replaces CP3.

Design Wind Speed - Vb


Design wind speeds vary according to geographical location and to company or vendor standards. Wind speed units
are calculated in miles per hour and/or meters per seconds and are only relevant to the United Kingdom. Typical
wind speeds display in Figure 6 of BS 6399. The wind speeds vary from 20 m/sec to 31 m/sec (44.7 mph to 69.3
mph). Users should enter the lowest value reasonably allowed by the standards you are following, since the wind
design pressure (and thus force) increases as the square of the speed.

Site Elevation - Delta s


If the site altitude is above mean sea level (paragraph 2.2.2.2 of the code), then this value plus the Base Elevation is
used to calculate the height of each point in the vessel above mean seal level. For example, if the vessel is installed
on a site that is 100 m (328 ft) above seal level, it is exposed to a higher wind pressure (P) than if installed on the
beach (at mean sea level).

Upwind Building Height (Obstruction Height) - Ho


For buildings in town terrain, enter the average height of the building upwind of the vessel (as they tend to shield the
vessel from the wind). To be conservative, this value can be zero, so the vessel takes the full force of the wind. Ho is
used to modify the effective vessel wind height (He) for any vessel element. For more information see paragraph
1.7.3.3 of BS-6399.

Upwind Building Spacing - X


For buildings in town terrain, enter the average spacing of the buildings upwind of the vessel (as they tend to shield
the vessel from the wind). If the buildings are closer together, they provide greater protection from the wind. For
more information see paragraph 1.7.3.3 of BS-6399.

Base Elevation
Enter the elevation at the base of the vessel. This value plus the Site Elevation is used to calculate the height of each
point in the vessel above mean sea level.

Vessel Location
Enter the location where the vessel is installed. Table 4 of BS-6399 factors modifies the wind velocity. The final
wind pressure acting on any element of the vessel is determined by the distance from the coast, whether located in
the country or a town, and the effective height (He). This table derives Sb, which is calculated by PV Elite internally.

Distance to Coast Line


Enter the distance the vessel is located from the coast in kilometers. This distance affects the corrected wind speed
(Ve). Table 4 of BS-6399 factors modifies the wind velocity. The final wind pressure acting on any element of the
vessel is determined by the distance from the coast, whether located in the country or a town, and the effective height
(He). This table derives Sb, which is calculated by PV Elite internally.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-31

External Wind Coefficient - cpe


Enter the external wind coefficient. This value is taken from Table 7 of BS-6399. Typical values usually range from
0.60 to 0.80 depending on the H / D ratio of the vessel. Because of the complexity of the vessel configurations,
(platforms, piping added equipment etc.), users must use discernment or consult an authority on this subject.

Factor Kb from Table 1 - Kb


This is the 'Building-type factor Kb' taken from Table 1 of BS-6399. PV Elite automatically defaults to 2, but other
values may be selected. Please note the following limitations of Kb based on the vessel height:
Kb

Maximum Vessel Total Height

23 m (75.4 ft)

75m (246 ft)

240m (787 ft)

300m (984 ft)

0.5

300m (984 ft)

Of course designing towers over 75 meters in height is not likely and many other things would need to be considered.

BS 6399 Table 1 Building-Type Factor Kb


Kb

Building Type

Welded Steel unclad frames

Bolted steel and reinforced concrete unclad frames

Portal sheds and similar light structures with few internal walls

Framed buildings with structural walls around lifts and stairs only (e.g. office buildings of
open plan or with partitioning)

0.5

Framed buildings with structural walls around lifts and stairs with additional masonry
subdivision walls (e.g. apartment buildings), building of masonry construction and timberframed housing

Annual Probability Factor - Q


The default value is Q = 0.02. This value is used to calculate the final probability factor (Sp) associated with the
likelihood of high velocity gusts occurring over a designated time period. The code sets 0.02 as a 'standard value' for
a mean recurrence value of 50 years. For more information refer to Annex D of BS6399.
Q

Explanation

0.632

NOTE 1: The annual mode, corresponding to the most likely annual maximum value.
(Sp = 0.749)

0.227

NOTE 2: For the serviceability limit, assuming the partial factor for loads for the
ultimate limit is f = 1.4 and for the serviceability limit is f = 1.0, giving Sp = Sqrt(1 /
1.4) = 0.845. (Sp = 0.845)

0.02

NOTE 3: The standard design value, corresponding to a mean recurrence interval of 50


years. (Sp = 1.000)

0.0083

NOTE 4: The design risk for bridges, corresponding to a mean recurrence interval of 50
years. (Sp = 1.048)

6-32

General Vessel Data

Explanation

0.00574

NOTE 5: The annual risk corresponding to the standard partial factor for loads,
corresponding to a mean recurrence interval 1754 years. Back-calculated assuming the
partial factor load for the ultimate limit is f = 1.4 and all risk is ascribed to the
recurrence of wind. (Sp = Sqrt(1.4))

0.001

NOTE 6: The design risk for nuclear installations, corresponding to a mean recurrence
interval of 10000 (yes that is ten thousand) years. (Sp = 1.263)

Seasonal Factor - Ss
BS6399 in paragraph 2.2.2.4 states: ' ..For permanent buildings and buildings exposed for continuous periods of
more than 6 months a value of 1.0 should be used for Ss..' PV Elite uses 1.0 as the default value for this reason. Using
a value of less than 1.0 is not recommended, or should only be used with a solid researched.

Directional Factor - Sd
This value is taken from Table 3 of BS-6399. Because a tower is symmetrical about its central axis, the default value
has been taken as 1.0. It is recommended that this value not be reduced other than for exceptional circumstances. For
more information consult Table 3. The values in that table range between 0.73 and 1.00.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-33

Brazilian Wind Code NBR 6123


Basic Wind Velocity (Vo)
This is the velocity generated from a three second gust, exceeded only once in 50 years. It depends on the plant
location and is measured at 10 meters over smooth open ground. As a general rule, the wind may blow in any
horizontal direction. This velocity is taken from Figure 1, and item 8 which shows the iso-velocities over Brazil.
Note, that the above referenced figures and tables are found in the Petrobras document BPE-500-P4-19i and
the Brazilian Wind Code NBR 6123.
Refinery Name

Wind Velocity (m/s)

LUBNOR

30.0 m/s

RECAP

40.0 m/s

REDUC

35.0 m/s

REFAP

45.0 m/s

REGAP

30.0 m/s

REPAR

40.0 m/s

REPLAN

45.0 m/s

REMAN

30.0 m/s

REVAP

40.0 m/s

RPBC

50.0 m/s

RLAM

30.0 m/s

Topographical Factor (S1)


This factor accounts for the variations and profile of the land. For plain, or slightly uneven ground, use a value of 1.
The larger this value is, the greater the final computed wind pressure will be. If the vessel is on a hill top, refer to
section 5.2 of NBR 6123 to compute this value.

Roughness Category (S2)


Category

Description

Applies to plain ground with large dimensions (more than 5 km of extension)

II

Applies to plain (or slightly uneven) ground with few, and separated, obstacles

III

Applies to plain or uneven ground obstructed by obstacles (walls or separated low buildings)

IV

Applies to ground with many grouped obstacles in industrial or urban areas

Applies to ground with many grouped and tall obstacles (such as developed industrial areas)

*Using Category I will produce a higher wind load than Category II and so forth.

Dimension Class
This parameter accounts for the greatest horizontal or vertical dimension of the vessel.
Class

Description

Class A

When the greatest dimension is less than or equal to 20 meters

Class B

When the greatest dimension is greater than 20m and less than 50 meters

Class C

When the greatest dimension is greater than or equal to 50 meters

6-34

General Vessel Data

Statistical Factor (S3)


This factor accounts for the security and the expected life of the equipment. For industrial plants S3 is generally taken
to be 1.0.

Base Height
Enter the distance the base of the equipment is from the grade.

Vessel Surface Condition


The vessel surface condition can be classified as smooth or rough. A selection of rough will result in an increased
value of the Shape Coefficient. Using a rough classification will also generate a higher wind load on the vessel as
there is more drag. The shape coefficient is computed based on the vessel's height to diameter ratio.
How does PV Elite implement this wind code?
There are many common computations PV Elite must make in order to analyze wind loading for any code. Some
items are natural frequency, wind area, height to diameter ratio and others. NBR 6123 provides two possibilities for
wind analysis: Static Analysis and Dynamic Analysis.
The static wind analysis will take place if the fundamental period of vibration is less than one second. The goal of the
analysis is to determine the wind pressure at each elevation of interest (z). The basic equation is q(z) = Vk2/1.63.
Where Vk = Vo*S1*S2*S3. Vo, S1 and S3 are constants in the equation and S2 changes as a function of the height.
Finally, after the pressure has been computed, the force on the element is simply the pressure times the element area
times the shape factor. The shape factor is determined from the following table:

Surface Finish

Height / Diameter
0.5

1.0

2.0

5.0

10

20

Rough Surface

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

Smooth Surface

0.5

0.6

0.6

If you have a shape factor value that you wish to enter yourself, use the TOOLS->CONFIGURATION dialog. Also
please note the equations above are based on wind velocities specified in m/s and pressures specified in N/mm2.
If the fundamental period of vibration is greater than 1 second, then the dynamic wind analysis is performed. Users
must first compute the project wind velocity Vp.
Where
Vp = 0.69 * Vo * S1 * S3
Next users must compute d/H along with the term Vp * T1/1800. Using these two terms and knowing the height of the
vessel, the value of Xi can be determined from figures 14-18 in NBR 6123. After Xi is known, two other values, b
and p which are functions of the Ground Category can be determined. Finally compute the wind pressure by using
the following formula:
q(z) = 0.613 * b2 * Vp2{(z/10)2p + [(H/10)p * (z/H)1.7 * (4.4/(2.7 + p) * Xi]}

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-35

Once the pressure at the desired elevation is known, the force can be determined as stated above.
Use the table below to determine the values of p and b.

Value

Ground Category
I

II

III

IV

0.095

0.150

0.185

0.230

0.310

1.23

1.00

0.86

0.71

0.50

6-36

General Vessel Data

China's Wind Code GB 50009


The Chinese Wind Code analysis in PV Elite is taken from Chinese specification GB 50009 - 2001, 2002. The wind
loading calculation guidelines begin on page 24 of the Code.
The basic formulation for determining the wind pressure at an arbitrary elevation is based on equation 7.1.1-1. This
equation is for Main Wind Force Resisting Systems. This is the printed equation: wk = zszwo. From the tables in
the Chinese Wind Code, the values of s, z and the other values can be determined. Please note that this formula
includes the shape coefficient. The generated wind pressure is not dependent on the type of structure it is blowing
against. However, when the final force is computed, it is necessary to include the shape factor, in this case for a
cylinder taken from page 39 for a tower or chimney.

Reference Wind Pressure


This value is determined by using table D.4 of the Chinese Wind Design Code. The reference wind pressure should
not be less than 0.3 kN/m2.

Terrain Roughness
Select an appropriate value (A, B, C or D) from the table below. Note that value A is the most conservative.
Value

Description

Flat, unobstructed open terrain (most conservative)

Village, hill and less populated and less congested sites

Populated sites with low buildings and shorter structures

Densely populated areas with many tall structures that provide shielding (least conservative)

Vessel Surface Condition


This selection affects the shape factor taken from page 39 of the Chinese Wind Code. There are 3 options that can be
selected. Note that this option can be overridden in the Tools->Configuration dialog.
Smooth
Rough
Very Rough

Is the Vessel Building Supported?


If this box is enabled PV Elite will use equation 7.1.1-2 to determine the wind pressure at the desired elevation. The
difference is that this equation uses the term gz. gz is taken from table 7.5.1 and is a function of the elevation.
Oddly enough, this term decreases with elevation which means that the wind pressure decreases as the elevation
increases.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-37

EN-2005
Wind Velocity [Vb,0]
This is the fundamental value of the basic wind velocity of the area where the equipment will be situated. Vb,0 is
used along with Cdir and CSeason to compute Vb.

Terrain Category
Select the appropriate terrain category from the table below. Note that category 0 will generate the highest wind
loads while category 5 will produce the lowest wind loads.
Terrain Category

Description

Sea or Coastal area exposed to the open sea

Lakes or flat and horizontal areas with negligible vegetation and without obstacles

II

Area with low vegetation such as grass and isolated obstacles (trees, buildings) with
separations of at least 20 obstacle heights

III

Area with regular cover of vegetation or buildings or with isolated obstacles with separations of
maximum 20 obstacle heights (such as villages, suburban terrain, permanent forest)

IV

Area in which at least 15% of the surface is covered with buildings and their average height
exceeds 15 m

Directionality Factor
The value of the directional factor, Cdir, may be found in the National Annex. The recommended value is 1.0.

Season Factor
The value of the season factor, Cseason, may be found in the National Annex. The recommended value is 1.0.

Structural Factor
The structural factor is used to determine the force on the vessel. This value is defined in Section of the EN 1991-14:2005(E) Wind load specification in Annex D. This value normally ranges between 0.90 and 1.10. The greater the
value of the structural factor, the higher the element load.

Force Coefficient
The force coefficient accounts for the fact that the vessel is circular in cross section. This value is used to modify the
area of the vessel that the wind is blowing against. This value is quite often specified in the design specifications or
can be computed based on the methodology given in Section 7.9 for circular cylinders. A typical value for Cf would
be between 0.7 and 0.8.

Base Height
In some cases, vessels are not fixed to the ground, but are attached to other structures. If this is the case, enter the
distance from the bottom of the vessel to base (ground) elevation.

6-38

General Vessel Data

NBC-2005 Wind Data


Design Wind Speed
Enter the design value of the wind speed. These will vary according to geographical location and according to
company or vendor standards. Typical wind speeds range from 85 to 120 miles per hour. Enter the lowest value
reasonably allowed by the standards you are following, since the wind design pressure (and thus force) increases as
the square of the speed.

Exposure Constant
Enter an integer indicating the NBC Exposure Factor:
Entry

Definition

Exposure A, open or standard exposure

Exposure B, urban and suburban areas

Exposure C, centers of large cities

Base Elevation
This value will be used to calculate the height of each point in the vessel above grade. Thus, for example, if the
vessel is mounted on a pedestal foundation, or on top of another vessel, it will be exposed to higher wind pressures
than if it were mounted at grade.

Percent Wind for Hydrotest


Enter the fraction of the wind load (not wind speed) that will be applied during the hydrotest. This is typically as low
as one-third the design wind load, since it can be assumed that the vessel will not be hydrotested during a hurricane
or severe storm.

Critical Damping Ratio


The dynamic gust evaluation in NBC requires that the user assign a critical damping ratio for the tower. NBC
recommends the use of the value 0.0016 (dimensionless) for tall metal unlined stacks, but says that these values will
go up for shorter towers. We recommend the following:
Entry

Definition

0.0016

For tall towers ( L/D > 7 )

0.0032

For moderately tall towers

0.0064

For short towers ( L/D < 1) or horizontal

Roughness Factor
Enter an integer indicating the NBC Roughness Factor as found in Appendix A.
Entry

Definition

Round, moderately smooth surface

Round, rough surface (rounded ribs, h = 2%d)

Round, very rough surface (sharp ribs, h = 8%d)

Most petrochemical sites use a value of 1, moderately smooth, except that some designers use a value of 3, very
rough, to account for platforms, piping, ladders, etc. instead of either entering them explicitly as a tributary wind area
or implicitly as an increased wind diameter.

Importance Factor
Enter the importance factor as required by project specifications or by NBC 2005 Code as necessary. See table
4.1.7.1 on page 4-17 of Division B of NBC 2005.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-39

Seismic Data
Seismic Design Code
Select the design code to use for seismic calculations:
ASCE-88
ASCE-93

UBC
NBC
IS-1893 RSM 2002
IS-1893 SCM
ASCE-95

UBC97
G Loading
ASCE 7-98/02/05
IBC-2000/03/06
Mexico Sismo
China GB 50011

American Society of Civil Engineers Standard 7 (formerly ANSI A58.1) released in 1988.
American Society of Civil Engineers Standard 7 (formerly ANSI A58.1) released in 1993. The
new ASCE 7 earthquake standards released in 1993 are significantly more involved than the
previous standards, and are also more strictly limited to buildings, and thus not as easily applied to
vessels. Temporarily the program does not implement the complete dynamic analysis according to
this standard. However the program does address the computation of the element mass multiplier
as outlined on page 62 of the standard. In effect, the factors Av, Cc, P, and ac are multiplied
together and then by the weight of the element to obtain the lateral force on the element. The
program then computes the moments on the tower based on these results. One should have a good
understanding of this code before using it.
Uniform Building Code. The program implements the 1991 edition.
National Building Code of Canada. The program implements the 1990 edition.
India's seismic design code based on the response spectrum method.
India's seismic design code based on the seismic coefficient method.
American Society of Civil Engineers 1995 edition. The methodology of this calculation is very
similar to other earthquake codes. Essentially the base shear is computed based on paragraph
9.2.3.4 and the paragraphs, which precede it. The base shear is then distributed to the elements
according to the equation 9.2.3.4-2 on page 70 of the standard.
Uniform Building Code. The 1997 version of this code is implemented.
Acceleration of the vessel based on a fraction of gravity.
American Society of Civil Engineers Standard 7 (formerly ANSI A58.1) released in 1998.
International Building Code released in years 2000, 2003 and 2006.
Seismic Design per Mexico's Manual De Diseno Por Sismo
Earthquake Code of China

AS-1170.4-1993

Earthquake Analysis per the Australian Code, 1993, with revisions from 2002.

Response Spectrum

Response spectrum analysis allows the use of modal time history analysis. The general design
guidelines for this analysis are taken from the ASCE 7-98 or IBC 2000 Codes. Other predefined
spectra are built into the program, such as the 1940 Earthquake El Centro and various spectra from
the United States National Regulatory Commission Guide 1.60. If the spectrum analysis type is
user- defined, the table of points that define the response spectra must be entered in the table, in
the appropriate units. For tall structures, this analysis gives a much more accurate calculation than
the typical static equivalent method. Usually the computed loads are lower in magnitude than
those computed using the conventional Building Code techniques.

6-40

General Vessel Data

ASCE 7-88 Seismic Data


Importance Factor
Enter the value of ASCE 7-88 Importance Factor. Please note the program will use this value directly without
modification.
This value is taken from Table 22, Occupancy Importance Factor, I (Earthquake Loads) of the ASCE standard.
Building categories are defined in Table1 of the standard.
Entry

Definition

1.00

Category I: Buildings not listed below

1.25

Category II: High occupancy buildings

1.50

Category III: Essential facilities

0.00

Category IV: Low hazard buildings

Note that most petrochemical structures are Importance I.

Soil Type
Enter an integer indicating the Soil Profile Coefficient, S found in Table 24 of the standard. Soil Profiles are
identified in Section 9.4.2 of the standard. Note that where soil properties are not known, soil profiles S2 or S3 shall
be used, whichever produces the larger value of CS. (C is defined in Eq. 8 of the standard.)
Entry

Definition

Soil Profile S1: Rock or stiff soil conditions (S Factor = 1.0)

Soil Profile S2: Deep cohesion less deposits or stiff clay conditions (S Factor
= 1.2)

Soil Profile S3: Soft- to medium-stiff clays and sands (S Factor = 1.5)

Horizontal Force Factor


Enter the seismic force factor per ANSI A58.1 Table 24. Typical values for this factor are as follows:
Entry

Definition

1.33

Buildings with bearing walls

1.00

Buildings with frame systems

2.50

Elevated tanks

2.00

Other structures

Note that the value most often used is 2.0, though 2.5 is sometimes chosen for tanks supported by structural steel or
legs.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-41

Percent Seismic for Hydrotest


Enter the percent of the total seismic horizontal force, which is to be applied during hydrotest. Although you can not
predict an earthquake, as you can high winds, some designers use a reduced seismic load for hydrotest on the theory
that the odds of an earthquake during the test are very low, and the hazards of a water release small.

Seismic Zone
Select the zone for seismic calculations. See ASCE 7-88 Figures 14 & 15 to select the appropriate zone. Values for
Seismic Coefficient, Z are found in Table 21 of the standard.
Zone

Definition

Zone 0: Gulf coast and prairies. (Z = 1/8)

Zone 1: Rockies and Appalachian areas. (Z = 3/16)

Zone 2: New England, Carolinas, Ozarks, valley area


west of the Rockies and the Pacific Northwest. (Z =
3/8)

Zone 3: Sierras. (Z = 3/4)

Zone 4: California fault areas. (Z = 1)

Note that 0 indicates the least chance of a major earthquake, while 4 indicates the greatest chance of an earthquake.

6-42

General Vessel Data

ASCE7-93 Seismic Data


Seismic Coefficient Av
Enter Av, the seismic coefficient representing the effective peak velocity-related acceleration from Section 9.1.4.1 of
the code. This value may be obtained from the map on pages 36 and 37 of the standard. In general this value ranges
from 0.05 (low incidence of earthquake) to 0.4 (high incidence of earthquake).

Seismic Coefficient Cc
Enter Cc, the system seismic coefficient for mechanical and electrical components from Table 9.8-2 on page 63 of
the code. For tanks, vessels and heat exchangers this value is normally taken as 2.0.

Performance Criteria Factor P


Enter P, the performance criteria factor from Table 9.8-2 on page 63 of the code. This factor depends on the Seismic
Hazard Exposure Group, which is defined in Section 9.1.4.2 of the standard.
Entry

Definition

1.5

Seismic Hazard Exposure Group III: Essential facilities required for postearthquake recovery

1.0

Seismic Hazard Exposure Group II: Buildings that have a substantial public
hazard due to occupancy or use

0.5

Seismic Hazard Exposure Group I: All other buildings

Percent Seismic for Hydrotest


Enter the percent of the total seismic horizontal force, which is to be applied during hydrotest. Although you can not
predict an earthquake, as you can high winds, some designers use a reduced seismic load for hydrotest on the theory
that the odds of an earthquake during the test are very low, and the hazards of a water release small.

Amplification Factor ac
Enter ac, the attachment amplification factor determined in accordance with ASCE 7-93 Table 9.8-3. Values for this
entry may be 1.0 or 2.0 depending on the relationship between the fundamental period of the vessel and the
fundamental period of its supporting structure.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-43

UBC Seismic Data


Importance Factor
Enter the value of the UBC Importance Factor. Please note the program will use this value directly without
modification. This value is taken from Table 23-L of the UBC standard:
Entry

Definition

1.25

Category I: Essential facilities

1.25

Category II: Hazardous facilities

1.00

Category III: Special occupancy structures

1.00

Category IV: Standard occupancy structures

Note that most petrochemical structures have an Importance Factor of 1.0.

Soil Type
Select the soil type (S1 to S4) defined in Table 23-J of the code. Note that where soil properties are not known, soil
profile S3 shall be used.
Soil

Definition

Soil Profile S1:Rock (S Factor = 1.0)

Soil Profile S2:Dense or stiff soil (S Factor = 1.2)

Soil Profile S3:Not more than 40 ft. of soft clay (S Factor = 1.5)

Soil Profile S4:More than 40 ft. of soft clay (S Factor = 12.0)

Horizontal Force Factor


Enter an integer corresponding to the factor RW found in UBC Table 23-Q. RW is used in determining the seismic
force factor for non-building structures. As per UBC: tanks, vessels or pressurized spheres on braced or unbraced
legs have RW = 3 and distributed mass cantilever structures such as stacks, chimneys, silos, and skirt-supported
vertical vessels have RW = 4.

Percent Seismic for Hydrotest


Enter the percent of the total seismic horizontal force, which is to be applied during hydrotest. Although you can not
predict an earthquake, as you can high winds, some designers use a reduced seismic load for hydrotest on the theory
that the odds of an earthquake during the test are very low, and the hazards of a water release small.

Seismic Zone
Select the zone for seismic calculations. See UBC-91 Figure No. 23-2 to select the appropriate zone. The zone
establishes the Seismic Zone Factor, Z, found in Table No. 23-I.
Zone

Definition

Zone 0:Gulf coast and prairies. (Z = 0.00)

Zone 1:Rockies and Appalachian areas. (Z = 0.075)

Zone 2a:New England, Carolinas, and Ozarks. (Z = 0.15)

Zone 2b:Valley area west of the Rockies and the Pacific Northwest (Z = 0.20)

Zone 3:Sierras. (Z = 0.30)

Zone 4:California fault areas. (Z = 0.40)

Note that 0 indicates the least chance of a major earthquake, while 5 indicates the greatest chance of an earthquake.

6-44

General Vessel Data

NBC Seismic Data


Importance Factor
Enter the value of the NBC Importance Factor found in Sentence 4.1.9.1 (10). Please note the program will use this
value directly without modification.
Entry

Definition

1.5

Post-disaster buildings

1.3

Schools

1.0

All other buildings

Note that most petrochemical structures have an Importance Factor of 1.0.

Soil Type
Select the soil factor (From Table 4.1.9C) for the site:
Soil

Definition

Category 1:From rock to stiff fine-grained soils up to 15 m deep

Category 2:From compact coarse-grained soils to soft fine-grained soils up to 15 m deep

Category 3:Very loose and loose coarse-grained soils with depth greater than 15 m

Category 4:Very soft and soft fine-grained soils with depth greater than 15 m

Force Modification Factor


Enter an integer to indicate the type of lateral load resisting system. This value will be used to set the Force
Modification Factor (R) per Table 4.1.9.B and sentences 4.1.9.1 (8) and 4.1.9.3 (3)
Entry

Definition

Case 18 - Elevated tanks (such as equipment on legs). (R = 1.0)

Case 6 - Ductile structures (such as towers on skirts). (R = 1.5)

Note

Elevated tank analysis also includes the special provisions of sentence 4.1.9.3 (3).

Percent Seismic for Hydrotest


Enter the percent of the total seismic horizontal force, which is to be applied during hydrotest. Although you can not
predict an earthquake, as you can high winds, some designers use a reduced seismic load for hydrotest on the theory
that the odds of an earthquake during the test are very low, and the hazards of a water release small.

Acceleration Zone
Select the acceleration-related seismic zone. For locations in Canada, the velocity and acceleration seismic zones are
found in the city list, Chapter 1 of the supplement to NBC. Here are some examples of each zone:

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

Entry

Acceleration-Related Zone

Calgary, Alberta

Toronto, Ontario

Saint John, New Brunswick

Varennes, Quebec

Vancouver, British Columbia

Duncan, British Columbia

Port Hardy, British Columbia

6-45

Note that 0 indicates the least chance of a major earthquake, while 6 indicates the greatest chance of an earthquake.

Velocity Zone
Select the zone indicating the velocity-related seismic zone. For locations in Canada, the velocity and acceleration
seismic zones are found in the city list, Chapter 1 of the supplement to NBC. Here are some examples of each zone:
Zone

Velocity-Related Zone

Steinbach, Manitoba

Calgary, Alberta

Montreal, Quebec

Quebec City, Quebec

Dawson, Yukon

Victoria, British Columbia

Destruction Bay, Yukon

Note that 0 indicates the least chance of a major earthquake, while 6 indicates the greatest chance of an earthquake.

6-46

General Vessel Data

India's Earthquake Standard IS-1893 RSM and SCM


Percent Seismic for Hydrotest
Enter the percent of the total seismic horizontal force, which is to be applied during hydrotest. Although you can not
predict an earthquake, as you can high winds, some designers use a reduced seismic load for hydrotest on the theory
that the odds of an earthquake during the test are very low, and the hazards of a water release small.

Importance Factor
The importance factor is taken from table 4 in the IS-1893 standard. This value ranges from a maximum of 6.0 to
1.0.
Factor

Description

6.0

A value typically used in nuclear applications.

2.0

Dams of all types and lethal service applications

1.5

Used in the design of important structures such as hospitals, tanks, water


towers, and large assembly structures.

1.0

All others

Soil Factor
The soil factor (Beta) is taken from Table 3 of the IS-1893 seismic design code. This value ranges between 1 and 1.5.
Type I soils and hard rock should have a value of 1.
Type II soils should also use a value of 1 except for well foundations or isolated RCC footings without tiebeams
or un-reinforced strip foundations, which receive a value of 2.0.
Type III soils can receive a value between 1.0 and 1.5.

Zone Number
The zone number ranges between 1 and 5 and depends on where the vessel will operate in India. You can determine
the zone from a colored map of which is Figure 1 in IS 1893.

Period of Vibration
This field is optional. PV Elite computes the natural frequency of the vessel and can thus compute the period of
vibration. If this field is not 0 the program will use the entered value. This value is used in conjunction with Beta in
order to determine Sa/g.

Damping Factor
This value which is used with the period of vibration to determine Sa/g. Values of damping in the IS 1893 standard
are 2, 5, 10 and 20 percent. The program will interpolate for intermediate values in between 2, 5, 10 and 20 percent.
Extreme values will be used if a damping factor is entered which is outside the range above.

Use 2002 Version


India's seismic code was updated in 2002 and contains some changes over the previous edition. To use the 2002
version, check the box. In the 2002 version of the earthquake code, the Seismic Coefficient Method seems to have
been abandoned.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-47

ASCE - 95 Seismic Data


Percent Seismic for Hydrotest
Enter the percent of the total seismic horizontal force, which is to be applied during hydrotest. Although you can not
predict an earthquake, as you can high winds, some designers use a reduced seismic load for hydrotest on the theory
that the odds of an earthquake during the test are very low, and the hazards of a water release small.

Importance Factor
ASCE-95 does not address an importance factor. However, this value is multiplied times the other values to compute
the base shear. Thusly, this entry can be used as a scale factor for the base shear. If you do not wish to use this value
simply enter a value of 1.0.

Force Factor ( R )
This value is taken from table 9.2.7.5. For vertical vessels, towers, stacks etc. this value is 2.0.

Seismic Coefficient Ca
This value is derived from table 9.1.4.2.4A on page 55 of ASCE7-95. This factor is a function of the soil profile type
and the value of Aa. Typically this will be a given value. However, if given the soil type and the value Aa, you will
need to pick Ca from the table.

Seismic Coefficient Cv
This value is derived from table 9.1.4.2.4B on page 55 of ASCE7-95. This factor is a function of the soil profile type
and the value of Aa. Typically, this will be a given value. However, if given the soil type and the value Aa, you will
need to pick Ca from the table.
The help facility in PV Elite contains the above referenced tables.

Seismic Load Input in G's


Enter the value of G's that your vessel will be subjected to in the specified direction. For vertical vessels, the
horizontal component used will be the maximum of the Gx and Gz values. The horizontal force computed will be
equal to the element's weight times this maximum G factor. This force times its distance to the support will be
computed and summed with all of the others. The Y component is also considered. This value is usually 2/3 of the
Gx or Gz value, but note however any of these values can be zero.
For horizontal vessels, the lateral (Gz) and longitudinal (Gx) directions are considered independently. The vertical
load component (Gy) acting on the saddle supports is also computed.
Typical values of G loads are from 0 to 0.4.

6-48

General Vessel Data

UBC 1997 Earthquake Data


Percent Seismic for Hydrotest
Enter the percent of the total seismic horizontal force, which is to be applied during hydrotest. Although you can not
predict an earthquake, as you can high winds, some designers use a reduced seismic load for hydrotest on the theory
that the odds of an earthquake during the test are very low, and the hazards of a water release small.

UBC Earthquake Importance Factor


Enter the value of the UBC Importance Factor. Please note the program will use this value directly without
modification. This value is taken from Table 16-K of the UBC 1997 standard. The following is the context of Table
16-K.
Category

Value

Essential facilities 1.25

Hazardous facilities 1.25

Special occupancy structures 1.0

Standard occupancy structures 1.0

UBC Seismic Coefficient CA


Enter the value of CA per the project specifications and table 16-Q of UBC 1997 edition. This value is a function of
the seismic zone Z, and the soil profile type. This coefficient ranges from 0.44 to 0.06. In zone 4 this value is also a
function of Na.

UBC Seismic Coefficient CV


Enter the value of CV per the project specifications and table 16-R of UBC 1997 edition. This value is a function of
the seismic zone Z, and the soil profile type. This coefficient ranges from 0.96 to 0.06. In zone 4 this value is also a
function of Nv.

UBC Near Source Factor


This factor is only used in UBC Seismic Zone 4. This value ranges from 1 to 2 and is a function of the distance
relative to the seismic source.

UBC Seismic Zone


See UBC-91 Figure No. 23-2 to select the appropriate zone. The zone establishes the Seismic Zone Factor, Z, found
in Table No. 23-I.
Zone 0
Zone 1
Zone 2a
Zone 2b
Zone 3
Zone 4

Gulf and prairies (Z=0.00)


Rockies and Appalachian areas (Z=0.075)
New England, Carolinas, and Ozarks (Z=0.15)
Valley area west of the Rockies and the Pacific Northwest (Z=0.20)
Sierras (Z=0.30)
California fault areas (Z=0.40)

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-49

Note that Zone 0 indicates the least chance of a major earthquake, while Zone 4 indicates the greatest chance of an
earthquake.

UBC Horizontal Force Factor


Enter the seismic force factor R per UBC Table 16-P 1997 edition:
2.2
2.9

Tanks on braced or unbraced legs


Distributed mass cantilever structures such as stacks, chimneys, silos, and skirt supported
vertical vessels.

R is defined as the numerical coefficient representative of the inherent overstrength and global ductility of lateral force resisting
systems.

6-50

General Vessel Data

IBC-2000 Earthquake Parameters


Selection of this option performs a seismic analysis according to the requirements of the International Building Code
2000 (which mirrors those of ASCE 7).

Earthquake Parameters Ss and Sl


The values for Ss and Sl are taken from the ASCE 7-98 / IBC 2000 publication. These factors are for short and long
periods (0.2 and 1.0). These tables are found on pages: 100 - 117 (ASCE 98), page 351 (IBC) publication.

Response Modification Factor R


Enter the value from table 9.5.2.2 (ASCE) 1617.6 (IBC) as required. R is usually equal to 2.5 for inverted pendulum
systems and cantilevered column systems. For elevated tanks use a value of 4. For horizontal vessels, leg supported
vessels and others use a value of 3.0.

Importance Factor
This is the occupancy importance factor as given in 9.1.4 (ASCE) 1604.5 (IBC). The importance factor accounts for
loss of life and property. This value typically ranges between 1.0 and 1.5.

Moment Reduction Factor Tau


This value is used to reduce the moment at each level. A value greater than one will scale the moments up, while a
value that is less than one will lower the moments. We suggest a value of 1.0. This value should not be less than 0.8.

Seismic Design Category


Select an appropriate category from the pull-down. The choices are A through F. The program uses these values only
to check the minimum value of C's per equation 9.5.3.2.1-4 (ASCE), 1615.1.1 (IBC). This additional check is only
performed if the Seismic Design Category is E or F.

Earthquake Parameters Fa and Fv


Enter the coefficient from table 9.4.1.2.4A or 9.4.1.2.4B (ASCE), 1615.1.2(1) or 1615.1.2(2) (IBC) as required.
Table9.4.1.2.4.A Values of Fa as a Function of Site Class and Mapped Short-Period Maximum Considered
Earthquake Spectral Acceleration
Site Class

Ss<+0.25

Ss=0.5

Ss=0.75

Ss=1.0

Ss>1.25b

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.1

1.0

2.5

1.7

1.2

0.9

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-51

Table9.4.1.2.B (ASCE) 1615.2(2) (IBC), Values of Fv as a function of Site Class and Mapped 1-Second
Period Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Acceleration
Site Class

Sl<+0.1

Sl=0.2

Sl=0.3

Sl=0.4

Sl>0.5b

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.7

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

2.4

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.5

3.5

3.2

2.8

2.4

Note: For intermediate values, the higher value of the straight line interpolation shall be used to determine the
value of Ss or Sl.
a

Site specific geo-technical information and dynamic site response analyses shall be performed.

Site specific studies required per Section 9.4.1.2.4 may result in higher values of than included on hazard maps, as may the
provisions of Section 9.13.

6-52

General Vessel Data

Response Spectrum
Selecting this method performs a dynamic analysis of the vessel, applying loading based upon the selected seismic
Response Spectrum.
Initially, the vessel is modeled as a 2-dimensional structure (note that for asymmetric leg arrangements, the
horizontal direction of interest is taken as that corresponding to the weakest axis of the arrangement). Next an
Eigensolution is performed on the vessel, which determines system mode shapes and modal natural frequencies (all
modes with natural frequencies up through 100 Hz are calculated). The seismic response of each mode is then
extracted from the Response Spectrum according to the natural frequency of each mode, and then adjusted according
to the mode's "participation factor". The system response is then determined by combining all of the modal
responses.
For tall structures, this analysis gives a much more accurate calculation than the typical static equivalent method.
Usually, the computed loads are lower in magnitude than those computed using conventional building Code
techniques.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-53

Percent Seismic for Hydrotest


Enter the percent of the total seismic horizontal force, which is to be applied during hydrotest. Although you cannot
predict an earthquake, as you can high winds, some designers use a reduced seismic load for hydrotest on the theory
that the odds of an earthquake during the test are very low, and the hazards of a water release small.

Response Spectrum Name


The following seismic response spectra are available:

User Defined
This option allows the user to enter a custom seismic response spectrum of type Frequency or Period vs.
Displacement, Velocity, or Acceleration (see instructions below). The same spectrum will be applied in both the
horizontal and vertical directions.

El Centro
This response spectrum is based on the May 18, 1940 El Centro, California earthquake, North-South component, 510% damping as described in Introduction to Structural Dynamics by John Biggs. This spectrum will be applied in
both the horizontal and vertical directions.

ASCE
Selection of this option performs a seismic analysis according to the requirements of the modal analysis procedure of
ASCE Standard 7-98. The horizontal spectrum is a built according to the ASCE-7 Section 9.4.1.2.6, while the
vertical spectrum provides a flat acceleration of 0.2S

IBC
Selection of this option performs a seismic analysis according to the requirements of the modal analysis procedure of
the International Building Code 2000 (which happen to mirror those of ASCE-7). The horizontal spectrum is built
according to IBC-2000 Section 1615.1, while the vertical spectrum provides a flat acceleration of 0.2 (as per IBC2000 Section 1617. 1).

1.60D.5
Selection of this option applies (in the X- and Y-directions respectively) the horizontal and vertical spectra specified
in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.60, for systems with 0.5% of critical
damping. Note that this spectrum is normalized, so it must be scaled the site's Zero Period Acceleration (see below).

1.60D2
Selection of this option applies (in the X- and Y-directions respectively) the horizontal and vertical spectra specified
in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.60, for systems with 2 % of critical
damping. Note that this spectrum is normalized, so it must be scaled the site's Zero Period Acceleration (see below).

1.60D5
Selection of this option applies (in the X- and Y-directions respectively) the horizontal and vertical spectra specified
in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.60, for systems with 0.5% of critical
damping. Note that this spectrum is normalized, so it must be scaled the site's Zero Period Acceleration (see below).

6-54

General Vessel Data

1.60D7
Selection of this option applies (in the X- and Y-directions respectively) the horizontal and vertical spectra specified
in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.60, for systems with 7% of critical
damping. Note that this spectrum is normalized, so it must be scaled the site's Zero Period Acceleration (see below).

1.60D10
Selection of this option applies (in the X- and Y-directions respectively) the horizontal and vertical spectra specified
in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.60, for systems with 10% of critical
damping. Note that this spectrum is normalized, so it must be scaled the site's Zero Period Acceleration (see below).

Importance Factor
This is used for the ASCE and IBC options. For ASCE, this is I, the occupancy importance factor determined from
ASCE-7 Section 9.14. For IBC, this is Ie, the occupancy importance factor in accordance with IBC 1616.2.

Shock Scale X|Y dir


This is used for User defined, El Centro, and the 1.60Dxx spectra; and is used to scale the horizontal and vertical
spectra respectively. For example, many seismic specifications require that the vertical spectrum be identical to, but
with 2/3 of the magnitude, of the horizontal spectrum. This corresponds to an X scale of 1.0 and a Y scale of 0.6667.
Traditionally in the analysis of vertical vessels, the component in the vertical direction is typically ignored. If you
wish to do so, enter a value of 0 in the Y direction field.

Zero Period Acceleration


This is used to scale the normalized 1.60 Dxx spectra. The Zero Period Acceleration corresponds to the acceleration
of the rigid (high frequency) portion of the spectrum, which usually corresponds to the maximum ground
acceleration expected at the site.

Combination Method
Modal responses must be combined in a way that most accurately captures the statistical correlation of the responses
to each other. The available options are:
SRSS: This method performs a Square Root of the Sum of the Squares combination of the modal results. This
simulates a response where all modal results are assumed to be uncorrelated with, or totally unrelated to, each
other. If the ASCE or IBC method has been chosen, modal combinations will automatically be performed using
this method.
This is usually non-conservative, especially if there are any modes with very close frequencies, since those modes
will probably experience their maximum DLF at approximately the same time during the load profile.
Group: This method performs a group combination method as described in the United States National
Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.92 - responses of modes with natural frequencies within 10% of
each other are combined using the Absolute Value method, while those sums are combined with each other and
with m0ore far-flung modes, using the SRSS method. This simulates a response where the results of similar
modes are assumed to be correlated, while those of all dissimilar modes are assumed to be uncorrelated.
Absolute: This method performs an Absolute Value combination of the modal results. This simulates a response
where all modal results are assumed to be correlated with each other.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-55

This method gives the most conservative result, since it assumes that the all maximum modal responses occur at
exactly the same time during the course of the applied load. This is usually overly-conservative, since modes with
different natural frequencies will probably experience their maximum DLF at different times during the load profile.

Acc. Based Factor Fa:


This factor is required for ASCE-7 and IBC, and is used to construct the horizontal response spectrum. For ASCE-7
it is determine from Table 9.4.1.2.4a, while for IBC- 2000 it is determined from Table 1615.1.2(1). Typical values
are 0.8 through 2.5 and above. For more information on the values of Fa refer to IBC 2000 Earthquake Parameters in
this chapter.

Acc. Based Factor Fv:


This factor is required for ASCE - 7 and IBC, and is used to construct the horizontal response spectrum. For ASCE-7
it is determine from Table 9.4.1.2.4a, while for IBC- 2000 it is determined from Table 1615.1.2(2). Typical values
are 0.8 through 3.5 and above. For more information on the values of Fv refer to IBC 2000 Earthquake Parameters in
this chapter.

Max. Mapped Res. Acc. Ss:


This factor, the "mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration at short periods" is required
for ASCE-7 and IBC, is used to construct the horizontal response spectrum. For ASCE-7 it is determined in
accordance with Section 9.4.1, while for IBC-2000 it is determined from Section 1615.1. Typical values are 0.0
through 2.0g.

Max. Mapped Res. Acc. Sl:


This factor, the mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration at a period of 1 second", is
required for ASCE-7 and IBC, is used to construct the horizontal response spectrum. For ASCE-7 it is determined in
accordance with Section 9.4.1, while for IBC-2000 it is determined from Section 1615.1. Typical values are 0.0
through 1.5g.

Response Modification R:
This factor is required for ASDCE-7 and IBC, and is used to reduce the spectrum response. For ASCE-7 it is
determined from Table 9.5.2.2, while for IBC-2000 it is determined from Table 1617.6 Typical values are 1.25
through 8.0.
For elevated tanks use a value of 4. For horizontal vessels, leg supported vessels and others use a value of 3.0.

Coefficient Cd:
This factor, the "deflection amplification factor", is used to scale up the calculated seismic displacements. For
ASCE-7 it is determined from Table 9.5.2.2, while for IBC-2000 it is determined from Table 1617.6. Typical values
are 1.25 through 6.5.

Range Type:
User Defined spectra may be entered with a range X-axis representing either Frequency or Period. In either case, the
data points should be entered with ascending range values.

6-56

General Vessel Data

Note: A zero entry for either Frequency or Period is invalid. Interpolation will be made linearly for intermediate
range values. Data points defining the spectrum can be entered by clicking EDIT/REVIEW SPECTRUM POINTS.

Ordinate Type:
User Defined spectra may be entered with an ordinate Y-axis representing Displacement, Velocity, or Acceleration
entered in units of Diameter, Diameter /second, of G's respectively. Interpolation will be made linearly for
intermediate Ordinate values. Data points defining the spectrum can be entered by clicking EDIT/REVIEW
SPECTRUM POINTS.

Include Missing Mass Components:


Since only a limited number of modes of vibration i.e., only those with natural frequencies up to 100 Hz or so are
used in the analysis, the entire mass of the structure doesn't get considered in the seismic analysis. Clicking this box
causes PV Elite to estimate the contribution of the neglected modes of vibration and add that to the dynamically
calculated response.
Note:

Selecting this option should always lead to a more conservative result.

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

China's GB 50011 - 2001


1

Enter the value of

from Table 5.1.4-1. This value is used to determine FEk which is equation 5.2.1-1.

This value is used in conjunction FEk to compute Fn and is taken from table 5.2.1.
In addition to computing lateral loads on elements, PV Elite will also compute vertical loads per section 5.3.1.

6-57

6-58

General Vessel Data

AS/NZ-1170.4 - 1993/2007
The year of the AS/NZ seismic analysis can be either 1993 or 2007. Use the pull down to select the desired year.

Importance Factor [I]


The Importance Factor (I) is taken from table 2.5 from the Code and depends on the function of the structure type.
For Type III Structures, the Importance Factor is 1.25 and for Type I and II Structures, it is 1.0.
Structure Type

Description

Structures include buildings not of Type II or Type III.

II

Structures include buildings that are designed to contain a large number of people, or people of restricted
or impaired mobility.

III

Structures include buildings that are essential to post-earthquake recovery or associated with hazardous
facilities.

Structural Response Factor [Rf]


The structural response factor is taken from table 6.2.6(b) of the Code. For vessels on legs, this value is 2.1. For
towers, stacks and chimney type structures, this value is 2.8.

Site Factor [S]


The Site Factor is taken from table 2.4(a) or 2.4(b) and is a function of the soil type on which the vessel will sit. This
value can range between 0.67 and 2.0. A value of 2 is the most conservative and represents a vessel sitting on a
foundation of loose sand or clay, while 0.67 represents a vessel sitting on a rock bed.
Table 2.4(a) Soil Profile General Structures

Site Factor (S)

A profile of rock materials with rock strength Class L (low) or better

0.67

A soil profile with either:


1.0
(a) rock materials Class EL (extreme low) or VL (very low)
(b) not more than 30m of medium dense to very dense coarse sands and gravels; firm, stiff or hard clays; or controlled fill
A soil profile with more than 30m of:

medium dense to very dense coarse sands and gravels;


firm, stiff or hard clays; or

1.25

controlled fill
A soil profile with a total depth of 20m or more and containing 6 to 12m of:

very soft to soft clays;


very loose or loose sands;

1.5

silts; or
uncontrolled fill
A soil profile with more than 12m of:

very soft to soft clays;


very loose or loose sands;
silts; or
uncontrolled fill characterized by shear wave velocities less than 150m/s

2.0

Chapter 6 General Vessel Data

6-59

Acceleration Coefficient
The acceleration coefficient is taken from Table 2.3 or Figures 2.3(b) to 2.3(g). The value ranges from 0.04 to 0.22.
The higher the acceleration coefficient, the higher the load on the vessel.

Design Category
The design category ranges from A to E. PV Elite uses this value to determine if it is necessary to apply vertical
accelerations. If the selected category is D or E, vertical accelerations will be applied. The vertical acceleration is
taken to be 0.5 times the acceleration coefficient (a) in the horizontal direction per paragraph 6.8.

Component Elevation Ratio (hx-/hn)


If the vessel is building supported, it will be necessary to enter the ratio of the height from the bottom of the vessel to
the building height. If this value and the associated attachment amplification factor are entered in, the vessel will be
building supported. If so, the base shear will be computed in accordance with equation 5.2.1. Once the base shear Fp
(V) is determined, it will be applied per the equations in section 6 of the Code.

CH AP TER

Chapter 7 PV Elite Analysis


In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 7-2
Calculating and Displaying Vessel-Analysis Results ................. 7-3
Optional Steps............................................................................. 7-8
Component Analysis................................................................... 7-9

7-2

PV Elite Analysis

Introduction
Once all the data for the vessel model and analysis have been entered and corrected, the model is ready for analysis.
The pull-down menu under Analyze shows two options:
Analyze
Error Check Only

Analyze Menu

Error Check Only will review all the data and produce an output report listing any errors that are found. These
messages can be examined through the Output - Review option. If Analyze is selected, PV Elite will also run through
the error checker but then continue on (if no errors are found) through the complete analysis.
The analysis program is the heart of the PV Elite system. The analysis program uses all the data entered into the
model to evaluate or design the pressure vessel. In any given analysis there will be between 16 and 20 analysis steps.
As the program completes each calculation, important information from the step is displayed on the screen. The
screen display at the completion of the internal pressure calculations, for example, lists both the given element
thickness and the required thickness for each element in the vessel. The program waits for a user response before
clearing the screen and moving on to the next analysis step. The user may respond by continuing on to the next step,
continue non-stop through the remainder of all analysis steps, or quit the analysis. The results of the analysis are
stored in two separate files on the hard disk. The text results of the job are held in a file with the extension .TAB (e.g.
the jobname VES01 will have an input file named VES01.PVI and a text results file of VES01.TAB). The output
processor replaces this .TAB file with a .T80 file (VES01.T80). The .T80 file contains a complete report for each
analysis step for inspection and printing through the Review processor. The analysis also creates a .PVU file (e.g..
VES01.PVU); this file is used by the Output Review processor ASME U-1 Form generation. The program transfers
to the Review processor at the completion of the analysis.
PV Elite not only analyzes vessels, it also designs vessel walls for pressures and loads. In addition to increasing the
vessel wall thickness, the program can instead introduce stiffener rings to accommodate external pressures. The
program directives for these design modifications are set in each job in the Design Data section of Global Data. In
increasing the wall thickness to meet the required values, PV Elite can either set the thickness to the exact
requirement, or, round up to the next nominal value (1/16 inch in English units or 1 mm in metric units). This switch,
too, is a setting in the Configuration option under Utility.
If PV Elite's design process changes any of the original input, the program will automatically erase the current output
report and return to the beginning of the analysis and restart the run. All results will reflect the design changes, from
the input echo to the added deadweight. The user's original input, however, will not be changed. If a design flag is
turned on and the required thickness is less than the entered thickness, PV Elite will increase the thickness as needed
and continue.

Chapter 7 PV Elite Analysis

7-3

Calculating and Displaying Vessel-Analysis Results


Each of these steps calculates and displays specific results of a vessel analysis. A brief description of the key analysis
steps is defined below:

Step 0: Error Checking


The input program will have already caught most of the errors that are easily made. However, there are some errors,
which can only be discovered after the analysis begins. There are also some warnings that may be of help to the user.
This first routine check creates a report in the output. If any of the input errors would prevent the program from
running, execution stops here. Check the output to determine the exact error discovered by the program.

Step 1: Input Echo


PV Elite provides a complete listing of your input. This includes the geometry and materials for each element (head,
shell, cone, flange, skirt, etc.) and the information for any details attached to that element.

Step 2: XY Coordinate Calculations


The program calculates the X and Y locations of the first end of every element.

Step 3: Internal Pressure Calculations


The geometry, material, and loading data from your model are used to calculate the required thickness and maximum
allowable working pressure for each element (except skirts and flanges). The calculations are done using the ASME
Code, Section VIII, Division 1 rules, or the British Standard PD:5500 rules. The internal design pressure at any point
is taken to be the given design pressures for that element, plus the pressure due to liquid head, if any.
If you checked the Increase Thickness For Internal Pressure design flag and any element is too thin for the given
pressure, the program will automatically (or under interactive control) increase the thickness of the element. There is
a computation control (under Utilities on the Main Menu) that allows you to increase the element thickness to
exactly that required, or to round the thickness up to the next nominal size.
If the program has increased the thickness, it will recalculate all the required thicknesses and maximum allowable
working pressures for the vessel, and create a new table showing these results.
After the internal pressure calculation is complete, PV Elite prints the formulas and substitutions, as well the
minimum design metal temperatures for the elements.

Step 4: Hydrotest Calculations


The user specifies what kind of hydrotest (and/or the hydrotest pressure) on the global input screens. The program
uses this information to calculate the maximum allowed hydrotest pressure and required thickness at the given
pressure for each element.

Step 5: External Pressure Calculations


The user explicitly defines two of the three key variables for external pressure calculations: diameter and thickness.
The program calculates the third variable, length of section, for the given geometry. Thus if the vessel has two heads

7-4

PV Elite Analysis

and some number of cylindrical elements with no stiffening rings, the program will calculate the design length for
each cylinder using the full length of the vessel plus 1/3 the depth of the heads. If there are stiffening rings, the
program will calculate an appropriately shorter value.
The program displays the formulas and substitutions for the external pressure calculations on each element. Then the
same results are displayed in tabular form.
If the element is not thick enough for the external pressure (and you checked the design boxes in the input) the
program will allow you to increase the thickness and/or add stiffening rings (which are created automatically and
added to your model). If the thickness is increased the program has to go back to step 3. For rings it repeats this step
with the new lengths.

British Standard PD:5500


When performing the PD:5500 external pressure calculations, the program first computes the length of section for
the given geometry. The length of section is either the distance between stiffeners, or, if there are no stiffeners, it is
the full length of the vessel plus 0.4 times the depth of the heads.
Using the length of section computed, the program first tests to see whether the thickness of the unsupported cylinder
(or distance between supports) is satisfactory for the given pressure. A value of Pmax is determined.
If there are stiffeners, then the program performs the calculations described in section 3.6.2.3. The program first
performs the computations described in Method A, and then performs the more rigorous calculations described in
Method B. For each of these methods (and each value of n), a value of Pn and Fn are obtained.
Pn is the elastic instability pressure of the stiffened cylinder or cone. The value of Pn must not be less than 1.8*Pext
in the case of fabricated or hot formed stiffeners and 2.0*Pext in the case of cold formed stiffeners.
Fn is the maximum stress in the stiffener flange divided by the yield stress of the stiffener. A value for Fn is
computed for both fabricated or hot formed stiffeners and cold formed stiffeners. These values must be between 0.0
and 1.0.

Step 6: Weight of Elements


Element weights are calculated in both the corroded and uncorroded conditions. Note that for heads the distance
given in the input program is taken as the length of the straight flange on the head. This step also calculates the
volume of the element.

Step 7: Weight of Details


Each detail has a separate weight calculation. Of note is the fact that partial volumes of liquid in both the heads and
the cylinders and in both the horizontal and vertical directions are correctly calculated.

Step 8: ANSI Flange MAWP


If you entered nozzles, you specified the material and class of the attached flanges. PV Elite has the full ANSI flange
tables built in, and tells you the rating of the flanges at the operating temperature.

Chapter 7 PV Elite Analysis

7-5

Steps 9 and 10: Total Weight And Detail Moment


Several weight cases are calculated including: empty, operating, and hydrotest. The various detail weights/loads are
included in the following cases:
Detail

Empty

Operating

Saddle

Hydrotest
#

Platform

Packing

Liquid

Insulation

Lining

Rings

Nozzles

Saddles

Trays

Legs

Lugs

Weights

Forces/Moments

This step also calculates the moment due to individual details, which may not be on the centerline of the vessel.
These are usually small. Finally, this step calculates the forces at the support. The vertical force and bending moment
(due to detail weights only) are calculated for the 'one support' case (skirts, legs, lugs) and the vertical force at each
support is calculated when there is two saddle supports.
Note: In addition to computing the above weights PV Elite also computes the fabricated weight, shop test weight,
shipping weight, erected weight, empty weight and field test weight. The computed weights may or may not include
removable or field installed items such as packing and other details. You can specify where these details are to be
installed (either shop or field) in the Global Input. Switch to the global input screen and click the Installation
Miscellaneous Options button located at the top of the screen. By default the program assumes that all details will
be installed in the shop and calculate these various weights based on that assumption.
The cumulative weight on the vessel will look drastically different for horizontal vessels on saddle supports than for
vertical vessels on skirts, legs, and lugs:
Horizontal cases: Expect the highest weight forces near the saddles, with almost no weight force at the ends or in the
middle.
Vertical cases: Expect the weight forces to increase from zero at the top to a maximum at the support. If there are
elements below the support, expect the weight force to be negative.
The cumulative moment includes only the moment due to eccentric details, and is usually quite small (except in the
case of a large applied moment).

7-6

PV Elite Analysis

Step 11: Natural Frequency Calculation


PV Elite uses two classical solution methods to determine the first order natural frequencies of vessels. For vertical
vessels, the program uses the Freese method, which is commonly used in industry. For horizontal vessels a similar
method attributed to Rayleigh and Ritz is used. Each method works by calculating the static deflection of the vessel
(for vertical, the vessel as a horizontal cantilever beam). The natural frequency is proportional to the square root of
the deflection. As of version 4.3 PV Elite uses the matrix solution methods (Eigen Solution) to determine the modes
of vibration. Horizontal vessels are assumed to be rigid and as such are assigned a frequency of 33 hertz, which is
coincident of a ZPA for a rigid structure.

Step 12: Wind Load Calculation


PV Elite uses the rules of ASCE-7, NBC, UBC, and IS-875 to calculate wind loads. Each of these codes uses a basic
wind pressure, a function of the velocity squared, along with several surface and site factors to determine the final
wind pressure.

Step 13: Earthquake Load Calculation


The five codes used by PV elite- ASCE-7, UBC, NBC, IS-1893 RSM and IS-1893 SCM each use a static equivalent
load to model the earthquake load. Simple site data and loading data are used to determine an expected static
equivalent horizontal load on the vessel.

Step 14: Shear and Bending Moments due to Wind and Earthquake
These loadings generate horizontal loads, which are usually fine on a horizontal vessel, but can cause high
overturning moments on a vertical vessel. The program calculates the cumulative shear and bending moment on the
vessel, for use in later stress calculations.

Step 15: Wind Deflection


PV Elite calculates the deflection at every point in either horizontal or vertical vessels.

Step 16: Longitudinal Stress Constants


As the program prepares to do structural calculations on the vessel, it first calculates the cross sectional area and
section modulus of each element in both the corroded and uncorroded condition.

Step 17: Longitudinal Allowable Stresses


There are four allowable stresses in the longitudinal direction for each element: (1) Longitudinal tension based on the
basic allowable stress, often multiplied times 1.2 (as specified on the global input), (2) Hydrotest longitudinal tension
- 1.5 times the allowable stress new & cold. (3) Longitudinal compression - based on paragraph UG-23 of the Code,
and the material's external pressure chart. (4) Hydrotest allowable compression - the basic allowable compression
new & cold, multiplied by 1.5.

Step 18: Longitudinal Stresses Due to . . .


Each load (wind, earthquake, weight, pressure) generates a stress. These are calculated individually and displayed by
this routine. Note that bending stresses, though only displayed once, are actually positive on one side of the vessel
and negative on the other.

Chapter 7 PV Elite Analysis

7-7

Step 19: Stress Due to Combined Loads


In this step the various load cases combinations defined by the user are evaluated. If there are applied forces and
moments in the model, then other identifiers such as BS, BN and so forth may appear in the load case definition.
There can be as many as twenty cases, combining pressure loads, weight loads, and moments in various ways. A
fairly complete set of load cases is included as a default:
Load Case

Definition

1 NP+EW+WI+FW

No pressure + empty weight + wind

2 NP+EW+EQ+FS

No pressure + empty weight + earthquake

3 NP+OW+WI+FW

No pressure + operating weight + wind

4 NP+OW+EQ+FS

No pressure + operating weight + earthquake

5 NP+HW+HI

No pressure + hydrotest weight + hydro wind

6 NP+HW+HE

No pressure + hydrotest weight + hydro earthquake

7 IP+OW+WI+FW

Internal pressure + operating weight + wind

8 IP+OW+EQ+FS

Internal pressure + operating weight + earthquake

9 EP+OW+WI+FW

External pressure + operating weight + wind

10 EP+OW+EQ+FS

External pressure + operating weight + earthquake

11 HP+HW+HI

Hydrotest pressure + hydrotest weight + hydro wind

12 HP+HW+HE

Hydrotest pressure + hydrotest wind + hydro earthquake

13 IP+WE+EW

Internal pressure + wind empty + empty weight

14 IP+WF+CW

Internal pressure + wind filled + empty weight no ca

15 IP+VO+OW

Internal pressure + vortex shedding (OPE) + operating weight

16 IP+VE+OW

Internal pressure + vortex shedding (EMP) + operating weight

17 IP+VF+CW

Internal pressure+ vortex shedding (Filled) + empty weight no ca

The difference between wind loads and hydrotest wind loads is simply a ratio (percentage) defined by the user. This
percentage is specified in the Wind Data definition of Global Data - usually about 33% (thus setting the hydrotest
wind load at 33% of the operating wind load). Likewise, the hydrotest earthquake load is a percentage of the
earthquake load; this percentage is defined in the Seismic Data definition of Global Data.
Some steps that are not applicable for horizontal vessels, such as natural frequency, will not be printed. Also, if a
vessel has no supports, then there will be no calculations that involve wind or seismic loads.

7-8

PV Elite Analysis

Optional Steps
PV Elite includes the following analyses that are performed under specific circumstances:
1

Cone Evaluation - Cones are evaluated for internal and external pressure at the large and small ends, and any
stiffening rings near the cones are included and evaluated.

Zick Stresses - Stresses due to saddle supports are evaluated and compared to allowable stresses using the
method of L.P. Zick. Note that the stresses are calculated for each saddle, since in PV Elite each saddle can have
different loading. Note also that the stresses are not evaluated at the mid span, since the program automatically
does that for all the various load case combinations.

AISC Leg Check: After the program has computed all of the weights, forces and moments, it can then
determine the overall state of stress by using the AISC unity check method. The program typically looks at the
worst loads on the legs due to wind or seismic in the operating condition and then applies the AISC method of
checking the legs. The unity check must be less than or equal to 1.0. Most typical designs fall in the 0.7 - 0.8
range, which is a good check both in terms of economy and safety.

Lug Support Check - Similar in manner to the Leg Check feature the program gathers the worst loads on the
support lugs and then evaluates them according to a set of acceptable standards. In this case, gussets are checked
by the AISC method and the lug plates are checked by common industry standard methods. These methods are
outlined in common pressure design handbooks.

Baserings - With known forces and moments at the base and the geometry of the basering, PV Elite will analyze
or design the basering and gusset geometry.

Flanges - For main body flanges, the program will compute the required thickness of the flange, all relevant
stresses, and MAWP for the given geometry. The results seen in the output are based on the input thickness.
The program additionally computes the required thickness of the flange. Please note that the program does not
include the forces and moments to determine an equivalent design pressure. There are separate fields in the input
that can be entered in if these effects are to be considered. In order to do this two runs would have to made. After
run 1 was made the forces and moments on the flange could be entered in as needed.

Nozzle Analysis - Complete nozzle evaluation is incorporated into the program based on the rules in the ASME
code. Design cases are made for Internal Pressure, External Pressure and MAPnc. The internal pressure can be
based on the MAWP of the entire vessel or the exact pressure at the nozzle location. These options are located in
the Global Input section of the input. In addition to perpendicular nozzles, hillside geometries are also
considered. Nozzles at any angle can be entered in by using the ANG=xx.x command in the nozzle description
field. The nozzle analysis also computes MDMT, weld size and strength calculations along with provisions for
large nozzles as outlined in appendix 1-7 of the ASME Code. Another description option is for small nozzles. If
there is a small nozzle that must have area calculations performed, enter the text "#SN" as part of the nozzle
description. By default PV Elite will not calculate small openings for Division 1 vessels per UG-36. If local
loads have been defined on the nozzle, the nozzle report will display the results from WRC 107 or PD 5500
Annex G, or WRC 297 whichever one was selected.

Fatigue Analysis - The fatigue analysis is activated when the number of pressure cycles is specified on the
Design/Analysis Constraints screen. Click the Perform Fatigue Analysis button to display the dialog.
Change the number of pressure cycles. This value must be between 1 and 20. This cumulative damage analysis
is in accordance with PD:5500 2000 Annex C. In order for this analysis to activate, at least one nozzle must be
specified. In the Nozzle dialog, there is a check box and a pull down selection menu describing the class of the
weld attachment per Annex C. Once all of the data is specified, PV Elite will produce the Fatigue Analysis
Report.

Tubesheet Analysis - When the vessel design Code is ASME VIII or PD 5500, tubesheets are allowed to be
defined. They can be attached to flange or cylinder parent elements. PV Elite will compute tubesheet required
thickness, shell and tube stresses per the rules of TEMA, ASME Part UHX or PD 5500.

Chapter 7 PV Elite Analysis

7-9

10 Skirt Hole Opening Analysis - For vertical skirt supported vessels, PV Elite can compute bending and axial
stresses due to missing material in skirt openings typically for pipe openings, vents and access openings.
11 ASME App. EE Analysis - If you have specified a helical half pipe jacket, this analysis will be performed per
ASME Appendix EE.
12 ASME App. 14 large Central Opening Analysis - For Welded Flat heads, the analysis of large central opening
can be performed per Appendix 14.
13 Clip Analysis - If support clips have been entered in, these items will be analyzed using industry standard
methods.
14 Lifting Lugs - Like clips, the stresses in the shell and lugs will be calculated at various angles depending on the
final orientation of the vessel.
15 Tubesheet Analysis - If the model contains tubesheet data, tubesheet analysis per the chosen Code (TEMA,
ASME etc) will be listed in the report output.

Component Analysis
Once the program has completed the above calculations, the results may be reviewed in the output processor. These
results (such as required wall thickness vs. finished wall thickness) may also be used for the evaluation of other
components of the vessel. Rather than automatically analyzing all the possible vessel element details, the output
processor provides component analysis for only those details selected by the user. Other details that are not part of
the current vessel may also be analyzed here. This processor is described in the next chapter.

CH AP TER

Chapter 8 Output/Review
In This Chapter
Generating Output ...................................................................... 8-2
The Review Screen ..................................................................... 8-3
Using Review ............................................................................. 8-4
Component Analysis................................................................... 8-5

8-2

Output/Review

Generating Output
Output may be reviewed or generated for any job that has some input. Results of any previous analysis, of course, are
only available if the analysis has been run. To access the output, first bring up the proper job through the File item on
the Main Menu. Then, clicking on Output on the Main Menu will produce a pull-down menu that controls the
program's output. The pull-down menu provides three options:

Output Menu

Review Report

Enters the Review processor where results of the analysis may be


inspected on the screen, printed, or copied to a file.

Review the DXF File

Invokes a compatible DXF processor on the machine if one


exists.

Review the Access Database

If a database has been created, it can be reviewed directly using


Microsoft Access.

The remainder of this chapter will focus on the many capabilities of the Review processor.

Chapter 8 Output/Review

8-3

The Review Screen


The body of the Review screen shows all the reports available for the current job or file. These reports follow the
analysis steps described in the previous chapter. To select one or more reports, simply use the mouse and (CTRL)
key to select one or more reports. As with the main input program, the layout of the output program is customizable.
Note that the Report List has been docked to the right side of the screen from it's default position on the left side of
the screen.

The first report selected will immediately be displayed in the main window. Use the mouse to view other reports or
if multiple reports are selected, press the blue right and left arrow buttons on the toolbar to cycle through the viewing
of the reports.

8-4

Output/Review

Using Review
To use the Review or Output processor, simply click on the report of interest that is in the Report List. That report
will then show up in the main panel. Multiple reports can be selected by holding the control (CTRL) key down
while clicking the reports with the mouse. You can then use the blue arrows on the toolbar to navigate backwards
and forwards through the selected reports. You can then print the reports or create a Microsoft Word document by
pressing on the appropriate toolbar button at the top of the window.

Moving Reports
Reports can also be moved up and down in the list prior to printing or Export to Word. Highlight a single report and
press the "Report Up" or "Report Down" button to move the report.

Custom Word Headers


When exporting reports to Word, it is possible to have a custom header template with your companies logo and
information. To do this, follow these simple steps:
1

Start Word and create a document that contains only a Header Section with your company specific information

Save the file with a name of header.doc in the ..\PV Elite <year>\System directory

That's all there is to it. When the data is exported, the custom header will be inserted into the document.

ASME U-1 Form Generation


On the toolbar, note the Microsoft Excel Icon
. When this icon is clicked, an Excel file will be generated. The
filename for the form will be the vessel jobname with the text "_ASMEForm" appended to it. This form is copied
from the master template form that is found in the PV Elite\System directory. Once the form is launched and Excel
is running, the results data can be transferred into the form by clicking the "Import Latest Results" button at the top
of the U-1 Page 1 form. Note that this form contains a considerable amount of Visual Basic computer code. When
the Excel button is clicked, you may receive an error message about the macros in the file. Click the button that
allows macros to run. If you do not click the correct button the spreadsheet will not function as intended.
If the vessel is run repeatedly, the Import Latest Results button can be clicked. This will overlay program
generated results with those that are in the spreadsheet. If you have typed in non-imported material (like the
Inspector's name) this data will not be overwritten. Note that there are a total of three pages of information. In
Excel, they can be invoked by clicking the colored tabs at the bottom of the screen near the status bar.
It is very important that all of the information in the form be correct and match the vessel. Please check the data
carefully before submitting the form to the National Board or appropriate authorities. Some form information such
as the Drawing Number, position, manufacturer etc is stored in the PV Elite input file. The dialog is accessed through
the Tools->ASME Form Information menu selection.

Chapter 8 Output/Review

Component Analysis
Analysis of vessel details is initiated from the Input Menu.

8-5

8-6

Output/Review

Chapter 8 Output/Review

8-7

The units for the component analysis are extracted from the current vessel input. In the example here, Half Pipes
Jacket was selected. The initial screen displays below.

8-8

To produce a report, click the Analyze Current Item icon.

Output/Review

CH AP TER

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS


In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 9-2
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis........................................... 9-3
Analyzing Heat Exchangers........................................................ 9-4

9-2

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Introduction
PV Elite performs the analysis of heat exchangers in accordance with the following Codes:
ASME Section VIII Division 1
TEMA 1998
PD 5500: 2006
EN-13445 (U-tubes only at the time of this writing)
The ASME Tubesheet (heat exchanger) analysis rules were formerly found in Appendix AA, but in 2003, were rewritten and moved to the main body of the code, Part UHX.
The TEMA and PD 5500 methods of analysis have undergone little change since the last edition of PV Elite.
Formerly, tubesheets could only be analyzed in the Component Analysis module of PV Elite, although this facility is
still available for more information see The Tubesheet Program (see "TUBESHEETS" on page 17-1), this new
feature has a number of advantages not formerly available. Among these advantages are:
1

Tubesheets can be integrated into a model, including cylindrical shells (main shell and channels), heads, and
nozzles in the same model.

The total weight of the heat exchanger can be computed including all of its component parts

Supports, such as saddles, can be analyzed directly from the integrated model, ensuring that all weights and
applied loads are addressed.

The tubesheet reports are part of the overall analysis.

The MAWP/MAPnc of the whole exchanger can be computed (for ASME) including tubesheet(ASME), tubes,
expansion joint and floating head. These MAWP/MAPnc are computed for each side shell and channel. Hence,
the hydrotest for each side can also computed.

The tubesheet design code can be changed between TEMA and ASME with little modification to the input.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-3

Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis


PV Elite performs the analysis of shell and tube type heat exchangers. The program computes the stresses generated
in the shell, channel, tubesheets, and tubes for heat exchanger configuration entered by the user. The program allows
the user to enter multiple pressure / temperature combinations to provide a complete analysis.
Users have the choice of using the following Codes (Reference Documents):
ASME Section VIII Division 1 - 2007 Addenda 2009
PD 5500: 2009
TEMA - Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association: 1998
EN-13445
Because the heat exchanger is built by the user as a complete model, including the support structure, nozzles, and
external loads etc., the exchanger will be analyzed to include all of these conditions.
The program considers the following types of construction:
Fixed and Floating Tubesheets with various packing seals
Plain Shells, and Shell with Expansion Joints or Bellows
U-Tube Exchangers
Tubesheets that are subject to bolting moments from mating flanges
Tubesheets that are closed by floating heads
At the time of this writing, tubesheet analysis per the EN Code is limited to U-Tube tubesheet analysis.

9-4

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Analyzing Heat Exchangers


Heat Exchanger analysis is initiated from the Heat Exchanger
Data Input Screen. When you first load PV Elite, it is not active.

button, which is located near the top of the

Note: We use English (Imperial) units throughout this exercise. We strongly recommend you use these units for this
sample exercise.

To Analyze a Heat Exchanger:


1

Launch PV Elite and ensure the Input Screen is showing. Select an ellipsoidal head by clicking the Ellipse
Head icon. To build the heat exchanger in the horizontal orientation, click

Enter the information exactly as shown below for the head. The screen should then look exactly like this. Check
your input before you move on. Remember, click on the text in the left column and then start typing. The cursor
will automatically move to the right column. When you are finished, press Enter twice.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-5

Click the Cylinder icon to add a cylinder to the head. Ensure the input for the new cylinder has exactly this
appearance:

9-6

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Click the Body Flange icon to add a body flange to the right hand end of the channel shell. After adding the
flange enter all the values exactly as shown below.

Click the Perform Flange Calculation box, and the Flange dialog will display.

We need to correctly dimension the flange. To do this, change the flange as it appears to a 24 inch Class 150 flange,
which will fit into our heat exchanger.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-7

Click the Perform Flange Calculations box and the Flange dialog automatically displays. At the bottom of the
new Flange dialog you will see a section that resembles this:

Select 150 as the Class, 24 for the Nom then click ANSI Dim Lookup. The flange screen is now set up for the
24 inch Class 150 dimensions and bolting. Verify your screen resembles this:

Up to this point, we have been using the normal vessel building techniques that PV Elite uses for building non-heat
exchanger pressure vessels. We are now ready to start the construction (build the model) of the heat exchanger main
elements, the tubesheets, tubes and main shell that enclose the tube bundle.
8

Look at the Heat Exchanger button you will see that it is no longer disabled, as there is now a component to
which to attach the first tubesheet.

9-8

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Click the Heat Exchanger button the Heat Exchanger Tubesheet Input dialog displays. We will now
construct an ASME Section UHX exchanger, which requires a large amount of input data.

10 From the Exchanger Type box, click the arrow, and select Fixed. Your screen should now resemble this:

11 Click the Tubesheet Properties tab and enter the following information exactly as it displays below. Note the
type of tubesheet we have chosen: b Fixed Tubesheet, shell integral, extended as flange. Note also that we
enabled the Tubesheet Extended as Flange? box.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-9

12 Click the Tube Data tab and enter the information as it displays below.

We need to enter the pressures and temperatures for our heat exchanger to complete the tubesheet and tubes data.
13 Click the Load Cases tab and enter the information shown below.

PV Elite enables users to enter multiple combinations of pressures and temperatures for heat exchangers.
14 From the bottom of the dialog screen, click OK and the Data Input screen will display.

9-10

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Look at the 3D model on your screen, and it should resemble this figure.

Notice that there is no cylindrical shell between the two tubesheets. PV Elite cannot perform tubesheet analysis
unless the shell is present, because the thermal load from the shell is needed to complete this analysis. So, we must
add the shell between the tubesheets. Before we do this, recall that we stated in the Heat Exchanger dialog that the
tubes were 60 inches long. This is the distance between the tubesheets. So for a good match, the outer shell must
also be 60 inches long. Also note that there are only two rows of tubes displayed. Because of the intensive nature of
3D graphics it is impractical to show hundreds of tubes. Doing so would render the 3D model useless.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-11

15 Click the Cylindrical Shell icon, to add a cylindrical shell to our model. This shell is 60 inches or 5 feet long as
discussed above. Verify your entries match those below:

9-12

HEAT EXCHANGERS

16 Now, go to Tubesheet dialog and indicate the shell elements, as shown in the image below.

All that remains is for us to add the body flange to the right end of our heat exchanger, then another channel shell
and the final right channel head. Before doing so, your model should look like this.

You should be able to do this by yourself. Do so, and we can then proceed to the final step. You are able free to add
saddle supports, nozzles, and any other loads that apply.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-13

Building Heat Exchangers


Tubesheet Type and Design Code
This section explains the meanings and requirements relating to all the fields or screens presented to the user.
Once you have built the left hand side of your heat exchanger up to the point where you have a place to attach your
first tubesheet, click the

Heat Exchanger button. The Heat Exchanger Tubesheet Input screen appears.

Across the top of this dialog six tabs display:

Each tab displays a different data area which where users can enter heat exchanger information. We are going to
discuss each tab and its data area in turn. This section explains the Tubesheet Type and Design Code tab.
The Tubesheet Analysis Method

From the list box, choose the code you wish to use for the analysis. Available choices are:
ASME UHX - which is ASME Section VIII Division 1, Section UHX
PD 5500 - The British Pressure Vessel Code, Section 3.9 - Flat Heat Exchanger Tubesheets
TEMA - Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

9-14

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Note: In the case of PD 5500 if you previously selected PD:5500 on the Constraints dialog, then PD 5500 is the
only choice available in this drop down box.
Exchanger Type

From the list box, choose the type of tubesheet configuration you wish to analyze. The choices are
U-Tube
Fixed
Floating
The sketches below illustrate the three basic types of exchangers:
Choose this option if there is only one tubesheet, and each tube is in
the form of a U shape so that both ends of the tube are in the same
single tubesheet.

Choose this option if the tubesheets are fixed to either end of the
exchanger and are subject to thermal loads imposed by expansion.

Choose this option if the right hand tubesheet is free and as the tubes
expand or contract from thermal effects, the tubesheet is free to move
with the tube bundle.

ASME Specific Information

Depending on the code and type of exchanger you have chosen, the relevant fields are available for you to enter the
respective information. Let us consider first the ASME frame:

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-15

Floating Exchanger Type (ASME Specific)


If you have chosen the ASME Floating Head Type Exchanger, the following frame becomes active. From the list
box, select the type of floating head as illustrated just below:

The various types of exchanger as shown in the ASME code have the following floating head configurations.

9-16

HEAT EXCHANGERS

U-Tube Tubesheet Stress Reduction Option


If your design is a U-Tube type exchanger, the following frame is active. From the list box choose stress reduction
option:

Tell PV Elite what it must do in the event the model must be changed because of over stress. The available choices
are:
Increase the Tubesheet Thickness
Increase the Integral Cylinder Thickness
Increase Both the Cylinder and Tubesheet
Perform Elastic-Plastic Calculation
Enter the method you wish PV Elite to use to reduce any over stress condition.
TEMA Specific Information
If you had chosen TEMA as the design code, the TEMA frame would have become active like this:

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-17

Before discussing the three drop down list boxes labeled: TEMA Exchanger Notation, consider the nomenclature
used by the TEMA code. TEMA divides a typical heat exchanger into three sections, namely: the Front Channel,
the Shell and the Rear Channel respectively. The different types are assigned letters. The following table which has
been taken from the TEMA code gives shows the letters, and the corresponding designs for these three sections of
the heat exchanger: For more details, please refer to the TEMA code.

From the list boxes, enter your chosen configuration. The following example shows a common heat exchanger
configuration:

9-18

HEAT EXCHANGERS

From the TEMA Exchanger Class list box select the appropriate class. Available choices are:
Class R
Class C
Class B
Each Class has certain design constraints imposed from the TEMA Code, such as tube pitch, baffle spacing, number
of tie rods etc. The computations for each Class is identical, but the limitations are different.

Tubesheet Properties
This section explains the Tubesheet Properties tab. Clicking the Tubesheet Properties tab, displays the following
dialog:

Description
Enter the description you wish to include on your report for the tubesheet analysis section. In the above example, we
have set the Description to: 'MY EXCHANGER'.
Element From Node
This is the element to which the tubesheet is attached. Suppose for example, you want to attach the tubesheet to
Node 50 (as illustrated below), and the wrong Node Number is shown in the text box (shown as 30 above), you must
enable this field, to do this press F8. You will now be able to enter the number 50 in this field.
Distance from Node

Be careful here. The Distance From Node is the distance from the left hand end of the component to which the first
tubesheet is attached. We illustrate this distance as follows:

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-19

Tubesheet Type

Enter the type of tubesheet you are to design or analyze. From the drop down list box choose the tubesheet type.
If you select Fixed Tubesheet type exchanger, you would be presented with these choices:
Fixed Tubesheets, integral both sides
Fixed Tubesheets, shell integral, extended as flange
Fixed Tubesheets, shell integral, not extended as flange
Fixed Tubesheets, gasketed both sides
If you select U-Tube type exchanger, you would be presented with these choices:
U-tubesheet, integral both sides
U-tubesheet, integral with shell
U-tubesheet, gasketed on both sides
U-tubesheet, integral with channel
If you select Floating Head type exchanger, you would be presented with these choices:
Stationary tubesheets, integral with both sides
Stationary tubesheets, integral with shell
Stationary tubesheets, gasketed on both sides
Stationary tubesheets, integral with channel
From the list above, the following illustrations explain the meanings of the some of the terms used above:

In the top left picture above, the tubesheet is shown integral with the shell. However if the tubes were to point to the
left instead of the right, then the tubesheet would be integral with the channel.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS

Outside Diameter, Tubesheet Thickness and Corrosion Allowance Shell side / Channel side

Enter the outside diameter of the tubesheet. If the tubesheet extends beyond the shell (or channel) then enter that
diameter. However, if the shell is integral with either the shell, or the channel, then enter the inside diameter of the
shell or channel as applies. Enter the remaining information for the new tubesheet thickness, and the corrosion on the
shell and channel sides. When PV Elite calculates the stresses, it will deduct both of these corrosion allowances.
Depth of Groove in Tubesheet (in any)

If there is a groove across the tubesheet for a pass partition, then enter the depth of this groove. The depth of this
groove is deducted from the thickness of the tubesheet during the calculation process. Below displays an illustration
of a pass partition located into the tubesheet.

At the bottom of the groove, there is usually a gasket which PV Elite refers to as the Pass Partition Gasket (see
elsewhere in this manual where flanges are discussed).
Weld Leg at Back of Tubesheet (if any)

Enter the fillet leg size of the weld between the shell and the tubesheet, or the channel and the tubesheet as the case
may be if there is such a weld. For more information use the following illustration:

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-21

Tubesheet Extended as Flange? / Thickness of Extended Portion / Bolt Load Transferred to Tubesheet?

If the tubesheet extends beyond the outside shell / channel diameter, and this extension is attached to a body flange,
then check the Tubesheet Extended as Flange box. The thickness of the part of the tubesheet that is extended as a
flange may be the same or a different thickness from the rest of the flange. Enter the thickness of the tubesheet
extension.
If the tubesheet is bolted to a flange (either on the channel side or shell side), and the bolts produce a moment on the
edge of the tubesheet, then check the Bolt Load Transferred to Tubesheet box. Here we illustrate a tubesheet
extended as a flange. In this illustration the tubesheet is subject to the bolt force and therefore experiences the bolt
load, which is transferred from the flange.

Backing Ring

If there is a backing ring at the back of the tubesheet, we need the details. For further clarification we have provided
an illustration of a tubesheet with a backing ring:

9-22

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Enter the thickness of the backing ring, Enter the Outside and Inside Diameters of the Backing Ring, and the
effective diameter of the gasket(s) - G. To accurately determine the effective diameter of the gasket 'G', you are refer
to ASME VIII Division 1 - Appendix 2 Table 2-5.2.
For a flat gasket, a typical procedure for finding the value of G follows:
N = (O/Dia of gasket - I/Dia of gasket) / 2
bo = N / 2
If bo > 1/4 in. then b = Sqrt( bo ) / 2 and G = O/Dia of Gasket - 2.b
If bo <= 1/4 in. then b = (O/Dia of gasket + I/Dia of gasket) / 2
However, the user is urged to verify that the formula selected applies to the type of gasket chosen.
Shell Bands - ASME Part UHX Specific

If you have selected the analysis to be performed in accordance with ASME Section UHX, and you have a fixed
tubesheet heat exchanger, you will then be asked if there are shell bands. The following figure illustrates what shell
bands look like:

If there is a shell band (see above illustration), then check the Is there a Shell Band box. Then, enter the shell
dimensions in the appropriate fields as indicated in the above illustration. Thicker shell bands are used in areas
where the shell would be too highly stressed, and the thicker sections will reduce the stresses in the region of the
tubesheets.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-23

PD 5500 Specific

If you chose PD:5500 as your code on the Constraint screen, the above frame becomes active. From the list box,
choose the combination of the way the tubesheet is restrained in the heat exchanger. The following choices are
available:
Stationary Simply / Floating Simply

Stationary Clamped / Floating Simply

Stationary Simply / Floating Clamped

Stationary Clamped / Floating Clamped

PD:5500 uses the following diagram to explain the meaning of tubesheets that are Simply Supported, and tubesheets
that are Clamped. PV Elite uses this information to determine which PD:5500 graphs to use to obtain certain values
required in the computation of the tubesheet analysis.

9-24

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Tube Input Data


Information Specific to the Tubes
Click the tab: Tube Data (shown below):
We need information about the tubes that comprise the tube bundle. This is the third tab in the heat exchanger input
screen.

Basic Tube Data

Number of Holes
Enter the number of tubes in the tube bundle (the number of holes in one tubesheet).
Pattern
From the list box, choose the arrangement of the tubes in the tube bundle. Here are the two arrangements:

Wall Thickness
Enter the wall thickness of the tube. If you have finned tubes, it is usual to enter the thickness of the tubes ignoring
the fins (usually referred to as the root thickness of the tube).

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-25

Corrosion Allowance
If the tubes are subject to a corrosion allowance, then enter the corrosion allowance of the tubes. PV Elite will as one
of its load cases check the stresses in the corroded conditions (see Load Cases below).
Outside Diameter
Enter the Outside Diameter of the tubes.
Tube Pitch
Enter the center to center distance between the tubes. See the diagram above.
Length of Expanded Portion of Tube
Enter the distance the tube is expanded into the tubesheet. This is illustrated below:

Radius to Outermost Tube Hole Center


Enter the Distance from the Center of the Tubesheet to the Centerline of the furthest tube. This is the distance from
the center of the tubesheet to the center of the furthest tube.

9-26

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Distance Between Innermost Tube Centers


Between passes there are often open lanes to provide space for partitions in the channels that control the flow of the
fluid in the tubes. This distance is often greater than the pitch in the main areas of the tube bundle. Enter this
distance, even if it is the same as the general tube pitch (see above). If there are no pass partitions then this value
must be 0. This distance is illustrated thus:

PD 5500 or TEMA / ASME Fixed Tubesheet Input


If you chose a fixed tubesheet type design, then the following frame displays. Below we discuss the fields in the
order they appear:

Max Distance from Tubesheet to 1st Tube Support and Max Distance Between 2 Tube Supports
Tube supports are often referred to as baffles. Not only do these tube supports or baffles support the tubes, but they
also control the path taken by the shell side fluid. If the tubes are subjected to axial compression, they act as struts or
slender columns, and are subject to buckling. Tube supports or baffles help to shorten the effective lengths of the
tubes, thus providing support from sagging and compression.The distances are illustrated below:

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-27

End Condition k / Max. Unsupported Len SL


The end condition controls the effective length of the tube against buckling. TEMA and PD:5500 specify
appropriate values for 'k' as follows:

Length SL
Enter the distance between the points of support as indicated in the left most column of the above table associated
with the chosen value 'k'.
Tube-Tubesheet Weld (TEMA / ASME)

This section of the input screen is concerned with the strength of the joint between the tubesheet and the tube. Tubes
can be installed in the tubesheet by being expanded to grip the hole in the tubesheet, or can be fixed by welding. It is
also possible to use a combination of expanding and welding, where the weld is merely a seal weld, not a strength
weld. PV Elite determines the effectiveness (strength) of this joint to verify that the joint is strong enough to
withstand the axial forces to which the tube is subjected during service.
Fillet Weld Leg Size (If Any)
If there is a weld between the tube and the tubesheet, then enter the fillet leg size.

9-28

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Groove Weld Leg Size (If Any)


If the tubesheet is chamfered in order that the attachment weld partially penetrates the tubesheet, then enter the fillet
weld size. The picture below illustrates the type of tube to tubesheet weld being considered:

Tube Weld Joint Type


PV Elite needs to know the degree of support the weld contributes to the tube to tubesheet joint. List box choices
include:
Type

Description

Full Strength

where the weld alone provides the strength to the joint

Partial

where the weld provides support in combination with the fact that the tube is expanded to grip the
tube hole

Seal

where the weld only serves to prevent leakage, and does not contribute to the strength of the joint.

Design Strength (Only for U-Tubes)


In the case of U-Tube exchangers, where the tubes are welded to the tubesheet with a full strength weld, PV Elite will
calculate the required weld size to withstand the load entered by the user. In this field, enter a suitable axial load on
the tubes from the loadings they expect to experience in service.
Allowable Joint Load Method
This list box is only active if you are designing an exchanger in accordance with the ASME code. PV Elite will
compute the Allowable Joint Load either using Appendix A, or according to Section UW-20 of the code. From the
list box select one of the following:
ASME Appendix A
ASME UW-20

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-29

Is the Tube Tubesheet Joint Tested


ASME Appendix A provides a procedure for testing the strength of the tube to tubesheet joint. If this test is
performed, then the actual strength is known, thus providing a higher degree of confidence in the integrity of the
joint. If the joint configuration has been tested in accordance with the stated procedure, then check this box. In the
case of PD 5500 there is also a procedure for testing the tube to tubesheet joint. This procedure is found in the
publication BS 4870-3 obtained from the British Standards Institution.
Tube Joint Reliability Factor (table 3-9-2)
The Joint Reliability Factor is determined by the type of tube to tubesheet joint, and the code. The ASME and PD
5500 codes have different reliability factors. The reliability factors for the two codes (for TEMA exchangers, choose
the ASME values) display below.

9-30

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Interface Pressure (Pressure on Outside of Tube)

Two values are called for: Po and Pt. Po is the pressure that exists between the outside of the tube after the tube is
expanded into the tubesheet, and Pt is the pressure that will exist on the outside of the tube once the exchanger is in
service. These values are difficult to obtain presently as the ASME code gives little guidance. The picture below is a
representation of the pressure on the outside of the tube once it is expanded into the tubesheet:

Tube Product Specification

Exchanger tubes are available as either seamless or welded products. If the tubes are of welded construction then
check this box.

Expansion Joint Data

If there is an expansion joint in the main shell between the tubesheets (which only applies to tubesheets fixed to each
end of the shell), then PV Elite needs to know all the details of the expansion joint to compute its flexibility (or spring
rate), as the expansion joint plays a role in the axial forces that exist between the shell and the tubes as a result
mainly of the thermal growth of the shell and tubes relative to each other.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-31

Type of Expansion Joint (If any)

From the above list box choose the type of expansion joint employed in your design. The choices are:
Joint Type

Description

No Joint

If there is no expansion joint present

Thin Bellows

If the expansion joint is a many convolution thin metal bellows per ASME Appendix 26

Thick Joint

if the expansion joint is made up of pressed elements - either per TEMA or ASME Appendix 5

Note the dimension of each type, as you will be required to enter the relevant dimension details for the joint type you
choose.
Note: TEMA refers to each of the elements shown below as a Shell Element. One convolution comprises 2 shell
elements. Please take a note of this, it follows that shell elements exist in pairs and that the number of shell elements
required is twice the number of convolutions.

TEMA Code Thick Joint

9-32

HEAT EXCHANGERS

ASME Code Appendix 26 Thin Joint

If you choose the thin joint as shown above, then the axial stiffness will be set to zero by PV Elite unless a value is
entered (see below), as this type of joint is very flexible.
Make a note of the nomenclature and dimensions in the above figures, you will need them for the type of expansion
joint you install in your model. Please note gather all the information before you begin entering the data that
follows.
Number of Flexible Shell Elements (1 Convolution = 2 Fsa)

This field only applies to Thick Joints which comprise the shell elements (described just above). An alternative way
of looking at this information is to ask yourself how many PAIRS of elements do I need to make the number of
convolutions needed. Remember, the greater the number of convolutions, the greater the flexibility. This flexibility
is affected by the dimensions, thickness of the vertical legs of the elements, and the number of elements employed in
the expansion joint. Enter the number of shell elements in the expansion joint.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-33

Distance From Node

The start of the expansion joint must be located somewhere in the shell to which in which it is installed. The
Distance From the Node is shown below:

Design Option

From the list box choose:


Existing
Analyze
If you wish to enter the details of an existing expansion component, then you will be required to enter the spring rate
and other information. However, if you wish PV Elite to compute the flexibility of the expansion joint, then select
Analyze from this list box.
The Set defaults button enables you to toggle between using the actual dimensions of the expansion joint elements
(which you will have to enter). In this way, once you have entered the geometric data, you will be able to quickly
change from a full analysis to using the flexibility values for an existing joint.

9-34

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Dimensions for the Shell Elements:

If you have thick walled expansion joints, and you want PV Elite to compute the axial stiffness (or flexibility) enter
the dimensions for one shell element (defined above). You will be able to see the nomenclature related to the shell
element from the thumbnail picture on the input screen.
Desired Cycle Life

During service, the expansion joint will experience a number (cycles) of expansions and contractions from the
changing temperatures and pressures during its lifetime. PV Elite computes the maximum number of cycles the
expansion joint is able to withstand. This field is a required input. PV Elite will compare the computed number of
cycles with the user entered value.
User Input Spring Rate

These fields only apply if the user has selected 'Existing' in the Design Option field. Enter the spring rate for both
the Corroded and Uncorroded states.
The Outer Cylinder

Outer Cylinder Between Two Shell Element Pairs

Note: Use the TEMA Code Thick Joint dimensions figure above to enter data in the material, outer cylinder
dimensions for the diameters and any corrosion allowances.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-35

Load Cases
Click the Load Cases tab

During operation, and during its service life a heat exchanger is subject to different combinations of pressure and
temperature. PV Elite enables users to enter up to 8 combinations known as Load Cases. Some of these load cases
may include the initial and periodic hydrostatic pressure tests, normal predicted service, and upset or emergency
conditions where unusual conditions may apply such as sudden plant shut down, cold start up etc. PV Elite also
considers each of these load cases for both corroded and un-corroded conditions as well as the possibility of a
vacuum being encountered for any one of these load cases. In extreme cases this could mean that up to 128 different
conditions are being computed.

Entering Individual Load Cases:


How Many Load Cases?
First determine how many load cases must be considered:

From the Number of cases to process box select a number between 1 and 8. This option sets the total number of
load cases PV Elite will include in its analysis. From the Active Load Case counter click on the arrow to navigate
through the load cases, as only one load case at a time will appear on the screen. In the example above, 2 load cases
have been specified, but the input screen will only accept information for load case number 1. Remember, if for
example 8 load cases are chosen, then PV Elite expects the user has entered all the information for every load case.

9-36

HEAT EXCHANGERS

In the Case Description field, type a meaningful description of this code case. This description will be included in
the final report generated by PV Elite. To the right of the Case Description field is the Set Report Options for this
Load Case button. Click this button to display the Report Print Options dialog.

Note: It is important to realize that the load cases shown in the left hand column in the illustration above are NOT
the load cases entered on the parent screen.
Use the table below to identify the meanings of the symbols used in the Report Print Options dialog.
Descriptor

Description

Fvs

This is the user defined shell side pressure set to a full vacuum

Fvt

This is the user defined tube side pressure set to a full vacuum

Ps

The user defined shell side design pressure

Pt

The user defined tube side design pressure

Th

Thermal Expansion: +Th means with thermal expansion and -Th means without thermal expansion

For example:
Ps + Fvt + Th tells PV Elite to use the design pressure in the shell, a vacuum in the tubes, and also to include
thermal expansion from temperature differentials.
Fvs + Fvt - Th tells PV Elite to use a vacuum in the shell, a vacuum in the tubes, but to ignore thermal expansion.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-37

Note: For an ASME analysis PV Elite will only run cases 1, 2, 3 and 8. For a TEMA or PD 5500 analysis PV Elite will
run all cases.
Once you have set up the load cases, click OK to close the dialog. Remember, this combination of load cases is
available for each major load case entered on the parent screen. As can be seen, it is possible to have a large number
of total combinations, so only enter cases that are absolutely necessary, because the computation time can be long,
and the report can generate a lot of output.
Now return to the parent screen:

Load Case - Pressures, Temperatures and Materials

Across the top of the above figure the following headings display: Shell, Channel, Tubes, Tubesheet and Shell
Band.Along the left side are the following labels: Design Pressure, Design Temperature, Material, Metal
Temperature along length, Metal Temperature at Tubesheet Rim and Database lookup and Properties.
Design Pressure
Enter the design pressure for the shell and the channel (tube side).
Design Temperature
Enter the design temperature for the Shell, Channel, Tubes, Tubesheet and Shell Band. This is the maximum design
temperature. PV Elite will use this temperature to determine the allowable stresses, coefficient of expansion and
Young's Modulus. These temperatures are typically higher than the actual metal temperatures.
Material
Underneath each component is two command buttons Tubes, and a Arrow.

Clicking the Tubes button displays a list of materials from which users can select the appropriate material. Clicking
the Arrow button displays the details of the current material for that component. At this point, verify that the
information in the detail screen is complete, including the yield stresses, and any other information. PV Elite uses this
information to determine the mechanical properties of the component.
The material definitions are only available for load case 1. So if you want to change the material for any component,
then select load case 1 from the spin box discussed above.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS

Metal Temperature Along the Length


This field refers to the Actual Metal temperatures - often called the Mean Metal Temperature for a specific
component. These temperatures are used to compute the thermal expansion of the shell and tubes. Users must be as
accurate as possible when assigning these values, because thermal expansions can be the major contributor to axial
stresses. Not much information is available for determining these temperatures, but TEMA section T-4 supplies a
suggestion. However, the determination of these temperatures is complex, and much information is required to
attempt their derivation.
Modulus of Elasticity

If the User-defined values box is checked, then users may enter user defined values for Young's Modulus. Users
are cautioned to ensure that the defined values are realistic. Typically this check box is not enabled in those
instances PV Elite uses its internal database to find these values. This is usually considered the safer method to use.
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

If the User-defined values box is checked, then users may enter user-defined values for the Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion. Users are cautioned that if user-defined values are used, ensure they are realistic. Typically this check
box is not enabled in those instances PV Elite uses its internal database to find these values. This is usually
considered the safer method to use.
Differential Design Pressure

In the case of TEMA and PD 5500 only, the codes allow users to have PV Elite compute the stresses using only the
Differential Design Pressures (difference between Shell and Tube sides as defined) combination only. If this field is
left as a zero input, PV Elite will ignore the field, and will carry out the computation for all the combinations of
pressure. The differential pressure selection assumes that these are the ONLY pressure that will be encountered for
this load case. The user is cautioned that typically, this field would be left as zero unless the user is absolutely
certain that this case only need be considered.
Expansion Joint Material and Differential Pressure Design

If an expansion joint is present, then the material for that joint is required. Clicking the Matl.. button displays a list
of materials from which the appropriate material may be selected. The Arrow button is used to view the actual

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-39

material characteristics. Click this button to verify all the information is available including the yield stress values.
PV Elite requires this information during the computation of the thermal stress, and all relevant information must be
available to the program.

Floating Tubesheets
Click the Floating Tubesheets tab.

The following input screen displays:

Below we discuss each field:


Description
Enter a meaningful description for the floating head this description will be included in the final report generated by
PV Elite.

9-40

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Floating Tubesheet Type

For TEMA / PD 5500 Exchangers


(P) Floating tubesheet, outside packed
(T) Floating Tubesheet, pull through floating head
(S) Floating tubesheet, gasketed, not extended, with backing device
(W) Floating tubesheet, externally sealed.
For ASME Exchangers
(a) Floating tubesheet, integral
(b) Floating tubesheet, gasketed, extended as a flange
(c) Floating tubesheet, gasketed, not extended with backing device
(d) Floating tubesheet, internally sealed.
The floating heads for the TEMA / PD 5500 codes is illustrated below:

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-41

The floating heads for the ASME code is illustrated as follows:

Floating Tubesheet Geometry

Outside Diameter
Enter the outside diameter of the floating tubesheet.
Tubesheet Thickness
Enter the Actual Thickness of the Tubesheet.
Corrosion Allowance
Enter the Corrosion Allowances for both the Shell and Channel sides. This corrosion allowance will be deducted
when computing the tubesheet stresses for the corroded condition calculation.
Depth of Groove in Tubesheet (if any)

If there is a groove across the tubesheet for a pass partition, then enter the depth of this groove. The depth of this
groove is deducted from the thickness of the tubesheet during the calculation process. Below is an illustration of a

9-42

HEAT EXCHANGERS

pass partition located into the tubesheet. At the bottom of the groove, there is usually a gasket, which PV Elite refers
to as the Pass Partition Gasket for more information see elsewhere in this manual where flanges are discussed:

Is The Floating Tubesheet Extended as a Flange

If the floating tubesheet is extended as a flange is to be bolted to a body flange, then check the Tubesheet Extended
as Flange box. The thickness of the part of the tubesheet that is extended as a flange may be the same or a different
thickness from the rest of the flange. Enter the Thickness of Extended Portion.

Integral Channel Properties for ASME Floating Configuration A

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-43

If you selected the ASME Floating Tubesheet for Configuration A analysis, then enter the New Channel
Thickness tc and the Design Temperature.

Use Matl button to choose the appropriate material, and ensure that all the data fields (click the right command
button) are entered including the yield strength.
PD 5500

If you selected PD:5500 from the Constraint dialog, the PD 5500 frame becomes active. From the list box, choose
the combination of the way the tubesheet is restrained in the heat exchanger. The choices available:
Stationary Simply / Floating Simply
Stationary Simply / Floating Clamped
Stationary Clamped / Floating Simply
Stationary Clamped / Floating Clamped

9-44

HEAT EXCHANGERS

PD:5500 uses the following diagram to explain the meaning of Tubesheets that are Simply Supported, and
Tubesheets that are Clamped. PV Elite also uses this information to determine which PD:5500 graphs to use to obtain
certain values required in the computation of the tubesheet analysis.

Spherical Cover / Backing Device


This section covers the data required to analyze the Spherical Cover and Backing Device (if there is one).

Description

Enter an appropriate description that describes the type of bolted cover for reference in the final report generated by
PV Elite.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-45

Type of Floating Head

PV Elite will analyze four different types of Floating Heat (Bolted Cover). They display below:

Floating Head Bolted Covers

Dimensions of the Bolted Cover

Using the Floating Head Bolted Covers illustration to enter the following information which is specific to the bolted
cover and not the mating flange or backing device:
Design Temperature of the Bolted Cover
The Inside Crown Radius of the spherical cap, or formed dome (see the Floating Head illustration above)
The Head Thickness - This is the thickness of the spherical or domed portion of the cover.
Head Internal Corrosion Allowance (this is the tube side) - Enter the corrosion allowance.
Head External Corrosion Allowance (this is the shell side) - Enter the corrosion allowance.
Flange Thickness - In the above illustration, this is the thickness of the actual flange part of the bolted cover, not
the spherical cap.

9-46

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Once you have selected the type of cover (a, b, c or d), a new dialog displays. The Flange and Gasket Information
dialog displays flange, gasket and bolting details. A partial view of this input screen displays below.

For further information on completing the data in this dialog please refer to the section titled Bolted Cover Mating
Flange (on page 9-49).
Continuing with the input:
The remainder of the required data is:

Slotted Flange
If the flange is slotted, check this box.

Slotted Flange

Warning: Users should note that slotted flanges are much weaker than conventional flanges.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-47

Perform Soehren's Calculation


A more detailed analysis of bolted dished heads is included, based on Soehren's analysis, "The Design of Floating
Heads for Heat-Exchangers", ASME 57-A-7-47. The more detailed analysis may be used for the design of floating
heads, as specifically mentioned in the ASME Code, Paragraph 1-6 (h).
Dimension Q
If you checked the box to perform Soehren's Calculation, then enter the 'Q' dimension as shown below:

Head and Flange Materials


Use the left command button in each case to select the material from the list box, and use the right command button
to view the properties. Verify all the properties are included, including the yield value, which you may have to enter
yourself for a non-ASME material.
Compute 'F' Even if the Pressure is Zero
In ASME Division 1, Appendix 1 for type 'd' heads the thickness of the head is computed using a derived 'F' value.
'F' is a function of the pressure, therefore, for the initial bolt-up condition 'F' would become zero. Some are of the
opinion that 'F' should never be zero, but that the value of 'F' computed for the operating condition should be used. If
you wish to have PV Elite use a non-zero value of 'F', then check this box.
Dimension hr

In the Type 'd' Head illustration (see illustration above), the distance 'hr' can be entered two different ways. If the
distance 'hr' is known, then enter this value in the upper box. However, if you know the distance from the top of the
flange to where the top of the spherical cap (Head) intersects the inside diameter of the flange, then enter this
dimension, and click Compute to have PV Elite compute the value of 'hr'.
Backing Ring Data

If there is a backing ring (or backing device) behind the tubesheet, then check the Is There a Backing Ring box.

9-48

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Backing Ring Material


Select the backing ring material and verify all the data is complete as discussed above for various other components.
Backing Ring Inside Diameter / Outside Diameter
Enter the Inside Diameter and the Outside Diameter of the Backing Ring.
Backing Ring Thickness
Enter the thickness of the backing ring.
Number of Splits in Backing Ring
Sometimes backing rings are split diametrically to facilitate assembly. More than one split ring may be employed in
the construction of the backing ring for added strength. Illustrated below are two rings each of which is split
diametrically, the splits are located 90 degrees from each other. Enter the number of rings that are split. For the
diagram below the number of splits would be two. If the backing ring is not split then enter zero.

In this case, the Number of Splits in Backing Ring that should be entered is '2'.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-49

Bolted Cover Mating Flange


Flange and Gasket Information
The bolted cover attached to the floating tubesheet produces a moment on this tubesheet. To enable PV Elite to
compute this moment, we need all the flange and bolting information. We will now discuss the Flange and Gasket
Information dialog.

9-50

HEAT EXCHANGERS

A typical tubesheet extended as flange, subject to the bolting moment has the following appearance and dimensions:

Flanged Portion ID / OD
Enter the Inside and Outside Diameter of the Cover Flange.
Flange Face ID / OD
Enter the Inside and Outside Diameter of the Flange Raised Face.
Gasket ID / OD
Enter the Inside and Outside Diameter of the Gasket.
Gasket m / y
From ASME VIII Division 1 - Appendix 2, Table 2-5.1, enter the gasket seating factor 'm' factor, and the gasket
seating stress 'y'. If analyzing a PD:5500 exchanger, refer to Table 3-8.4
Flange Face Sketch / Column
From ASME Table 2-5.1 or PD:5500 Table 3-8.4, select the facing sketch and the column number from the list
boxes.
Gasket Thickness
Enter the thickness of the gasket. This value is not used in the tubesheet computation, but is included in the final
report.
Nubbin Width
Referring to the above illustration, enter the Nubbin Width. The Nubbin Width is the tongue defined by the inside
and outside diameters of the raised face.
Partition Gasket Details
If the channel has a partition plate (see the section of the manual referring to Tubesheet Properties (on page 9-18)
for a sketch of this arrangement), or gasket then enter the length and width of the partition plate or gasket. In this
way, PV Elite with include the extra forces to compress the gasket at the location of the partition plate.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-51

Partition Gasket m / y
Enter the values of m and y specific to the partition gasket. Typically, these values would be the same as the m and y
values for the main gasket as discussed above.
Number of Bolts
Enter the number of bolts that connect the cover to the tubesheet.
Bolt Circle Diameter / Nominal Bolt Diameter
Enter the diameter of the circle where the bolts are located around the flange, and the nominal diameter of each bolt.
Thread Series
The purpose of this box is to determine the root area of the thread in the determination of the bolt load applied to the
flanged joint. From the list box select:
TEMA
UNC
User Specified Root Area of a Single Bolt
British Standard
South African Standard
Bolt Design Temperature
Enter the Design Temperature of the bolts. This temperature should not be less than the Design Temperature of the
flange or tubesheet, whichever is the larger.
Bolt Material
As discussed in other areas of this manual, select the Bolt Material from the list box ensuring that all fields contain
correct information, especially the value of the yield value in the case of non-ASME materials.
Alternate Bolt Loads (used if greater than calculated values)
If you wish to enter the Wm1, Wm2 and W to over-ride the values computed by PV Elite, then enter these values.
These will only be used if they exceed the values computed by PV Elite.

9-52

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Precautionary Note
Tubesheets Integral with Shell Only
When a tubesheet is defined by the user as being Integral with the Shell and Channel, PV Elite expects the design to
resemble the figure below.

Notice this important point: PV Elite expects the tubesheet to be welded to both the Channel, and the Shell. The
reason is that the:
Program computes the pressure and loads on the channel side using the dimensions of the channel
Program computes the pressure and loads on the shell side using the dimensions of the shell.
Shell and channel sides can have different thicknesses and different corrosion allowances.
If for example, the channel side were of thin austenitic steel with no corrosion allowance, and the shell side were of
thick carbon steel with a large corrosion allowance, then the corroded diameters of the shell and channel sides would
be different when PV Elite computes the stresses in the corroded condition.
Provided the user constructs the heat exchanger as shown above, this will not create a problem, because PV Elite
knows the dimensions of both the shell and channel sides. However, suppose the user constructed the exchanger like
this:

Looking carefully at this type of construction, the tubesheet is inserted fully into the main shell, and does NOT
connect to the channel.

Chapter 9 HEAT EXCHANGERS

9-53

With this type of construction, PV Elite will use the dimension of the channel for the channel side, and the dimension
of the shell for the shell side. This would give incorrect results, because both the shell and channel sides should be
computed using only the shell dimensions.

How can we solve this problem?


The best way of solving the problem is for the user to include a dummy piece of channel as an extra component into
the design (both ends of the exchanger in the case of a fixed tubesheet exchanger). The illustration displays how the
dummy channel can be introduced by the user to correct the problem:

By introducing this dummy channel, which has the identical dimensions, corrosion allowance and material
specification as the main shell between the two tubesheets, PV Elite can now correctly compute the stresses based
upon the correct components.

CH AP TER

1 0

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial


In This Chapter
Purpose of this Chapter............................................................... 10-2
Starting CodeCalc from PV Elite................................................ 10-3
Main Menu ................................................................................. 10-4
Performing an Analysis .............................................................. 10-21
Reviewing the Results - The Output Option............................... 10-29
Summary - Seeing Results for a Whole Vessel .......................... 10-31
Tutorial Problem Printout ........................................................... 10-32

10-2

Component Analysis Tutorial

Purpose of this Chapter


This purpose of this chapter is to explain the basics of the PV Elite component analysis operation by guiding you
through one application of it. Each of the main menu choices used to control the program is described and illustrated.
Use of PV Elite assumes that the software has been installed per the instructions detailed in Chapter 2.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-3

Starting CodeCalc from PV Elite


Start CodeCalc (the COMPONENT ANALYSIS DATA) processor by selecting INPUT/COMPONENT ANALYSIS DATA ...
from the Main Menu. The COMPONENT ANALYSIS DATA processor displays.

10-4

Component Analysis Tutorial

Main Menu
CodeCalc starts with the Data Input screen. Across the top of this screen is a line of items, which comprise the
Main Menu. The Main Menu controls the major functions of the program. This chapter will review the functions
available in each of these menu items.The items on the Main Menu - File, Edit, Analysis, Output, Tools,
Diagnostics, View, and Help - may be selected with a mouse click or by pressing the underlined character while
pressing the Alt key. For example, the Output processor may be selected by pressing the Alt and O keys
simultaneously. We will begin by going over each of the Main Menu options.

File Menu
The FILE MENU controls the general operations of CodeCalc files. Options that display on the menu with an ellipsis
() cause a file manager window to appear when selected.

File Menu

The FILE MENU may be used to:


New - Starts or opens a new or existing file.

A blank screen appears.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-5

Open - Opens a previously created file.

This gives you access to files that have previously been created by CodeCalc. Simply double click on the file name,
or enter the file name into the File Name field, and the file will be loaded, and you will be able to make any changes
to the components it contains.
When OPEN is selected the user is prompted to select an existing job file. Files of type *.cci will be displayed for
selection.
Save - Saves the current file in its present condition. However, if the file is being saved for the first time, you
will need to give the file a name. For saving the first time, you will get the Save As menu.
Save As - Saves a file that has not been previously named or saves the current file under another name.

10-6

Component Analysis Tutorial


Print - Sends the current vessel graphic image directly to a postscript or laser jet printer.
Print Preview - Displays the page that will be sent to the printer (see above).
Print Setup - Displays the standard Windows printer setup screen.
Exit - Exits CodeCalc. A message window will appear to give the user a last opportunity to save any
modifications to the current job.

The File Menu also lists the last four vessel input files. Any of these files can be opened with a mouse click.

Edit Menu
Once a file is selected, the EDIT MENU indicates the options available for editing.

Edit Menu

Title Page - Allows the user to enter report titles for this group of reports.
Project Data - Allows the user to enter up to 3 title lines, which appear at the top of each page of the printed
reports.
Add New Item - Allows the user to enter a new item
Insert New Item - Inserts a new element after the current element.
Delete Current Item - Deletes the current element.
Select All - Selects all of the items in the browse window.
Deselect All - Clears all of the items in the browse window.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-7

Analysis Menu
The ANALYSIS options cause the program to quit the input process and enter the analysis process. CodeCalc will first
save the current job to the input file with the same filename, and then process the analysis.

Analysis Menu

The following options are available:


Analyze Current Item - Performs the analysis of the current component.
Analyze Selected Items - This option will perform calculations for selected analysis types. The calculations
will be saved in a binary file and will be ready for display or printing.
Summary - This option will look through all the data in the current analysis file and prepare a brief summary of
each analysis.
Choose Analysis Type - Use this option to select the type of component you wish to work on.
The various analysis types are shown in the figure above. The analysis types chosen from this menu can also be
selected from the Analysis toolbar by clicking the icon.

10-8

Component Analysis Tutorial

Output Menu

Output Menu

Review - Allows the user to review the analysis results of the current job, if those results are available.

Tools Menu
The TOOLS MENU controls the utility processors and drawing options.

Tools Menu

The following options are available:


Configuration

Enables users to set some specific program computation control parameters.

Computation Control Tab

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-9

Compute Increased Nozzle Thickness?


In many cases pressure vessels are designed and built long before the piping system is attached to them. This means
that the nozzle loadings are unknown. If this field is checked, then your minimum nozzle thickness (trn) will be the
maximum of:
trn = (.134, trn for internal pressure) less than or equal NPS 18
trn = (OD/150, trn for internal pressure) greater than NPS 18
By using such a requirement in addition to UG-45, the piping designers will have some additional metal to work with
to satisfy thermal bending stresses in systems these vessels are designed for. Note carefully, that these formulae are
not in the ASME Code. They are used in industry.
You can also specify the minimum wall thickness of the nozzle (Trn) in the Nozzle input. If you do so, that will
override this calculation.

Calculate F in Flohead if the Pressure is Zero?


In the design of the Floating head, a factor F is computed. The factor F is a direct function of the internal pressure.
If the internal pressure is 0, then F is equal to 0. However, some interpret the Code to mean that F should always be
computed regardless of which case we are analyzing. Typically, the case in question is the flange bolt up case.
When bolting up the unit there is no internal pressure. That is why the default is not checked.
If you wish F to always be considered in the thickness calculations, then check this box. This is conservative.

Use P instead of MAWP for UG-99B?


The Code paragraph UG-99(b) discusses the subject of hydrostatic test pressure on vessels. The equation that would
normally be used is as follows:
Test Pressure = 1.5 * MAWP * Stest/Sdesign (for A-98 Addenda)
or
Test Pressure = 1.3 * MAWP * Stest/Sdesign (for post 2001 edition of ASME VIII Division 1)
The code in note 32 states that the MAWP may be assumed to be the same as the design pressure when calculations
are not made to determine the MAWP.
This will allow for lower test pressures. This directive should be used with caution.

Print Water Volume in Gallons/Liters?


Normally the volumes computed by the program are in diameter units. If for example the diameter were entered in
feet, then the volume will be output as cubic feet, however, if the diameter is entered in mm, then the output will be
output as cubic mm.
If you want to use US Gallons instead of cubic diameter units check this directive. The program will use cubic units
if the default value is not checked. For all other units, the volume prints in liters if this box is checked. A note of

10-10

Component Analysis Tutorial

caution: A US gallon is smaller than an Imperial gallon as defined in Europe. The difference is that a US gallon is
3.7854 liters, and an Imperial gallon is 4.5461 liters. This is mentioned as the program considers only the US gallon.

Use Calculated Value of M for Torispherical Heads in UG-45 b1?


The Code in paragraph UG-45 requires a calculation of the required head thickness at the location of the nozzle. This
may lead one to believe that the thickness may be computed per paragraph UG-37. However the code interpretation,
VIII-1-95-133 states that the thickness should be computed by the rules of paragraph UG-32 or by the rules in
Appendix 1.
Thus this directive should always be checked. Below is the interpretation VIII-1-95-133 issued December 1996
Question: Does the definition of the required thickness tr for a formed head given in the nomenclature of UG-37(a)
in section VIII, Division 1 apply when determining the minimum nozzle neck thickness in UG-45(b)(1)?
Reply: No, see UG-32

Use Pre-99 Addenda?


In the 1999 addendum to ASME Section VIII, Division 1, the allowable design stresses (S) were increased.
However, it is recognized that it may be necessary to re-rate vessels constructed before this directive came into
effect.
Check this box to use the material database that precedes the 1999 Addendum. This is only relevant to Division 1 of
ASME VIII.

Use Code Case 2260?


Code Case 2260 Approval Date: May 20, 1998. This Code Case is entitled "Alternate Design Rules for Ellipsoidal
and Torispherical Formed Heads". It applies for Section VIII Division 1. If this flag is checked then CodeCalc will
use the modified equations in the Code Case to compute the required thickness of Elliptical/Torispherical heads. The
typical net result is that by using these modified rules, a thinner head will designed.

Do not use the bolt space correction factor


For the design of heat exchanger flanges and tubesheets, TEMA (like Taylor-Forge) provide a correction factor when
the actual bolt spacing exceeds the allowable bolt spacing. The correction factor is then multiplied by the moment to
design a thicker flange. The use of this term is very standard in industry and is used in other pressure vessel design
Codes such as BS-5500.
However, ASME Section VIII does not specifically address this subject. Thusly, for a pure flange design per
Appendix 2, there is no bolt spacing correction factor. If you do not wish to use the factor, then check this box.
The default is to use the bolt space correction factor.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-11

Material Database Year

Users can choose from several different material years. Each material year contains a complete database listing of
materials, their allowable design stresses and other relevant properties.
Select the year required. If a different material database is selected from the one used for the current set of
components update the materials by re-selecting them from the material database before performing the
computations.

Miscellaneous Tab

The MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS of the CONFIGURATION MENU lets the user select some miscellaneous directives.
These directives control some printout style options and others. Following is a description of the options:

10-12

Component Analysis Tutorial

Report Content
This directive allows the user to change the length of the printed reports. When the summary option is checked, the
formulas and substitutions will not be printed out. Thus, this option will generate less paper and more compact
reports.
When the detailed option is checked, the reports will be the normal length.

External Printout in Rows?


There are 2 choices for the style of printing external pressure results rows and columns. Printing the values row wise
tend to reduce the length of the printouts. This is the default.
If you wish to use the column wise printout, do not check this directive.

Reload Last File at Startup?


If this box is checked, CodeCalc will load the last file worked on by the user the next time the program is started.

Syntax Highlighting In Output Reports


When CodeCalc sends the results to the output processor, the style of the reports is affected by this check box. If the
box is checked, warnings will be printed in blue or red type, and errors or fatal problems will be printed in red type.
This feature can be switched on by checking this box, or turning it off by un-checking this box. When this box is
checked, output might be generated a little slower, and will also affect the time it takes to send the output to MSWord.

Do not Print Extended ASCII Characters in Output Reports


The extended ASCII characters such as superscript 2 are not displayed properly on some versions of Windows such
as the Chinese, Korean or Japanese. If you are having difficulty with extended ASCII characters, then check this box.
When this box is checked the program uses ASCII characters.

Default Units File

Select the units you wish to use when starting a new file. The selected file will be used both for the input and the
computed results.
Note: This feature cannot be used for changing the units for a currently opened input file. To change units for a
currently opened file use the Set Units option discussed later in this section.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-13

HOOPS' Display Driver

HOOPS' is the third party software used by CodeCalc and PV Elite for generating the images on the screen of either
the individual components or the 3D model generated in PV Elite for the vessel as it is constructed. If your computer
does not generate the image correctly on the screen, then switch the choice from the currently set driver.

Nozzle Pro Path

If you have purchased Nozzle Pro from the Paulin Research Group www.paulin.com http://www., this feature
enables you to access Nozzle Pro to perform finite element analysis (FEA) of nozzles. This feature can also be used
to perform more accurate and detailed analysis than can be performed using the other local load procedures
(WRC107, WRC297 and PD 5500 Annex G).

Default Save Folder


Use this option to set the default location for saving input files. Users also have the option to save files in a different
location.

Alternate Help Folder Path


By default the PV Elite help files are located within the Help sub-directory under the program installation directory.
But, You can specify an alternate folder for help files. Make sure that you actually copy the help files (*.chm) in to
the new folder.
This is useful in the situation where the program is installed on the network drive. In this case, when a user invokes
the help, the program tries to open the help file located in the program directory (which is on the network drive). But,
a recent Microsoft Windows security update blocked the help files from being opened from the network drive or
Internet. So, in this case the user can copy the help files to their local computer and set the path to that folder.

Enable Auto Save


Check this box to enable automatic saving of the input files. Users can also specify the time interval between saves.

Perform Background Saves


Check this box if you want the program to silently save the current input file (if Auto-Save is turned on using the box
above). If this box is not checked then the program will prompt you to save after the time interval specified.

System Folder Browse


The system folder contains user customization option such as units, materials and other data files. By default the
program's system folder is located in the Public documents, e.g. C:\Documents and Settings\All
Users\Documents\COADE, Inc\PVELITE\2010

10-14

Component Analysis Tutorial

If you want to move this folder to another location so that these system files can be shared between users, then
specify the location of the shared system folder.
Set Unit

Displays the Open dialog.

Double clicking on the unit system of your choice, updates the current file and the output processor to reflect the new
units selected.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

Make Unit

10-15

Enables the user to create any set of units by opening the Create a New Units File dialog.

CodeCalc (and indeed all of COADE's products) internally use conventional American units. You can also choose
some of the unit files supplied with the program.
Additionally, you can also make your own unit files using this menu. The conversion factor from CodeCalc to the
chosen unit must be known in order that CodeCalc can provide the conversion for the output and on-screen units for
the various entry fields.

10-16

Component Analysis Tutorial

Calculator

Use the calculator to compute a number and transfer that number into CodeCalc by
using EDIT/COPY. From the desired field, right click and choose the PASTE option.
Before pasting, ensure the fields' content is selected.

Units Conversion
View

Allows users to quickly convert a value in one set of units to a value in another set of
units

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

Edit / Add Materials

10-17

Enables users to create and edit user-defined material in the CodeCalc material database.
Clicking this menu option displays the Material Database Editor:

Material Database Editor Dialog

10-18

To use the processor, click the


Stresses areas sections. Click the

Component Analysis Tutorial

button. Next enter the material properties under the General and the
button to add another material if desired. When all of the materials have

button to add these materials to the end of the materials supplied in the CodeCalc
been entered, click the
material database. The material list from the main database can also be imported into this processor. A material
button to accomplish this task. In
from this list can be imported into the user's material database. Use the
addition to adding materials to the ASME Databases, it is also possible to add materials to the PD:5500 database.
When the option to edit this database is selected, the Material Database Editor window appears:

To use this processor, click the


button. Next enter the Material Name, Yield Strength and other information.
Next fill in the table of stress versus temperature sections. This processor creates a user material database that is
stored in the CodeCalc\System subdirectory. Once the database has been saved after the initial use, those materials
will be available for editing.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-19

Diagnostic Menu
The DIAGNOSTICS MENU helps to troubleshoot problem installations.

Diagnostics Menu

The following options are available:


CRC Check - This option performs a cyclic redundancy check on each of the supplied PV Elite files.
Build Version Check - This option checks the revision level of the PV Elite executable files.
DLL Version Check - This option checks to make sure the PV Elite.dll files are current. Please note that if the
dll's are not current the program could behave in an unusual manner or may not run at all.
Error Review - This option allows the user to review errors that may have been generated at startup or during
program execution.
Register Servers - Register the dynamic link libraries that PV Elite uses during its operation.

View Menu
The VIEW MENU allows the user to display the input, drawing and quick analysis and browse views.

View Menu

10-20

Component Analysis Tutorial

Help Menu
The HELP MENU displays on-line help and information on how to obtain technical support for CodeCalc.

Help Menu

The options available are as follows:


Tip of the Day - Provides tips for running CodeCalc.
Help Topics - Starts the help facility.
View Documentation - Displays the online documentation in PDF format.
CodeCalc Quick Start - Displays the CodeCalc Quick Start documentation. This section is primarily for first
time users to enable them to get up and running quickly.
New Features in this Version - Describes the new features added in the most recent version of the program.
On-Line registration - Allows users to electronically register this program with COADE. Once registered users
receive email notifications about program updates.
Desktop (On-line Help) - Displays the on-line help.
About This Program - Provides the user with the latest build information and operating system information. It
also contains information on the ways to contact COADE personnel for technical support, and provides some
helpful links on COADE's Web Site.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-21

Performing an Analysis
The remainder of this chapter assists you in performing an analysis using the Shell program.

Start CodeCalc by clicking the


icon on the desktop or selecting the item from Programs. If you are running
the program through PV Elite use the Input option and select COMPONENT ANALYSIS DATA.
From the Main Menu click FILE, NEW or click the New icon. This will allow you to specify the current analysis
type. From the Analysis Toolbar, select Shells and Heads and then click the
displays.

icon. A blank input screen

Shell analysis can be defined on the Design tab of this screen. You can use the Tab or Enter keys to move the
cursor up and down the column of data. Notice also that many of the fields display default values.
The first field on the input screen is the Item Number. A value must be entered in this field or the program cannot
perform the analysis. We suggest that you number the different calculations sequentially. Type 1 in this field and
press Tab.
The next field to analyze is the Description. The information entered can be the part number or a short description
of the part. This field is an optional input. For this tutorial, type Spherical Head.
The next four fields govern the pressure and temperature. Move to the Design Internal Pressure field and type 100
(assuming you are using English units). Now tab to the Design Temperature for Internal Pressure and type 700.
When you press Tab, the program pauses momentarily to check whether the material specified has an allowable
stress greater than zero at the temperature entered. Click the button to view the allowable stress. Note that the
allowable stress for SA516-70 material is 18,100 psi at this temperature. This is precisely the value that PV Elite
extracted from the material database.
The Design External pressure for this problem is 15. The Design Temperature for External pressure should be 650.
Now you are ready to enter the material. Let's say this vessel is constructed of SA-516-70. As you might expect,
one way to enter that material is just to type it in the field. When you do so, the program will check the database,
and then update the allowable stresses. This material happens to be the program default, but type the name anyway
just to see what the program does.

10-22

Component Analysis Tutorial

Another way to select a material is from the list of materials in the database. To see this list, click the
A screen will display showing the materials list.

Material Selection Screen

button.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-23

You can move the scroll bar up and down the screen to view the properties for all of the materials in the database.
Note that each major material classification is divided into columns. You can view the parameters for a specific
material by clicking the material name.

Material Parameters Screen

10-24

Component Analysis Tutorial

These parameters may be viewed and modified through the Material Edit window. To see this window, click the
Material Edit

button and the Material Properties Dialog displays.

Material Properties Dialog

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-25

Click Yield Stress to display the Yield Stress Record dialog. The Yield Stress Record dialog enables PV Elite to
scan the yield stress database for an exact material match and fill in the appropriate yield stress at operating
temperature. For many applications, this value is not needed.

Yield Stress Record Dialog

On the Joint Efficiency Longitudinal Seams dialog, enter the value of E, the longitudinal joint efficiencies to be
used in the calculator. For full radiography, enter a value of 1.
The next question asks if you would like to include Hydrostatic Head Components to our vessel design. Click the
box to activate the Hydrostatic Head dialog.

Hydrostatic Head Dialog

10-26

Component Analysis Tutorial

This dialog will prompt you for the operating liquid density enter a value of 38 lb/cu.ft. The next two fields request
the height of liquid column in the operating and hydrotest position of the vessel. This particular vessel is a horizontal
drum that will be operating in a partially filled position. When the shop hydrotests the vessel it will be filled and in
the horizontal position. Enter values of 54 and 72 in. for these two fields. Click OK to return to the Data Input
screen.
Now click the Geometry tab of the input screen. The first field is the shell or head type. Six options are shown on
the pull-down, for more details on this field press [F1] for help.
We will analyze a hemispherical head, a cylinder and an elliptical head. These are all components of the horizontal
vessel we are analyzing. First enter the Diameter Basis (OD) for an Outside Diameter measurement (and
calculation). Next, tab to the Diameter of Shell/Head field and enter the diameter, 72 inches.
Now, enter the Minimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate, .5 inches, and the Nominal or Average Thickness of Pipe or
Plate, .5 inches.
Enter 0.0625 inches for the Corrosion Allowance. Since the input fields have calculator capability, you can also
enter the Corrosion Allowance as '1/16'.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-27

For this example there is no reinforcing ring required for internal pressure, so select None for the ring type. You have
now completed the hemispherical head input. Your screen should look like this:

Completed Hemispherical Head Input Screen

Note: You may view the drawing of the current item at any time by clicking the Cactus Picture icon.
This horizontal tank has two additional sections, the shell and the elliptical head on the other end. To add the new
. Clicking this button returns you to the Design tab of the input screen and prompts you to enter
section, click
the second item. Type 2 in the Item Number field and Cylinder in the Description field. Click the Geometry tab
to enter the shell type. Since this is a cylinder type, from the pull down, select CYLINDRICAL SHELL. A window
will display prompting for the Design Length of Section and the Design Length for Cylinder Volume
Calculations; enter 180 inches for both. Click OK to resume.
Next, we will enter elliptical head data. Click the Add New Item icon. Type 3 in the Item Number field and
Elliptical Head in the Description field.

10-28

Component Analysis Tutorial

The data from the previous element is carried forward, so you will only have to modify the shell/head type. Click the
Geometry tab of the Input screen. From the TYPE OF SHELL pull-down, select Elliptical Head. The Elliptical
Head dialog appears and prompts for the head ratio. Enter 2 for a 2:1 elliptical head. Click OK to continue.
Tip: When entering new components be sure to type appropriate descriptions in the Description field. This will
help make your finished reports more clear and easier to follow.
You are now ready to analyze these three components for internal pressure and hydrostatic head considerations.
Save the file and click

on the Analysis toolbar. Your screen will resemble this:

Analysis Output

Click

to review the results.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-29

Reviewing the Results - The Output Option


You can quickly review the results of this analysis using the OUTPUT option. From the Main Menu select
OUTPUT/REVIEW. If you have analyzed the components from the input, PV Elite will automatically display the
output for you. You will see the following screen:

Output Reports Screen

At the moment there are 3 analyses in the output file. However, if you were to do additional runs of the Shell
program, or analyze nozzles, flanges, tubesheets, or anything else those analyses would also appear on this list. Thus
you can review (and print) all of the calculations you have done for a given vessel or job at one time. The individual
report can be viewed by selecting one of the items in the report area.
You can scroll up and down in the text to see all of the input and results. Note especially the Summary of Internal
Pressure Results, where you can clearly see that the required thickness is less than the actual thickness for this job,

10-30

Component Analysis Tutorial

while the Maximum allowable working pressure is greater than the design pressure. Therefore, the shell thickness
you selected is acceptable.
You may also select more than one analysis at a time by holding down the Ctrl key while selecting the items to view.
You can also select all reports by selecting EDIT/SELECT ALL from the menu. When viewing the reports, click the
Next Report button to move the next component.

Printing or Saving Reports to a File


Printing the Graphics
To print the graphics created by your input, click
FILE/PRINT PREVIEW.

and then click

. To view the graphic on the screen, click

Printing the Reports


The PV Elite output results can be sent directly to a printer. To print a hard copy of the reports, first select the report
font by clicking the Select Font icon from the Available Reports Menu toolbar. You may then select a new font for
your reports by clicking the Select Font icon. You can also enter a new starting page number by clicking the Page
Number icon on the toolbar. Now, click

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-31

Summary - Seeing Results for a Whole Vessel


This section of the tutorial discusses the summary program in PV Elite. Selected portions of the output generated by
PV Elite are stored in the input file. The summary program will pull selected information from within the input file
and summarize it. The summary is automatically generated when all of the items in the file are executed.

Output Screen Tutorial

10-32

Component Analysis Tutorial

Tutorial Problem Printout


PVElite Licensee: Coade Local White Lock
-------------------------------------- Page 2
FileName : Tutorial
Shell Analysis : Spherical Head
Item:
1
4:39p Dec 12,2002
Input Echo, Component
1,
Description: Spherical Head
Design Internal Pressure
P
100.00 psig
Temperature for Internal Pressure
700.00 F
User Entered Minimum Design Metal Temperature
-20.00 F
Design External Pressure
PEXT
15.00 psig
Temperature for External Pressure
650.00 F
External Pressure Chart Name
CS-2
Include Hydrostatic Head Components
Operating Liquid Density
Height of Liquid Column ( Operating )
Height of Liquid Column ( Hydrotest )

YES
38.000
54.00
72.00

Material Specification (Not Normalized)


Material UNS Number
Allowable Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Curve Name for Chart UCS 66
Joint efficiency for Head Joint

S
SA

Outside Diameter of Hemispherical Head


Minimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Nominal Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance

lb./ft
in.
in.

psi
psi

SA-516 70
K02700
18100.00
20000.00
B
1.00

D
T
T
CA

72.0000
0.5000
0.5000
0.0625

in.
in.
in.
in.

Skip UG-16(b) Min. thickness calculation


NO
Type of Element:
Spherical Head or Shell
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUMBER
1, Desc.: Spherical Head
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Ed-2001, A-02
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
= (P*D/2)/(2*S*E+0.8*P) per Appendix 1-1(a)(2)
= (101.19*72.0000/2)/(2*18100.00*1.00+0.8*101.19)
= 0.1004 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
Less Operating Hydrostatic Head Pressure of
1.19 psig
= (2*S*E*(T-CA))/((D/2-0.8*(T-CA)) per Appendix 1-1 (a)(2)
= (2*18100.00*1.00*(0.4375))/(72.0000/2-0.8*(0.4375))
= 444.25 - 1.19 = 443.06 psig
Maximum Allowable Pressure, New and Cold (MAPNC):
= (2*SA*E*T)/((D/2-0.8*T) Appendix 1-1 (a)(2)
= (2*20000.00*1.00*0.5000)/(72.0000/2-0.8*0.5000)
= 561.80 psig
Actual stress at given pressure and thickness (Sact):
= (P*(D/2-0.8*(T-CA)))/(2*E*(T-CA))
= (101.19*(72.0000/2-0.8*(0.4375)))/(2*1.00*(0.4375))
= 4122.67 psi

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

SUMMARY OF INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:


Required Thickness plus Corrosion Allowance, Trca
Actual Thickness as Given in Input
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
MAWP
Design Pressure as Given in Input
P

10-33

0.1629
0.5000
443.062
100.000

in.
in.
psig
psig

HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURES ( Measured at High Point ):


Hydrotest per UG-99(b); 1.3 * MAWP * Sa/S
636.44 psig
Hydrotest per UG-99(c); 1.3 * MAPNC - Head (Hydro)
727.74 psig
Pneumatic per UG-100 ; 1.1 * MAWP * Sa/S
539.97 psig
Percent Elongation per UCS-79 ( 75t/Rf * (1-Rf/Ro) )
1.049 %
Min. Metal Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS-66
-6 F
Min. Metal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per UCS 66.1)
-146 F
WEIGHT
Volume
Weight
Inside
Weight

and VOLUME RESULTS, ORIGINAL THICKNESS:


of Shell Component
VOLMET
of Shell Component
WMET
Volume of Component
VOLID
of Water in Component
WWAT

4015.2
1136.3
93700.9
3383.6

in.**3
lb.
in.**3
lb.

WEIGHT
Volume
Weight
Inside
Weight

AND VOLUME RESULTS, CORRODED THICKNESS:


of Shell Component,
Corroded
VOLMETCA
of Shell Component,
Corroded
WMETCA
Volume of Component,
Corroded
VOLIDCA
of Water in Component, Corroded
WWATCA

3519.4
996.0
94196.7
3401.5

in.**3
lb.
in.**3
lb.

EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUMBER


1, Desc.: Spherical Head
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Ed-2001, A-02
External Pressure Chart
CS-2
at
650.00 F
Elastic Modulus for Material
25125000.00 psi
Results for Max. Allowable External Pressure (Emawp):
Corroded Thickness of Shell
TCA
0.4375
Outside Diameter of Shell
OD
72.0000
Diameter / Thickness Ratio
(D/T)
164.5714
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
A
0.0015191
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
B
9327.4229
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
113.35
EMAWP = B/((D/T)/2) = 9327.4229/( 164.5714 / 2 ) = 113.3541
Results for Reqd Thickness for Ext. Pressure (Tca):
Corroded Thickness of Shell
TCA
0.1113
Outside Diameter of Shell
OD
72.0000
Diameter / Thickness Ratio
(D/T)
647.0902
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
A
0.0003863
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
B
4853.4580
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
15.00
EMAWP = B/((D/T)/2) = 4853.4580/( 647.0902 / 2 ) = 15.0009
SUMMARY of EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Allowable Pressure at Corroded thickness
Required Pressure as entered by User
Required Thickness including Corrosion all.
Actual Thickness as entered by User
PVElite by COADE Engineering Software

113.35
15.00
0.1738
0.5000

in.
in.
psi
psig

in.
in.
psi
psig

psig
psig
in.
in.

10-34

Component Analysis Tutorial

PVElite Licensee: Coade Local White Lock


FileName : Tutorial
-------------------------------------- Page 5
Shell Analysis : Cylinder
Item:
2
4:39p Dec 12,2002
Input Echo, Component
2,
Description: Cylinder
Design Internal Pressure
P
Temperature for Internal Pressure
User Entered Minimum Design Metal Temperature
Design External Pressure
PEXT
Temperature for External Pressure
External Pressure Chart Name

100.00
700.00
-20.00
15.00
650.00
CS-2

Include Hydrostatic Head Components


Operating Liquid Density
Height of Liquid Column ( Operating )
Height of Liquid Column ( Hydrotest )

YES
38.000
54.00
72.00

Material Specification (Not Normalized)


Material UNS Number
Allowable Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Curve Name for Chart UCS 66
Joint efficiency for Shell Joint
Design Length of Section
Length of Cylinder for Volume Calcs.
Outside Diameter of Cylindrical Shell

lb./ft
in.
in.

psi
psi

SA-516 70
K02700
18100.00
20000.00
B
1.00

L
CYLLEN
D

180.0000
180.0000
72.0000

in.
in.
in.

T
T
CA

0.5000
0.5000
0.0625

in.
in.
in.

S
SA

Minimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate


Nominal Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
Skip UG-16(b) Min. thickness calculation
Type of Element:

psig
F
F
psig
F

NO
Cylindrical Shell

INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUMBER


2, Desc.: Cylinder
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Ed-2001, A-02
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
= (P*D/2)/(S*E+0.4*P) per Appendix 1-1 (a)(1)
= (101.19*72.0000/2)/(18100.00*1.00+0.4*101.19)
= 0.2008 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
Less Operating Hydrostatic Head Pressure of
1.19 psig
= (S*E*(T-CA))/(D/2-0.4*(T-CA)) per Appendix 1-1 (a)(1)
= (18100.00*1.00*(0.4375))/(72.0000/2-0.4*0.4375)
= 221.04 - 1.19 = 219.85 psig
Maximum Allowable Pressure, New and Cold (MAPNC):
= (SA*E*T)/(D/2-0.4*T) per Appendix 1-1 (a)(1)
= (20000.00*1.00*0.5000)/(72.0000/2-0.4*0.5000)
= 279.33 psig

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-35

Actual stress at given pressure and thickness (Sact):


= (P*(D/2-0.4*(T-CA)))/(E*(T-CA))
= (101.19*((72.0000/2-0.4*(0.4375)))/(1.00*(0.4375))
= 8285.81 psi
SUMMARY OF INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Required Thickness plus Corrosion Allowance, Trca
Actual Thickness as Given in Input
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
MAWP
Design Pressure as Given in Input
P
HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURES (
Hydrotest per UG-99(b); 1.3
Hydrotest per UG-99(c); 1.3
Pneumatic per UG-100 ; 1.1

0.2633
0.5000
219.852
100.000

in.
in.
psig
psig

Measured at High Point ):


* MAWP * Sa/S
315.81
* MAPNC - Head (Hydro)
360.53
* MAWP * Sa/S
268.67

psig
psig
psig

Percent Elongation per UCS-79 ( 50t/Rf * (1-Rf/Ro)


Min. Metal Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS-66
Min. Metal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per UCS 66.1)

0.699
-6 F
-55 F

WEIGHT
Volume
Weight
Inside
Weight

and VOLUME RESULTS, ORIGINAL THICKNESS:


of Shell Component
VOLMET
of Shell Component
WMET
Volume of Component
VOLID
of Water in Component
WWAT

20216.1
5721.2
712654.6
25734.8

in.**3
lb.
in.**3
lb.

WEIGHT
Volume
Weight
Inside
Weight

AND VOLUME RESULTS, CORRODED THICKNESS:


of Shell Component,
Corroded
VOLMETCA
of Shell Component,
Corroded
WMETCA
Volume of Component,
Corroded
VOLIDCA
of Water in Component, Corroded
WWATCA

17704.6
5010.4
715166.2
25825.4

in.**3
lb.
in.**3
lb.

EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUMBER


2, Desc.: Cylinder
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Ed-2001, A-02
External Pressure Chart
CS-2
Elastic Modulus for Material

at

650.00
25125000.00

F
psi

Results for Max. Allowable External Pressure (Emawp):


Corroded Thickness of Shell
TCA
0.4375 in.
Outside Diameter of Shell
OD
72.0000 in.
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
SLEN
180.0000 in.
Diameter / Thickness Ratio
(D/T)
164.5714
Length / Diameter Ratio
LD
2.5000
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
A
0.0002498
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
B
3138.2285 psi
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
25.43 psig
EMAWP = (4*B)/(3*(D/T)) = ( 4 * 3138.2285 )/( 3 * 164.5714 ) = 25.4255
Results for Reqd Thickness for Ext. Pressure (Tca):
Corroded Thickness of Shell
TCA
0.3545
Outside Diameter of Shell
OD
72.0000
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
SLEN
180.0000
Diameter / Thickness Ratio
(D/T)
203.1269

in.
in.
in.

10-36

Component Analysis Tutorial

Length / Diameter Ratio


LD
2.5000
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
A
0.0001819
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
B
2285.3257 psi
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
15.00 psig
EMAWP = (4*B)/(3*(D/T)) = ( 4 * 2285.3257 )/( 3 * 203.1269 ) = 15.0010
Results for Maximum Length Between Stiffeners (Slen):
Corroded Thickness of Shell
TCA
0.4375 in.
Outside Diameter of Shell
OD
72.0000 in.
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
SLEN
303.3275 in.
Diameter / Thickness Ratio
(D/T)
164.5714
Length / Diameter Ratio
LD
4.2129
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
A
0.0001474
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
B
1851.5686 psi
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
15.00 psig
EMAWP = (4*B)/(3*(D/T)) = ( 4 * 1851.5686 )/( 3 * 164.5714 ) = 15.0011
SUMMARY of EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Allowable Pressure at Corroded thickness
Required Pressure as entered by User
Required Thickness including Corrosion all.
Actual Thickness as entered by User
Maximum Length for Thickness and Pressure
Actual Length as entered by User
PVElite by COADE Engineering Software

25.43
15.00
0.4170
0.5000
303.327
180.00

psig
psig
in.
in.
in.
in.

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-37

PVElite Licensee: Coade Local White Lock


FileName : Tutorial
-------------------------------------- Page 8
Shell Analysis : Ellipse
Item:
3
4:39p Dec 12,2002
Input Echo, Component
3,
Description: Ellipse
Design Internal Pressure
P
Temperature for Internal Pressure
User Entered Minimum Design Metal Temperature
Design External Pressure
PEXT
Temperature for External Pressure
External Pressure Chart Name

100.00
700.00
-20.00
15.00
650.00
CS-2

Include Hydrostatic Head Components


Operating Liquid Density
Height of Liquid Column ( Operating )
Height of Liquid Column ( Hydrotest )

YES
38.000
54.00
72.00

Material Specification (Not Normalized)


Material UNS Number
Allowable Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Curve Name for Chart UCS 66
Joint efficiency for Head Joint

lb./ft
in.
in.

psi
psi

SA-516 70
K02700
18100.00
20000.00
B
1.00

72.0000

in.

T
T
CA

0.5000
0.5000
0.0625

in.
in.
in.

AR
STRTFLG

2.0000
2.0000

in.

Outside Diameter of Elliptical Head


Minimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Nominal Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
Aspect Ratio
Length of Straight Flange

psig
F
F
psig
F

Skip UG-16(b) Min. thickness calculation


Type of Element:

S
SA

NO
Elliptical Head

INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUMBER


3, Desc.: Ellipse
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Ed-2001, A-02
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
= (P*D*K)/(2*S*E+2*P*(K-0.1)) per Appendix 1-4 (c)
= (101.19*72.0000*1.00)/(2*18100.00*1.00+2*101.19*(1.00-0.1))
= 0.2002 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
Less Operating Hydrostatic Head Pressure of
1.19 psig
= (2*S*E*(T-CA))/(K*D-2*(T-CA)*(K-0.1)) per Appendix 1-4 (c)
= (2*18100.00*1.00*(0.4375))/(1.00*72.0000-2*(0.4375)*(1.00-0.1))
= 222.40 - 1.19 = 221.21 psig
Maximum Allowable Pressure, New and Cold (MAPNC):
= (2*SA*E*T)/(K*D-2*T*(K-0.1)) per Appendix 1-4 (c)
= (2*20000.00*1.00*0.5000)/(1.00*72.0000-2*0.5000*(1.00-0.1))
= 281.29 psig

10-38

Component Analysis Tutorial

Actual stress at given pressure and thickness (Sact):


= (P*(K*D-2*(T-CA)*(K-0.1)))/(2*E*(T-CA))
= (101.19*(1.00*72.0000-2*(0.4375)*(1.00-0.1)))/(2*1.00*(0.4375))
= 8235.22 psi
SUMMARY OF INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Required Thickness plus Corrosion Allowance, Trca
Actual Thickness as Given in Input
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
MAWP
Design Pressure as Given in Input
P
HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURES (
Hydrotest per UG-99(b); 1.3
Hydrotest per UG-99(c); 1.3
Pneumatic per UG-100 ; 1.1

0.2627
0.5000
221.210
100.000

in.
in.
psig
psig

Measured at High Point ):


* MAWP * Sa/S
317.76
* MAPNC - Head (Hydro)
363.08
* MAWP * Sa/S
270.32

psig
psig
psig

Percent Elongation per UCS-79 ( 75t/Rf * (1-Rf/Ro)


Min. Metal Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS-66
Min. Metal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per UCS 66.1)

3.085
-6 F
-55 F

WEIGHT and VOLUME RESULTS, ORIGINAL THICKNESS:


Volume of Shell Component
VOLMET
Weight of Shell Component
WMET
Inside Volume of Component
VOLID
Weight of Water in Component
WWAT
Inside Vol. of 2.00 in. Straight
VOLSCA
Total Volume for Head + Straight
VOLTOT

3283.9
929.4
46850.4
1691.8
7918.4
54768.8

in.**3
lb.
in.**3
lb.
in.**3
in.**3

WEIGHT AND VOLUME RESULTS, CORRODED THICKNESS:


Volume of Shell Component,
Corroded
VOLMETCA
Weight of Shell Component,
Corroded
WMETCA
Inside Volume of Component,
Corroded
VOLIDCA
Weight of Water in Component, Corroded
WWATCA
Inside Vol. of 2.00 in. Straight, Corr.
VOLSCA
Total Volume for Head + Straight Corroded VOLTCA

2873.4
813.2
47098.3
1700.8
7946.3
55044.6

in.**3
lb.
in.**3
lb.
in.**3
in.**3

EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUMBER


3, Desc.: Ellipse
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Ed-2001, A-02
External Pressure Chart
CS-2
Elastic Modulus for Material

at

650.00
25125000.00

F
psi

Results for Max. Allowable External Pressure (Emawp):


Corroded Thickness of Shell
TCA
0.4375 in.
Outside Diameter of Shell
OD
72.0000 in.
Diameter / Thickness Ratio
(D/T)
164.5714
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
A
0.0008439
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
B
8167.3354 psi
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
55.14 psig
EMAWP = B/(K0*(D/T)) = 8167.3354/( 0.9000 * 164.5714 ) = 55.1421
Results for Reqd Thickness for Ext. Pressure (Tca):
Corroded Thickness of Shell
TCA
0.2003 in.
Outside Diameter of Shell
OD
72.0000 in.
Diameter / Thickness Ratio
(D/T)
359.4879
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
A
0.0003864
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
B
4853.5474 psi

Chapter 10 Component Analysis Tutorial

10-39

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure


15.00 psig
EMAWP = B/(K0*(D/T)) = 4853.5474/( 0.9000 * 359.4879 ) = 15.0014
SUMMARY of EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Allowable Pressure at Corroded thickness
Required Pressure as entered by User
Required Thickness including Corrosion all.
Actual Thickness as entered by User
PVElite by COADE Engineering Software

55.14
15.00
0.2628
0.5000

psig
psig
in.
in.

CH AP TER

1 1

Chapter 11 SHELLS
In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 11-2
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis........................................... 11-2
Discussion of Input Data ............................................................ 11-4
Results ........................................................................................ 11-11
API 579 Introduction .................................................................. 11-13
Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis.......................................... 11-14
Discussion of Input Data ............................................................ 11-17
Discussion of Results.................................................................. 11-26
Example ...................................................................................... 11-26
Jacket .......................................................................................... 11-27

11-2

SHELLS

Introduction
SHELLS performs internal and external pressure design of vessel and exchanger components using the rules in the
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 2007 Edition. This program considers static liquid head in the pressure
design, performs stiffening ring calculations, sizes stiffening rings, and computes weld shear flows on stiffening ring
welds. Jackets can be attached to the vessel and are analyzed per Appendix 9 of ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 code. This
module also contains information for performing fitness for service evaluation per API-579.

Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis


The SHELL program calculates the required thickness and Maximum Allowable Working Pressure for cylindrical
shells and heads under internal or external pressure. The program is based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 2001 Edition 2004 A-06. Under internal pressure, the program analyzes six types of
heads or shells, using applicable code formulae as follows:
Shell or Head Type

ID Basis

OD Basis

Cylinder

UG-27 (c) (1)

App 1-1 (a) (1)

Elliptical

App 1-4 (c) (1), App 1-4 (f)

App 1-4 (c) (2), App 1-4 (f)

Torispherical

App 1-4 (d) (3), App 1-4 (f)

App 1-4 (d) (4), App 1-4 (f)

Spherical Head or Shell

UG-27 (d) (3)

App 1-1 (a) (2)

Conical Head or Shell

UG-32 (g)

App 1-4 (e) (1)

Flat Head

UG-34 (1)and (3)

Elliptical heads with aspect ratios between 1.0 and 3.0 (typically 2.0) may be analyzed. Torispherical heads with
knuckle radii between 6% and 100% of the crown radius may be analyzed. The thin, large diameter elliptical or
torispherical head is also checked using App. 1-4 (f) in the SHELL program. Conical heads and sections with half
apex angles up to 30 degrees may be analyzed. Reinforcement at the large and small ends of the cone should be
analyzed in the CONICAL program. Welded flat heads, circular or non-circular, are analyzed in this program.
Bolted flat heads are analyzed in the FLANGE program. Bolted dished heads under internal or external pressure are
analyzed in the FLOHEAD program. Under external pressure program analyzes five types of heads or shells, using
applicable code formulae as follows:
Shell or Head Type

Code Paragraph

Cylinder

UG-28 (c)

Elliptical

UG-33 (d)

Torispherical

UG-33 (e)

Spherical Head or Shell

UG-33 (c) and UG-28 (d)

Conical Shell or Head

UG-33 (f)

All of these shell or head types are analyzed for diameter to thickness ratios greater than 10. Elliptical heads with
aspect ratios between 1.0 and 3.0 may be analyzed Torispherical heads with any crown radius may be analyzed.
Reinforcement at the large and small end of conical heads or sections is analyzed in the CONICAL program.
The SHELL program takes full account of corrosion allowance. You enter actual thickness and corrosion
allowance, and the program adjusts thicknesses and diameters when making calculations for the corroded condition.
Figure A shows the geometry for the SHELL program. In addition, the SHELL program also accounts for static

Chapter 11 SHELLS

liquid head for shell components. For carbon steel vessels, normalized material can be used for UCS-66
calculations.

Figure A - SHELL Program Geometry

Figure B - Head Geometry

11-3

11-4

SHELLS

Discussion of Input Data


Main Input Fields
Analysis Type
Please select the following analysis type:
ASME Sec VII Div. 1
API 579 - Fitness for Service

Design Internal Pressure


Enter the internal design pressure. You must define either the design pressure or the minimum metal thickness,
preferably both. Design pressure is used to determine the required thickness and minimum metal thickness is used to
determine the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure.

Design Temperature for Internal Pressure


Enter the temperature associated with the internal design pressure. PV Elite will automatically update materials
properties for BUILT-IN materials when you change the design temperature. If you entered the allowable stresses
by hand, you are responsible to update them for the given temperature.

Design External Pressure


Enter the design pressure for external pressure analysis. This should be a positive value, i.e. 14.7 psig. If you enter a
zero in this field the program will not perform external pressure calculations.

Design Temperature for External Pressure


Enter the temperature associated with the external design pressure. The design external pressure at this temperature
is a completely different design case than the internal pressure case. Therefore this temperature may be different
than the temperature for internal pressure. Many external pressure charts have both lower and upper limits on
temperature. If your design temperature is below the lower limit, use the lower limit as your entry to the program. If
your temperature is above the upper limit the component may not be designed for vacuum conditions.

Include Hydrostatic Head Component


If your shell or head design needs to account for hydrostatic liquid head, click this box. PV Elite will add the
hydrostatic pressure head to the internal design pressure for the required thickness calculation.

Shell Section Material Name


Click the Material Database button to search for a material in the material database. Also, you can type the
material name in this cell, and the system will retrieve the first material it finds with a matching name. Click the
Material Edit Properties button to change the properties of the selected material. You can also create new
materials by selecting the TOOLS/EDIT/ADD MATERIALS option on the MAIN MENU.

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-5

Shell Allowable Stress at Design Temperature


The program automatically fills in this entry by entering a material specification. When you change the internal
design temperature, or the thickness of the shell, the program will automatically update this field, but only for
BUILT-IN materials. If you enter the allowable stress by hand, be sure to verify your entry to ensure conformance
with the latest edition of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII Division 1 at the ambient temperature.

Shell Allowable Stress at Ambient Temperature


The program automatically fills in this entry by entering a material specification. If you enter the allowable stress by
hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the latest edition of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code
Section VIII Division 1 at the ambient temperature.

Joint Efficiency for Longitudinal Seams


Enter the efficiency of the welded joint for shell sections with welded seams. This will be the efficiency of the
longitudinal seam in a cylindrical shell or any seam in a spherical shell. Elliptical and torispherical heads are
typically seamless but may require a stress reduction, which may be entered as a joint efficiency. Please be sure to
refer to Section VIII, Div. 1, Table UW-12 for help in determining this value.
The Joint Efficiency in this (and all other) ASME Code formulas is a measure of the inspection quality on the weld
seam. In general, weld seams that receive full radiography have a joint efficiency of 1.0. Weld seams that receive
spot radiography have a joint efficiency of 0.85. Weld seams that receive no radiography have a joint efficiency of
0.7. Seamless components have a joint efficiency of 1.0.
In addition to the basic rules described above, the Code requires that no two seams in the same vessel differ in joint
efficiency by more than one category of radiography. For example, if circumferential seams receive no radiography
(E=0.7) then longitudinal seams have a maximum E of 0.85, even if they receive full radiography. The practical
outworking of this is that circumferential seams, which are usually less highly stressed, may be spot radiographed
(E=0.85) while longitudinal seams are fully radiographed. This provides the same metal thickness at some savings in
inspection costs.

Is the Shell/Head Material Normalized


If your vessel material has been produced to a fine grain structure, click this box. PV Elite will use the normalized
material curve for the UCS 66 calculations.

Type of Shell or Head


Enter the type of shell for this shell section. Choose one of the following shell types:
Shell or Head Type
Cylindrical Shell
Elliptical Head
Torispherical Head
Hemispherical Head or Spherical Shell
Conical Shell
Welded Flat Head

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SHELLS

Diameter Basis
If the vessel dimensions are specified on inside basis, pull down the ID selection. If the dimensions are based on the
vessels outside diameter select the OD selection. For flat heads, this value is ignored. Always enter the outside
diameter of the flat head.

Diameter of Shell or Head


Enter the diameter of the shell or head. For torispherical heads, enter the crown radius. For flat heads, enter the
outside diameter of the head. For cones, enter the largest diameter of the cone. The program allows you to use
either an inside diameter or an outside diameter.

Minimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate


Enter the minimum thickness of the actual plate or pipe used to build the vessel, or the minimum thickness measured
for an existing vessel. Many pipe materials have a minimum specified wall thickness, which is 87.5% of the nominal
wall thickness. You should enter the minimum thickness.

Nominal or Average Thickness of Pipe or Plate (OPTIONAL)


Enter the NOMINAL or AVERAGE thickness of the actual plate or pipe used to construct the vessel.
This thickness is used to calculate the volume and weight of the metal ONLY if it is between 1 and 1.5 times the
minimum thickness. If this value is left blank or 0 the program will use the minimum thickness to compute the
weight and volume of this shell element.

Corrosion Allowance
Enter the corrosion allowance. The program adjusts both the actual thickness and the inside diameter for the
corrosion allowance you enter.

Type of Reinforcing Ring


Enter the index for the type of reinforcing ring on the cylindrical or conical section. Three options are available:
Reinforcing Ring Type
No Reinforcing Ring
Simple Bar Reinforcing Ring (You must enter the width and thickness of the bar.)
General Beam Section (You must enter the moment of inertia, cross sectional area, and the
distance from the shell to the centroid of the beam). In all cases PV Elite includes the shell in
the calculation of the moment of inertia for the stiffening ring. You can only perform this
calculation for external pressure calculations. Also, the detailed analysis for the required
moment of inertia and cross section area for cones is contained in the separate CONICAL
program.

Minimum Design Metal Temperature


If this component is a carbon or low alloy steel shell or head, the program will compute its Minimum Design Metal
Temperature (MDMT). The value to be entered in this field is the user defined MDMT. This value is for reference
only and will not be used by the program.

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-7

If this material is not a carbon steel then enter a 0 in this field. If a value of zero is entered, the program will not echo
this value out during runtime.

Skip UG-16(b) Minimum Thickness Calculation


Click this box to skip the UG-16(b) calculation. Section UG-16(b) states the minimum thickness for pressure
retaining components as 0.0625 in. (1.6 mm). There are certain exemptions from this requirement such as in the case
of heat exchanger tubes. Refer to the ASME Section VIII, Division -1, UG-16(b) for more details.

Is Jacket Present
Check this box if a jacket is present. The program will analyze jackets per Appendix-9 of the ASME Sec. VIII Div.
1. For more information refer to the discussion about the jackets (see "Jacket" on page 11-27).

Pop-up Input Fields


Operating Liquid Density
Enter the density of the operating fluid here. This value will be multiplied by the height of the liquid column in order
to compute the static head pressure.

Height of Liquid Column Operating


Enter the distance from the bottom of this shell or head element to the surface of the liquid. The head pressure is
determined by multiplying the liquid density by the height of the fluid to the point of interest.

Height of Liquid Column Hydrotest


Enter the distance from the bottom of this shell or head element to the surface of the liquid when the vessel is being
hydrotested. If this is shop hydrotest, and the vessel is laying on its side, then the height of the liquid column should
be equal to the inside diameter of the vessel. In the case of a vertical hydrotest this liquid height can be greater than
the vessel diameter.

Design Length of Section


Enter the design length of the section, typically the length of the vessel plus one-third the depth of the heads or,
alternately, the distance between stiffening rings. For a vessel with 2 elliptical heads and no intermediate stiffeners,
the design length is the tangent length plus the diameter/6. For a vessel with 2 spherical heads and no intermediate
stiffeners, the design length is the tangent length plus the diameter/3. For a vessel with 2 flanged and dished heads
and no intermediate stiffeners, the design length is the tangent length plus the diameter/9. When analyzing a head,
enter zero for the length.

Design Length for Cylinder Volume Calculations


Enter the distance that you want PV Elite to use for the liquid volume computation.

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SHELLS

Aspect Ratio for Elliptical Heads


Enter the aspect ratio for the elliptical head. The aspect ratio is the ratio of the major axis to the minor axis for the
ellipse. For a standard 2:1 elliptical head the aspect ratio is 2.0.

Crown Radius for Torispherical Heads


Enter the crown radius for torispherical heads. The crown radius for a torispherical head is referred to as the
dimension "L", in the ASME VIII Div. 1 Code.

Knuckle Radius for Torispherical Heads


Enter the knuckle radius for torispherical heads. This dimension is "r", in the ASME VIII Div. 1 Code.

Half Apex Angle for Conical Sections


Enter the half-apex angle for cones or conical sections. The maximum value of the half apex angle for cones under
internal pressure and without toriconical transitions or discontinuity stress check is 30 degrees. The largest angle for
cones under internal pressure and with toriconical sections or discontinuity stress check is 60 degrees. Typically the
largest angle for cones under external pressure is 60 degrees. If you exceed these values the program will run, but
with a warning. In that case the user is encouraged to use the CONICAL module for a more detailed analysis.

Large Diameter for Non-circular Welded Flat Heads


If you have a non-circular welded flat head, enter the large dimension in this field, and enter the small dimension as
the component diameter on the GEOMETRY tab.

Attachment Factor for Flat Head


Enter the flat head attachment factor, calculated or selected from ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Paragraph
UG-34, Figure UG-34. Some typical attachment factors display below, however consult Paragraph UG-34 before
using these values:
0.17 (b-1)

Head welded to vessel with generous radius

0.20 (b-2)

Head welded to vessel with small radius

0.20 (c)

Lap welded or brazed construction

0.13 (d)

Integral flat circular heads

0.20 (e f g)

Plate welded inside vessel (check 0.33*m)

0.33 (h)

Plate welded to end of shell

0.20 (I)

Plate welded to end of shell (check 0.33*m)

0.30 (j k)

Bolted flat heads (include bending moment)

0.30 (m n o)

Plate held in place by screwed ring

0.25 (p)

Bolted flat head with full face gasket

0.75 (q)

Plate screwed into small diameter vessel

0.33 (r s)

Plate held in place by beveled edge

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-9

Width of Reinforcing Ring


Enter the width of the reinforcing ring. For a reinforcing ring that is a simple bar, this is the dimension that is
perpendicular to the surface of the shell. See the figure below.

Thickness of Reinforcing Ring


Enter the thickness of the reinforcing ring. For a reinforcing ring that is a simple bar, this is the dimension that is
parallel to the surface of the shell. See the figure below.

Figure C - Reinforcing Ring

Size of Fillet Weld Leg Connecting Ring to Shell


Enter the dimension of the weld leg, which connects the stiffening ring to the shell section. This value will be used in
the weld shear flow calculations if a simple bar stiffener has been selected as the type of reinforcing ring.

Ring Type to Satisfy Inertia and Area Requirements


Entering a structural ring type here will cause PV Elite to search the structural database for a suitable member that
will meet the inertia requirements for the ring. The valid types of structural shapes to enter here are:
EQUAL ANGLE

Equal Leg Angles

UNEQUAL ANGLE

Unequal Angle

DBL LARGE ANGLE

Double Angles Large Legs back to back

DBL SMALL ANGLE

Double Angles Small Legs back to back

CHANNEL

Channel Sections

I-BEAM

Wide Flange Sections

WT SECTION

Wide Flange Sections ( T type )

MT SECTION

Miscellaneous Tee

ST SECTION

Structural Tee

MC SECTION

Miscellaneous Channel

Ring Weld Attachment Style (Intermittent, Continuous, Both)


Enter the style of the weld that attaches the stiffening ring to the shell section. Per UG-29 of the Code there are 3
"styles":
INTERMITTENT
CONTINUOUS
BOTH

11-10

SHELLS

This input in conjunction with the shell thickness and corrosion allowance will allow for the computation of the
maximum spacing between weld segments.

Location of Ring (Internal or External)


There are two possibilities for the location of the stiffening ring.
INTERNAL

Attached to the inside of the Shell

EXTERNAL

On the outer surface of the Shell

Moment of Reinforcing Ring


Enter the moment of inertia for the beam section, which is being used as a reinforcing ring, in the direction parallel to
the surface of the shell.

Cross Sectional Area of Reinforcing Ring


Enter the cross sectional area for the beam section which is being used as a reinforcing ring.

Distance from Ring Centroid to Shell Surface


Enter the distance from the surface of the shell to the centroid of the reinforcing ring. This distance should be
measured normal to the shell surface.

Is the Ring Angle Rolled the Hard Way


If you have selected an angle type ring to satisfy the inertia requirements above, this box is meaningful, otherwise it
is ignored. When this option is used PV Elite computes the distance from the shell surface to the ring centroid based
on information in the AISC Steel handbook.

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-11

Results
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure
The appropriate formula from ASME Section VIII is referenced, and the formula and substitutions are shown. The
diameter or crown radius is adjusted to take into account the corrosion allowance. If your shell design includes
hydrostatic head components, the additional pressure due to the height of the liquid column and the operating liquid
density will be included with the basic design pressure. The hydrostatic head will be subtracted in order to properly
determine the MAWP for the vessel part that is being analyzed. Remember, when pressures are being read from the
pressure gauge, the gauge is usually at the high point of the vessel. The pressure registered by the gauge would be
different if were at the bottom of the liquid filled vessel.
For elliptical heads, the K factor is (2 + Ar * Ar) / 6, per App. 1-4 (c). For torispherical heads the factor M is (1/4) *
(3 + SQRT (L / R)), where "L" (the crown radius) and "R" (the knuckle radius) were entered by the user.
PV Elite does not replace the given thickness with this calculated minimum. If you are choosing the thickness for a
component, compare the values shown under "Summary of Internal Pressure Results" (required vs. actual) and adjust
the actual thickness up or down accordingly.

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure at Given Thickness


This value is calculated as described above, using the given thickness minus corrosion allowance and the operating
allowable stress. The hydrostatic head component is subtracted from this value. The pressure gauge is assumed to
be at the top of the vessel.

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure, New & Cold


This value is calculated as described above, using the uncorroded thickness and the ambient allowable stress.

Actual Stress at Given Pressure and Thickness


Note that the joint efficiency is included in this value, so this can be considered as the stress at the welded joint rather
than in the base metal.

Summary of Internal Pressure Results


Either of two conditions can indicate a problem in your design. First, if the required thickness plus corrosion
allowance is greater than the given thickness, then you must increase the given thickness. Second, if the MAWP is
less than the design pressure then you must either decrease the design pressure or increase the given thickness to
achieve an acceptable design.
The hydrotest pressure is calculated as the maximum allowable working pressure times 1.5 or 1.3 (depending the
material database selection) times the ratio of the allowable stress at ambient temperature to the allowable stress at
design temperature.
The hydrotest pressure may not be appropriate for the entire vessel for three reasons. First, some other component
may have a lower maximum allowable working pressure, which may govern the hydrotest pressure. Second, you
may choose to base hydrotest pressure on design pressure rather than maximum allowable working pressure. Third,

11-12

SHELLS

if the vessel is tested in the vertical position you may have to adjust the hydrotest pressure for the head of water in
the vessel.
For the UG99-C hydrotest, the liquid head is subtracted from the basic result.

Minimum Metal Temperatures


For carbon steels, these temperatures represent the minimum design metal temperature for the given thickness and, in
the second case, the given pressure. The first temperature is interpolated directly from chart UCS-66. The second
temperature is reduced if the actual stress is lower than the allowable stress, using figure UCS-66.1. The program
also checks for materials, which qualify for the -20 minimum design temperature per UG-20 and prints it in the
output. See the input notes above to enter normalized or non-normalized materials.

Weight & Volume Results, No Corrosion Allowance


PV Elite computes the volume and weight of the shell component. Additionally, the inside volume for a 2.00 inch
straight flange is computed and used in the computation of the total volume for the head and the flange. The
dimensions used in the volume and weight calculations are non-corroded dimensions.

Results for Max. Allowable External Pressure


For the given diameter, thickness, and length, the maximum allowable external pressure is computed per UG--28.

Results for Required Thickness for External Pressure


Required thickness results are computed using the rules of UG-28 iteratively. Such items as the length and outside
diameter are held constant, and the program calculates the required thickness based on the user entered external
pressure.

Summary of External Pressure Results


Summary listing displaying external pressure results for both the user entered thickness and the computed required
thickness.

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-13

API 579 Introduction


Fitness For Service (FFS) assessments using API Recommended Practice 579 (API RP 579) are performed to assess
the operation safety and reliability of process plant equipment, such as pressure vessels, piping, and/or tanks - for
some desired future period. The assessment procedure will provide an estimate of the remaining strength of the
equipment in its current state, which may become degraded while in-use from its original condition.
Typical FFS assessments entail:
Identifying the flaw type and damage mechanism.
Considering the applicability and limitations of the specific flaw type procedure.
Reviewing data requirement and gathering the data.
Applying the assessment techniques and comparing the result to the acceptance criteria.
Estimating the remaining life for the inspection interval.
Applying remediation as appropriate.
Applying in-service monitoring as appropriate.
Documenting the results.
Common degradation mechanisms include general corrosion, localized corrosion, pitting corrosion, blister,
mechanical distortion, etc. The procedures on how to assess these common degradations or flaws are discussed in
the sections described in the Table of Contents for API RP 579 and listed below:
Section 1 Introduction
Section 2 Fitness-For-Service Engineering Assessment Procedure
Section 3 Assessment of Equipment for Brittle Fracture
Section 4 Assessment of General Metal Loss
Section 5 Assessment of Local Metal Loss
Section 6 Assessment of Pitting Corrosion
Section 7 Assessment of Blisters and Laminations
Section 8 Assessment of Weld Misalignment and Shell Distortions
Section 9 Assessment of Crack-Like Flaws
Section 10 Assessment of Component Operating in the Creep Regimes
Section 11 Assessment of Fire Damage

11-14

SHELLS

Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis


CodeCalc supports the following flaw assessments for cylindrical shells, simple cones, and formed heads:
Section 4, General Metal Loss.
Section 5, Local Metal Loss.
Section 6, Pitting Corrosion.
Note: Future software releases will include flaw assessments of other types.
There are three levels of assessments available for each flaw type.
Level 1 - Typically involves a simplified method using charts, simple formulae, and conservative assumptions.
Level 2 - Generally requires a more detailed evaluation and produce more accurate results
Level 3 - Allows flaw assessments using a more sophisticated method such as FEA.
CodeCalc provides only Level 1 and Level 2 assessments. In each assessment level, the respective remaining life or
the de-rate value of MAWP is calculated depending on passing or failing acceptance criteria.
Section 4 covers flaw assessment procedures for components subject to general metal loss resulting from corrosion
and/or erosion. Meanwhile Section 5 covers the analysis of local metal loss or Local Thin Areas (LTAs), which
include groove-like flaws or gouges. In general, flaw assessments using Section 4 criteria produce more conservative
results.
The differences between Section 4 and 5 when applied to LTAs are as follows:
Section 4 - Rules for all Level 1 and 2 assessments are based on the Average Thickness Averaging approach,
which is combined with the ASME code rules to determine the acceptability for continued operation.
Section 5 - Rules for all Level 1 and Level 2 assessments are based on establishing a Remaining Strength Factor
(RSF), which is used to determine the acceptability for continued operation.
The Assessment of General Metal Loss described in Section 4 can be performed using either point thickness (random
type readings) or profile thickness (grid type readings) measurement data. API RP 579 requires a minimum of 15
data measurement points be used for the analysis.
The localized metal loss assessment (described in Section 5), can only be performed using profile thickness data
according to a grid setup as shown in Figure 10.3. Two data entry types are provided in the Profile Type selection
list; Grid and Critical Thickness Profile (CTP). The number of rows and columns are set by entering the number of
points in both the circumferential and longitudinal directions.

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-15

The total number of data inputs provided are 256 for both point and profile thickness data measurements.

Figure D - Profile Thickness Inspection Planes

For most evaluations, it is recommended to first perform the assessment using Section 4, then perform Section 5 if
necessary. The rules in Section 4 have been structured to provide consistent results with Section 5. However, it is the
responsibility of the user to review the Assessment Applicability and Limitation whenever the assessment changes.
API 579 Section 4 limitations for Level 1 and Level 2 assessments are as follows:
The original design is in accordance with a recognized code or standard.
The component is not operating in the creep range.
The region of metal loss has relatively smooth contours without notches.
The component is not in cyclic service (less than 150 total cycles).
The component under evaluation does not contain crack-like flaws.
The component under evaluation has a design equation, which specifically relates pressure and/or other loads, as
applicable, to a required wall thickness.
With some exception, the following specific components do not have equations relating pressure and/or other
loads to a required wall thickness may be evaluated using Level 2 assessments:
Pressure vessel nozzles and piping branch connections.
Cylinder to flat head junctions.
Integral tubesheet connections
Flanges
Piping systems.

11-16

SHELLS

Note: Currently CodeCalc does not support API 579 analysis on nozzle, flange, tubesheet, flathead, and piping
system components.
The following limitations on applied loads are satisfied
Level 1 assessment - Components are subject to internal and/or external pressure (negligible supplemental
loads).
Level 2 assessment - Components are subject to internal and/or external pressure and/or supplemental loads such
as weight, wind and earthquake.
Limitations for API 579 Section 5 Level 1 and Level 2 assessments are similar to the limitations for Section 4 with
the following additions:
The components cannot be subjected to external pressure, or if the flaw is located in the knuckle region of
elliptical head (outside of the 0.8D region), torispherical/toriconical head, or conical transition.
The material component is considered to have sufficient material toughness.
Special provisions are provided for groove-like flaws such as:
Groove (no mechanical cold work).
Gouge (mechanical cold work).
For more details, refer to Section 4 and Section 5 in the API Recommended Practice 579.
Section 6 covers flaw assessment procedures for components that are subjected to pitting damages as described
below:
Widespread Pitting.
Localized Pitting.
Region of Local Metal Loss Located in an Area of Widespread Pitting.
Pitting Confined within a Region of Localized Metal Loss.
Pitting damage can occur on the inside, outside, or both sides of the component surfaces. For components with
pittings on both surfaces, be sure to indicate the location of each pit-couple in the data entry table. Pitting damage is
described using pit-couples, each is composed of two pits that are separated by a solid ligament. The procedure for
determining pit-couples is described in the API 579 paragraph 6.3.3.3. A representative number of pit couples
measurements in the damage area should be used. If the pit flaw is uniform then a minimum of 10 pit-couple
measurements should be used. For non-uniform pit flaw, additional pit-couple measurements are required. CodeCalc
can analyze up to 36 pit-couples measurements.
The limitations for API 579 Section 6 Level 1 and Level 2 assessments are similar to the limitations for Section 5
Level 1 and Level 2 assessments. For more details refer to API RP 579 Section 6.

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-17

Discussion of Input Data


In addition to the variable inputs describe in the Main and Pop-up Input Fields, the following inputs are required for
the API 579 FFS analysis.

Flaw Type
Assessment of General Metal Loss

Option to assess the flaw using API 579 Section 4 analysis

Assessment of Local Metal Loss

Option to assess the flaw using API 579 Section 5 analysis

Assessment of Pitting Corrosion

Option to assess the flaw using API 579 Section 6 analysis

Note: It is the responsibility of the user to review the Assessment Applicability and Limitations whenever the
assessment is changed.

Flaw Location
Select the location of the flaw:
Inside

Located on the ID surface

Outside

Located on the OD surface

Inside and Outside

Located on both ID and OD surfaces (used in Section 6 for Multiple Layer


Analysis)

Near Axisymmetric Structural Discontinuity


Select the available option if the flaw is near an axisymmetric structural discontinuity such as a seam weld, a
stiffening ring, or the knuckle area of the head. The available options are listed below for each element type:
Cylinder

None
User specified
Near a stiffening ring
Skirt weld seam
Cone weld seam

Formed Heads

None
User specified
Beyond the spherical portion

Cone

None
User specified
Near the large end or the small end junction
For more details refer to Figure E on the following page.

11-18

SHELLS

Figure E - Zone for Thickness Averaging - Axisymmetric Discontinuity

Distance of Head Tangent from Skirt Weld Seam


Enter the distance of head tangent from the skirt weld seam. For more details refer to dimension b in Figure E.

Distance of the First Data Point to the Discontinuity


Enter the nearest distance of the first data point along the longitudinal or meridional direction to the axisymmetric
structural discontinuity. This value will be used to determine the location of each thickness profile data in reference
to the axisymmetric structural discontinuity location. For more details refer to dimension a in Figure E.

User Specified, Lv
Enter the user specified zone thickness averaging length, Lv. The entered value will override the calculated value
described in API 579. A blank in the input box is interpreted as a zero value. For more details refer to Figure E.

Pitting Type
Select the type of pitting damage:
Widespread Pitting - Pitting occurs over a significant region of the component
Localized Pitting - Pitting occurs over a localized region of the component
LTA Region Located in Widespread Pitting Area - A region of LTA is located in an area of widespread pitting
Pitting Confined in Region of Localized Metal Loss - Pitting which confined within LTA

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-19

LTA Dimensions
Enter the s and c dimensions. These dimensions are required for the following pitting damage types:
Localized pitting
Region of LTA located in an area of widespread pitting
Pitting confined within a region of localized metal loss
For more details refer to Figure F.

Figure F - LTA Dimensions in Pitting Damage

Uniform Metal Loss


Enter the metal loss prior to the assessment.

LMSD
Enter the shortest distance from the edge of the local metal loss region under investigation to the nearest major
structural discontinuity such as a weld seam and/or a stiffening ring. This parameter will be used to check the
limiting flaw size in the Section 5 analysis.

Point
Check this box if the Point Thickness measurement method is used.

Profile
Check this box if the Profile Thickness measurement method is used.

11-20

Groove
Check this box if a groove is present.

Pitting
Check this box for analyzing pitting flaw.

Groove Radius (gr)


Groove radius. For more details refer to Figure G for more information on the Groove Description.

Figure G - Groove Description

Groove Length (gl)


Enter the groove length. For more details refer to Figure G - Groove Description.

Groove Depth (gd)


Enter the groove depth. For more details refer to Figure G - Groove Description.

Groove Width (gw)


Enter the groove width. For more details refer to Figure G - Groove Description.

Beta
Enter the groove orientation in degrees. For more details refer to Figure G - Groove Description.

SHELLS

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-21

Critical Exposure Temperature (CET)


The lowest metal temperature derived from either the operating or atmospheric conditions.

P_k
Enter the pit-couple spacing in pit-couple k. For more details refer to Figure H.

Theta_k
Enter the pit-couple orientation in degree. For more details refer to Figure H.

d_i,k
Enter the diameter of the pit i in pit-couple k. For more details refer to Figure H.

d_j,k
Enter the diameter of the pit j in pit-couple k. For more details refer to Figure H.

w_i,k
Enter the depth of the pit i in pit-couple k. For more details refer to Figure H.

w_j,k
Enter the depth of the pit j in pit-couple k. For more details refer to Figure H.

Pitting Location
Enter the pit-couple location on the element. This pit-couple location is required when the pit damage located on
both sides of the component.
Enter 1 for pit-couple is located on the ID surface
Enter 2 for pit-couple is located on the OD surface

Figure H - Pitting Description

11-22

SHELLS

Profile Type
Select the profile thickness measurement data type, CTP (Critical Thickness Profile) or Grid type (raw data). The
selection will set the data entry table accordingly.

Number of Points (Data Size Inputs)


Enter the total number of measurement points for Point Thickness measurement method.

Circumferential Direction (Data Size Inputs)


Enter the total number of measurement points along the Circumferential Direction for Profile Thickness
measurement method.

Longitudinal/Meridional Direction (Data Size Inputs)


Enter the total number of measurement points along the Longitudinal/Meridional Direction for Profile Thickness
measurement method.

Number of Pit-Couples (Data Size Inputs)


Enter the total number of pit couples for pitting flaw.

Circumferential Direction (Grid Size Inputs)


Enter the grid size of the thickness profile in the circumferential direction.

Longitudinal/Meridional Direction (Grid Size Inputs)


Enter the grid size of the thickness profile in the longitudinal or meridional direction.

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP)


Enter the design MAWP. If this value is provided, the calculated MAWP based on the input nominal thickness will
be overridden and used to compute the de-rated MAWP in Section 5 and 6 analysis.
The de-rating of the vessel element will be computed automatically when the results indicate failure for continuing
operation. However when the results meet the passing criteria, a remaining life of the equipment will be presented.

Remaining Strength Factor Allowable (RSFA)


It is defined as RSF = LDC / LUC
Where
LDC = Limit or plastic collapse load of the damaged component
LUC = Limit of plastic collapse load of the undamaged component.
The default value currently set in API Recommended Practice 579 is 0.9.

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-23

Supplemental Loads
Enable this check box for supplemental loads inputs

Axial Force, F
Enter the net-section axial force from supplemental loads excluding the pressure trust for the Sustained and
Expansion Cases if any. For more details refer to Figure I below for the directional convention.

Figure I - Supplemental Load

Shear Force, V
Enter the net-section shear force from the supplemental loads for the Sustained and Expansion Cases. For more
details refer to Figure I.

Bending Moment, Mx
Enter the component of the net-section bending moment from the supplemental loads in the X direction for the
Sustained and Expansion Cases. For more details refer to Figure I.

Bending Moment, My
Enter the component of net-section bending moment from the supplemental loads in the Y direction for the Sustained
and Expansion Cases. For more details refer to Figure I.

Bending Moment, Mz
Enter the net-section bending moment from the supplemental loads in the Z direction for the Sustained and
Expansion Cases. For more details refer to Figure I.

Joint Efficiency, Circumferential Seam


Enter the joint efficiency in the circumferential direction.

11-24

SHELLS

Shell Orientation
Select the orientation of the installed vessel. This input will be used to get the horizontal input data for the thickness
calculation due to supplemental loads.

Depth of Head
Enter the head depth of the horizontal vessel. For more details refer to Figure J.

Figure J - Horizontal Vessel Parameters

Saddle Contact Angle


Enter the contact angle of the saddle with the shell. For more details refer to Figure J.

Distance from Saddle to Vessel


Enter the length from the tangent line of the horizontal vessel to the centerline of a saddle support. For more details
refer to Figure J.

Maximum Saddle Reaction Force


Enter the saddle reaction force resulting from the weight of the vessel and vessel content. For more details refer to
Figure J.

Flaw Location Along Vessel


Select from the option the nearest point where the flaw located. For more details refer to Figure J.

Compute Remaining Life


Check this check box to enable the remaining life calculation when the assessments have met the passing the criteria.

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-25

Corrosion Rate per Year (Section 4 and 5 inputs)


Enter the corrosion rate per year in both directions, circumferential and longitudinal directions. These corrosion rates
are also required for the Localized Pitting in which is analyzed using Section 5.

Pit Size (Section 6 inputs)


Enable this check box to activate the pit grow in "Increasing In Pit Size" mode. This mode will simulate the increase
of the pit size, diameter and depth. This check box will enable the Diameter and Depth Pit Propagation Rate
(PPR) input boxes

Region Size (Section 6 inputs)


Enable this check box to activate the pit grow in "Increasing In Pit Region Size" mode. This mode will simulate the
increase of the LTA size. This check box will enable the C dim and S dim PPR input boxes

Density (Section 6 inputs)


Enable this check box to activate the pit grow in "Increasing In Pit Density" mode. This mode will simulate the
increase the pit density by decreasing the pit spacing. This check box will enable the Couple Spacing PPR input
boxes

Diameter (Section 6 inputs)


Enter the Diameter PPR.

Depth (Section 6 inputs)


Enter the Depth PPR.

S dim (Section 6 inputs)


Enter the S dimension (longitudinal direction) PPR. For more details refer to Figure F.

C dim (Section 6 inputs)


Enter the C dimension (circumferential direction) PPR. For more details refer to Figure F.

Couple Spacing Input (Section 6 inputs)


Enter the Pit Couple Spacing PPR.

RLife Computation Approach


Select the method for calculating the RLife:
Thickness approach.
MAWP approach.

11-26

SHELLS

Discussion of Results
An effort has been made to use the same variable names and reporting formats as are used in the API Recommended
Practice 579 book.
A summary at the end of the analysis of each level will be written. Depending on the pass or fail criteria, either the
remaining life using the thickness (or MAWP) approach will be computed or a de-rating MAWP will be printed.
As suggested in the API Recommended Practice 579 book, the following, or combinations thereof can be considered
when the component does not meet the Level 2 Assessment requirements:
Re-rate, repair and retire the component.
Adjust the FCA by applying remediation techniques
Adjust the weld joint efficiency factor, E, by conducting additional examinations and repeat the assessment
Conduct a Level 3 assessment.

Example
The example problems illustrating these principles are located in the program installation directory/Examples
directory.

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-27

Jacket
PV Elite will compute the required thickness of the jacket, closure bar and the internal chamber (cylindrical / conical
shell, or head covered by the jacket). The code gives weld sizes, which must be adhered to, as they are designed to
ensure full integrity of the jacket attachment to the vessel. ASME VIII Div 1 Appendix 9 sets out 5 basic jacket
configurations. For more information refer in the code to Figure 9-2.

Figure K - Jackets Types Available in the Program.

In a type 3 jacket arrangement, there is no closure bar, however the welding is critical, and the notes set out in the
code must be adhered to.
Typically, the jacket is attached by means of a closure bar as shown here:

Figure L - Inner Vessel with Jacket and Closure Bar

The closure bar can be a simple rectangular section ring as displayed above, or it can be more elaborate as displayed
in Appendix 9 of the code.
Note: Verify the inner shell/head for external pressure using (any) vacuum plus the Jacket Pressure and consider the
Design Length of the Jacket section L.

11-28

SHELLS

Jacket Type
From the list box select the Jacket Type you are analyzing. For more information refer to the types above. If you
cannot decide what type most suits your model, then enter Type 2. If this is not appropriate, then the program will
give you a warning message.

Closure Bar Type


From the list box select the closure bar type most resembling your design. For more information use the pictures
below.

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-29

11-30

SHELLS

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-31

11-32

SHELLS

Figure M - Closure Bar Jacket Types

Jacket Welded Joint Efficiency E


Enter the jacket and jacket head welded joint efficiencies. This is obtained from table UW-12 in ASME Section VIII
Division 1. In the case of a type 1 weld (Welded from both sides, or with removable backing strip), the joint
efficiencies are as follows:
Value

Result

1.00

Full Radiography

0.85

Spot Radiography

0.70

No Radiography

Jacket Head Type


From the drop down box, select the jacket head type:
Ellipsoidal Head
Torispherical Head
Hemispherical Head

Chapter 11 SHELLS

11-33

Corrosion Allowances
Enter the following corrosion allowances. The program will perform all the calculations in the corroded condition.
1
2

Inner shell corrosion allowance outside


Jacket corrosion allowance inside

cso
cji

Jacket head corrosion allowance inside

ci

Note that the input for the inner shell corrosion allowance inside is available on the 'Geometry' tab of the main input
screen.

Jacket Design Temperature


Enter the Design Temperature of the Jacket.

Jacket Material
Select the jacket material.

Jacket Pressure Pj
Enter the pressure in the jacket space. This is the pressure shown in the figure L.

Inside Diameter of the Jacket Dj


Enter the inside diameter of the jacket as shown in figure L.

Jacket Thickness tj
Enter the thickness of the jacket as shown in figure L.

Jacket Half Apex Angle


Enter the half apex angle for the (c), (b-2), (k) and (l) closure bar types as shown in the following figure.

11-34

SHELLS

Jacket Length Ltot


Enter the total length of the jacket, which can be used for computing the volume and weight of the jacket.
The following fields refer to the dimensions required for the jacket head:

Jacket Head Thickness New th


Enter the new thickness of the jacket head.

Jacket Head Aspect ratio


The aspect ratio is the ratio of the major axis to the minor axis for the ellipse. For a standard 2:1 elliptical head the
aspect ratio is 2.0.

Jacket Head Crown Radius L


Enter the crown radius in the case of a torispherical jacket head.

Jacket - Jacket Knuckle Radius r


Enter the knuckle radius in the case of a torispherical jacket head.

Closure Bar Material


Select the closure bar material from the button on the screen.

Closure Bar Thickness tc


Enter the thickness of the closure bar.

Closure Bar Corrosion Allowance cc


Enter the corrosion allowance of the closure bar. if the closure is subject to corrosion both outside and inside, then
enter the combined corrosion allowance.

CH AP TER

1 2

Chapter 12 NOZZLES
In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 12-2
Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis.......................................... 12-3
Discussion of Input Data ............................................................ 12-4
Discussion of Results.................................................................. 12-14
Example ...................................................................................... 12-16

12-2

NOZZLES

Introduction
NOZZLES calculates required reinforcement under internal pressure and performs failure path calculations for
nozzles in shells and heads, using the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 rules. The program also enables the
user to orientate the nozzle in various directions such as hillside, lateral and radial.

Chapter 12 NOZZLES

12-3

Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis


NOZZLE calculates the required wall thickness and area of reinforcement for a nozzle in a pressure vessel shell or
head, and compares this area to the area available in the shell, nozzle and optional reinforcing pad. The program also
calculates the strength of failure paths for a nozzle. NOZZLE is based on the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division
1, Paragraph UG-37 through UG-45, 2007 Edition. The calculation procedure is based on figure UG-37.1. The
program calculates the required thickness (for reinforcement conditions) based on inside or outside diameter for the
following vessel components:
Component

Paragraph

Limitations Per UW-37

Cylinder

UG-27 (c) (1)

None

Elliptical Head

UG-32 (d) (1)

Nozzle concentric within 0.8D

Torispherical Head

UG-32 (e) (1)

Nozzle in spherical portion

Spherical Head or Shell

UG-27 (d) (3)

None

Conical

UG-27 (g)

None

The program evaluates nozzles at any reasonable angle from the perpendicular, allowing evaluation of off angle,
hillside or tangential nozzles.
NOZZLE takes full account of the internal corrosion allowance. You enter actual thickness and corrosion
allowance, and the program adjusts thicknesses and diameters when making calculations for the corroded condition.
NOZZLE also performs UCS-66 MDMT calculations for nozzles.

Figure A - Nozzle Program Geometry

12-4

NOZZLES

Discussion of Input Data


Main Input Fields
Description
Enter a maximum 15 character alpha-numeric description for this item. This entry is optional.

Design Internal Pressure


Enter the internal design pressure. This is a non-zero positive value and is usually obtained from the design
drawings or vessel design specification. Required information such as the required thickness of the shell (TR) and
the nozzle (trn) are determined from the design internal pressure.

Design External Pressure


Enter the external design pressure. PV Elite will automatically compute the required thickness of the given geometry
for the external pressure entered. If you are designing for a full vacuum you would enter a value of 15.00 psig. If
you are entering an external pressure there are some prompts such as shell design length, which will appear. PV Elite
will automatically compute the required thickness for both external and internal pressure. It will then choose the
greatest tr and proceed with the calculations.

Maximum Allowable Pressure New & Cold


Some design specifications require that nozzle reinforcement calculations are performed for the MAP new and cold
condition. MAP N&C for the nozzles is the minimum of the MAPs determined from analyzing the vessel elements
using the Shell/Head part of the program.
The program will then check to see if the nozzle is reinforced adequately using the user entered MAP N&C. When
the area of replacement calculations are made for this case, cold allowable stresses are used and the corrosion
allowance is set to 0. Designing nozzles for this case helps the vessel to comply with UG99 or appropriate
(hydrotest) requirements. Check your design requirements to see if this case is required by your client.

Shell, Nozzle or Pad Material Name


Click the Material Database button to search for a material in the material database. Also, you can type the
material name in this cell, and the system will retrieve the first material it finds with a matching name. Click the
Material Edit Properties button to change the properties of the selected material. You can also create new
materials by selecting the TOOLS/EDIT/ADD MATERIALS option on the MAIN MENU.

Allowable Stress at Design Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification. When you change the internal design
temperature, or the thickness of the shell, the program will automatically update this field, but only for BUILT-IN
materials. If you enter the allowable stress by hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the
latest edition of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code Section II Part D at the design temperature.
If using a module where PD:5500 is selected as design code, then the program will use the PD:5500 Material
Database.

Chapter 12 NOZZLES

12-5

Allowable Stress at Ambient Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification. When you change the internal design
temperature, the program will automatically update this field, but only for BUILT-IN materials. If you enter the
allowable stress by hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the latest edition of the ASME
Pressure Vessel Code Section II Part D.
If using a module where PD:5500 is selected as design code, then the program will use the PD:5500 Material
Database.

Include Hydrostatic Head Component


If you enter the allowable stress by hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the latest edition of
the ASME Pressure Vessel Code Section II Part D at ambient temperature.

Operating Liquid Density


Enter the density of the operating fluid here. This value will be multiplied by the height of the liquid column in order
to compute the static head pressure. You can enter a number of specific gravity units and PV Elite will convert the
number entered to the current set of units. To do this, enter a number followed by the letters "sg".

Height of Liquid Column, Operating


Enter the distance from this nozzle to the surface of the liquid. The head pressure is determined by multiplying the
liquid density by the height of the fluid to the point of interest.

Shell or Head Type


Enter the type of shell for this shell section. Choose one of the following shell types:
Cylindrical Shell
Elliptical Head
Torispherical Head
Hemispherical Head or Spherical Shell
Conical Head or Shell
Welded Flat Head

Shell Diameter Basis (ID or OD)


Select ID for shell sections based on the inside diameter. Select OD for shell sections based on the outside diameter.
Normally, for a flanged & dished torispherical head, the inside crown or radius is equal to the vessel outside
diameter.
For flat heads, this value is ignored. Refer to Fig. UG-34 for equivalent diameter of the head. For example, in case of
most welded heads this is the diameter over which the pressure acts. For bolted heads with narrow faced gasket this
is the diameter of the gasket reaction. For cones, the program expects the diameter of the cone at the point where the
nozzle intersects the shell.

12-6

NOZZLES

Shell Diameter
Enter the diameter of the shell or head. For flat heads, refer to Fig. UG-34 for equivalent diameter of the head. For
example, in case of most welded heads this is the diameter over which the pressure acts. For bolted heads with
narrow faced gasket this is the diameter of the gasket reaction.
For cones, enter the diameter of the cone at the point where the nozzle intersects the shell.

Actual Thickness of Shell


Enter the minimum thickness of the actual plate or pipe used to build the shell, or the minimum thickness measured
for an existing vessel. Many pipe materials have a minimum specified wall thickness, which is 87.5% of the nominal
wall thickness. You should enter the minimum thickness.

Enter Required Thickness


The only time the required thickness must be entered is if the component being analyzed is a bolted flat head.
Otherwise the program will compute the required thickness of the shell/head.
For hillside nozzles, as of Version 4.50, several changes have been made relating to the use of the required thickness.
They are as follows:
If you wish to enter an offset and allow PV Elite to compute the nozzle angle, then leave the required thickness
blank.
If you wish to enter an angle less than 90, or enter a computed value via the entered offset values, and you would
like to take credit for the Code 0.5 F-correction factor, then enter the value obtained by multiplying the required
thickness times the F-correction factor.
If you wish to enter an angle less than 90 and you do not which to take credit for the Code 0.5 F-correction
factor, then enter the required thickness.

Shell Corrosion Allowance


Enter the corrosion allowance. The program adjusts both the actual thickness and the inside diameter for the
corrosion allowance you enter.

Is The Nozzle Outside the 80% Diameter Limit


If the nozzle is outside of the spherical portion of the elliptical or torispherical head, check this field. Doing so will
cause PV Elite to use the standard internal pressure equation from UG-27 instead of the equation from UG-37.
In the case where a nozzle is within the 80 % diameter limit then, the required thickness of the head is equal to that
of a seamless sphere of radius K1*D, where D is the shell diameter and K1 is given by Table UG-37.

Modification of Reinforcement Limit


Check this box as necessary. You may enter any physical limitation, which exists, on the thickness available for
reinforcement or the diameter available for reinforcement. An example of a thickness limitation would be a studding
pad or nozzle stub, which would not extend normal to the vessel wall as far as the thickness limit of the nozzle

Chapter 12 NOZZLES

12-7

calculation. An example of a diameter limitation would be two nozzles close together, or a vessel seam for which
you did not want to take an available area reduction.

Is This a Manway or Access/Inspection Opening


UG 45 states that if the opening is a Manway or access opening the minimum thickness requirement per UG-45 is
not required. Checking this box will cause the program to bypass the UG-45 minimum nozzle neck thickness
requirement.

Perform Area Calculations for Small Nozzles


he Code paragraph UG-36 discusses the requirement of performing area replacement calculations when small
nozzles are involved. The Code States :
Openings in vessels not subject to rapid fluctuations in pressure do not require reinforcement other than that inherent
in the construction under the following conditions :
3.5" finished opening in a shell or head with minimum required thk. of .375 inches or less
2.375" finished opening in a shell or head greater than minimum required thk. of .375 inches

If your geometry meets this criteria and this check box is NOT checked, then no area of reinforcement calculations
will be performed on this nozzle item.

Set Area 1 or Area 2 Equal To 0


In some vessel design specifications it is mandated that no credit be taken for the area contributed by the shell or
nozzle. You can click this box and select one of the following options:
"A1"

To set area1 (the shell) to zero

"A2"

To set area2 (the nozzle) to zero

"A1 A2"

To set both area1 and area2 to zero.

Rating of attached flange


If you check this prompt the program will ask you the class and grade of the attached flange. The program will use
these two items along with the temperature to rate the flange using the tables in ANSI B16.5.

Nozzle Diameter Basis


Select inside diameter or outside diameter basis as necessary.

Actual or Nominal Diameter of Nozzle


This field displays the diameter of the nozzle. If you specify nominal or minimum for the nozzle size and thickness
basis, then you must enter the nominal diameter of the nozzle in this field. Valid nominal ANSI Imperial diameters
are:
0.125
2

0.25
2.5

0.375
3

0.5
3.5

0.75
4

1
5

1.25
6

1.5
8

12-8

NOZZLES

10

12

14

16

18

20

24

30

PV Elite contains databases for ANSI Imperial as well as ANSI Metric and DIN standards. Click the ... button next to
the Nozzle Diameter Input field to select the nominal diameter from the list. ANSI Metric and Imperial can be
changed using the list dialog.

Nozzle Size and Thickness Basis


Enter Actual, Nominal, or Minimum, representing the basis for nozzle diameter and thickness.
Actual: The program uses the actual diameter entered in the field above and the actual thickness entered in the
field below.
Nominal: The program looks up the actual diameter based on the nominal diameter entered in the field above,
and looks up the nominal thickness based on the schedule entered in the second field below.
Minimum: The program looks up the actual diameter based on the nominal diameter entered in the field above,
and looks up the nominal thickness based on the schedule entered in the second field below. It then multiplies
the nominal thickness by a factor of 0.875.

Actual Schedule of Nozzle


Enter the minimum actual thickness of the nozzle wall. Enter a value in this field only if you selected ACTUAL for
the nozzle diameter and thickness basis. Otherwise enter a schedule in the field below.

Nominal Thickness of Nozzle


Select the schedule for the nozzle wall. Enter a value in this field only if you selected NOMINAL or MINIMUM for
the nozzle diameter and thickness basis. Otherwise enter a thickness in the field above. Type the schedule for the
nozzle, i.e. SCH 40. Available nozzle schedules are:
SCH 10
SCH 10S
SCH 20
SCH 30
SCH 40
SCH 40S
SCH 60

SCH 80
SCH 80S
SCH 100
SCH 120
SCH 140
SCH 160

SCH STD
SCH X-STG
SCH XX-STG

Required Thickness of Nozzle


The program normally calculates the required thickness of the nozzle but under the following circumstances you
must enter the required thickness when:
Your job specification requires you to exclude the area from the nozzle. Enter the actual thickness minus the
corrosion allowance.
The nozzle is non-circular.

Nozzle Corrosion Allowance


Enter the corrosion allowance. The program adjusts both the actual thickness and the inside diameter for the
corrosion allowance you enter.

Chapter 12 NOZZLES

12-9

Efficiency of Shell Seam Through Which Nozzle Passes


Enter the seam efficiency. The seam efficiency is used in the 'area available' calculations to reduce the area available
in the shell. Note that for shell and nozzle wall thickness calculations, the seam efficiency is always 1.0.

Insert Nozzle or Abutting Nozzle


The nozzle type and depth of groove welds are used to determine the required weld thicknesses and failure paths for
the nozzle. If the nozzle is welded to the outside of the vessel wall, it is abutting the vessel wall. If the hole in the
vessel is bigger than the nozzle OD and the nozzle is welded into the hole, it is inserted. Figure UW-16.1 shows
typical insert and abutting nozzles.

Reinforcing Pad
If there is a reinforcing pad on the nozzle, or if you wish to specify the geometry for a reinforcing pad, check this
field. NOTE CAREFULLY that though PV Elite will design and recommend a reinforcing pad if one is needed, the
analysis of areas is based only on what you have entered. If PV Elite recommends a pad or a larger pad than the one
you enter, you must go back into input and enter a pad of the correct size in order for the final configuration to be
reflected in the final analysis.

Nozzle Angle Geometry


Non-radial nozzles can be specified by entering the angle between the vessel and nozzle centerlines, and the offset
from vessel centerline. This vessel-nozzle centerline angle can vary from 0 to a limiting value depending upon
specific geometry. Figure B below illustrates these dimensions.
To specify a radial nozzle on a head or shell just click the Is Lateral .. check box. In this case the input for the
offset dimension and vessel-nozzle centerline angle are optional, only required for the graphic and not for the
analysis.

Figure B - Nozzle Angle Description

Hillside nozzles and some angular nozzles are subject to calculations to meet area requirements in both planes of
reinforcement. In these cases PV Elite automatically checks the area requirements in both the planes, using the
corresponding lengths of the nozzle opening. For integral construction, the Code F correction factor of 0.5 will
automatically be applied in the hillside direction. If the connection is pad reinforced, a value of 1.0 will be used. The
F factor is used to account for the fact that the longitudinal stress is one half of the hoop stress. The use of the F

12-10

NOZZLES

factor is limited to nozzles located on cylindrical and conical sections. One hill-side nozzle example based on
ASME VIII Div 1 Appendix L-7.7 is illustrated in the file checks under the PV Elite examples directory Nozzles
item #10 and 11. Some examples are shown below in Figure C.

Figure C - Hillside Nozzle Configuration Example

Y-angle or lateral nozzles can be specified in case of conical and cylindrical sections, by clicking on the Is Lateral ..
check box. In this case only the vessel-nozzle centerline angle needs to be specified. The following Figure D and
Figure E show examples of typical Y-angle nozzles.

Figure D - Y-Angle Nozzle on a Cylinder

Figure E - Y-Angle Nozzle on a Cone

Pop-Up Input Fields


Enter the Shell Design Length for External Pressure
Enter the design length of the section, typically the length of the vessel plus one-third the depth of the heads or,
alternatively, the distance between stiffening rings.
For a vessel with 2 elliptical heads and no intermediate stiffeners, the design length is the tangent-to-tangent length
plus the shell diameter /6.

Chapter 12 NOZZLES

12-11

For a vessel with 2 spherical heads and no intermediate stiffeners, the design length is the tangent length plus the
diameter /3.
For a vessel with 2 flanged and dished heads and no intermediate stiffeners, the design length is the tangent length
plus the diameter /9.
When analyzing a conical head enter the axial length of the cone. If you are analyzing any other head types, enter a
0 here. You must also enter the required thickness of the component in the appropriate field.

Print Intermediate Calcs for External Pressure


If you check this field PV Elite prints the parameters used for external pressure design. If you do not check this field
PV Elite will not print the intermediate computations.

Enter the Aspect Ratio for Elliptical Heads


The aspect ratio is the ratio of the major axis to the minor axis for the ellipse. For a standard 2:1 elliptical head the
aspect ratio is 2.0.

Inside Crown Radius (L) of the Torispherical Head


Enter the inside crown radius of torispherical head.

Inside Knuckle Radius of Torispherical Head


Enter the inside knuckle radius of the torispherical head. This value is typically 0.17 * the head inside diameter.

Half Apex Angle for Conical Sections


Enter the half-apex angle for cones or conical sections. The maximum value of the half apex angle for cones under
the internal pressure and without toriconical transitions is 30 degrees. The largest angle for cones under internal
pressure and with toriconical sections is 60 degrees. The largest angle for cones under external pressure is 60
degrees. If you exceed these values the program will run, but with a warning.

Enter The Attachment Factor For Welded Flat Heads


Enter the attachment factors for the welded flat head. You can find these factors in Section VIII, Division 1, Figure
UG-34. The typical value for an attachment factor is 0.3.

Enter the Large Diameter for Non-circular Flat Heads


If you have a non-circular welded flat head, enter the large dimension in this field, and enter the small dimension as
the component diameter.

12-12

NOZZLES

Class for Attached B16.5 Flange


Select the class of the attached flange from the following list:
CL 150
CL 300
CL 400
CL 600
CL 900
CL 1500
CL 2500

Grade for Attached B16.5 Flange


Select the grade of the attached flange from the following list:
GR 1.1
GR 1.2
GR 1.4
GR 1.5
GR 1.7
GR 1.9
GR 1.10
GR 1.13

Med C Steel
Med C Steel
Low C Steel
C-1/2Mo
1/2Cr-1/2Mo, Ni-Cr-Mo
1-1/4Cr-1/2Mo
2-1/4Cr-1Mo
5Cr-1/2Mo

GR 1.14
GR 2.1
GR 2.2
GR 2.3
GR 2.4
GR 2.5
GR 2.6
GR 2.7

9Cr-1Mo
Type 304
Type 316
Type 304L, 316L
Type 321
Type 347, 348
Type 309
Type 310

Physical Maximum for Nozzle Diameter Limit


Enter the maximum diameter for material contributing to nozzle reinforcement. An example of a diameter limitation
would be two nozzles close together, or a vessel seam for which you do not want to take an available area reduction.

Physical Maximum for Nozzle Thickness Limit


Enter the maximum thickness for material contributing to nozzle reinforcement. An example of a thickness
limitation would be a studding pad or nozzle stub which would not extend normal to the vessel wall as far as the
thickness limit of the nozzle calculation.

Nozzle Outside Projection


Enter the distance the nozzle projects outward from the surface of the vessel. This distance is usually to the attached
flange or cover. Use this length for weight calculations and for external pressure calculations.

Weld Leg Size Between Inward Nozzle and Inside Shell


Enter the size of one leg of the fillet weld between the inward nozzle and the inside shell.

Chapter 12 NOZZLES

12-13

Depth of Groove Weld Between Nozzle and Vessel


Enter the total depth of the groove weld. Most groove welds between the nozzle and the vessel are full penetration
welds. Thus the depth of the weld would be the same as the depth of the component, that is the thickness of the
nozzle. If the nozzle is attached with a partial penetration weld, or just a fillet weld, enter the depth of the partial
penetration or a zero, respectively, in this field.

Nozzle Inside Projection


Enter the projection of the nozzle into the vessel. The program uses the least of the inside projection and the
thickness limit with no pad to calculate the area available in the inward nozzle. Therefore, you may safely enter a
large number such as six or twelve inches if the nozzle continues into the vessel a long distance.

Weld Leg Size for Fillet Between Nozzle and Shell or Pad
Enter the size of one leg of the fillet weld between the nozzle and the pad or shell.

Pad Outside Diameter Along Vessel Surface


Enter the outside diameter of the pad. You must enter the diameter of the pad as the length along the vessel shell not the projected diameter around the nozzle, although these two values are equal when the nozzle is at 90 degrees.

Pad Thickness
Enter the thickness of the pad. Any allowances for external corrosion should be taken into account for the pad
thickness.

Pad Weld Leg Size at Outside Diameter


Enter the size of one leg of the fillet weld between the pad OD and the shell. Note that if any part of this weld falls
outside the diameter limit, the weld will not be included in the available area.

Depth of Groove Weld Between Pad and Nozzle Neck


Enter the total depth of the groove weld. Most groove welds between the pad and the nozzle are full penetration
welds. Thus the depth of the weld would be the same as the depth of the component, that is the thickness of the pad.
If the pad is attached with a partial penetration weld, or just a fillet weld, enter the depth of the partial penetration or
a zero, respectively, in this field.

12-14

NOZZLES

Discussion of Results
Actual Nozzle Diameter Thickness
If you specified an 'actual' basis for nozzle diameter and thickness, the diameter and thickness shown will be the
same as those which you entered. If you specified 'Nominal', these values will be the nominal diameter and
thickness found in the programs pipe size tables. If you entered minimum the program will have looked up the
diameter and thickness in the pipe size tables and then multiplied the thickness by 0.875.

Required Thickness of Shell and Nozzle


The program calculates the required thickness for the shell and nozzle as follows:
Cylindrical (and the nozzle wall)
Hemisphere
Torispherical
Elliptical
Conical
Flat

Calculated per UG-27 or as given by the user.


Calculated per UG-27 or as given by the user.
Calculated per UG-37 or as given by the user.
Calculated per UG-37 or as given by the user.
Calculated per UG-37 or as given by the user.
Calculated per UG-37 or as given by the user.

The joint efficiency used in this calculation is always 1.0. In 1989 we submitted a request for interpretation to the
ASME Code in order to show that the use of 1.0 under all circumstances was justified. The reply was published in
the A-90 Addenda as Interpretation VIII-1-89-171. The question and reply were as follows:
Question: In reinforcement calculations, is the joint efficiency used in calculating the required thickness of the vessel
wall tr and the required thickness of the wall trn 1.0 regardless of the joint efficiency determined for the vessel wall
and nozzle wall from the rules in UW-12, provided the nozzle does not pass through a weld?
Reply: Yes. Note also that the program takes into account the case where the nozzle passes through a weld by asking
the joint efficiency of the weld, if any.

UG-45 Minimum Nozzle Neck Thickness


The program uses the design rules from paragraph UG-45 for minimum nozzle neck thickness. If the thickness used
by PV Elite for your nozzle calculation is less than required by UG-45, your Code Vessel is in violation of this
paragraph.

Required and Available Areas


The area required is calculated per UG-37(c). For all vessel types under external pressure and for flat heads, this
value is multiplied by 0.5. The required areas are calculated per Fig. UG-37.1. Note that the program uses dl - d,
(Diameter limit minus inside hole radius) in the calculations for the area available in the shell. This is because the
Code incorrectly assumes that the dl-d is always equal to d, which is only true when the natural diameter limit is
used. Since we allow you to enter a reduced diameter limit, we could not use the pure Code equation.

Selection of Reinforcing Pad


The program gives up to three possible reinforcing pad selections. The first is a pad thickness based on the given
pad diameter. The second is a pad diameter based on the given pad thickness. Finally, the program selects a

Chapter 12 NOZZLES

12-15

thickness based on the thinner of the shell and nozzle walls, and calculates a required diameter. If this exceeds the
diameter limit, it selects a thickness based on a pad at the diameter limit. All thickness results are rounded up to the
nearest sixteenth, while all diameter results are rounded up to the nearest eighth.

Large Diameter Nozzle Calculations


For large diameter nozzles, the rules of Appendix 1-7 require that two-thirds of the reinforcement be within 0.75 of
the natural diameter limit for the nozzle. If the calculated value of the percent within this limit is greater than 66%,
the nozzle is adequately reinforced for the large diameter rules. For a large nozzle geometry to meet Code
requirements both sets of area calculations must meet their respective area requirements.

Effective Material Diameter and Thickness Limits


The diameter limit is the maximum distance from the centerline of the nozzle along the vessel wall, which can be
taken credit for when calculating available areas in the shell or a pad. If your pad has a greater diameter than the
diameter limit, only the area inside the limit is credited. If you entered a DMAX value for the analysis, that value is
used only if it is the least of all the diameter limit candidates.
The thickness limit is the distance from the vessel surface along the nozzle axis, which can be taken credit for when
calculating the areas available in the nozzle wall and the pad. If your inward nozzle projection or outward pad
projection are greater than the diameter limit, only the area inside the limit is credited. If you entered a TMAX value
for the analysis, that value is used only if it the least of all the thickness limit candidates.

Effective Material Diameter and Thickness Limits


The MAWP for reinforcement is an estimate, usually accurate to within 1 or 2 psi. Enter the given MAWP as the
design pressure to check its accuracy. The MAP for the flange is based on ANSI B16.5 tables for the given grade
and class of flange.

Minimum Design Metal Temperature


The minimum design metal temperature is computed for the nozzle. The program considers UG-20(f), UCS-66 and
UCS-66.1 when performing these calculations.

Weld Size Calculations


Nozzle weld thicknesses are based on Figure UW-16.1. The outward nozzle weld is compared to the cover weld
required by the Code. Note that the minimum dimension of a weld is 0.7 times its leg dimension. Note also that for
cover welds the maximum weld the Code requires is 0.25 inches. The pad weld requirement is typically at least one
half of the element thickness. In addition to the cover welds, the total groove weld plus cover weld for inserted
nozzles must be at least 1.25 times the minimum element thickness.

Weld Strength Calculations


The strength of connection elements is their cross sectional area times the allowable unit stress for the element. The
last two terms in the equations shown give the stress factor and basic allowable stress for the element in the direction
considered.

12-16

NOZZLES

Failure Path Calculations


The failure paths differ based on whether there is a reinforcing pad, whether the nozzle is inserted or abutting, and
whether there is an inward projection. Note that the strength of each path must exceed either the W value or the W## associated with that path. Note also that UW-15(b) indicates that no strength calculations for nozzle attachment
welds are required for figure UW-16.1, sketches (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f-1), (f-2), (f-3), (f-4), (g), (x-1), (y-1), and (z1).
But, for types I, J, K, L, X-2, Y-2, Z-2 weld, PV Elite will perform the additional weld size calculations per UW16(d)(1).

Iterative Results Per Pressure, Area , And UG-45


Assuming the same corrosion allowance for the shell and nozzle, the maximum (failure) corrosion allowance, the
minimum (discard) nozzle thickness and the minimum (failure) shell thickness are computed. The user can project
the nozzle service lifetime based on the rate of corrosion and the above results.

Example
The example problems illustrating these principles are located in the program installation directory/Examples
directory.

CH AP TER

1 3

Chapter 13 FLANGES
In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 13-2
Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis.......................................... 13-2
Discussion of Input Data ............................................................ 13-4
Discussion of Results.................................................................. 13-15
Example ...................................................................................... 13-19

13-2

FLANGES

Introduction
FLANGE calculates actual and allowable stresses for all types of flanges designed and fabricated to the ASME
Code, Section VIII, Division 1. The program uses the Code rules found in Appendix 2 of the 2007 Edition.

Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis


The flange design rules incorporated in the Code were based on a paper written in 1937 by Waters, Westrom,
Rossheim, and Williams. These rules were subsequently published by Taylor Forge in 1937, and were incorporated
into the Code in 1942. For all practical purposes they have been unchanged since that time. The Taylor Forge
bulletin, frequently republished, is also still available, and is one of the most useful tools for flange analysis. The
input and results for the FLANGE program are roughly modeled on the Taylor Forge flange design sheets.
The flange analysis model assumes that the flange can be modeled as stiff elements (the flange and hub) and springs
(the bolts and gaskets). The initial bolt loads compresses the gasket. This load needs to be high enough to seat
(deform) the gasket, and needs to be high enough to seal even when pressure is applied. The pressure load adds to
the bolt load and unloads the gasket.
Analysis of a typical flange includes the following steps:
1

Identify operating conditions and materials. Determine the allowable stresses for the flange material and the
bolting at both ambient and operating temperatures, from the Code tables of allowable stress.

Identify the gasket material and the flange facing type. Determine the effective width, the effective diameter of
the gasket and the gasket factors from the Code charts (Tables 2-5.1 and 2-5.2).

Calculate the required area of the bolts, from the design pressure and the gasket information. Calculate the
actual area of the bolts, and make sure it is greater than the required area. Based on the bolt areas and the
allowable stresses, calculate the flange design bolt loads.

Calculate the bending moments on the flange. In each case the bending moment is the product of a load
(pressure, gasket load, etc.) and the distance from the bolt circle to the point of application of the load. The final
result is one bending moment for operating conditions and a second for gasket seating conditions.

The stresses on a given flange are determined entirely by the bending moment on the flange. All the loads on the
flange produce bending in the same direction (i.e., counterclockwise) and this bending is resisted by the ring
behavior of the flange, and in integral flanges by the reaction of the pipe.
5

Calculate the hub factors and other geometry factors for the flange based on the flange type (Code Figure 2-4).
The factors are found in Code figures 2-7.1, 2-7.2, 2-7.3, 2-7.4, 2-7.5, and 2-7.6. Formulae are also given in the
Code so that computer programs can consistently arrive at the answers that are normally selected from charts in
the appendix. These formulae are implemented in the flange program.

Calculate the stress formula factors based on the geometry factors and the flange thickness.

Calculate the flange stresses using the stress formula factors and the bending moments. Compare these stresses
to the allowable stresses for the flange material.

The form of the stress equations is:


S = k(geometry) * M / t2
That is, a constant dependant on the flange geometry times the bending moment, divided by some thickness squared,
either the thickness of the flange or the thickness of the hub.

Chapter 13 FLANGES

13-3

The calculation procedures and format of results in this program are similar to those given in "Modern Flange
Design", Bulletin 503, Edition VII, published by Taylor Forge.
The FLANGE program includes the capability to analyze a given flange under the bolting loads imposed by a
mating flange. The program also takes full account of corrosion allowance. You enter uncorroded thicknesses and
diameters, which the program adjusts before performing the calculations. The program can treat corrosion in a
special manner based on the input of a Yes/No question in the input.
The program can also be used for two levels of flange design. The PARTIAL option forces the program to calculate
the minimum flange thickness for a given geometry. The DESIGN option forces the program to select all of the
relevant flange geometry including bolt circle, number of bolts, outside diameter, thickness, and hub geometry.

Figure A - Flange Program Geometry

13-4

FLANGES

Discussion of Input Data


Main Input Fields
Flange Number
Enter the flange ID number. It is recommended that the flange numbers start at 1 and increase sequentially. If this
field is left blank PV Elite will assume there is no data here to be analyzed. The only exception to this is the first
element, if an analysis is attempted and the item number is blank, PV Elite will assign a value of 1 to the item
number.

Flange Designation
Enter an alphanumeric tag for this flange. When performing a partial analysis, PV Elite iterates for the required
thickness of the flange. The final set of results you see is made using the final required thickness. If you would like
to see the results using the input thickness, then enter a colon ":" as any character in the description. In both cases,
PV Elite will determine the required thickness. This entry is optional.

Flange Type
Enter the flange type number for this flange. Flange types are:
Integral Weld Neck
Integral Slip On
Integral Ring
Loose Slip On
Loose Ring
Lap Joint
Blind
Reverse
There are essentially only two categories of flanges for the purposes of analysis. These are integral type flanges,
where the flange and the vessel to which it is attached behave as a unit, and loose types, where the flange and the
vessel do not behave as a unit. Within these categories, however, there are several additional subdivisions.
Weld Neck Flanges - These have a hub that is butt welded to the vessel.
Slip-on Flanges - These have hubs, and are normally analyzed as loose type flanges. To qualify as integral type
flanges they require a penetration weld between the flange and the vessel.
Ring Flanges - These do no have a hub, though they frequently have a weld at the back of the flange. They are
normally analyzed as loose, but may be analyzed as integral if a penetration weld is used between the flange and
the vessel.
Lap Joint Flanges - These flanges may or may not have a hub, but they are completely disconnected from the
vessel, bearing only on a vessel 'lap'. They are always analyzed as loose.
Reverse Geometry Flange - Here the gasket seat is on the inside of the shell diameter. These use integral
flange rules, which are suitably modified for the reversal of the bending moments. See Appendix 2-13.

Chapter 13 FLANGES

13-5

Loose Type Flanges - Especially lap joints, may be split. A split is used when it is required to have the flange
completely removable from the vessel. If the flange is split into two pieces by a single split, the design moment
for the flange is multiplied by 2.0. If the flange consists of two separate split rings, each ring shall be designed
as if it were a solid flange (without splits) using 0.75 times the design moment. The pair of rings shall be
assembled so that the splits in one ring shall be 90 deg. from the splits in the other.
Flat Face Flanges with Full Face Gaskets - A special type of gasket geometry, which is not included in the
Code sketches, or in the Code design rules, is the flange with a flat face and a gasket that extends from the ID of
the flange to the OD, beyond the bolt circle. The gaskets used with this type of flange are usually quite soft.
These flanges can be analyzed using the Taylor Forge calculation sheets.

Analysis Type
Enter the analysis type for the computations to be performed on this flange.
Analyze - For this analysis type, users must give the complete flange definition. The program will compute the
resulting stresses.
Partial - For this analysis type, all information except for the flange thickness must be specified. The program
will select a flange thickness such that the resulting flange stress equals the allowable stress.
Design - For this analysis type, only the flange diameter and thickness, gasket and flange face geometry, and
gasket properties are specified. The program computes all other flange dimensions and stresses.

Print Final Results for the Given Thickness


If the partial design option is chosen and this box is checked, the program will display the results using the given
thickness. If this box is unchecked the results will be displayed using the calculated required thickness.

Design Pressure
Enter the internal design pressure. If the value entered in this field is negative, it will be treated as external pressure.

Design Temperature
Enter the design temperature for the flange. This temperature will be used to interpolate the material allowable
tables and external pressure curves.

Flange/Bolt Material Specification


Click the Material Database button to search for a material in the material database. Also, you can type the
material name in this cell, and the system will retrieve the first material it finds with a matching name. Click the
Material Edit Properties button to change the properties of the selected material. You can also create new
materials by selecting the TOOLS/EDIT/ADD MATERIALS option on the MAIN MENU.

Allowable Stress at Design Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification.
CAUTION: You should verify your entry to assure conformance with the latest edition of the ASME Pressure
Vessel Code Section II Part D.

13-6

FLANGES

Allowable Stress at Ambient Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification.
CAUTION: You should verify your entry to assure conformance with the latest edition of the ASME Pressure
Vessel Code Section II Part D.

Flange Thickness
Enter the flange thickness. The corrosion allowance will be subtracted from this value.

Corrosion Allowance
Enter the corrosion allowance for this flange. The value entered here will be subtracted from the flange and hub
thicknesses to obtain the thicknesses actually used in the computations.

Include Corrosion in Flange Thickness Calculations


The flange thickness is used in several places throughout Appendix 2. The Code states that every dimension used
should be corroded. In the flange stress calculations the flange thickness is used. However, some feel that the
corrosion should not be taken off of the thickness for the stress calculations.

Flange ID
Enter the inner diameter of the flange. For integral type flanges, this value will also be the inner pipe diameter. This
value is refereed to as "B" in the ASME code. The corrosion allowance will be used to adjust this value - two times
the corrosion allowance will be added to the uncorroded ID given by the user. For a blind flange this entry should be
0.

Flange OD
Enter the outer diameter of the flange. This value is refereed to as "A" in the ASME code.

Enter Shell Material


Select the shell material name. This is used for computing the longitudinal hub allowable stress for optional type
flanges, which are analyzed as integral.

Flange Face Outer Diameter


Enter the outer diameter of the flange face. The program uses the minimum of the flange face outer diameter and the
gasket outer diameter to calculate the outside flange contact point, but uses the maximum in design when selecting
the bolt circle. This is done so that the bolts do not interfere with the gasket. The program uses the maximum of the
flange face ID and the gasket ID to calculate the inside contact point of the gasket.

Flange Face Inner Diameter


Enter the inner diameter of the flange face. The program uses the maximum of the Flange Face ID and the Gasket ID
to calculate the inner contact point of the gasket.

Chapter 13 FLANGES

13-7

Gasket Outer Diameter


Enter the outer diameter of the gasket. The program uses the minimum of the flange face outer diameter and the
gasket outer diameter to calculate the outside flange contact point, but uses the maximum in design when selecting
the bolt circle. This is done so that the bolts do not interfere with the gasket. The program uses the maximum of the
flange face ID and the gasket ID to calculate the inside contact point of the gasket.

Gasket Inner Diameter


Enter the inner diameter of the gasket. The program uses the maximum of the Flange Face ID and the Gasket ID to
calculate the inner contact point of the gasket.

Hub Thickness, Small End


Enter the thickness of the small end of the hub. This value is referred to as "g0" in the ASME code. The corrosion
allowance will be subtracted from this value. For weld neck flange types, this is the thickness of the shell at the end
of the flange. For slip on flange geometries, this is the thickness of the hub at the small end. For flange geometries
without hubs, such as a blind flange, this thickness may be entered as zero.

Hub Thickness, Large End


Enter the thickness of the large end of the hub. This value is referred to as "g1" in the ASME code. The corrosion
allowance will be subtracted from this value. It is permissible for the hub thickness at the large end to equal the hub
thickness at the small end. For flange geometries without hubs, such as a blind flange, this thickness may be entered
as zero.

Hub Length
Enter the hub length. This value is refereed to as "h" in the ASME code. For flange geometries without hubs, this
length may be entered as zero. When analyzing an optional type flange that is welded at the hub end, the hub length
should be the leg of the weld, and the thickness at the large end should include the thickness of the weld. When you
analyze a flange with no hub, i.e. a ring flange, a lap joint flange, etc., you should enter zero for the hub length, the
small end of the hub, and the large end of the hub. However, when you design as a loose flange a ring flange that
has a fillet weld at the back, enter the size of a leg of the fillet weld as the large end of the hub. This will insure that
the program designs the bolt circle far enough away from the back of the flange to get a wrench around the nuts.

Diameter of Bolt Circle


Enter the diameter of the bolt circle of the flange.

Nominal Bolt Diameter


Enter the nominal bolt diameter. The tables of bolt diameter included in the program range from 0.5 to 4.0 inches. If
you have bolts that are larger or smaller than this value, enter the nominal size in this field, and also enter the root
area of one bolt in the Thread Series cell.

Thread Series
The following bolt thread series tables are available:
TEMA Bolt Table
UNC Bolt Table
User specified root area of a single bolt
TEMA Metric Bolt Table
British, BS 3643 Metric Bolt Table

13-8

FLANGES

Irrespective of the table used, the values will be converted back to the user selected units.
TEMA threads are National Coarse series below 1 inch and 8 pitch thread series for 1 inch and above bolt nominal
diameter. The UNC threads available are the standard threads.

Number of Bolts
Enter the number of bolts to be used in the flange analysis.

Compute Full Flange Design Bolt Load (S*Ab) ?


If this box is un-checked then flange design bolt load for the gasket seating condition is computed as:
W = Sa * ( Am + Ab ) / 2
otherwise it is computed as follows per note 2 of App. 2-5 of the ASME code:
W = Sa * Ab
this equation can be used when additional safety against abuse is desired.
Where,
Sa = bolt ambient allowable stress
Am = total required bolt area
Ab = total available bolt area

Table 2-5.1 - Gasket Materials and Contact Facings


Gasket Material

Gasket Factor m

Self energizing Types, including metallic and 0.00


elastomer O ring

Seating Stress y

Facing Column

II

Flat Elastomers
Below 75A Shore Durometer

0.50

II

75A Shore Durometer or higher

1.00

200

II

Flat asbestos with suitable binder


1/8 inch thick

2.00

1600

II

1/16 inch thick

2.75

3700

II

1/32 inch thick

3.50

6500

II

Elastomer with cotton fabric insert

1.25

400

II

Elastomer with asbestos fabric insert


3 ply

2.25

2200

II

2 ply

2.50

2900

II

1 ply

2.75

3700

II

Vegetable Fiber

1.75

1100

II

Chapter 13 FLANGES

Gasket Material

13-9

Gasket Factor m

Seating Stress y

Facing Column

Carbon Steel

2.50

10000

II

Stainless Steel or Monel

3.00

10000

II

2.50

2900

II

Spiral-wound metal, asbestos filled

Corrugated metal, asbestos filled or


Corrugated metal jacketed, asbestos filled
Soft aluminum
Soft copper or brass

2.75

3700

II

Iron or soft steel

3.00

4500

II

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

3.25

5500

II

Stainless Steel

3.50

6500

II

2.75

3700

II

Corrugated metal, not filled


Soft aluminum
Soft copper or brass

3.00

4500

II

Iron or soft steel

3.25

5500

II

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

3.50

6500

II

Stainless Steel

3.75

7600

II

Soft aluminum

3.25

5500

II

Soft copper or brass

3.50

6500

II

Iron or soft steel

3.75

7600

II

Monel

3.50

8000

II

Flat metal jacketed, asbestos filled

4-6% Chrome

3.75

9000

II

Stainless Steel

3.75

9000

II

Soft aluminum

3.25

5500

II

Soft copper or brass

3.50

6500

II

Iron or soft steel

3.75

7600

II

Grooved metal

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

3.75

9000

II

Stainless Steel

4.25

10100

II

Soft aluminum

4.00

8800

Soft copper or brass

4.75

13000

Iron or soft steel

5.50

18000

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

6.00

21800

Stainless Steel

6.50

26000

Solid flat metal

13-10

FLANGES

Gasket Material

Gasket Factor m

Seating Stress y

Facing Column

Iron or soft steel

5.50

18000

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

6.00

21800

Stainless Steel

6.50

26000

Ring Joint

Flange Face Facing Sketch


Using Table 2-5.2 of the ASME code, select the facing sketch number according to the following correlations:

Table 2-5.2 Facing Sketch Descriptions


FACING SKETCH

DESCRIPTION

1a

flat finish faces

1b

serrated finish faces

1c

raised nubbin-flat finish

1d

raised nubbin-serrated finish

1/64 inch nubbin

1/64 inch nubbin both sides

large serrations, one side

large serrations, both sides

metallic O-ring type gasket

Gasket Thickness
Enter the gasket thickness. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c and 1d (PV Elite equivalents 3 and 4).

Nubbin Width
If applicable, enter the nubbin width. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c, 1d, 2 and 6 (PV Elite
equivalents 3, 4, 5, and 9). Note that for sketch 9 this is not a nubbin width, but the contact width of the metallic
ring.

Full Face Gasket Options


ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 does not cover the design of flanges for which the gasket extends beyond the bolt circle
diameter. A typically used method for the design of these types of flanges is found in the Taylor Forge Flange
Design Bulletin. This method is implemented in the program.
Gaskets for Full Face Flanges are usually of soft materials such as rubber or an elastomer, so that the bolt stresses do
not go too high during gasket seating. The program adjusts the flange analysis and the design formulae to account for
the full face gasket. There are 3 Full Face Gasket Flange options:

Chapter 13 FLANGES

13-11

Program Selects: Instructs the program to automatically make the determination if this is a full face gasket
flange, depending upon the input. If the gasket ID and OD matches with Flange ID and OD dimensions
respectively (except for a blind flange) then it is determined to be a full face flange. See the figure below.

Full Face Gasket: Indicates to the program that this is a full face gasket flange. Use this option when the gasket
ID or OD does not match the flange ID/OD dimensions, but the gasket extends beyond the bolt circle diameter.
See the figure below:

Not a Full Face: Indicates to the program that this is not a full face gasket flange.

Is There a Partition Gasket?


If your exchanger geometry has a pass partition gasket, check this entry. PV Elite will then prompt for the overall
length and width of the gasket.

Specify External Loads


In order for leakage computations to be performed, the external loads acting on the flange must be specified. By
checking this field, an input form displays that allows entry of the loading data. Loading data of this nature would
typically come from a pipe stress analysis program, such as CAESAR II.

13-12

FLANGES

Flanges are frequently subject to external forces and moments, in addition to internal pressure. The program
calculates a roughly equivalent pressure for flanges loaded axially and/or in bending using the following formula:
Peq = Pdes + 4 * F / 3.14 G2 + 16 * M / 3.14 * G3
Where:
Peq = Equivalent pressure, psi
Pdes = Design pressure, psi
F = Axial force, lbs
M = Bending moment, in-lbs
G = Diameter of gasket load reaction, in.
The program then uses the equivalent pressure as the design pressure.

Mating Flange Loads


If loads from the mating flange are to be considered, check this field. A pop-up spreadsheet will appear for
additional data entry. This auxiliary bolt loading will only be used if it is greater then the standard bolt loads
computed using the ASME formulas.
WARNING: The use of mating flange values for bolt design calculations will result in incorrect MAWP
calculations. You probably don't want to calculate MAWP based on the mating flange values, but rather based on
the values developed by this flange at a given pressure.
Also you definitely don't want to do "design" when you have a mating flange, since the program selects a different
bolt circle, etc. than the one chosen for the other flange. You can however, do a partial thickness design.

Compute Thickness Based on Flange Rigidity?


Appendix 2 contains equations that attempt to determine whether or not a given flange geometry will leak. If the
computed rigidity factor is > 1.0, then leakage is predicted.
Note: Appendix 2 calculations are mandatory as of Addenda-2005 and flange designs must satisfy these
calculations. These rigidity factor calculations are not mandatory for Pre-1999 Addenda users
By enabling this box, users can instruct the program to compute thickness, such that the corresponding rigidity index
is 1.0.

Pop-Up Input Fields


Number of Splits in the Ring
Enter the number of splits in the ring, if any, for loose type flanges. This value must be either 0, 1, or 2. Typically
split flanges are ring-type flanges. A split is used when it is required to have the flange completely removable from
the vessel. If the flange is split into two pieces by a single split, the design moment for the flange is multiplied by
2.0. If the flange consists of two separate split rings, each ring shall be designed as if it were a solid flange - without

Chapter 13 FLANGES

13-13

splits) using 0.75 times the design moment. The pair of rings shall be assembled so that the splits in one ring shall be
90 deg. from the splits in the other.

Weld Leg at Back of Ring


Enter the length of the weld leg at the back of the ring. This value is added to the inside diameter during the design of
ring type flanges to determine the minimum bolt circle when the design option is turned on. If you are performing a
partial or regular analysis, PV Elite will check to see if there is interference between the wrench and the weld. PV
Elite will print a brief message letting you know there is a potential problem.

Lap Joint Contact ID


Enter the inner diameter of the flange/joint contact surface. For more information see Figure B.

Lap Joint Contact OD


Enter the outer diameter of the flange/joint contact surface. For more information see Figure B.

Figure B - Lap Joint Flange Geometry

TEMA Channel Cover


This cell indicates whether or not the current flange is a TEMA channel cover. A separate thickness and MAWP are
computed for channel covers, as well as the deflection.

Diameter of the Load Reaction (Long Span)


Enter the distance to the center of the gasket on the long side of the flange. This diameter is used to calculate the
non- circular flange correction factor for ASME blind flanges. This factor is discussed in paragraph UG-34 of the
ASME code.

13-14

FLANGES

Diameter of the Load Reaction (Short Span)


Enter the distance to the center of the gasket on the short side of the flange. This diameter is used to calculate the
non- circular flange correction factor for ASME blind flanges. This factor is discussed in paragraph UG-34 of the
ASME code.

Allowed Channel Cover Deflection


For TEMA channel covers, enter the magnitude of the allowed deflection at the center of the cover. This value will
be used in computing the channel cover thickness and MAWP, even if it is larger than the allowed deflection.
However, a warning message will be printed stating this problem exists.

Perimeter Along the Center of the Bolt Holes (L)


Enter the perimeter of the bolted head measured along the centerline of the bolts. This value (L) is needed for both
non-circular and circular geometries. For a circular head, enter the value of (3.14159 * bolt circular diameter). For
non-circular heads this value will have to be computed and entered in.

Length of Partition Gasket


This is the cumulative length of all the heat exchanger pass partition gaskets associated with this flange.

Width of the Pass Partition Gasket


Enter the width of the pass partition gasket. Using the partition gasket properties entered, and the known width, PV
Elite will compute the effective seating width and compute the gasket loads contributed by the partition gasket.

Partition Gasket Factor M


Enter the partition gasket factor M.

Partition Gasket Design Seating Stress Y:


Enter the partition gasket design seating stress Y.

Partition Gasket Flange Facing Sketch:


Enter the partition gasket flange face facing sketch.

Partition Gasket Column for Gasket Seating


Enter the partition gasket column for gasket seating.

Partition Gasket Thickness


Enter the thickness of the partition gasket. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c and 1d.

Chapter 13 FLANGES

13-15

Partition Gasket Nubbin Width


If applicable, enter the nubbin width for the pass partition gasket. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c,
1d, 2 and 6. Note that for sketch 9 this is not a nubbin width, but the contact width of the metallic ring.

Node Number (Optional)


Enter the node number of this flange. This entry represents the node point in a stress analysis model from which the
loads are obtained.

Axial Force
Enter the magnitude of the external axial force, which acts, on this flange.

Bending Moment
Enter the magnitude of the external bending moment, which acts, on this flange.

Mating Flange Bolt Load, Operating


Enter the bolt load from the mating flange in the operating case.

Mating Flange Bolt Load, Seating


Enter the bolt load from the mating flange for seating conditions.

Mating Flange Design Bolt Load


Enter the design bolt load for the mating flange.

Discussion of Results
Flanges with Different Bending Moments:
The flange design moments differ from the norm for external pressure, reverse flanges, and flat flanges.
Under external pressure only the end load and flange pressure are included in the design, and their sense is reversed.
For reverse flanges all the moments are present, but the moment arm hd is negative, making MD negative. The load
HT is negative, and the moment arm ht may be either positive or negative. The absolute value of the moment is used
in the calculations.
For flat faced flanges an alternate value of hg (h''g) is used to calculate a reverse moment at the bolt circle. No
calculations for seating conditions for full faced flanges are required.

Blind Flanges and Channel Covers:


The ASME Code formula for a circular blind flange is:

13-16

FLANGES

t = d * SQRT( C * P / S * E + 1.9 * W * Hg / S * E * d3 )
The first term in this formula is the bending of a flat plate under pressure. The second term is the bending of the
plate due to an edge moment. The stress is limited to 1.5 times the allowable stress, but the 1.5 factor is already built
into the equation. For seating conditions the first term is zero - the thickness of the flange depends only on the edge
bending.
For non-circular blind flanges the term Z is added to the first term in the square root. Once again, Z is a simple
function of the ratio of the large dimension to the small dimension of the flange. It is interesting to note that the
Code covers non-circular blind flanges, but no other type of non-circular flanges (not even in the rectangular vessel
appendix).
Channel covers designed to TEMA must meet at least the minimum thickness requirements of the Code. In addition,
if there is a pass partition groove, the cover deflection is limited.
The formula for flange deflection limitation is found in paragraph 9.21 of TEMA. The deflection is, of course, a
function of t3 and G3. Thus, a very small increase in flange thickness will decrease the deflection significantly. The
Seventh Edition of TEMA also gives recommended deflections as a function of flange size. The previous editions
hid the actual deflection you were working toward in a thickness equation.

Allowable Flange Stresses:


Allowable flange stresses are based on the ASME Code Allowable Stress for the flange material at the Ambient and
Operating design temperatures. In the case of bending stresses, these allowable are multiplied by 1.5. This takes
into account the higher maximum strain required to yield a section in bending versus pure tension. The stresses
calculated and the allowable stresses are as follows:

Longitudinal Hub Stress (bending)

Operating

Ambient

1.5 x Sfo

1.5 x Sfa

Radial Flange Stress

1.0 x Sfo

1.0 x Sfa

Tangential Flange Stress

1.0 x Sfo

1.0 x Sfa

Maximum Average Stress

1.0 x Sfo

1.0 x Sfa

Stress in Bolts

1.0 x Sbo

1.0 x Sba

Stress in Reverse Flanges

1.0 x Sfo

1.0 x Sfa

Stress in Full Faced Gasket Flanges

1.0 x Sfo

1.0 x Sfa

Where:

Sfo

ASME Code Allowable Stress for flange material at operating temperature.

Sfa

ASME Code Allowable Stress for flange material at ambient temperature.

Sbo

ASME Code Allowable Stress for flange material at ambient temperature.

Sba

ASME Code Allowable Stress for bolt material at ambient temperature.

Chapter 13 FLANGES

13-17

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure:


The following graph shows conceptually how the program extrapolates for the Maximum Allowable Working
Pressure:

1. For Operating Pressure MAWP


The program calculates the stresses at the pressure given by the user.
The program calculates the slope between the stress at zero pressure and the stress at the given pressure
The program extrapolates the slope out to the point where the stress is equal to the allowable stress. The
pressure at this point is the maximum allowable working pressure.
2. For Gasket Seating MAWP
Note that at low pressures the stress due to gasket seating is not a function of the design pressure. At higher
pressures the stress is a function of pressure, and the MAWP can be calculated as described above, except that
the extrapolation is from the point where pressure comes into the calculation of the seating stress.
The program calculates the Gasket Seating MAWP and Operating MAWP based on the input geometry and
pressure. In theory both MAWPs should be independent of the input pressure. However, because of the
extrapolation algorithm, the estimate of the MAWP may depend on the pressure slightly (when the pressure is
very small). Please note that in Partial or Design mode, the program will calculate MAWP based on the required
flange thickness.

13-18

FLANGES

Flange Rigidity Calculations


Appendix 2 also contains equations that attempt to determine whether or not a given flange geometry will leak. The
cases considered are ambient and operating. If the computed rigidity factor is > 1.0, then leakage is predicted.
Note: Appendix 2 calculations are mandatory as of Addenda-2005.

Flange Design
The geometry defined by the user is the basis for the design performed by the program. Specifically, the inside
diameter, materials, pressure, gasket geometry and gasket properties remain fixed throughout the design. Beginning
from this point, the program uses the following approach to design the rest of the flange:
1

For slip-on type flanges, calculate the small end of the hub equal to roughly the thickness required for the design
pressure

For weld neck, slip-on, and reverse flanges, calculate the large end of the hub as the small end of the hub plus
1/16th (for small end thickness less than one inch) or 1/8th (for small end thickness greater than one inch).
Then calculate a hub length equal to the small end thickness plus the minimum slope (3:1) for the hub. The
effect of these choices is to design a small hub when compared with standardized flanges. This has the
additional effect of keeping the moment arms and diameters (of the bolt circle and flange OD) small, and
keeping the flange light. Finally, the selection of a small hub keeps the amount of machining required for the
flange to a minimum.

Select a preliminary number of bolts. This is a multiple of four based on the diameter of the flange. The
algorithm chosen tends to select more and smaller bolts than would be found on standard flanges. This also has
the effect of minimizing the flange outside diameter and the weight of the flange.

Select a bolt size that will give the required bolt area for this number of bolts.

Using this bolt size, calculate a final number of bolts based on:

The area required divided by the area available per bolt -ORThe maximum allowed spacing between bolts of this size.
6

Using this number of bolts, calculate the bolt circle based on:

The OD of the hub plus the minimum ID spacing of the bolt -ORThe OD of the gasket face plus the actual size of the bolt -ORThe minimum spacing distance between the bolts -ORFor reverse flanges, the vessel OD plus the bolt ID spacing.
7

Calculate the outside diameter of the flange based on the bolt circle plus the minimum edge spacing for the bolt
size chosen.

For flanges with full face gaskets, adjust the gasket and face outside diameter for the values chosen, and
recalculate the moment arms for the flange.

Finally (and this step also applies to partial design of the flange), select a thickness for the flange and calculate
the stresses. If the stress is not equal to the allowable, adjust the thickness based on the difference between the
actual and allowable stresses, and then repeat the stress calculation. This process continues until the actual stress
for one of the stress components is equal to the allowable stress.

Chapter 13 FLANGES

13-19

Example
The example problems illustrating these principles are located in the program installation directory/Examples
directory.

CH AP TER

1 4

Chapter 14 CONICAL SECTIONS


In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 14-2
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis........................................... 14-3
Discussion of Input Data ............................................................ 14-4
Discussion of Results.................................................................. 14-10
Example ...................................................................................... 14-11

14-2

CONICAL SECTIONS

Introduction
CONICAL SECTIONS performs internal and external pressure design of conical sections and stiffening rings using
the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 rules, 2007 Edition.

Chapter 14 CONICAL SECTIONS

14-3

Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis


CONICAL SECTIONS calculates the required thickness and Maximum Allowable Working Pressure for conical
shells and sections under either internal or external pressure. The program is based on the ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 2001, A-2003. Specifically, the program is based on the rules in
paragraphs UG-32, UG-33, and Appendix 1, Sections 1-5, and 1-7.
The program calculates required thickness for the cone under both internal and external pressure. Also calculated is
the required thickness of the attached cylinders under either internal or external pressure. Calculations for the
required thickness of a transition knuckle are included.
The required area of reinforcement and actual reinforcement available are calculated for both internal and external
pressures. Reinforcement is limited to the area available in the shell sections plus simple stiffening rings.
CONICAL SECTIONS takes full account of corrosion allowance. You enter actual thickness and corrosion
allowance, and the program adjusts thicknesses and diameters when making calculations for the corroded condition.

Figure A - Conical Section Geometry

14-4

CONICAL SECTIONS

Discussion of Input Data


Main Input Fields
Cone Number
Enter an ID number for the cone. This may be the item number on the drawing, or numbers that start at 1 and
increase sequentially.

Cone Description
Enter an alphanumeric description for this item. This entry is optional.

Internal Design Pressure


You may analyze both internal and external pressure at the same time, since the two cases are analyzed and reported
separately. Enter zero for internal pressure if you only wish to analyze the external pressure case.

Internal Design Temperature


Enter the temperature associated with the internal design pressure. PV Elite will automatically update materials
properties for BUILT-IN materials when you change the design temperature. If you entered the allowable stresses
by hand, you are responsible to update them for the given temperature.

External Design Pressure


Enter the design pressure for external pressure analysis. This should be a positive value, i.e. 14.7 psia. If you enter a
zero in this field the program will not perform external pressure calculations.

External Design Temperature


Enter the temperature associated with the external design pressure. PV Elite will automatically update materials
properties for external pressure calculations when you change the design temperature. The design external pressure
at this temperature is a completely different design case than the internal pressure case. Therefore this temperature
may be different than the temperature for internal pressure. Many external pressure charts have both lower and upper
limits on temperature. If your design temperature is below the lower limit, use the lower limit as your entry to the
program. If your temperature is above the upper limit the component may not be designed for vacuum conditions.

Cone\Cylinder\Ring\Knuckle Material Name


Enter the ASME code material specification as it appears in the ASME material allowable tables. Alternatively, you
can select the material from the Material Database by pressing the Database button while the cursor is in this field.
If a material is not contained in the database, you can select its specification and properties can be entered manually
by selecting TOOLS/EDIT/ADD MATERIALS, from the Main Menu.

Material Allowable Stress, Design Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification. When you change the internal design
temperature, or the thickness of the shell, the program will automatically update this field, but only for BUILT-IN

Chapter 14 CONICAL SECTIONS

14-5

materials. If you enter the allowable stress by hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the
latest edition of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code Section II Part D at the design temperature.

Material Allowable Stress, Ambient Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification. When you change the internal design
temperature, or the thickness of the shell, the program will automatically update this field, but only for BUILT-IN
materials. If you enter the allowable stress by hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the
latest edition of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code Section II Part D at the ambient temperature.

Cone Joint Efficiency


Enter the efficiency of the welded joint for shell sections with welded seams. This will be the efficiency of the
longitudinal seam in a cylindrical shell or any seam in a spherical shell. Elliptical and torispherical heads are
typically seamless but may require a stress reduction, which may be entered as a joint efficiency. Please be sure to
refer to Section VIII, Div. 1, Table UW-12 for help in determining this value.

Cone Actual Thickness


Enter the minimum thickness of the actual plate or pipe used to build the vessel, or the minimum thickness measured
for an existing vessel. Many pipe materials have a minimum specified wall thickness, which is 87.5% of the nominal
wall thickness. You should enter the minimum thickness.

Cone Corrosion Allowance


Enter the corrosion allowance. The program adjusts both the actual thickness and the inside diameter for the
corrosion allowance you enter.

Cone Diameter Basis (ID, OD)


Select the diameter basis, ID for the inside diameter and OD for the outside diameter. Note that this diameter basis is
also used for the cylinder at the small end of the cone, and the cylinder at the large end of the cone.

Cone Diameter at Small End


Enter the diameter of the cone at the small end. This diameter is also used for the cylinder at the small end of the
cone. Note that this should not be the diameter at the point where a knuckle or flare intersects the conical section,
but at the point where the knuckle or flare intersects the cylindrical section. The program will calculate the other
diameter.

Cone Diameter at Large End


Enter the diameter of the cone at the large end. This diameter is also used for the cylinder at the large end of the
cone. Note that this should not be the diameter at the point where a knuckle or flare intersects the conical section,
but at the point where the knuckle or flare intersects the cylindrical section. The program will calculate the other
diameter.

14-6

CONICAL SECTIONS

Cone Half Apex Angle


For internal pressure calculations the half apex angle should not be greater than 30 degrees, though the program will
give results for up to 60 degrees. For external pressure calculations it must not be greater than 60 degrees. If you
enter a zero for the angle, PV Elite will calculate an angle based on the cone diameters and length.

Cone Axial Length


Enter the length of the cone along the axis of the vessel. The program will calculate the effective length of the cone
for internal and external pressure calculations.

Are There Axial Forces on the Cone?


If there are axial forces on the cone, check this field. Examples of axial forces would include weight loads, from
external attachments, and possibly thermal loads. The axial force due to internal or external pressure are already
taken into account by the program. Note that in general loads causing compression are significant for the external
pressure case, while loads causing tension are significant for the internal pressure case.

Small Cylinder Joint Efficiency


Enter the efficiency of the welded joint for shell sections with welded seams. This will be the efficiency of the
longitudinal seam in a cylindrical shell or any seam in a spherical shell. Elliptical and torispherical heads are
typically seamless but may require a stress reduction, which may be entered as a joint efficiency. Please be sure to
refer to Section VIII, Div. 1, Table UW-12 for help in determining this value.

Small Cylinder Actual Thickness


Enter the minimum thickness of the actual plate or pipe used to build the vessel, or the minimum thickness measured
for an existing vessel. Many pipe materials have a minimum specified wall thickness, which is 87.5% of the nominal
wall thickness. You should enter the minimum thickness.

Small Cylinder Corrosion Allowance


Enter the corrosion allowance. The program adjusts both the actual thickness and the inside diameter for the
corrosion allowance you enter.

Small Cylinder Axial Length


Enter the length of the cylinder along the axis of the vessel. This value is not used in internal pressure calculations,
but is required for external pressure calculations.

Small End Reinforcing (None, Bar, Section, Knuckle, Knuckle-Bar, Knuckle-Section)


Select the type of reinforcing bar for the small end:
NONE
BAR
SECTION
KNUCKLE
KNUCKLE and BAR RING
KNUCKLE and SECTION

=
=
=
=
=
=

no reinforcement at the small end and no knuckle.


reinforcing bar at small end (width and thickness).
reinforcing beam section at small end (inertia, area, and depth of beam).
toroidal knuckle at small end ( radius and thickness ).
toroidal knuckle and a reinforcing bar at small end.
toroidal knuckle and a reinforcing beam section at small end.

Chapter 14 CONICAL SECTIONS

14-7

Note that whichever option is chosen you will be prompted to enter a reinforcing material. If there is no reinforcing
material, enter the small end shell material. The values for the elasticity and allowable stress values will be needed
for the area and inertia calculations depending on the value of Delta.

Large Cylinder Joint Efficiency


Enter the efficiency of the welded joint for shell sections with welded seams. This will be the efficiency of the
longitudinal seam in a cylindrical shell or any seam in a spherical shell. Elliptical and torispherical heads are
typically seamless but may require a stress reduction, which may be entered as a joint efficiency. Please be sure to
refer to Section VIII, Div. 1, Table UW-12 for help in determining this value.

Large Cylinder Actual Thickness


Enter the minimum thickness of the actual plate or pipe used to build the vessel, or the minimum thickness measured
for an existing vessel. Many pipe materials have a minimum specified wall thickness, which is 87.5% of the nominal
wall thickness. You should enter the minimum thickness.

Large Cylinder Corrosion Allowance


Enter the corrosion allowance. The program adjusts both the actual thickness and the inside diameter for the
corrosion allowance you enter.

Large Cylinder Axial Length


Enter the length of the cylinder along the axis of the vessel. This value is not used in internal pressure calculations,
but is required for external pressure calculations.

Large End Reinforcing (None, Bar, Section, Knuckle, Knuckle-Bar, Knuckle-Section)


Select the type of reinforcing bar for the large end:
NONE
BAR
SECTION
KNUCKLE
KNUCKLE and BAR RING
KNUCKLE and SECTION

=
=
=
=
=
=

no reinforcement at the large end and no knuckle.


reinforcing bar at large end (width and thickness).
reinforcing beam section at large end (inertia, area, and depth of beam).
toroidal knuckle at large end ( radius and thickness ).
toroidal knuckle and a reinforcing bar at large end.
toroidal knuckle and a reinforcing beam section at large end.

Note that whichever option is chosen you will be prompted to enter a reinforcing material. If there is no reinforcing
material, enter the large end shell material. The values for the elasticity and allowable stress values will be needed
for the area and inertia calculations depending on the value of Delta.

Pop-Up Input Fields


Take Cone as Lines of Support for External Pressure?
The ASME Code allows you to take the intersections of the cone and the two cylinders as lines of support for
external pressure, provided that the moment of inertia and area of reinforcement requirements of Appendix 1-8 are
satisfied. Normally it is preferable to take the cone as lines of support, since the equivalent length of the large

14-8

CONICAL SECTIONS

cylinder/ cone/small cylinder combination may easily result in low allowable external pressures. However, the
moment of inertia is very easy to be less than the required for knuckle-to-cylinder junction because the
shell/knuckle/cone is usually so close to the resulting neutral axis. Starting from CODECALC version 5.6, the moment
of inertia with the knuckle is calculated, following the procedure of code example L-3.3.

Total Axial Force on Large End for Internal Pressure Case


Enter the axial force, not the force per unit circumferences as used by the Code (f1, f2). The program calculates the
force per unit circumference before performing the calculation. Note that we have formulated the calculations so
that a positive (tensile) axial force adds to the tension due to internal pressure, while a negative (compressive) axial
force subtracts from the tension due to internal pressure.

Total Axial Force on Large End for External Pressure Case


Enter the axial force, not the force per unit circumferences as used by the Code (f1, f2). The program calculates the
force per unit circumference before performing the calculation. Note that we have formulated the calculations so
that a negative (compressive) axial force adds to the compression due to external pressure, while a positive (tensile)
axial force subtracts from the compression due to external pressure.

Total Axial Force on Small End for Internal Pressure Case


Enter the axial force, not the force per unit circumferences as used by the Code (f1, f2). The program calculates the
force per unit circumference before performing the calculation. Note that we have formulated the calculations so
that a positive (tensile) axial force adds to the tension due to internal pressure, while a negative (compressive) axial
force subtracts from the tension due to internal pressure.

Total Axial Force on Small End for External Pressure Case


Enter the axial force, not the force per unit circumferences as used by the Code (f1, f2). The program calculates the
force per unit circumference before performing the calculation. Note that we have formulated the calculations so
that a negative (compressive) axial force adds to the compression due to external pressure, while a positive (tensile)
axial force subtracts from the compression due to external pressure.

Location of Reinforcing Ring (Shell, Cone)


Enter the location of the reinforcing bar:
SHELL
CONE

=
=

welded to the shell (cylinder).


welded to the cone

Radial Width of Reinforcing Ring


Enter the width of the reinforcing bar. You can also think of this as the projection of the bar out from the vessel OD.
For example, a donut shaped plate 10 inches by 1 inch has a radial width of 10.

Axial Thickness of Reinforcing Ring


Enter the thickness of the reinforcing bar. For example, a donut shaped plate 10 inches by 1 inch has an axial
thickness of 1.

Chapter 14 CONICAL SECTIONS

14-9

Moment of Inertia of Reinforcing Section


Enter the moment of inertia of the beam section (I, T, etc.) used to reinforce the cone/cylinder junction. This can
usually be found in the 'Manual of Steel Construction' for common beam sections.

Cross Sectional Area of Reinforcing Section


Enter the cross sectional area of the beam section (I, T, etc.) used to reinforce the cone/cylinder junction. This can
usually be found in the 'Manual of Steel Construction' for common beam sections.

Distance to Centroid of Reinforcing Section


Enter the distance to the centroid of the beam section ( I, T, etc) used to reinforce the cone/cylinder junction. This
can usually be found in the 'Manual of Steel Construction' for common beam sections.

Knuckle Bend Radius, Large End


Enter the bend radius of the toroidal knuckle at the large end. Note that the Code requires this radius to be no less
than 6% of the outside diameter of the head, or less than three times the knuckle thickness (UG-31, (h)).

Knuckle Thickness, Large End


Enter the minimum thickness after forming of the toroidal knuckle at the large end.

Knuckle Bend Radius, Small End


Enter the bend radius of the toroidal knuckle at the large end. Note that the Code requires this radius to be no less
than 6% of the outside diameter of the head, or less than three times the knuckle thickness (UG-31, (h)).

Knuckle Thickness, Small End


Enter the minimum thickness after forming of the toroidal knuckle at the large end.

14-10

CONICAL SECTIONS

Discussion of Results
Internal Pressure Results
The first section of results shows the required thicknesses and Maximum Allowable Working Pressures for the cone
and for the upper and lower cylinders under internal pressure. Note that this section is shown even when the internal
design pressure is zero: the required thicknesses will be zero, but the Maximum Allowable Working Pressures will
be meaningful.
Next the program summarizes these internal pressure results, adding the corrosion allowances as necessary.

External Pressure Results


The External Pressure module calculates materials properties and required thicknesses under external pressure.
Because the program uses Young's modulus values in both the internal and external reinforcement calculation, this
module is called even when the external design pressure is zero. However, in this case the required thickness and
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure calculations for external pressure are skipped.
The required thickness under external pressure is calculated using the interactive method outlined in Paragraph UG33 of the ASME Code. The effective length for toriconical sections is adjusted to include a fraction of the knuckle
in the design length.

Reinforcement Calculations Under Internal Pressure


The program calculates the required reinforcement for the cone/cylinder junctions at both the large and the small
ends. This calculation is performed whenever the internal pressure is greater than zero, and the reinforcing material
is defined. If a knuckle is specified instead of a reinforcing ring, the knuckle calculation will be performed and the
required area calculation will not.
When a knuckle calculation is performed, the program calculates both the required thickness and the maximum
allowable working pressure for the toroidal portion of the knuckle, using the rules in Appendix 1-4(d).
When there is no knuckle, the program calculates the required area of reinforcement at the intersection of the
cylinder and the two cones. Cones are required to have reinforcement at the large and small ends under internal
pressure (Appendix 1-5) because of the tendency of the cone/cylinder junction to buckle under the radial load
developed in the cone.
The Code calculates the maximum angle below which buckling will not occur as a function of the design pressure
and allowable stress. This ratio is used because it is a pretty good indication of the diameter thickness ratio for the
cylinder, and takes into account the strength of the material. This approach has the odd effect that when you
increase the allowable stress you decrease the allowable cone angle. However, you will normally find that for a
given thickness this effect is offset by the increase of area available in the cone for reinforcement.
Given that reinforcement is required, the area required is a function of the pressure and the square of the radius.
Area available in the shell within one decay length may be included in the area available for stiffening.
PV Elite will set the area required in the reinforcing ring to zero if either the allowed apex angle is higher than the
actual apex angle or the area available in the shell is greater than the area required.

Chapter 14 CONICAL SECTIONS

14-11

Reinforcement Calculations Under External Pressure


The program calculates the required reinforcement and moment of inertia for the cone/cylinder junctions at both the
large and the small ends. This calculation is performed whenever the external pressure is greater than zero, the cone
is taken as a line of support and the reinforcing material is defined. If a knuckle is specified instead of a reinforcing
ring, the knuckle calculation will be performed and the area of reinforcement calculation will not. If the user
specifies that the cone/cylinder junctions are not to be taken as a line of support, then the area of reinforcement and
moment of inertia calculations will not be performed.
Cones are required to have reinforcement at the large and small ends under external pressure (Appendix 1-7) because
of the tendency to buckle under axial external loads.
At both the large and small ends there are requirements for the area of reinforcement and moment of inertia of the
reinforcement. The area of reinforcement is based on considerations similar to those described for internal pressure.
The required moment of inertia of the reinforcement is a function of the strain in the ring at the cone/shell junction,
which is in turn calculated using the Code materials chart from the stress in the ring. See the comments on stiffening
rings in the external pressure section for further insight.
The maximum apex angle is taken from Tables 1-8.1 in Appendix 1 of the ASME Code. The program calculates the
ratio P/SE. Note that this angle applies only to the large end of the cone - the small end always requires at least a
little reinforcement.
The area required in the reinforcing ring will be set to zero if either the cone angle is less than the maximum angle
(large end only), or the area of reinforcement available in the shell is greater than the area required.

Example
The example problems illustrating these principles are located in the program installation directory/Examples
directory.

CH AP TER

1 5

Chapter 15 FLOATING HEADS


In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 15-2
Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis........................................... 15-3
Discussion of Input Data ............................................................ 15-4
Discussion of Results.................................................................. 15-13
Example ...................................................................................... 15-13

15-2

FLOATING HEADS

Introduction
FLOATING HEADS performs internal and external pressure design of spherically dished covers (bolted heads)
using ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 rules 2007 Edition. The MAWP/MAPnc will also be computed for the
internal pressure case of the floating head and flange.

Chapter 15 FLOATING HEADS

15-3

Purpose, Scope and Technical Basis


FLOATING HEADS calculates the required thickness of spherically dished covers (bolted heads) according to the
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 analysis rules found in Appendix 1, Paragraph 1-6. A more detailed analysis
of bolted dished heads is included, based on Soehren's analysis, "The Design of Floating Heads for HeatExchangers", ASME 57-A-7-47. The more detailed analysis may be used for the design of floating heads, as
specifically mentioned in the ASME Code, Paragraph 1-6 (h).
The program calculates required thickness for the dished part of the head under both internal and external pressure.
Also calculated are the required thickness of the flange and the backing ring. Three types of heads as defined in the
Code and shown in Figure A are included. Soehren's analysis applies only to the most common type of head, type d.

Figure A - Floating Head Program Geometry

15-4

FLOATING HEADS

Discussion of Input Data


Main Input Fields
Floating Head Identification Number
Enter the floating head ID number. It is recommended that the floating head numbers start at 1 and increase
sequentially, but you may also enter some other meaningful number. This field is required, since the program uses
this field to determine if a floating head has been defined.

Floating Head Description


Enter an alphanumeric tag for this floating head. This entry is optional.

Floating Head Type (b, c, d)


Enter the type of floating head or spherically dished cover, which you are analyzing. Refer to Figure A.
b
=
solid thick head, spherically dished.
c
=
thin dished head, continuous across flange face.
d
=
spherical cap welded to flange ID.
Type d is the most common type of head used for heat exchanger floating heads.

Tube Side (Internal) Design Pressure


Enter the internal pressure, which is the pressure on the concave side of the head, and is also the tubeside pressure for
heat exchanger floating heads. Normally you may enter both the shellside and the tubeside pressures and evaluate the
entire head in a single analysis. However, when analyzing a type 'd' head, the interaction between shellside and
tubeside pressure may result in a lower thickness than if each pressure is entered separately. Therefore you may
want to run the program twice, with first the internal and then the external pressures set to zero.

Shell Side (External) Design Pressure


Enter the external pressure, which is the pressure on the convex side of the head, and is also the shellside pressure for
heat exchanger floating heads. Normally you may enter both the shellside and the tubeside pressures and evaluate the
entire head in a single analysis. However, when analyzing a type 'd' head, the interaction between shellside and
tubeside pressure may result in a lower thickness than if each pressure is entered separately. Therefore you may
want to run the program twice, with first internal and then external pressures set to zero.

Design Temperature
Enter the design temperature for each head. This temperature will be used to interpolate the material allowable
tables and external pressure curves.

Material Specification
Enter the ASME code material specification as it appears in the ASME material allowable tables. Alternatively, you
can select the material from the Material Database by clicking the Database button. If a material is not contained in
the database, you can enter its specification and properties manually by selecting TOOLS,/EDIT/ADD MATERIALS,
from the Main Menu.

Chapter 15 FLOATING HEADS

15-5

Allowable Stress at Design Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification. When you change the internal design
temperature, or the thickness of the shell, the program will automatically update this field, but only for BUILT-IN
materials. If you enter the allowable stress by hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the
latest edition of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code Section II Part D at the design temperature.
If using a module where PD:5500 is selected as design code, then the program will use the PD:5500 Material
Database.

Allowable Stress at Ambient Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification. When you change the internal design
temperature, the program will automatically update this field, but only for BUILT-IN materials. If you enter the
allowable stress by hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the latest edition of the ASME
Pressure Vessel Code Section II Part D.
If using a module where PD:5500 is selected as design code, then the program will use the PD:5500 Material
Database.

Inside Crown Radius of Head


Enter the inside crown radius of the head. This value may be any dimension greater than the inside radius of the
flange. However, values roughly equal to the flange ID are more typical.

Actual Thickness of Head


Enter the minimum thickness of the actual plate used to build the floating head or spherical cap, or the minimum
thickness measured for an existing floating head or spherical cap.

Tube Side (Internal) Corrosion Allowance


Enter the corrosion allowance on the concave side of the head. The shellside and tubeside corrosion allowances are
fully implemented in this version of FLOHEAD. Thicknesses and diameters are adjusted by the program for the
evaluation of allowable pressure. They are also added to the required thicknesses.

Shell Side (External) Corrosion Allowance


Enter the corrosion allowance on the convex side of the head. The shellside and tubeside corrosion allowances are
fully implemented in this version of FLOHEAD. Thicknesses and diameters are adjusted by the program for the
evaluation of allowable pressure. They are also added to the required thicknesses.

Outside Diameter of Flanged Portion


Enter the outer diameter of the flange. This value is referred to as "A" in the ASME code.

15-6

FLOATING HEADS

Inside Diameter of Flange


Enter the inner diameter of the flange. For integral type flanges, this value will also be the inner pipe diameter. This
value is referred to as "B" in the ASME code. The corrosion allowance will be used to adjust this value (two times
the corrosion allowance will be added to the uncorroded ID given by the user).

Actual Thickness of Flange


Enter the through thickness of the flange. For type c spherical caps this includes the thickness of the head.

Diameter of Bolt Circle


Enter the diameter of the bolt circle of the flange.

Thread Series
The following bolt thread series tables are available:
TEMA Bolt Table
UNC Bolt Table
User specified root area of a single bolt
TEMA Metric Bolt Table
British, BS 3643 Metric Bolt Table
Note: Irrespective of the table used, the values will be converted back to user selected units.
TEMA threads are National Coarse series below 1 inch and 8 pitch thread series for 1 inch and above bolt nominal
diameter. The UNC threads available are the standard threads.

Number of Bolts
Enter the number of bolts to be used in the flange analysis. Note that the number of bolts is almost always a multiple
of 4.

Full Face Gasket Options


ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 does not cover the design of flanges for which the gasket extends beyond the bolt circle
diameter. A typically used method for the design of these types of flanges is from the Taylor Forge Flange Design
Bulletin. This method is implemented in the program.
Gaskets for Full Face Flanges are usually of soft materials such as rubber or an elastomer, so that the bolt stresses do
not go too high during gasket seating. The program adjusts the flange analysis and the design formulae to account for
the full face gasket. There are 3 Full Face Gasket Flange options:

Chapter 15 FLOATING HEADS

15-7

Program Selects: Instructs the program to automatically make the determination if this is a full face gasket
flange, depending upon the input. If the gasket ID and OD matches with Flange ID and OD dimensions
respectively (except for a blind flange) then it is determined to be a full face flange. For more information refer
to Figure B.

Figure B - Full Face Gasket Flange

Full Face Gasket: Indicates to the program that this is a full face gasket flange. Use this option when the gasket
ID or OD does not match the flange ID/OD dimensions, but the gasket extends beyond the bolt circle diameter.
For more information refer to Figure C.

Figure C - Other Full-Face Gasket Flanges That Require Users Indicate Full-Face Flange.

Not a Full Face: Indicates to the program that this is not a full face gasket flange

Flange Face Outer Diameter


Enter the outer diameter of the flange face. The program uses the minimum of the flange face outer diameter and the
gasket outer diameter to calculate the outside flange contact point, but uses the maximum in design when selecting
the bolt circle. The program uses the maximum of the flange face ID and the gasket ID to calculate the inside
contact point of the gasket.

15-8

FLOATING HEADS

Flange Face Inner Diameter


Enter the inner diameter of the flange face. The program uses the maximum of the flange face ID and the gasket ID
to calculate the inner contact point of the gasket.

Gasket Outer Diameter


Enter the outer diameter of the gasket. The program uses the minimum of the flange face outer diameter and the
gasket outer diameter to calculate the outside flange contact point, but uses the maximum in design when selecting
the bolt circle. This is done so that the bolts do not interfere with the gasket. The program uses the maximum of the
flange face ID and the gasket ID to calculate the inside contact point of the gasket.

Gasket Inner Diameter


Enter the inner diameter of the gasket. The program uses the maximum of the Flange Face ID and the Gasket ID to
calculate the inner contact point of the gasket.

Table 10.1 - Gasket Materials and Contact Facings


Gasket Material

Gasket Factor m

Self energizing Types, including metallic and 0.00


elastomer O ring

Seating Stress y

Facing Column

II

Flat Elastomers
Below 75A Shore Durometer

0.50

II

75A Shore Durometer or higher

1.00

200

II

Flat asbestos with suitable binder


1/8 inch thick

2.00

1600

II

1/16 inch thick

2.75

3700

II

1/32 inch thick

3.50

6500

II

Elastomer with cotton fabric insert

1.25

400

II

Elastomer with asbestos fabric insert


3 ply

2.25

2200

II

2 ply

2.50

2900

II

1 ply

2.75

3700

II

Vegetable Fiber

1.75

1100

II

Spiral-wound metal, asbestos filled


Carbon Steel

2.50

10000

II

Stainless Steel or Monel

3.00

10000

II

2.50

2900

II

Corrugated metal, asbestos filled or


Corrugated metal jacketed, asbestos filled
Soft aluminum

Chapter 15 FLOATING HEADS

15-9

Gasket Material

Gasket Factor m

Seating Stress y

Soft copper or brass

2.75

3700

Facing Column
II

Iron or soft steel

3.00

4500

II

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

3.25

5500

II

Stainless Steel

3.50

6500

II

2.75

3700

II

Corrugated metal, not filled


Soft aluminum
Soft copper or brass

3.00

4500

II

Iron or soft steel

3.25

5500

II

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

3.50

6500

II

Stainless Steel

3.75

7600

II

Soft aluminum

3.25

5500

II

Soft copper or brass

3.50

6500

II

Iron or soft steel

3.75

7600

II

Monel

3.50

8000

II

Flat metal jacketed, asbestos filled

4-6% Chrome

3.75

9000

II

Stainless Steel

3.75

9000

II

Soft aluminum

3.25

5500

II

Soft copper or brass

3.50

6500

II

Iron or soft steel

3.75

7600

II

Grooved metal

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

3.75

9000

II

Stainless Steel

4.25

10100

II

Soft aluminum

4.00

8800

Soft copper or brass

4.75

13000

Iron or soft steel

5.50

18000

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

6.00

21800

Stainless Steel

6.50

26000

Iron or soft steel

5.50

18000

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

6.00

21800

Stainless Steel

6.50

26000

Solid flat metal

Ring Joint

Flange Face Facing Sketch


Using Table 2-5.2 of the ASME code, select the facing sketch number according to the following correlations:

15-10

FLOATING HEADS

Table 2-5.2 Facing Sketch and Description


FACING SKETCH

DESCRIPTION

1a

flat finish faces

1b

serrated finish faces

1c

raised nubbin-flat finish

1d

raised nubbin-serrated finish

1/64 inch nubbin

1/64 inch nubbin both sides

large serrations, one side

large serrations, both sides

metallic O-ring type gasket

Gasket Thickness
Enter the gasket thickness. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c and 1d.

Nubbin Width
If applicable, enter the nubbin width. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c, 1d, 2 and 6. Note that for
sketch 9 this is not a nubbin width, but the contact width of the metallic ring.

Length of Partition Gasket


This is the cumulative length of all the heat exchanger pass partition gaskets associated with this flange.

Width of Partition Gasket


Enter the width of the pass partition gasket. Using the properties such as such as the facing sketch, column, M and Y
and the known width, PV Elite will compute the effective seating width and the gasket loads contributed by the
partition gasket.

Partition Gasket Factor M


Enter the partition gasket factor m.

Partition Gasket Design Seating Stress Y:


Enter the partition gasket design seating stress Y.

Partition Gasket Column for Gasket Seating:


Enter the partition gasket column for gasket seating.

Partition Gasket Thickness


Enter the thickness of the partition gasket. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c and 1d.

Chapter 15 FLOATING HEADS

15-11

Partition Gasket Nubbin Width


If applicable, enter the nubbin width for the pass partition gasket. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c,
1d, 2 and 6. Note that for sketch 9 this is not a nubbin width, but the contact width of the metallic ring.

Distance From the Flange Centroid to Head Centerline


HR is the distance from the flange centroid to the intersection of the head centerline and the flange. HR is positive if
it is above the flange centroid, and negative if it is below the flange centroid. HR is used in the Code calculation, but
not in Soehren's calculation.

Is the Flange Slotted


Check this box if the flange has slotted bolt holes for quick opening. A slotted flange has bolt holes, which extend
radially to the outer edge of the flange. The program automatically adjusts for this condition - you do not have to
change the flange outside diameter.

Also Perform Soehren's Calculation?


Check this box if you wish to perform Soehren's Calculation. Soehren's calculation is a more detailed analysis of the
interaction between the spherical cap and the flange. Frequently the stresses calculated using this method will be
acceptable for heads or flanges that are slightly less thick than required by the normal code rules. Note that this
analysis can only be done for type d heads. Note also that the Code (Par. 1-6(h)) allows this type of analysis.

Is There A Backing Ring?


Check this box if there is a backing ring. A backing ring is a second flange used to sandwich the tubesheet of a
floating head heat exchanger. The backing ring may be a split ring. If the ring has one split, then it has been split
along a diameter, into two pieces. The bending moment on the ring is multiplied by 2.0 for this case. A ring with
two splits has been sliced in half like a bagel, and then each half has been split along a diameter. The ring is
assembled with the diametral splits offset by 90 degrees. For this case, enter the thickness of one half of the original
ring, since each half is required to support 75 percent of the original design moment.

Mating Flange Loads?


If loads from the mating flange are to be considered, check this field. A pop-up spreadsheet will appear for
additional data entry. This auxiliary bolt loading will only be used if it is greater then the standard bolt loads
computed using the ASME formulas.

Pop-Up Input Fields


Bolt Root Area
For nonstandard bolts, enter the root cross sectional area of the bolt.

Inside Depth of Flange From Flange Face to Attached Head


Q is the distance from the bolting face of the flange to the intersection of the head inside diameter and the flange. Q
is used in Soehren's calculation, while HR is used in the Code calculation.

15-12

FLOATING HEADS

Backing Ring Inside Diameter


Enter the inside diameter of the backing ring. This value is usually a little larger than the inside diameter of the
flange.

Back Ring Actual Thickness


Enter the actual through thickness of the backing ring. Note that for doubly split rings, this is the thickness of each
piece.

Number of Splits in Backing Ring (0, 1, OR 2)


The backing ring may be a split ring. If the ring has one split, then it has been split along a diameter, into two pieces.
The bending moment on the ring is multiplied by 2.0 for this case. A ring with two splits has been sliced in half like
a bagel, and then each half has been split along a diameter. The ring is assembled with the diametral splits offset by
90 degrees. For this case, enter the thickness of one half of the original ring, since each half is required to support 75
percent of the original design moment.

Mating Flange Operating Load (WM1)


Specify the alternate operating bolt load such as from the mating flange. This value will be used if it is greater than
the operating bolt load computed by the program.

Mating Flange Seating Load (WM2)


Specify the alternate seating flange bolt load such as from the mating flange. This value will be used if it is greater
than the seating bolt load computed by the program.

Mating Flange Design Bolt Load (W)


Specify the alternate flange design bolt load such as from the mating flange. This value will be used if it is greater
than the flange design bolt load computed by the program.

Chapter 15 FLOATING HEADS

15-13

Discussion of Results
Internal Pressure Results for the Head:
The ASME Code provides a simple formula for calculating the required thickness of the head under internal
pressure. This formula is the same for type b, c, and d heads:
t=5PL/6S
The program solves this formula for required thickness, maximum allowable working pressure, and actual stress, and
displays the results. Note that these results are also displayed in the thickness summary at the end of the printout.

External Pressure Results for Heads:


The required thickness and maximum allowable working pressure for each head type is based on the external
pressure requirements for an equivalent sphere.

Intermediate Calculations for Flanged Portion of Head:


Three separate bending moments are calculated for each head. These are the bolt up moment, the moment due to
external pressure, and the moment due to internal pressure. In each case the moment is calculated per the ASME
Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 2. However, in the case of the type d head the moment is further modified
to take into account the force imposed on the flange by the pressure on the head. This force is shown in the printout
as MH. The sign of this force will be negative if the head is attached above the centroid of the flange, and positive if
the head is attached below the centroid.

Required Thickness Calculations:


The required thickness formulae for each flange type and loading condition are printed by the program. These
formulae are taken from Appendix 1-6, paragraphs (e)(2) and (3), (f)(2) through (5) and (g)(2).
The required thickness calculations for the backing ring are also shown. The backing ring is taken as a ring flange
and calculated per Appendix 2. The analysis is corrected for the number of splits in the backing ring, and shows the
required thickness for each piece of the split ring.
The thickness calculations for the main flange and backing ring involve the factor F that is directly proportional to
the design pressure. Thus when the pressure is 0, for the bolt-up condition, the factor F is theoretically equal to 0.
Some however interpret the Code to mean that F should be computed using the design pressure even for the bolt-up
cases. There is a setup file directive that allows you to toggle this to work one way or the other. To keep the
program results consistent with older versions, this setup file parameter is set to compute F with 0 pressure for the
bolt-up conditions. After the required thicknesses are calculated, a summary table is printed.

Soehren's Calculations:
The ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 1-6, paragraph (h) states:
These formulas are approximate in that they do not take into account continuity between the flange ring and the
dished head. A more exact method of analysis, which takes this into account may be used if it meets the
requirements of U-2.
The analysis referred to in this paragraph is Soehren's calculation, based on the paper "The Design of Floating heads
for Heat-Exchangers", ASME 57-A-7-47. Intermediate results and calculated stresses are shown in the printout.
Equation numbers are included from the original paper. Allowable stresses are not shown in the printout, but
bending stresses should be limited to 1.5 times the basic Code allowable stress, while membrane stresses should be
limited to 1.0 times the basic Code allowable.

Example
The example problems illustrating these principles are located in the program installation directory/Examples
directory.

CH AP TER

1 6

Chapter 16 HORIZONTAL VESSELS


In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 16-2
Discussion of Input ..................................................................... 16-2
Discussion of Results.................................................................. 16-13
Saddle Wear Plate Design........................................................... 16-14
Example ...................................................................................... 16-16

16-2

HORIZONTAL VESSELS

Introduction
This chapter discusses the HORIZONTAL VESSEL module of PV Elite. To use the HORIZONTAL VESSEL
module from the Main Menu click ANALYSIS/CHOOSE ANALYSIS TYPE/HORIZONTAL VESSELS. This module
computes stresses in horizontal pressure vessels created by the combination of internal pressure and the weight of the
vessel, its contained liquid and stiffener rings. If included in the analysis, additional loads due to wind per ASCE98/02,95 93, UBC-97/94, IBC 2003 and earthquake will be included. The program is based on "Stresses in Large
Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle Supports", The Welding Research Supplement, 1951 and
subsequent interpretations of that work. This is also termed Zick's Analysis.

Discussion of Input
Main Input Fields
Item Number
Enter the vessel number for this analysis. This number can be up to 15 digits in length.

Vessel Description
Any combination up to 15 letters and numbers can be used to briefly identify the vessel that is being analyzed. This
description is reflected in the output reports and is used in error checking.

Vessel Design Pressure


Enter the pressure under which the horizontal vessel is operating. A positive entry here indicates internal pressure
while a negative number indicates external pressure. Please note that no external pressure check for adequate wall
thickness will be performed. Use the Shell program and analyze the geometry before using the HORIZONTAL
VESSEL module.

Vessel Design Temperature


Enter the maximum temperature the horizontal vessel will be operating at. The temperature will be used in
determining the allowable stress of the material chosen. If the temperature is changed, note that the allowable stress
of the material at operating temperature will be updated accordingly.

Corrosion Allowance
Enter the allowance given for corrosion in this field. The corrosion allowance cannot be greater than the vessel wall
thickness. In addition, it must not be less than 0 .

Material Specification
Enter the material specification for the shell section of the horizontal vessel. An example of a material type is SA516 70. Define the material by typing in the name. Alternatively, you can select the material from the Material
Database by clicking the Database button. If a material is not contained in the database, its specification and
properties can be entered manually by selecting TOOLS, EDIT/ADD MATERIALS, from the Main Menu.

Allowable Stress At Operating Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification. When you change the internal design
temperature, or the thickness of the shell, the program will automatically update this field, but only for BUILT-IN
materials. If you enter the allowable stress by hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the
latest edition of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII Division 1 at the ambient temperature.

Chapter 16 HORIZONTAL VESSELS

16-3

Allowable Stress At Ambient Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification. If you enter the allowable stress by
hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the latest edition of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code
Section VIII Division 1 at the ambient temperature.

Density Of Stored Liquid


Enter the density of the fluid in the horizontal vessel. If you have more than 1 fluid consideration ( i.e. test (water)
and or (operating) you may have to have more than 1 item with the appropriate fluid densities defined.
You can enter a number of specific gravity units and PV Elite will convert the number entered to the current set of
units. To do this, enter a number followed by the letters "sg".

Liquid Height From Bottom Of Tank


Enter the height of the liquid in the tank. Normally, a Zick analysis is run with the vessel full of water, however, it
may be necessary to run a partially filled tank for wind or seismic analysis for an operating type load case.

Extra Weight
Enter any additional weight present on the vessel. Additional weight may come from insulation, steel structures or
piping loads. There is no on screen range checking for this entry since it may be positive or negative. However, if
negative, this entry should not be greater than the total weight of the vessel.

Saddle Reaction Force Factor


Enter the factor for computing the saddle reaction force due to the Wind (or Earthquake) transverse load. The
recommended value is 3,
The value of 6, is conservative in that it assumes that the maximum edge load is uniform across the entire base.
When in reality it occurs only at the edge. A more accurate method may be to convert this triangular loading into a
more realistic uniform load, this leads to a value of 3. The following figure illustrates the loading.

Figure A - End view of a horizontal vessel with a transverse load, simulating Wind/Seismic loading.

16-4

HORIZONTAL VESSELS

The saddle reaction load Fst (or Fwt for wind) due to the transverse load Ft is:
Fst (or Fwt) = ftr * Ft * B / E

Distance From Vessel Centerline To Saddle Base


Enter the distance from the center of the vessel to the bottom of the saddle support. This distance must be greater
than the vessel outside radius.

Check Saddle Webs, & Base Plate


If you wish PV Elite to perform computations on the structure, which supports the vessel check this field. PV Elite
will compute the inertia's, moments and forces on the members necessary to perform an AISC unity check.

Apply Wind Loads to Vessel


If wind loads are to be considered, check this field. If checked, other information such as basic wind speed and input
prompts will have to be answered.

Apply Seismic Loads to Vessel


If seismic loads are a design consideration check this field. Both seismic and wind loads will increase the saddle load
reaction forces, and thus higher vessel stresses will result.

Apply Longitudinal Loads to Vessel


Check this box to enter longitudinal forces such as due to saddle friction or tube-bundle pull out force (for a heatexchanger) acting on the vessel.

Stiffening Ring Present


If the vessel is equipped with stiffening rings check this field. Stiffening rings are used to reduce stresses in the
vicinity of the saddle supports and are also used to meet external pressure requirements. When equipped with rings
the assumption is that there are either 1 or 2 rings located directly over the saddle. The rings are assumed to span
(360 - saddle bearing angle) degrees around the vessel. This is mainly used for the calculation of the ring weight.

Shell and Head Diameter Basis


Select the diameter basis for the shell and Head, following options are available.
ID
OD

Inside Diameter basis


Outside Diameter basis

Merge Shell
Click on this button to import the Shell information from this CodeCalc file.

Shell Diameter
Enter the shell diameter with respect to the shell and head diameter basis. The diameter must be greater than 0 and
greater than 2.0 times the wall thickness.

Shell Length Tangent to Tangent


Enter the length of the cylindrical shell from tangent to tangent.

Shell Thickness
Enter the uncorroded thickness of the shell in this cell. PV Elite will automatically corrode the wall thickness as
necessary.

Chapter 16 HORIZONTAL VESSELS

16-5

Shell Joint Efficiency


Enter the seam efficiency of the shell. This value is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 1.0. This entry is used to
compute the required thickness of the shell.

Head Type
Select the type of head that is used on the vessel ends. If a flat head is selected then it is assumed to be round and the
same diameter as the shell. Following types are available.
Elliptical
Torispherical
Hemispherical
Flat

Head Thickness
Enter the uncorroded thickness of the head. The value must be greater than 0.0. Effects of corrosion are handled
automatically.

Head Joint Efficiency


Enter the seam efficiency of the head. This value is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 1.0. This entry is used to
compute the required thickness of the head.

Distance From Saddle to Vessel Tangent


Enter the length from the vessel tangent to the saddle support. This distance must be positive and less than 1/2 of the
vessel tangent to tangent length.

Saddle Width
Enter the width of the surface on the saddle support that will contact the vessel.

Saddle Bearing Angle


Enter the number of degrees that the saddle bears on the shell surface. Valid entries range from 120 to 180 degrees.

Wear Pad Thickness


If there is a wear pad on the vessel, enter that thickness here. If the distance from the vessel tangent to the saddle
location is less than or equal to 0.5 times the shell radius and the wear pad extension above the horn of the saddle is
greater than the shell radius divided by 10.0 then the thickness of the wear pad will be included. If this is not the
case then the shell thickness - CA will be used.

Wear Pad Extension Above Horn of Saddle


If the vessel has a wear pad and it extends above the horn of the saddle enter that extension distance here. For more
information on wear pads, see the help text for wear pad thickness.

Wear Pad Width


If the vessel has a wear pad enter the width here. The width of the wear pad is measured along the long axis of the
vessel.

16-6

HORIZONTAL VESSELS

Pop-Up Input Fields


Base Plate Length
Enter the length of the base plate. This is typically referred to as dimension "A". This value is usually close to the
diameter of the vessel.

Base Plate Thickness


Enter the thickness of the base plate. If you wish to consider any external corrosion or erosion enter the corroded
thickness value, not the uncorroded value. The baseplate thickness will be computed using a beam bending type
equation found in pressure vessel texts. The baseplate thickness is not a function of the number of ribs.

Base Plate Width


Enter the width of the base plate. This is the short dimension.

Number of Ribs
Enter the number of ribs in your design. This number should include the outside ribs.

Thickness of Ribs
Enter the thickness of the ribs. The ribs run in a direction that is parallel to the long axis of the vessel. Any external
corrosion allowance should be taken into account when this value is entered.

Thickness of Web
Enter the thickness of the Webs. The webs run in a direction perpendicular to the long axis of the vessel. Any
external corrosion should be taken into account when this value is entered.

Web Location Center or Side


Select the web location. Center webs run through the middle of the middle of the base plate. Side webs will run
along the edge of the base plate.

Height of Center Web


The height of the center web extends from the bottom of the base to the shell ID.

Additional Area
The user may wish to consider the additional area exposed to the wind from piping, platforms, insulation etc. PV Elite
will automatically compute an effective diameter with the input diameter known.

User Defined Wind Pressure On Vessel


If your vessel specification calls for a constant wind pressure design, and you know what that pressure is, enter it
here. Most Wind Design codes have minimum wind pressure requirements, so check those carefully. The wind
pressure will be multiplied by the area calculated by the program to get a shear load and a bending moment.
If you enter a positive number here, CodeCalc will use this number regardless of the information in the following
cells.

Chapter 16 HORIZONTAL VESSELS

16-7

Wind Design Standard


Enables users to choose the wind design standard. The list below displays the options available:
ASCE 7-93
ASCE 7-95
ASCE 7-98/02 / IBC 2003
UBC 94/97
To use wind codes not listed above users must compute and enter the design wind pressure and the program will
multiply the wind pressure by the area to compute the wind load.

Force Coefficient (Cf)


Enter the force coefficient also known as the shape factor for the vessel here. This factor takes into account the shape
of the structure. This factor is also known as the pressure coefficient, Cq in the UBC Wind code.
The acceptable range of input is between 0.5 and 1.2. This can also be seen in the following codes,
ANSI A58.1 refer to Table 12

ASCE 7-98, refer to tables 6-9 to 6-13

ASCE 7-93 refer to tables 11-14, p21-22

ASCE 7-2002, refer to tables 6-18 to 6-22, p68-72

ASCE 7-95, refer to tables 6-6 to 6-10, p32-33

UBC-1997 code, refer to table 16-H.

Importance Factor ( I )
Enter the value of the importance factor that you wish the program to use. The importance factor accounts for the
degree of hazard to life and property. Please note the program will use this value directly without modification.
Values of typical importance factors are listed below for ASCE 7-93, ASCE 7-95/98/02 and UBC 1997 standards.
ASCE7-93: Following values are used for ASCE 7-93. In general this value ranges from .95 to 1.11.:
Category

100 mi from Hurricane Oceanline

At Oceanline

1.00

1.05

II

1.07

1.11

III

1.07

1.11

IV

0.95

1.00

Category Classification:
I

buildings and structures not listed below

II

buildings and structures where more than 300 people congregate in one area

III

buildings designed as essential facilities, hospitals etc.

IV

buildings and structures that represent a low hazard in the event of a failure

Note that most petrochemical structures are 1, Importance I.

16-8

HORIZONTAL VESSELS

ASCE-7-95/98/02: In general this value ranges from .77 to 1.15. It is taken from table 6-2 of the ASCE 95 standard
or table 6-1 from the 98 standard.
Category

Importance Factor (I)

0.87

II

1.00

III

1.15

IV

1.15

In the 98 standard for Wind Speeds > 100 mph for category I, the importance factor can be 0.77.
Category Classification:
I

buildings and other structures that represent a low hazard to human life in the event of failure

II

buildings and structures except those listed in categories I, III and IV

III

buildings and structures that represent a substantial hazard in the event of a failure

IV

buildings designed as essential facilities, hospitals etc.

Note that most petrochemical structures are 1, Importance I.


UBC: For UBC 1997 code these values are listed as follows:
Category

Importance Factor (I)

I, Essential facilities

1.15

II, Hazardous facilities

1.15

III, Special occupancy structures

1.00

IV, Standard occupancy structures

1.0

Basic Wind Speed


Enter the design value of the wind speed. The wind speeds will vary according to geographical location and/or to
company/vendor standards. A few typical wind speeds in miles per hour display below:
85.0 miles per hour
100.0 miles per hour
110.0 miles per hour
120.0 miles per hour
Note: Users should enter the lowest value reasonably allowed by the standards you are following, since the wind
design pressure and thus force increases as the square of the speed.

Chapter 16 HORIZONTAL VESSELS

16-9

Wind Exposure
This category reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregularities for the site at which the structure is to be
constructed. Use the table below to determine the appropriate exposure category For ASCE codes, the exposure
categories are as follows
Exposure Category

Description

Large city centers with at least 50% of the buildings having a height in excess
of 70 feet.

Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas, or other terrain with numerous
closely spaced obstructions having the size of single family dwellings.

Open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 30
feet. This category includes flat, open country and grasslands.

Flat, unobstructed coastal areas directly exposed to wind flowing over large
bodies of water.

Note that most petrochemical sites use a value of 3 (exposure C).


UBC Exposure Factor as defined in UBC-91 Section 2312:
Exposure Category

Description

Terrain with building, forest or surface irregularities 20 feet or more in height


covering at least 20 percent or the area extending one mile or more from the
site.

Terrain which is flat and generally open, extending one-half mile or more from
the site in any full quadrant.

The most severe exposure with basic wind speeds of 80 mph or more. Terrain
which is flat and unobstructed facing large bodies of water over one mile or
more in width relative to any quadrant of the building site. This exposure
extends inland from the shoreline 1/4 mile or 0 times the building (vessel)
height, whichever is greater.

Note that most petrochemical sites use a value of 3, exposure C. This value is used to set the Gust Factor Coefficient
(Ce) found in Table 16-G.

Height of Vessel Above Grade


Enter the height of the vessel above the surface of the earth (grade).

Types of Hill
Enter the type of hill. See ASCE 7-95 Fig. 6-2 for details.
None
2-D Ridge
2-D Escarpment
3-D Axisymmetric Hill

Height of Hill or Escarpment (H)


Enter height of hill or escarpment relative to the upwind terrain. See ASCE 7-95 Fig. 6-2 for details.

16-10

HORIZONTAL VESSELS

Distance to Site (x)


Enter distance (upwind or downwind) from the crest to the building site. See ASCE 7-95 Fig. 6-2 for details.

Distance to Crest (Lh)


Enter distance upwind of crest to where the difference in ground elevation is half the height of hill or escarpment.
See ASCE 7-95 Fig. 6-2 for details.

Seismic Zone
Select the seismic zone in which your vessel is operating. The seismic zones are pictured in ASCE #7 and
reproduced below. A value of 0 will not increase the saddle reaction force. An Identifier of 5( zone 4) will produce
the highest saddle load reactions. These values are derived from UBC. The basic equation for lateral G force is :
Cs = Z I C / Rw : Rw = 3, C = 2.75, I = 1.0
Seismic Zone

Cs

0.0

0.069

2a

0.138

2b

0.184

0.275

0.367

Figure B - Seismic risk map of United States from the ASCE code

Chapter 16 HORIZONTAL VESSELS

16-11

User Entered Seismic Zone Factor CS


When you enter a valid seismic zone and leave this field blank or 0, CodeCalc will look the seismic zone factor up
from the table shown below. This number is then used in conjunction with the operating weight of the vessel to
compute the forces, which act on the saddle supports. If for any reason the table value of Cs is unacceptable, entry of
a non-zero value will cause this to be used in lieu of the table value. This might occur if the building code in your
project specifications is different from the one used by CodeCalc.
Zone

Cs

0.0

0.069

2a

0.138

2b

0.184

0.275

0.367

Friction Coefficient Between the Saddle and the Foundation, mu


Enter the friction coefficient between the saddle and the foundation. The frictional force is caused by expansion and
contraction of the vessel shell if the operating system varies from the atmospheric temperature.
The table below displays some coefficient of friction values, taken from the Pressure Vessel Design Manual by
Dennis R. Moss 2nd edition, page 156.
Surfaces

Friction Factor mu

Lubricated Steel-to-Concrete

0.45

Steel-to-Steel

0.40

Lubrite-to-Steel
Temperature over 500 F

0.15

Temperature 500 F or less

0.10

Bearing pressure less than 500 psi

0.15

Teflon-to-Teflon
Bearing pressure 800 psi or more

0.06

Bearing pressure 300 psi or less

0.1

User Defined Longitudinal Force


Enter any additional longitudinal force acting on the horizontal vessel. The largest of the longitudinal forces: userdefined, Wind/Seismic and due to friction, is used for designing the horizontal vessel.
Examples could be pier deflection or tube bundle pullout load for a heat exchanger.

16-12

HORIZONTAL VESSELS

Stiffening Ring Location


If the stiffening rings are located on the outside of the vessel select OD. If the rings are located inside the vessel
select ID.

Stiffening Ring Material Properties


Enter the material specification for the stiffening ring. An example of a material type is SA-516 70. Define the
material by typing in the name. Alternatively, you can select the material from the Material Database by clicking
the Database button. If a material is not contained in the database, its specification and properties can be entered
manually by selecting TOOLS, EDIT/ADD MATERIALS, from the Main Menu.
The program will use the shell design temperature to obtain the stiffening ring material properties at design
condition.

Stiffening Ring Properties

Figure C - Stiffening Ring Geometry

Moment of Inertia of Stiffening Ring


If the stiffening ring properties cannot be defined in the fields above then use these fields. The entry in this cell is for
the moment of inertia of the ring about its neutral axis. For typical cross-sections this property can be calculated or
"looked up" in a handbook that lists properties of steel shapes. An example of such a book would be the AISC steels
handbook.

Cross Sectional Area of Stiffening Ring


For the user defined ring enter the cross-sectional area of the ring in this field. This number can be calculated or
"looked up" in a steels handbook.

Chapter 16 HORIZONTAL VESSELS

16-13

Distance to Centroid of Reinforcing Section


Enter the distance to the centroid of the beam section ( I, T, etc) used to reinforce the cone/cylinder junction. This
can usually be found in the 'Manual of Steel Construction' for common beam sections.

Height of Stiffener from Shell Surface


If the stiffening ring is on the outside of the vessel then enter the distance from the outside shell surface to the top
most part of the ring. If the ring is on the inside of the vessel then enter the distance from the inner surface of the
shell to the top of the ring.

Aspect Ratio (D/2H) for Elliptical Heads


Enter the aspect ratio for elliptical heads here. A very typical aspect ratio for an elliptical head is 2:1. This would
mean entering a 2 in this field.

Knuckle Ratio for Torispherical Heads


The knuckle ratio for a torispherical head is defined as the crown radius of the head divided by the knuckle radius.
This ratio is typically 16.6667:1 which means that a value of 16.667 would be entered here. Note since this is a ratio,
this value is unitless.

Crown Radius for Torispherical Heads


Enter the crown radius of the torispherical head in this cell.

Discussion of Results
PV Elite will determine the volume of the vessel as well as the empty and full weights. These weights are computed
with the vessel in the corroded condition. Knowing the weights may be useful for cost estimating and for design of
supporting attachments, such as lifting lugs.
The longitudinal stresses displayed in the output include the stresses due to internal pressure. Since these are normal
stresses they are added together. The tension allowable is the basic operating allowable times the joint efficiency.
The compressive allowable is the factor B taken from UG-23 using the materials chart for the given material.
The tangential shear in the shell varies depending on whether the shell is stiffened or the head acts as a stiffener, or
neither of these cases. Tangential stress in the head only exists if the head is close enough to the saddle to be used as
a stiffener. The allowable stress in shear is 80% of the allowable tensile stress for the head or shell.
The stress at the horn of the saddle depends on the location of the saddle and the equivalent thickness of the saddle
and wear pad. It is zero if rings stiffen the shell. This stress is always compressive and the allowable stress is a
negative of the minimum of 1.5 times the allowable tensile stress and 0.9 times the yield stress.
Use of the head as a stiffener creates additional tension stress in the head. The allowable additional stress in the
vessel head is limited to 0.25 times the allowable tension stress in the head. If pressure is added, the resulting stress
must be less than 1.25 times the allowable tensile stress.
If the tip of the stiffening ring is in compression its allowable will be -0.5 times the yield stress. If a tensile condition
exists the basic material allowable will be used.

16-14

HORIZONTAL VESSELS

Saddle Wear Plate Design


The horizontal vessels considered by CodeCalc are assumed to have saddle supports. One of the problems with this
type of support is the high localized stress, which exists in the vessel in the region of saddles. Typically, the highest
stress is the outside circumferential stress at the saddle horn.
ASME does not address the details of saddle support design, nor does it offer guidance in the computation of the
resulting vessel stresses. Instead, the code directs designers to other references for these methods. To date, the
design of saddle supports and their associated stresses are based on past practice and experience, without theoretical
analysis.
A recent paper published in the Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology addresses the issue of local vessel stresses
due to saddle supports. This paper (Effectiveness of Wear Plate at the Saddle Support, Ong Lin Seng, Transactions
of the ASME, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol 114, February 1992) provides a method for the estimation
of the wear plate thickness, extension above the saddle horn, and the amount of stress reduction. It is interesting to
note that this paper suggests some of Zick's recommendations are non-conservative.
This optimum thickness of the wear plate is a function of the mean radius of vessel, the thickness of vessel, and the
width of wear plate. The optimum wear plate thicknesses is determined for both welded and non-welded conditions,
with wear plate angular extensions of 5, 10, and 15.
Restrictions of this method:
a) The saddle angle must be greater than 120. Saddle angles of 120 with an appropriate wear plate can result
in a 15 to 40% stress reduction at horn of the saddle. Larger saddle angles cause a greater stress reduction
for the same wear plate ratios.
b) The value of ((r/b)*sqrt(r/t)) must be between 10 and 60, when this term is not within this range, no
thickness will be selected. (r = mean radius of the vessel, b = width of the wear plate, t = thickness of the
vessel)

Chapter 16 HORIZONTAL VESSELS

16-15

The conclusions drawn in this paper are:


a) The peak stress in the vessel at the saddle horn can be reduced from 15 to 40% when a wear plate is used if
the wear plate has the same thickness as the vessel and extends at least 5 above the saddle horn.
b) The peak stress in the vessel remains at the saddle horn when using a thin wear plate.
c) The stress reduction does not vary greatly with a variation in saddle support angle.
d) A welded wear plate reduces stresses better than a non-welded wear plate.

Figure D - Horizontal Vessel Program Geometry

16-16

HORIZONTAL VESSELS

Figure E - Wear Plate and Saddle Detail for a Typical Horizontal Tank

Example
The example problems illustrating these principles are located in the program installation directory/Examples
directory.

CH AP TER

1 7

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS
In This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................ 17-2
Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis.......................................... 17-2
Discussion of Input Data ............................................................ 17-5
Discussion of Results.................................................................. 17-28
Example ...................................................................................... 17-31

17-2

TUBESHEETS

Introduction
TUBESHEETS performs tubesheet thickness analysis for all tubesheet types, including fixed tubesheet exchangers,
based on the Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer's Association, 8th Edition, 1999 or PD 5500, 2004
(British standard). Flanged and flued (thick) expansion joint for a fixed tubesheet is also analyzed per TEMA and
ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 Appendix 5.

Purpose, Scope, and Technical Basis


TUBESHEETS calculates required thickness and Maximum Allowable Working Pressure of tubesheets for all of
the exchanger types described in the 8th Edition of the Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers
Association (TEMA) and PD 5500. It also calculates thermal stresses and forces in the shell and tubes of fixed
tubesheet exchangers. Load on the Tube-Tubesheet joint is also checked per the method provided in the ASME and
PD 5500 codes respectively.
This program will analyze the following tubesheet types:
Stationary tubesheets, gasketed between the shell and the channel.
Stationary tubesheets, integral with the shell and the channel.
Stationary tubesheets, integral with the shell only.
Stationary tubesheets, integral with the channel only.
U-tube exchangers, tubesheet gasketed between shell and channel
U-tube exchangers, tubesheet integral with channel only.
U-tube exchangers, tubesheet integral with shell only.
U-tube exchangers, tubesheet integral with both shell and channel.
Floating tubesheets, outside packed floating head (P).
Floating tubesheets, floating head with backing device (S).
Floating tubesheets, pull through floating head (T).
Floating tubesheets, externally sealed floating head (W).
Floating tubesheets, divided floating head.
Fixed tubesheets, stationary tubesheet at both ends.
The program does the required calculations for the thickness of a tubesheet that has been extended as a flange. It
also calculates the required thickness of the extension. You must enter the geometry of the flange extension,
including the gasket and bolting for the flange.
TUBESHEETS takes into account the following additional loadings for fixed tubesheet exchangers:
Expansion joints - thin walled, thick walled, or none.
Tubesheets - integral, gasketed, or extended as flanges.
Pressure and thermal loads - on shell, tubesheet, tubes and tube-to-tubesheet joints.
Differential pressure designs.

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-3

It is possible to analyze multiple load cases (startup, shut-down etc) for fixed tubesheets, in both the corroded and
uncorroded condition.
Program can also analyze a thick expansion joint attached to a fixed tubesheet. The expansion joint spring rate and
stresses are computed per TEMA standard. The actual stresses are then compared with the allowables provided in
ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1, Appendix 5 to check the joint's adequacy.

Figure A - TEMA Tubesheet Module Geometry

17-4

Figure B - Fixed Tubesheet Exchanger With Expansion Joint

TUBESHEETS

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-5

Figure C - Tubesheet Extended as a Flange Geometry

Discussion of Input Data


Main Input Fields
Item Number
Enter the item ID number. This may be the item number on the drawing, or numbers that start at 1 and increase
sequentially.

Description
Enter a maximum 15 character alpha-numeric description for this item. This entry is optional.

Tubesheet Design Code


Select the design code to be used for designing the tubesheets. There are two options available:
TEMA - Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Inc.
PD:5500 - British Standard (formerly known as BS 5500)
Note: ASME tubesheet can also be designed in the ASME Tubesheet module.

Shell Design Pressure


Enter the design pressure for the shell side of the exchanger. If the shell side has external pressure, enter a negative
pressure. The program will correctly combine this pressure with the positive pressure on the other side.

17-6

TUBESHEETS

Note that if you specify a differential pressure in the differential pressure input field, the values on the shellside and
tubeside will usually be ignored. The exception to this is fixed tubesheet exchangers, where the differential pressure
field only serves as a flag to indicate to the program that the appropriate calculations for differential pressure should
be performed.

Shell\Channel Tube\Tubesheet\ Bolt Material Specification


Type the ASME or PD:5500 code material specification. The program will display all the materials matching the
name and occurrence number. Alternatively, click the Material Database button to search a material name from the
Material Database. Click the Material Edit Properties button to change the properties of the selected material. If a
material is not contained in the database, you can enter its specification and properties manually by selecting TOOLS,
EDIT/ADD MATERIALS, from the Main Menu. The Material Database, for both TEMA and PD:5500, is available
based on the design code selected.

Allowable Stress at Ambient Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification. When you change the internal design
temperature, the program will automatically update this field, but only for BUILT-IN materials. If you enter the
allowable stress by hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the latest edition of the ASME
Pressure Vessel Code Section II Part D.
If using a module where PD:5500 is selected as design code, then the program will use the PD:5500 Material
Database.

Allowable Stress at Design Temperature


The program automatically fills in entry by entering a material specification. When you change the internal design
temperature, or the thickness of the shell, the program will automatically update this field, but only for BUILT-IN
materials. If you enter the allowable stress by hand, be sure to verify your entry to assure conformance with the
latest edition of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code Section II Part D at the design temperature.
If using a module where PD:5500 is selected as design code, then the program will use the PD:5500 Material
Database.

Shell Metal Design Temperature


Enter the design metal temperature for the shell side components. This is the design temperature for determining the
allowable stresses only. This temperature is not assumed to be the metal temperature for thermal expansion. There is
a separate input field for the actual metal temperature.

Shell Wall Thickness


Enter the minimum wall thickness for the shell of the exchanger. This value is used by the program to calculate the
characteristic diameter for all tubesheets, and especially in calculating longitudinal shell stresses for fixed tubesheet
exchangers.

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-7

Shell Corrosion Allowance


Enter the shell side corrosion allowance for the exchanger. This value is used to calculate the corroded thickness of
the shell.

Shell Inside Diameter


Enter the inside diameter for the shell of the exchanger. This value is used by the program to calculate the
characteristic diameter for all tubesheets, and especially in calculating longitudinal shell stresses for fixed tubesheet
exchangers.

Shell Mean Metal Temperature


Enter the actual metal temperature for the shell under realistic operating conditions. It is important, especially when
evaluating fixed tubesheets without expansion joints, that you enter accurate values for the metal temperatures for
each operating condition. You may have to run the analysis more than once to check several metal temperature
cases. Frequently the metal temperatures will be less severe than the design temperatures, due to thermal resistances.
For example, if the shellside fluid has a good heat transfer coefficient and the tubeside fluid has a relatively poor heat
transfer coefficient, then the tube temperature will be quite close to the shell temperature. Don't forget to evaluate
the condition of shellside or tubeside loss of fluid. Especially for shellside loss of fluid, this design condition may
govern the exchanger design.
Refer to TEMA standard, section T-4 (8th Ed.) for guidance to compute the Mean Metal Temperatures.

Channel Design Pressure


Enter the design pressure for the tube side of the exchanger. If the tube side has a vacuum design condition, enter a
negative pressure. The program will correctly combine this pressure with the positive pressure on the other side.
Note that if you specify a differential pressure in the Differential Pressure Input field, the values on the shellside
and tubeside will usually be ignored. The exception to this is for fixed tubesheet exchangers, where the Differential
Pressure Input field only serves as a flag to indicate to the program that the appropriate calculations for differential
pressure should be performed.

Channel Metal Design Temperature


Enter the design metal temperature for the tube side components. This is the design temperature for determining
allowable stresses only. This temperature is not assumed to be the metal temperature for thermal expansion. There
is a separate input field for the actual metal temperature.

Channel Wall Thickness


Enter the minimum wall thickness for the channel of the exchanger. This value is used by the program to calculate
the characteristic diameter for all tubesheet types.

Channel Corrosion Allowance


Enter the tube side corrosion allowance for the exchanger. This value is used to calculate the corroded thickness of
the channel.

17-8

TUBESHEETS

Channel Inside Diameter


Enter the inside diameter for the channel of the exchanger. This value is used by the program to calculate the
characteristic diameter for all tubesheets.

Tube Mean Metal Temperature


Enter the actual metal temperature for the tubes under realistic operating condition. This value is only required for
British tubesheets or TEMA fixed tubesheets.
It is important, especially when evaluating fixed tubesheets without expansion joints, that you enter accurate values
for the metal temperatures for each operating condition. You may have to run the analysis more than once to check
several metal temperature cases. Frequently the metal temperatures will be less severe than the design temperatures,
due to thermal resistances. For example, if the shellside fluid has a good heat transfer coefficient and the tubeside
fluid has a relatively poor heat transfer coefficient, then the tube temperature will be quite close to the shell
temperature.
Don't forget to evaluate the condition of shell side or tube side loss of fluid. Especially for shellside loss of fluid, this
design condition may govern the exchanger design. For a fixed tubesheet, you can instruct the program, to evaluate
multiple load cases.
Refer to TEMA standard, section T-4 (8th Ed.) for guidance to compute the Mean Metal Temperatures.

Tube Design Temperature


Enter the design temperature of the tubes. This value will be used to look up the allowable stress values for the tube
material from the material tables.

Tube Wall Thickness


Enter the wall thickness of the tubes. This value is used to determine the total tube area and stiffness. The following
table displays thickness for some common tube gauges.
B.W.G. Gauge

Thickness (Inches)

B.W.G. Gauge

Thickness (Inches)

.180

17

.058

.165

18

.049

10

.143

19

.042

11

.120

20

.035

12

.109

22

.028

13

.095

24

.022

14

.083

26

.018

15

.072

27

.016

16

.065

Tube Corrosion Allowance


Enter the tube corrosion allowance.

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-9

Number of Tube Holes


Enter the number of tube holes in the tubesheet. This value is used to determine the total tube area and stiffness

Tube Pattern (Triangular, Square)


Enter the pattern of the tube layout. The tube diameter, pitch, and pattern are used to calculate the term 'eta' in the
tubesheet thickness equation. These rules are the same for triangular, square, rotated triangular and rotated square
layouts.

Tube Outside Diameter


Enter the outside diameter of the tubes. This is usually an exact fraction, such as .5, .75, .875, 1.0, or 1.25 (inches).
The tube diameter, pitch, and pattern are used to calculate the term 'eta' in the tubesheet thickness equation. These
rules are the same for triangular, square, rotated triangular and rotated square layouts.

Tube Pitch
Enter the tube pitch, the distance between the tube centers. The tube diameter, pitch, and pattern are used to
calculate the term 'eta' in the tubesheet thickness equation. These rules are the same for triangular, square, rotated
triangular and rotated square layouts.

Enter Tube-Tubesheet Joint Information


Check this box to enter information about the Tube-Tubesheet joint (weld, classification).

Differential Design Pressure (Used if > 0.0)


Enter the differential design pressure if you want the program to use the differential design rules. The differential
pressure is used as the design pressure on both the tube side and the shell side, except for fixed tubesheet exchangers.
In this case any number greater than zero serves as a flag to tell the program to turn on the special differential design
pressure rules for fixed tubesheets. You must enter the shell side and tube side design pressures for fixed tubesheet
exchangers.

Straight Length of Tubes


Enter the length of the tubes. For U-tubesheet exchangers this is the straight length of the tube. For fixed tubesheet
exchanger this is the overall length from the inside face of one tubesheet to the inside face of the other tubesheet.
This value is used to determine the thermal expansion of the tubes. This input is only needed for British tubesheets
and TEMA fixed tubesheets.

Enter Unsupported Tube Span SL For Max (k*SL)


For computing the allowable tube compression, the values of k and SL are required. Where,
SL = Unsupported Span of the tube
k = Tube end condition corresponding to the span SL. The table below lists the values of k.

17-10

TUBESHEETS

Unsupported Spans

k for TEMA

k for PD:5500

Between two tubesheets

0.60

0.50

Between tubesheet and baffle

0.80

0.707

Between two baffles

1.00

1.00

For the worst case scenario enter the values of k and SL that give the maximum combination of k * SL. SL for
example, could be the distance between the tubesheet and the first baffle or the tube span between two support
baffles.

Length of Expanded Portion of Tube


The expanded portion of a tube is that part which is radially expanded outward. When the tube is expanded it is also
pressed into the tubesheet. Simply enter this expanded length. Some tubes are welded into place and this value may
be 0. The maximum this value can be is the thickness of the tubesheet. This input is only needed for British
tubesheets and TEMA fixed tubesheets.

Perimeter Of Tube Layout (if Needed)


Enter the length of a path around the outside edge of the tube layout. This can be calculated by counting the number
of tubes on the outside of the layout and multiplying that number by the tube pitch. When a tubesheet may be
controlled by shear stress, the program requires the perimeter and area of the tubesheet for the shear calculation. An
error message displays when these values are required but not given. The result will be conservative if you
overestimate the area and underestimate the perimeter. This input is only needed for TEMA tubesheets.

Area Of Tube Layout


Enter the area enclosed by a path around the outside edge of the tube layout. When a tubesheet may be controlled by
shear stress, the program requires the perimeter and area of the tubesheet for the shear calculation. An error message
displays when these values are required but not given. The result will be conservative if you overestimate the area
and underestimate the perimeter. This input is only needed for TEMA tubesheets.

Diameter of Outer Tube Limit Circle


Enter the diameter of outer tube limit circle, denoted as Do in PD:5500. This input is only needed for British
tubesheets (PD:5500).

Tube Hole Diameter


Enter the diameter of the tube hole, denoted as dh in PD:5500 code. This input is only needed for British tubesheets
(PD 5500).

Number of Grooves
Enter number of grooves in the tube hole.

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-11

Tube Sheet Type


The program analyzes the following tubesheet types. When one tubesheet is stationary and the other tubesheet is a
floating type, then analyze the stationary tubesheet as one of the stationary types (listed below) and analyze the
floating tubesheet as one of the tubesheet types (listed below). Examples include: AEP, AKT, AJW, NET, etc. If
both tubesheets (front and rear) are stationary, then select the fixed tubesheet type. This can include any of the
stationary tubesheet types as the front or rear tubesheet type. Choosing this geometry assures the differential thermal
expansion (between the shell and the tubes) is properly accounted. Examples of some fixed configurations are BEM,
NGN, AEL, etc. Use the table below to determine the correct tubesheet type.
Stationary tubesheet, gasketed on both sides (A)

Stationary tubesheets, integral with the shell (B)

Stationary tubesheets, integral with the channel (C)

Stationary tubesheets, integral on both sides (N)

U-tube tubesheets gasketed on both sides (U)

17-12

TUBESHEETS

U-tube tubesheets integral with the channel (V)

U-tube tubesheets integral with the shell

Floating tubesheets, outside packed floating head (P)

See TEMA figure N-1.2

Floating tubesheets, head with backing device (S)

See TEMA figure N-1.2

Floating tubesheets, pull through floating head (T)

See TEMA figure N-1.2

Floating head, externally sealed floating tubesheet (W)

See TEMA figure N-1.2

Divided floating tubesheet (D)

See TEMA 7.132 type k

Fixed tubesheet exchanger - two stationary tubesheets (F)

The figure below displays a NEN fixed tubesheet exchanger. A


fixed tubesheet configuration can be comprised of any
combination of stationary tubesheets.

Note: Each end can be any type of fixation i.e. integral, gasketed, etc.

Tubesheet Metal Design Temperature


Enter the design metal temperature for the tubesheet. This is the design temperature for determining allowable
stresses only. This temperature is not assumed to be the metal temperature for thermal expansion. There is a
separate input field for the actual metal temperature.

Flange Merge
Use this option to bring in data from the Flange module. Select the flange mating to the tubesheet flange, and press
enter, all the appropriate data for that flange will be copied in automatically. You will have to specify the thickness
of the flanged extension.

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-13

Tubesheet Extended as Flange?


Check this field if the tubesheet is extended and used as a bolted flange. If the tubesheet is extended but does not
experience the bending moments of the bolts, then checking the box Is Bolt Load Transferred to Tubesheet,
allows input echo of the tubesheet extension information and does not transfer the bolt load to the tubesheet. For
example when the tubesheet is bolted between a pair of identical flanges, it will not experience a bending moment. It
is only when the tubesheet replaces one of the flanges that a moment develops.

Tubesheet Gasket (None, Shell, Channel, Both)


Enter the kind of gasketing associated with this tubesheet. If the tubesheet has a circular gasket, even if the gasket is
not extended as a flange, you must enter the details of the gasket, so that the program can correctly evaluate the mean
diameter of the gasket load reaction (G).

Depth of Groove in Tubesheet


If the tubesheet has a groove such as for pass-partition, enter its depth here. This value is used as a candidate when
finalizing the required thickness of the tubesheet. The maximum of this value or the channel corrosion allowance
plus the shellside corrosion allowance will be added to the computed required tubesheet thickness. If your tubesheet
is not grooved, enter a 0 in this field.

Tubesheet Thickness
Enter the thickness of the tubesheet, or a reasonable guess at the thickness if the actual thickness is unknown. This
thickness should include any allowances for corrosion on the shell side or the tube side. The tubesheet thickness for
fixed tubesheet exchangers is also used in the equivalent thermal pressure calculation. When you have finished your
design you should come back and put the actual thickness into this field and make sure the required thickness doesn't
change.

Tubesheet Corrosion Allowance Shell Side


Enter the tubesheet corrosion allowance for the shell side. This value is combined with the tubesheet corrosion
allowance channel side to calculate the corroded thickness of the tubesheet.

Tubesheet Corrosion Allowance Channel Side


Enter the tubesheet corrosion allowance for the channel side. This value is combined with the tubesheet corrosion
allowance shell side to calculate the corroded thickness of the tubesheet.

User Defined G for Floating Tubesheet


Enter the G dimension of Stationary Tubesheet to be used for the some floating tubesheet types. If this input is left
blank, then the program will compute the G from the specified gasket input.
TEMA standard states that for all the floating tubesheet (except divided), the G shall be the G used for the stationary
tubesheet.
The T type floating tubesheet should also be checked with actual gasket G of the floating tubesheet.

17-14

TUBESHEETS

TEMA Classification
Enter the TEMA classification of the Heat Exchanger from the following categories:
BCR-

Chemical process service. This information is used in computing the minimum required tubesheet thickness.
Moderate requirements of Commercial and general processes.
Severe requirements of Petrochemical and related processing applications.

This information is used in computing the minimum required tubesheet thickness.

Tubesheet Clamped
Select the tubesheet edge condition. This determines how the tubesheet is supported at the edge by the shell or
channel. This option is used for the PD:5500 code. Fig. 3.9-6 in PD:5500 2003, illustrates the edge support
conditions. The available options are listed in the table below:
Stationary Simply/ Floating Simply

Select this option if both the stationary and the floating


tubesheet are simply supported.

Stationary Simply/ Floating Clamped

Select this option if the stationary tubesheet is simply


supported and the floating tubesheet is clamped.

Stationary Clamped/ Floating Simply

Select this option if the stationary tubesheet is clamped and


the floating tubesheet is simply supported.

Stationary Clamped/ Floating Clamped

Select this option if both the stationary and the floating


tubesheet are clamped.

Expansion Joint Type


The following options are available.
None

Select this option when there is no expansion joint in the heat exchanger.

Thin Expansion Joint

Select this option if the expansion joint is a bellows type expansion joint. The figure below
shows a unreinforced bellows type expansion joint. In this case you should use the Thin
Joint module to design the bellows type expansion joints (both reinforced and
unreinforced). Then specify the computed spring rate.

Figure D - Thin Expansion Joint

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

Thick Expansion Joint

17-15

Select this option if the expansion joint is:

flanged and flue


flanged only
no flanged or no flue.
You can specify 2 of the design options:

Existing - specify the spring rate for the expansion joint


Analyze - specify the expansion joint. geometry and let the
program compute spring rate and stresses.
For more information see Figure E - Thick Expansion Joint.

Expansion Joint Design Option


The following options are available:
Existing

Select this option if you already know the spring rate of the flanged/flued
expansion joint.

Analyze

Select this option if you want the program to compute the spring rate of the
expansion joint and stresses induced in the expansion joint

Corroded Expansion Joint Spring Rate


If there is no expansion joint, enter a zero (0.0). If there is a thin walled expansion joint, then either enter a one (1.0)
or enter the actual spring rate. If there is a thick walled expansion joint, either enter the actual spring constant for the
joint or let the Tubesheet module compute it using the rules per the TEMA standard RCB-8.

Uncorroded Expansion Joint Spring Rate


If there is no expansion joint, enter a zero (0.0). If there is a thin walled expansion joint, then either enter a one (1.0)
or enter the actual spring rate. If there is a thick walled expansion joint, either enter the actual spring constant for the
joint or let the Tubesheet module compute it using the rules per the TEMA standard RCB-8.
Different inputs for the uncorroded and corroded spring rates are required for running the multiple load cases in both
the conditions.

17-16

TUBESHEETS

Expansion Joint Inside Diameter


Enter the inside diameter of the expansion joint, shown as "ID" in the figure above. This value is used by the
program to calculate the force on the cylinder, and the equivalent pressure of thermal expansion.

Figure E - Thick Expansion Joint

Expansion Joint Outside Diameter (OD)


Enter the outside diameter of the expansion joint, shown as "OD" in the figure above.

Expansion Joint Flange (minimum) Wall Thickness (te)


Enter the minimum thickness of the flange or web of the expansion joint, after forming. This is usually thinner than
the unformed metal. This value is shown as te, in the above figure.

Expansion Joint Corrosion Allowance


Enter the corrosion allowance for the expansion joint. This value will be subtracted from the minimum thickness of
the flange or web for the joint. Some common corrosion allowances are listed below:
0.0625 inches (2 mm)
0.125 inches (3 mm)
0.25 inches (6 mm)

1/16"
1/8"
1/4"

Expansion Joint Knuckle


Enter the distance from the shell cylinder to the beginning of the knuckle for an expansion joint with an inside
knuckle.

Expansion Joint Outside Knuckle Offset (fb)


Enter the distance from the outer cylinder to the beginning of the knuckle for an expansion joint with an outside
knuckle. Enter the distance from the outer cylinder to the intersection of the expansion joint web and the outer
diameter for joints with a square outside corner. Note that in both cases this distance is frequently zero, and that for
an expansion joint with a outside radius but no outside cylinder, this distance is the distance from the end of the
knuckle to the symmetrical centerline of the joint.

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-17

Expansion Joint Inside Knuckle Radius (ra)


Enter the knuckle radius for an expansion joint with an inside knuckle. Enter zero for an expansion joint with a sharp
inside corner.

Expansion Joint Outside Knuckle Radius (rb)


Enter the knuckle radius for an expansion joint with an outside knuckle. Enter zero for an expansion joint with a
sharp outside corner. (Flanged Only)

Number of Flexible Shell Elements


Enter the number of flexible shell elements in the flanged/flued expansion joint. Two flexible shell elements
constitute 1 convolution of the Expansion Joint.

Shell Cylinder Length (Li)


Enter the length of the shell cylinder to the nearest body flange or head.
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8-21 includes the following note: lo and li are the lengths of the cylinders welded to the
flexible shell elements except, where two flexible shell elements are joined with a cylinder between them, lo or li as
applicable shall be taken as half the cylinder length. If no cylinder is used, lo and li shall be taken as zero.
Entering a very long length for this value will not disturb the results, since the TEMA procedure automatically takes
into account the decay length for shell stresses and uses this length if it is less than the cylinder length.

Outer Cylinder on the Thick Expansion Joint


Check this field if there is a cylindrical section attached to the expansion joint at the OD. This will always be true
when you have an expansion joint with only a half convolution (1 FSE). It may also be true when there is a relatively
long cylindrical portion between two half convolutions, as in the case of certain inlet nozzle geometries for heat
exchangers.

Number of Desired Cycles


Enter the number of desired pressure cycles for this exchanger. This will be compared with the actual computed
cycle life of the expansion joint.

Pop-Up Input Fields


Fillet or Groove Weld Length
If the tubes on your exchanger are welded to the tubesheet, then enter the fillet weld or groove weld leg length.
Some designs incorporate either only a groove or fillet weld, sometimes both are used. These values are used to
determine the weld strengths. PV Elite will determine the minimum required weld sizes afm and agm. Refer to
section UW-20 in the ASME Code for more details. This input is not active for the PD:5500 code.

17-18

TUBESHEETS

Weld Type
Following options are available for the connecting tube/tubesheet welds:
Full Strength
Partial Strength
Seal Weld/No Weld

A full strength tube-to-tubesheet weld is one in which the joint strength is equal
to or greater than the maximum allowable axial tube strength.
A partial strength weld can be designed based on the actual tube-tubesheet axial
load.
No calculations are performed in this case.

Design Strength
This term is Fd as defined in the Code paragraph UW-20. The design strength should not be greater than Ft (tube
strength), which is t(do - t)Sa. This value is used to determine the minimum acceptable fillet/groove weld size that
connects the tube to the tubesheet.
This value is required for U-tube tubesheet exchanger. But, is optional for fixed and floating tubesheet exchangers.
For partial strength tube-to-tubesheet joints on fixed/floating tubesheet exchangers, the higher of the actual tube-totubesheet load and the user entered design strength will be used to size welds.
For full strength tube-to-tubesheet welds on fixed/floating tubesheet exchangers, tube strength (Ft) is used to size
welds.

Is Tube-Tubesheet Joint Tested


Check this box if the Tube-Tubesheet joint is tested. In that case the program will use the higher value of factor fr
from the table A-2 in ASME code, Sec VIII, Div 1. This input is not active for the PD:5500 code.

Tube Joint Reliability Factor


On selecting the appropriate Tube joint type, the program automatically fills in the value of factor Fr.
If TEMA is selected, then use the table below to determine the joint type. This table is found in the ASME Code,
Section VIII, Division 1, Table A-2, and is used to calculate the allowable tube-to-tubesheet joint loads. A typical
value for tubes rolled into two grooves is 0.70.
Table A-2, Efficiencies and Joint Types
Type

Joint

Description

Fr.(test)

Fr.(no test)

welded only, a >= 1.4t

1.00

.80

welded only, t <= a < 1.4 t

.70

.55

b-1

Welded only, a < t

.70

...

brazed, examined

1.00

.80

brazed, not fully examined

0.50

.40

welded, a>=1.4t, exp.

1.00

.80

welded, a<1.4t, exp, with 2 or more grooves

.95

.75

welded, a<1.4t, exp, enhanced with 1 groove

.85

.65

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-19

Table A-2, Efficiencies and Joint Types


Type

Joint

Description

Fr.(test)

welded a 1.4t, exp, not enhanced, 0 grooves

.70

Fr.(no test)
.50

10

expanded, enhanced, 2 or more grooves

.90

.70

11

expanded, enhanced, single groove

.80

.65

12

expanded, not enhanced no grooves

.60

.50

If PD:5500 is selected then use the table below to determine the efficiency and joint type.
Table 3.9-2, Efficiencies and Joint Types
Type

Joint

Description

Fr.(1)

welded with min throat thk. >= tube thk.

.80

welded with min throat thk. < tube thk.

.55

expanded and welded with min throat thk. >= tube thk.

.80

expanded and welded with min throat thk. < tube thk.

.55

expanded only

.50

explosion expanded/welded

.80

Interface Pressure, Po and Pt


Enter the Interface pressures, Po and Pt, between the tube and the tubesheet hole
Po
Pt

Interface Pressure that remains after expanding the tube at fabrication.


Interface Pressure due to differential thermal growth.

These pressures are usually established analytically or experimentally. But, must consider the effect of change in
material strength at operating temperature.
This input is required only for the tube joint types i, j and k, as defined in table A-2 in ASME Sec VIII, Div-1 App.
A.

Is Welded Material Specified (not Seamless)


Check this box if the tube has a longitudinal weld seam or in other words it (not seamless) and the material
allowables are for welded product.
For computing allowable Tube-Tubesheet Joints loads, the allowable stress of a seamless tube is needed. If the user
selected a welded tube and clicks on this check box, then the tube allowable stress is divided by 0.85 to an equivalent
allowable of a seamless tube.
This is per note in ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 UW-20.3 and App. A.

17-20

TUBESHEETS

Actual Tubesheet Metal Temperature


Enter the actual metal temperature for the tubesheet under a realistic operating condition. This value does not affect
the thermal expansion design, but it is used to determine the elastic modulus of the tubesheet.
Refer to TEMA standard, section T-4 (8th Ed.) for guidance to compute the Mean Metal Temperatures.

Is This a Kettle Type Heat Exchanger


Check here if the shell is shaped like a kettle. Kettle-type configuration is illustrated in Figure N-1.2 and Figure N-2
in TEMA standard Eighth Edition.

Length of Kettle Port Cylinder (LP)


Enter the length of the kettle port cylinder. This dimension is needed if the shell is shaped like a kettle. The Kettletype configuration is illustrated in Figures N-1.2 and N-2 in the TEMA Standard (Eighth Edition).

Thickness of Kettle Port Cylinder (TP)


Enter the thickness of the kettle port cylinder. This dimension is needed if the shell is shaped like a kettle. The
Kettle-type configuration is illustrated in Figures N-1.2 and N-2 in the TEMA Standard (Eighth Edition).

Mean Diameter of Kettle Port Cylinder (DP)


Enter the mean diameter of the Kettle port cylinder. This dimension is needed if the shell is shaped like a kettle. The
Kettle-type configuration is illustrated in Figures N-1.2 and N-2 in the TEMA Standard (Eighth Edition).

Length of Kettle Cylinder (LK)


Enter the length of the Kettle cylinder. This dimension is needed if the shell is shaped like a kettle. The Kettle-type
configuration is illustrated in Figures N-1.2 and N-2 in the TEMA Standard (Eighth Edition).

Thickness of Kettle Cylinder (TK)


Enter the thickness of the Kettle cylinder. This dimension is needed if the shell is shaped like a kettle. The Kettletype configuration is illustrated in Figures N-1.2 and N-2 in the TEMA Standard (Eighth Edition).

Mean Diameter of Kettle Cylinder (DK)


Enter the mean diameter of the Kettle cylinder. This dimension is needed if the shell is shaped like a kettle. The
Kettle-type configuration is illustrated in Figures N-1.2 and N-2 in the TEMA Standard (Eighth Edition).

Axial Length of Kettle Cone (LC)


Enter the axial length of the Kettle cone. This dimension is needed if the shell is shaped like a kettle. The Kettle-type
configuration is illustrated in Figures N-1.2 and N-2 in the TEMA Standard (Eighth Edition).

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-21

Thickness of Kettle Cone (TC)


Enter the thickness of the Kettle cone. This dimension is needed if the shell is shaped like a kettle. The Kettle-type
configuration is illustrated in Figures N-1.2 and N-2 in the TEMA Standard (Eighth Edition).

Select Load Cases for Detailed Printout


When analyzing the design with the multiple load cases, the program will generate summarized results for all the
load cases in tabular form. To see the detailed equations and intermediate calculations for one or more load cases,
select those load cases. The available load cases are:
Load Case Description
Load Case No.

Corroded

Fvs + Pt - Th - Ca

Fvs + Pt - Th

Ps + Fvt - Th - Ca

Ps + Fvt - Th

Ps + Pt - Th - Ca

Ps + Pt - Th

Fvs + Fvt + Th - Ca

Fvs + Fvt + Th

Fvs + Pt + Th - Ca

Fvs + Pt + Th

Ps + Fvt + Th - Ca

Ps + Fvt + Th

Ps + Pt + Th - Ca

Ps + Pt + Th

Fvs + Fvt - Th - Ca

Fvs + Fvt - Th

Uncorroded

Note:
Fvt, Fvs - User-defined Shell-side and Tube-side vacuum pressures or 0.0.
Ps, Pt - Shell-side and Tube-side Design Pressures.
Th - With or Without Thermal Expansion.
Ca - With or Without Corrosion Allowance.

Enter Shell/Channelside Vacuum Pressures


When analyzing the design with the multiple load cases, the user can specify shell/channel side vacuum pressures.
This should be a positive entry. For example for full atmospheric vacuum condition enter a value of 15.0 psig. If no
value is specified then 0 psi will be used.

Outside Diameter of Flanged Portion


Enter the outer diameter of the flange. This value is referred to as "A" in the ASME code.

Diameter of Bolt Circle


Enter the diameter of the bolt circle of the flange.

Thickness of Extended Portion of Tubesheet


Enter the flange thickness. This thickness will used in the calculation of the required thickness. The final results
should, therefore, agree with this thickness to within about five percent.

17-22

TUBESHEETS

Nominal Bolt Diameter


Enter the nominal bolt diameter. The tables of bolt diameter included in the program range from 0.5 to 4.0 inches. If
you have bolts that are larger or smaller than this value, enter the nominal size in this field, and also enter the root
area of one bolt in the Thread Series cell.
Thread Series
The following bolt thread series tables are available:
TEMA Bolt Table
UNC Bolt Table
User specified root area of a single bolt
TEMA Metric Bolt Table
British, BS 3643 Metric Bolt Table
Irrespective of the table used, the values will be converted back to the user selected units.
TEMA threads are National Coarse series below 1 inch and 8 pitch thread series for 1 inch and above bolt nominal
diameter. The UNC threads available are the standard threads.

Bolt Root Area


If you exchanger design has non-standard bolts, enter a 3 in the field above this one and enter the root area of a
single bolt in this field.

Number of Bolts
Enter the number of bolts to be used in the flange analysis.

Fillet Weld Between Flange and Shell/Channel


Enter the fillet weld height between the tubesheet flange and the shell or channel outside surface. PV Elite will use
this number to calculate g1 (hub thickness at the large end).

Apply Bolt Load to the Tubesheet


Check this box if the bolt load is transferred to the tubesheet extended as the flange.

Operating Bolt Load (Wm1)


Specify the alternate operating bolt load on the tubesheet extended as a flange. This value will be used if it is greater
than the operating bolt load computed by the program.

Seating Bolt Load (Wm2)


Specify the alternate seating bolt load on the tubesheet extended as a flange. This value will be used if it is greater
than the seating bolt load computed by the program.

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-23

Flange Design Bolt (W)


Specify the alternate flange design bolt load on the tubesheet extended as a flange. This value will be used if it is
greater than the flange design bolt load computed by the program.

Flange Face Outer Diameter


Enter the outer diameter of the flange face. The program uses the minimum of the flange face outer diameter and the
gasket outer diameter to calculate the outside flange contact point, but uses the maximum in design when selecting
the bolt circle. The program uses the maximum of the flange face ID and the gasket ID to calculate the inside
contact point of the gasket.

Flange Face Inner Diameter


Enter the inner diameter of the flange face. The program uses the maximum of the flange face ID and the gasket ID
to calculate the inner contact point of the gasket.

Flange Face Facing Sketch


Using Table 2-5.2 of the ASME code, select the facing sketch number according to the following correlations:
FACING SKETCH

DESCRIPTION

1a

flat finish faces

1b

serrated finish faces

1c

raised nubbin-flat finish

1d

raised nubbin-serrated finish

1/64 inch nubbin

1/64 inch nubbin both sides

large serrations, one side

large serrations, both sides

metallic O-ring type gasket

Gasket Outer Diameter


Enter the outer diameter of the gasket. The program uses the minimum of the flange face outer diameter and the
gasket outer diameter to calculate the outside flange contact point, but uses the maximum in design when selecting
the bolt circle. This is done so that the bolts do not interfere with the gasket. The program uses the maximum of the
flange face ID and the gasket ID to calculate the inside contact point of the gasket.

Gasket Inner Diameter


Enter the inner diameter of the gasket. The program uses the maximum of the Flange Face ID and the Gasket ID to
calculate the inner contact point of the gasket.

17-24

TUBESHEETS

Gasket Materials and Contact Facings


Gasket Material

Gasket Factor m

Self energizing Types, including metallic and 0.00


elastomer O ring

Seating Stress y

Facing Column

II

Flat Elastomers
Below 75A Shore Durometer

0.50

II

75A Shore Durometer or higher

1.00

200

II

1/8 inch thick

2.00

1600

II

1/16 inch thick

2.75

3700

II

1/32 inch thick

3.50

6500

II

Elastomer with cotton fabric insert

1.25

400

II

3 ply

2.25

2200

II

2 ply

2.50

2900

II

1 ply

2.75

3700

II

Vegetable Fiber

1.75

1100

II

Carbon Steel

2.50

10000

II

Stainless Steel or Monel

3.00

10000

II

Soft aluminum

2.50

2900

II

Soft copper or brass

2.75

3700

II

Iron or soft steel

3.00

4500

II

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

3.25

5500

II

Stainless Steel

3.50

6500

II

2.75

3700

II

Flat asbestos with suitable binder

Elastomer with asbestos fabric insert

Spiral-wound metal, asbestos filled

Corrugated metal, asbestos filled or


Corrugated metal jacketed, asbestos filled

Corrugated metal, not filled


Soft aluminum
Soft copper or brass

3.00

4500

II

Iron or soft steel

3.25

5500

II

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

3.50

6500

II

Stainless Steel

3.75

7600

II

3.25

5500

II

Flat metal jacketed, asbestos filled


Soft aluminum
Soft copper or brass

3.50

6500

II

Iron or soft steel

3.75

7600

II

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-25

Gasket Material

Gasket Factor m

Seating Stress y

Facing Column

Monel

3.50

8000

II

4-6% Chrome

3.75

9000

II

Stainless Steel

3.75

9000

II

Soft aluminum

3.25

5500

II

Soft copper or brass

3.50

6500

II

Iron or soft steel

3.75

7600

II

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

3.75

9000

II

Stainless Steel

4.25

10100

II

4.00

8800

Grooved metal

Solid flat metal


Soft aluminum
Soft copper or brass

4.75

13000

Iron or soft steel

5.50

18000

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

6.00

21800

Stainless Steel

6.50

26000

Iron or soft steel

5.50

18000

Monel or 4-6% Chrome

6.00

21800

Stainless Steel

6.50

26000

Ring Joint

Gasket Thickness
Enter the gasket thickness. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c and 1d.

Nubbin Width
If applicable, enter the nubbin width. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c, 1d, 2 and 6. Note that for
sketch 9 this is not a nubbin width, but the contact width of the metallic ring.

Full Face Gasket Options


ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 does not cover the design of flanges for which the gasket extends beyond the bolt circle
diameter. A typically used method for the design of these types of flanges is from the Taylor Forge Flange Design
Bulletin. This method is implemented in the program.
Gaskets for Full face flanges are usually of soft materials such as rubber or an elastomer, so that the bolt stresses do
not go too high during gasket seating. The program adjusts the flange analysis and the design formulae to account for
the full face gasket. There are 3 Full Face Gasket Flange options:

17-26

TUBESHEETS

Program Selects: Instructs the program to automatically make the determination if this is a full face gasket
flange, depending upon the input. If the gasket ID and OD matches with Flange ID and OD dimensions
respectively (except for a blind flange) then it is determined to be a full face flange. See the figure below.

Full Face Gasket: Indicates to the program that this is a full face gasket flange. Use this option when the gasket
ID or OD does not match the flange ID/OD dimensions, but the gasket extends beyond the bolt circle diameter.
See the figure below:

Not a Full Face: Indicates to the program that this is not a full face gasket flange.

Length of Partition Gasket


This is the cumulative length of all the heat exchanger pass partition gaskets associated with this flange.

Width of Partition Gasket


Enter the width of the pass partition gasket. Using the gasket properties such as the facing sketch, column, M and Y
and the known width, PV Elite will compute the effectives seating width and the gasket loads contributed by the
partition gasket.

Partition Gasket Factor M


Enter the partition gasket factor M.

Chapter 17 TUBESHEETS

17-27

Partition Gasket Design Seating Stress Y


Enter the partition gasket design seating stress Y.

Partition Gasket Flange Face Facing Sketch


Enter the partition gasket flange face facing sketch.

Partition Gasket Column for Gasket Seating


Enter the partition gasket column for gasket seating.

Partition Gasket Thickness


Enter the thickness of the partition gasket. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c and 1d.

Partition Gasket Nubbin Width


If applicable, enter the nubbin width for the pass partition gasket. This value is only required for facing sketches 1c,
1d, 2 and 6. Note that for sketch 9 this is not a nubbin width, but the contact width of the metallic ring.

Outer Cylindrical Element Thickness


Enter the actual wall thickness of the outer cylindrical element at the point where the expansion joint is attached.
This value is shown on Figure E as 'to'.

Outer Cylindrical Element Corrosion Allowance


Enter the corrosion allowance for the outer cylindrical element.

Outer Cylindrical Element Length


Enter the length of the outer cylinder to the nearest body flange or head, or to the centerline of the convolute. This
value is shown on Figure E as 'lo'.
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8-21 includes the following note: lo and li are the lengths of the cylinders welded to the
flexible shell elements except, where two flexible shell elements are joined with a cylinder between them, lo or li as
applicable shall be taken as half the cylinder length. If no cylinder is used, lo and li shall be taken as zero.
Entering a very long length for this value will not disturb the results, since the TEMA procedure automatically takes
into account the decay length for shell stresses and uses this length if less than the cylinder length.

17-28

TUBESHEETS

Discussion of Results
Intermediate Calculations for Tubesheets Extended as Flange:
Two major additions to the tubesheet calculations occur when a tubesheet is extended as a flange. First, a moment is
added to the pressure moment, which governs the thickness of most tubesheets. Second, a moment exists on the
portion of the tubesheet, which serves as the flange, and the effects of this moment must be evaluated. The TEMA
standard requires that these conditions be evaluated using the rules in the ASME Code, Appendix 2. Those rules, in
turn, require the complete evaluation of bending moments on the flange. It is those bending moment calculations,
which are reflected in this section of the output. The flange design rules in PD:5500 are also very similar to the
ASME Appendix 2 rules.
These calculations represent the basic bolt loading for the flanged portion of the tubesheet, and will be the same for
the mating flange. The actual bending moments may change when compared to the mating flange. The flanged
extension of the tubesheet is calculated as a ring type flange. Since no stresses are shown, you need to check the
adequacy of the bolting by comp