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Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Bioproses

ERT 210/4 Process Dynamics and Control
Tutorial 5: Dynamic Behavior of First-order and Second-order Processes

5.1 In addition to the standard inputs discussed in Section 5.1, other input functions occasionally
are useful for special purposes. One, the so-called doublet pulse, is shown in Fig. E5.1.

Figure E5.1
(a) Find the Laplace transform of this function by first expressing it as a composite of
functions whose transforms you already know.

(b) What would be the response of a process having a first-order transfer function K/(s+1) to
this input? Of the integrating process K/s?

(c) From these results, can you determine what special property this input offers?

5.9 Two liquid storage systems are shown in Fig.E5.9.Each tank is 4 feet in diameter. For system I,
the valve acts as a linear resistance with the flow-head relation
q = 8.33 h, where q is in
gal/min and h is in feet. For System II, variations in liquid level h do not affect exit flow rate q.
Suppose that each system is initially at steady-state with h 6 ft and q i 50 gal/min and that
at time t = 0 the inlet flow rate suddenly changes from 50 to 70 gal/min. For each of the
system, determine the following information:

Figure E5.9
(a) The transfer function H ' ( s ) Q' i ( s ) where the primes denote deviation variables.

(b) The transient response h(t).


(c) The new steady-state levels?


(d) If each tank is 8 ft tall, which tank overflows first? when?


5.10 The dynamic behavior of the liquid level in each leg of a manometer tube, responding to a
change in pressure, is given by
d 2 h'
6 dh' 3 g

p ' (t )
2 L
4 L
R dt

where h'(t) is the level of liquid measured with respect to the initial steady-state value, p'(t) is
the pressure change, and R, L, q, , and are constants.
(a) Rearrange this equation into standard gain-time constant form and find expression for K, ,
in terms of the physical constants.

(b) For what values of the physical constants does the manometer response oscillate?

(c) Would changing the manometer fluid so that (density) is larger make its response more or
less oscillatory? Repeat the analysis for an increase in (viscosity).

5.14 A step change from 15 to 31 psi in actual pressure results in the measured response from a
pressure indicating element shown in Fig. E5.14.

Figure E5.14
(a) Assuming second-order dynamics, calculate all important parameters and write and
approximate transfer function in the form
R' ( s)
2 2
P' ( s) s 2s 1

where R' is the instrument output deviation (mm), P' is the actual pressure deviation (psi).

(b) Write an equivalent differential equation model in terms of actual (not deviation) variables.