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Labour Market Reform Commission

Technology, Innovation and Productivity Committee


Human Factors Working Group

Human Factors Affecting Productivity in Jamaica


Technical Report on Preliminary Findings

WG Chair:

Dr. Marina Ramkissoon

Members:

Ms. Sonia Jackson (Co-Chair)


Dr. Vanessa Tennant (Co-Chair)
Ms. Tashana Briscoe
Commissioner Silburn Clarke

Date:

February 14, 2016

Table of contents
Table of contents .......................................................................................................................................... 2
Acknowledgements....................................................................................................................................... 4
List of tables and figures ............................................................................................................................... 5
Preamble ....................................................................................................................................................... 6
Key definitions .............................................................................................................................................. 7
Chapter 1: Precarious employment and social mobility ............................................................................... 8
General features of the talent pool .......................................................................................................... 8
Gender disparities ................................................................................................................................... 11
Precarious employment .......................................................................................................................... 12
Declining employee productivity ............................................................................................................ 12
Informal employment ............................................................................................................................. 13
Youth unemployment ............................................................................................................................. 16
Child labour ............................................................................................................................................. 16
Policy recommendations ........................................................................................................................ 17
Chapter 2: Independent thought and governance ..................................................................................... 20
Dependency ............................................................................................................................................ 20
Policy recommendations ........................................................................................................................ 20
Chapter 3: Cultural values and practices .................................................................................................... 22
Post-colonial value system...................................................................................................................... 22
Policy recommendations ........................................................................................................................ 27
Chapter 4: Interpersonal relationships ....................................................................................................... 30
Personal sensitivities............................................................................................................................... 30
Social networks ....................................................................................................................................... 31
Employer-employee relations ................................................................................................................. 31
Theoretical perspectives on building trust ............................................................................................. 32
Policy recommendations ........................................................................................................................ 33
Chapter 5: The leadership challenge .......................................................................................................... 35
Challenges with leadership ..................................................................................................................... 35
Theoretical perspectives ......................................................................................................................... 35
Policy recommendations ........................................................................................................................ 38
Chapter 6: Training in human resource development ................................................................................ 40

3
Lack of training opportunities ................................................................................................................. 40
Theoretical perspectives ......................................................................................................................... 40
Policy recommendations ........................................................................................................................ 40
Chapter 7: Paucity of human factors data .................................................................................................. 42
Lack of human factors indicators nationally ......................................................................................... 42
Theoretical perspectives ......................................................................................................................... 42
Policy recommendations ........................................................................................................................ 42
Chapter 8: Learning organization approach ............................................................................................... 43
Learning organization model .................................................................................................................. 43
Chapter 9: Social affirmation ...................................................................................................................... 44
Barriers to collective efficacy .................................................................................................................. 44
Theoretical perspectives ......................................................................................................................... 45
Policy recommendation .......................................................................................................................... 45
Appendix 1 ............................................................................................................................................... 47
Workshop Proposal ................................................................................................................................. 47
Appendix 2 ............................................................................................................................................... 51
Compendium of Workshops ................................................................................................................... 51
1. Radical Collaboration ........................................................................................................................ 51
2. Exploring Applied Creativity Workshop ............................................................................................ 53
3. CEO Roundtable .................................................................................................................................. 55
Appendix 3 ............................................................................................................................................... 56
Potential measures/scales for HF module .............................................................................................. 56

Acknowledgements
This report was made possible through the rich deliberations among the members of the Technology,
Innovation and Productivity Committee, comments from the Labour Market Reform Commission, and
the combined efforts of the members of the Human Factors Working Group. We are honoured to
contribute to national development, and look forward to the ensuing dialogue.

List of tables and figures


Table 1 Main Labour Force Indicators........................................................................................................ 8
Table 2 Population by Age Group .............................................................................................................. 8
Table 3 Labour Force by Age Group ........................................................................................................... 9
Table 4 - Labour Force by Examination Passed............................................................................................. 9
Table 5 Labour Force by Training Received ............................................................................................... 9
Table 6 Labour Force by Occupation Groups ........................................................................................... 10
Table 7 Labour Force by Industry Group.................................................................................................. 10
Table 8 - Changing Structure of the Economy - Percentage Contribution ................................................. 11
Table 9 - Informal Sector Employment ....................................................................................................... 13
Table 10 Informal Sector by Age Group ................................................................................................... 14
Table 11 Educational Qualification by Highest Exam ............................................................................... 14
Table 12 Employment by Industry Group ................................................................................................ 15
Table 13 - Management versus Leadership ................................................................................................ 36
Table 14: Servant Leadership Attributes .................................................................................................... 37
Figure 1: Servant Leadership Model .......................................................................................................... 37
Table 15 Leadership Styles and Action Logics .......................................................................................... 38
Figure 2 Voter participation in Jamaica, 1949-2011 ................................................................................... 44

Preamble1
The ultimate goal of national initiatives like the Reform of the countrys Labour Market is always to
achieve positive change at the broadest level. The vision presented in the Vision 2030 Labour Market
and Productivity Task Force section, is to revamp the labour market such that it contributes significantly
national prosperity, and it specifies criteria for success at the firm, leadership, mind-set, workplace,
workforce and technology levels. To achieve this reform, it is prudent to consider the major, longstanding obstacles. The greatest challenges are not usually in figuring out what to do to achieve these
goals, but how to do it (implementation), part of which is generating enough commitment and will
from power-brokers, both in the leadership and the collective. A disproportionate amount of time and
effort is spent on getting the what to do right (if it can ever be gotten right in such a dynamic world),
through reviews, analysis and report writing, compared to the how to do. The guidelines to the
Technology Innovation & Productivity Committee (TIPC) from the Labour Market Reform Commission
(LMRC) clearly indicate that the Commissioners are all too aware of this risk; they have asked that each
Working Group chair of the TIPC identify key players, mechanisms and action items for immediate
implementation of the whats.
The current report of the Human Factors Working Group (HFWG) of the TIPC attempts to adhere to
these guidelines. The recommendations in the report are mandated to be sustainable, evidence-based,
implementable and dynamic. All recommendations are also aligned with Vision 2030, which is used as a
basis for guiding principles: Jamaicas transformation must have people at the centre of its
development and have equity, social cohesion and partnership at its foundation (E. Emmanuel,
NEPA). Developing human resources is the nations first priority. The ethical imperative also cannot be
ignored as an underpinning theme of this report. Additionally, the current report does not use the terms
labour or its derivatives, except when referencing other documents. A paradigm shift is needed in
how the Government speaks and thinks about citizens and their productivity. We instead use the terms
employee and its derivatives and the talent pool, to describe individuals who engage in producing.
Before many of the more specific hows from the TIPC can be put into action, a strategy for creating a
shared vision that things can be and must be better must be devised. Cynicism, mistrust, hopelessness,
helplessness, individual self-seeking etc. must all be dealt with upfront and directly. An infection of
positivity in attitude and approach to national development and productivity is urgently needed.
Additionally, resources, especially dedicated talent, must be identified to implement the hows. Giving
persons additional work without resources will not bring the desired results. This current HFWG report
also recognizes that change agents and champions must be identified and empowered to lead the
charge for each initiative. These agents must be competent in their fields of expertise, but also skilled in
collaborating, visioning, coordinating, planning, analysis, team building, problem solving and should be
trustworthy, with high levels of integrity. They must also be skilled at monitoring and evaluation of
programmes. Successes, failures and areas for improvement must be systematically traceable.
Finally, the current report is incomplete. The work presented here must be reviewed and developed, in
as wide a forum as possible. Dedicated resources, including time, are also needed.
1

Marina Ramkissoon, HFWG chair

Key definitions

i.

Human factors are broadly defined as psychological, social-psychological and cultural factors at
the individual, group, organizational and national levels of analysis.

ii.

Human Resource Development (HRD) is defined as the organized learning activities arranged
within an organization in order to improve performance and/or personal growth for the purpose
of improving the job, the individual, and/or the organization. HRD includes the areas of training
and development, career development, and organization development (Singh, 20122).

iii.

Talent pool, broadly defined, refers to all persons who have talents which can potentially be
applied productively.

Singh, 2012

Chapter 1: Precarious employment and social mobility


General features of the talent pool
Considerations for increasing productivity must take stock of the features of the talent pool3.

i.

Table 1 Main Labour Force Indicators


ITEM
MALE
FEMALE
TOTAL
Total Population as 31/12/2013 Estimates 1,347,000 1,375,900 2,722,900
Population 14 years and over
1,022,400 1,061,200 2,083,600
Labour Force
717,000
593,700 1,310,700
Employed Labour Force
645,900
478,600 1,124,500
Unemployed Labour Force
71,100
115,100
186,200
Outside the Labour Force
305,400
467,500
772,900
Employment Rate
90.1
80.6
85.8
Unemployment Rate
9.9
19.4
14.2
Job Seeking Rate
7.1
12.1
9.3
%age of population under 14 years
24.1
22.9
23.5
%age of population 14 years and over
75.9
77.1
76.5
%age of population 14+ - outside the LF
29.9
44.1
37.1
LF as %age of total population
53.2
55.9
48.1
LF as %age of population 14+
70.1
55.8
62.9

For females, the


unemployment and
job-seeking rates are
almost doubled that
of males. Possible
drivers of these rates
may be that more
females are seeking
employment in the
formal sector and
are enrolled in
education
institutions.

Table 2 Population by Age Group


AGE GROUP
Under 14
14 - 19
20 - 24
25 - 34
35 - 44
45 - 54
55 - 64
65 and over
TOTAL

MALE
324,600
169,800
127,100
201,300
172,800
149,600
97,800
103,700
1,347,000

FEMALE
314,700
163,500
126,300
216,600
189,400
150,100
95,500
119,800
1,375,900

TOTAL
639,300
333,300
253,400
417,900
362,200
300,000
193,300
223,500
2,722,900

STATIN Labour Force Survey Annual Report, 2014. Tables 1 to 12 are based on data from this report.

Table 3 Labour Force by Age Group

AGE GROUP
14 - 19
20 - 24
25 - 34
35 - 44
45 - 54
55 - 64
65 and over
TOTAL

MALE
20,600
92,700
181,800
160,800
137,100
79,800
44,200
717,000

FEMALE
14,300
68,900
166,900
154,500
115,800
54,100
19,200
593,700

Males outnumber
females in all age
categories of the
labour force,
especially 14-19
yrs (~60%), 55-64
(~60%) and over
65 yrs (~70%)

TOTAL
34,900
161,600
348,700
315,900
252,900
133,900
63,400
1,310,700

Table 4 - Labour Force by Examination Passed


Highest Exam Passed
None
CXC Basic, J.S.C., etc.
1 to 2 G.C.E. O
3 to 4 G.C.E. O
5+ G.C.E. O
1 to 2 G.C.E. A
3 or more G.C.E. A
Degree
Other
Not Stated
Total

MALE
502,500
9,700
19,900
33,500
33,600
1,000
2,600
62,300
18,100
33,800
717,000

FEMALE
318,500
13,700
22,600
40,100
44,600
2,300
3,500
106,300
20,900
21,200
593,700

TOTAL
821,000
23,400
42,500
73,600
76,500
3,300
6,100
168,600
39,000
55,000
1,310,700

14-19 yr. old males


may be taking
informal and/or
non-skilled jobs,
while 14-19 yr. old
females may be
doing housework
or are still in
school

Males 65 yrs. and older in the maledominated informal sector are not
required to retire and may continue to
work, (self-employed, owners, family
business etc.)

Females out-performed males in


highest exam passed, esp. 1-2 GCE A
levels (~70%) and degrees (~63%).
Of those who did not pass any exams,
61% were male.
Data suggests that males will have
less opportunity to be in formal sector
jobs

Table 5 Labour Force by Training Received


Training Received
Vocational Without Certificate
Vocational With Certificate
Professional without degree or diploma
Professional with degree or diploma
Apprenticeship
On-the-job Training (OJT)
None
Not Stated
TOTAL

MALE
6,700
64,500
3,800
64,800
2,800
34,600
535,500
4,300
717,000

FEMALE
10,200
81,700
5,300
113,500
600*
22,100
355,600
4,700
593,700

TOTAL
16,900
146,200
9,100
178,300
3,400
56,700
891,100
9,000
1,310,700

More females had


prof. degrees and
diplomas; more
males had
apprenticeship
experiences and
OJT

10

Table 6 Labour Force by Occupation Groups


Occupation Groups
Professionals, Senior Officials & Technicians
Clerks
Service Workers and Shop & Market Workers
Skilled Agricultural & Fishery Workers
Craft and Related Traded Workers
Plant & Machine Operators & Assemblers
Elementary Occupations
Occupation not Specified
CLASSIFIABLE LABOUR FORCE
NO PREVIOUS OCCUPATION
TOTAL LABOUR FORCE

MALE
108,400
30,600
96,400
172,400
142,600
62, 200
85,300
600*
698,500
18,500
717,000

FEMALE
158,100
92,900
162,000
39,500
9,900
4,400
90,600
1,100
558,500
53,200
593,700

TOTAL
266,500
123,500
258,400
211,900
152,500
66,600
175,900
1,700
1,257,600
53,700
1,310,700

Females are
heavily represented
in prof., senior
officials, clerks,
finance, service,
shop and market
workers; more
males are found in
agri., craft/trade,
plant, machinery
operations

Table 7 Labour Force by Industry Group


INDUSTRY
Agriculture, hunting, forestry & fishing
Mining & Quarrying
Manufacturing
Electricity, Gas & Water Supply
Construction
Wholesale & Retail, Repairs of M/Vehicles & Equip.
Hotels & Restaurant Services
Transport, Storage & Communication
Financial Intermediation
Real Estate, Renting & Business Activities
Public Administration, Defence, etc
Education
Health & Social Work
Other Community, Social & Personal Services
Private Households with Employed Persons
Industry not specified
TOTAL CLASSIFIABLE LABOUR FORCE
NO PREVIOUS INDUSTRY
TOTAL LABOUR FORCE

MALE
171,700
6,400
53,800
5,800
100,500
110,600
37,000
63,900
9,000
38,400
29,200
20,200
7,600
28,900
13,100
1,800
698,500
18,500
717,000

FEMALE
43,000
1,600
27,100
2,800
4,500
138,400
64,500
17,900
16,100
32,500
31,200
59,700
27,100
36,300
56,200
2,300
558,500
35,200
593,700

TOTAL
214,700
8,000
80,900
8,600
105,000
249,000
102,100
81,800
25,100
69,600
59,000
79,900
34,700
65,200
69,300
4,100
1,257,000
53,700
1,310,700

Women are more


represented in
education, health,
social work,
community/social
and personal
services, and
private household
employment

Data supports the


gender disparities
in education and
job opportunities,
and possible
implications for
social mobility.

11

Table 8 - Changing Structure of the Economy - Percentage Contribution


INDUSTRIES

1970

1980

1990

2000

2011

2014

Wholesale, Retail; Repairs; Install.

18.9

19.2

18.2

19.7

18.9

17.6

Producers of Government Service

7.9

14

7.4

11.7

14.2

13.15

Real Estate, Renting ,etc.

9.5

8.5

9.9

9.3

12.2

10.74

Financial & Insurance Services

3.5

4.8

6.8

10.2

11.05

Transport, Storage & Commun.

5.5

5.1

8.4

10.7

9.7

10.99

Manufacturing

15.8

16.6

16.9

10.5

9.2

8.46

Construction

13.3

5.8

7.2

7.6

7.3

7.12

Other Services

5.6

4.3

6.6

6.7

6.9

Agriculture Forestry & Fishing

6.4

8.2

6.8

6.5

6.98

Hotels & Restaurants

1.6

0.9

6.1

5.1

4.3

5.55

1.6

2.2

3.2

3.6

3.16

Mining & Quarrying

12.7

14.2

7.8

4.2

1.5

2.32

Less: FISM

1.7

3.3

3.7

4.6

4.3

4.02

100

100

100

100

100

100

Electricity & Water Supply

Total Value Added

Gender disparities
i.
ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.
vii.

Given the downturn in


manufacturing,
mining and
construction, it is
possible that more
males are shunted
to the informal
sector.
If formal jobs are
created in these
industries, perhaps
males would be
more inclined to
get training in the
skills required,
and join the formal
sector.

There are approximately 1,310,700 persons in the talent pool.


Women represent 50.53 % of the total population (Table 2) but are
The changing
disproportionately represented in the total labour force, being only
structure of the
45.30 % of the total labour force (Table 3).
economy requires
Notwithstanding the disproportionate representation, the women are
more persons who
availing themselves of better educational opportunities as shown in the
are educated and
exams passed (Table 4) and the training received (Table 5).
trained above the
The structure of the labour force by Occupation Groups (Table 6)
basic levels.
indicates that there are still traditional male and female dominated
occupational groups.
The changing structure of the economy (Table 8) from a production/manufacturing to a
service economy requires more persons who are educated and trained above the basic levels
hence the higher levels of females employed in these sectors (Table 7).
There are still
Of the labour force total, 14.2% are unemployed, of which 38% are males
traditional maleand 62% are females.
and femaleAll persons 14 years and older who were not classified as employed or
dominated
unemployed, are considered to be outside the labour force. Included in
occupational
this category are full-time students, persons engaged in home duties,
groups.
persons incapable of working, and persons not wanting work or not
available for work.

12

Precarious employment
viii.

ix.

x.

The employment situation in Jamaica is described as precarious4,


The employment
especially in the public sector. Precarious work refers to forms of work
situation in Jamaica
characterised by atypical employment contracts, limited or no social
is described as
benefits and statutory entitlements, high degrees of job insecurity, low
precarious,
job tenure, low wages and high risks of occupational injury and disease.
especially in the
public sector.
From a workers point of view, precarious work is related to uncertain,
5
unpredictable and risky employment .
The relationship between employee and organization in the Jamaican context has largely been
reorganized into contractual relationships and freelance work. The LMRC called for a framework
that allows for organizational flexibility but which also protects Jamaican human resources that
need stability in order to increase their levels of productivity.
the disguised employee, labouring under a contract of service, is bereft of access to the
range of protections and benefits provided under various Jamaican statutes. This is a growing
source of discontent within the labour force and the labour movement. He is generally placed in
a precarious position because he, being unprotected, cannot enforce an inquiry into his contract
to determine whether he is a worker and entitled to the full range of entitlements prescribed for
workers.6,7

Declining employee productivity


xi.

xii.

xiii.

Labour productivity or output per worker has been declining at an average


Output per worker
annual rate of 1.3 per cent over the past thirty six years (1973-2007). For
has been declining
the past five years (2003-2007) this decline has increased to 1.8 per cent
at an average
per annumIn 1997 the average worker in Trinidad was 3 times more
annual rate of 1.3
productive than the average Jamaican worker. However the gap widened
per cent over the
to over 5 times by 2007.8
past 36 years
The four sectors with the lowest productivity levels in 2007 were
(1973-2007).
construction and installation, wholesale and retail, hotels and restaurant
services, and agriculture, forestry and fishing.
The contraction of the manufacturing, mining and construction industries eliminated many jobs
which were popular for males. Even though these industries have contracted, their potential for
employing large volumes of the talent pool is greater than the growing formal sector industries.
Perhaps if these industries were grown, males would be more inclined to pursue training in
appropriate skills and to join the formal sector. More skilled-labour opportunities are needed,
especially for males.

LMRC document (2015)


Moving from Precarious Employment to Decent Work, John Evans & Euan Gibb, Global Union Research Network,
ILO, 2009
6
Orville Taylor (2001), p. 7
7
Orville Taylor, (2014). Broken promises, hearts and pockets: a century of betrayal of the Jamaican working class.
Kingston: Arawak publications.
8
Productivity Summary Report 1972 2007, (2010), Charles Douglas, Jamaica Productivity Center (p. v)
5

13
xiv.

xv.

xvi.

In a 2010 survey of 2,000 remittance recipients in Jamaica9:


a. 75.2% were female
b. 63% had education up to the secondary level; 27.5% up to tertiary
level
c. 38% were employed full-time; 11% were self-employed full-time
d. 24% were unemployed; 13% were not seeking a job; this is a total
of 37%
e. 20% were working in an unclassified industry; 17% in other
category; this is a total of 37%
f. Approximately 60% receive money between once per week and once
per month
Jamaicas Human Development Index (HDI) for 2014 is 0.719. However, when
the value is discounted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.593, a loss of 17.5 per
cent due to inequality in the distribution of the HDI dimension indices10
Jamaica is described as being in an efficiency-driven stage of development. It
therefore has to move to a transition stage before it can be classified as
innovation-driven11.

Informal employment
xvii.

There seems to be a
heavy reliance on
remittances for
basic living by both
employed and
unemployed
persons.
Jamaica has to
move to a transition
stage before it can
be classified as
innovation-driven.
The data suggests
that education is
necessary to
advance to higher
stages.

Informality in employment supports the notion of precarious employment in


Jamaica.

Table 9 - Informal Sector Employment


Year 2014
Formal
Informal
Agriculture
Domestic Worker
Unclassified
TOTAL

Male
205, 700
255,200
169,000
0
9,600
639,500

Informality in
employment
supports the notion
of precarious
employment in
Jamaica.

Female
237,000
170,000
38,800
32,100
4,800
483,500

TOTAL
443,300
425,400
207,800
32,100
14,400
1,123,000

%age
39.47
37.85
18.50
2.90
1.28
100

The formal and informal


sectors employ almost the same
percentage of persons.
About 60% of those in informal
sector are male.

Remittance Survey 2010, E.G. Ramocan, Bank of Jamaica


HDI Report, 2015 (Briefing Note, Jamaica)
11
Global Competitiveness Report, 2015-16
10

Males outnumber
females in all age
groups in the
informal sector,
especially 20-24
year olds.

14

Table 10 Informal Sector by Age Group


Age Group
14 19
20 24
25 34
35 44
45 - 54
55 64
65 and over
TOTAL

INFORMAL SECTOR
Male
Female
Total
6,600
3,600
10,200
26,100
12,000
38,100
65,500
42,300 107,800
67,400
45,200 112,600
53,500
37,000
90,500
25,000
20,700
45,700
11,100
9,400
20,500
255,200 170,200 425,400

Total
Formal
5,000
56,300
142,100
113,900
80,200
39,000
6,800
443,300

As expected, more persons with


passes are absorbed into the formal
sector than the informal sector.
This suggests that males may be
more risk-taking and
entrepreneurial than females or
cannot enter the formal sector
because they lack certification.

Table 11 Educational Qualification by Highest Exam


Highest Exam Passed
None
CXC Basic, J.S.C., etc.
1 to 2 G.C.E. O
3 to 4 G.C.E. O
5+ G.C.E. O
1 to 2 G.C.E. A
3 or more G.C.E. A
Degree
Other
Not Stated
Total

INFORMAL SECTOR
Male
Female
Total
209,300 126,900 336,200
2,500
3,200
5,700
6,000
5,300
11,300
7,600
8,600
16,200
5,800
6,600
12,400
200
500
600
500
600
1,100
8,400
6,500
14,900
4,700
5,900
10,600
10,200
6,100
16,300
255,200 170,200 425,400

For the same certification


categories, there are more
persons employed formally
than informally, especially
persons with degrees. Yet of
the persons with degrees
working informally, more
are male.

Total
Formal
150,000
8,600
15,300
34,500
44,500
1,600
4,800
134,000
20,000
29,500
443,300

Under-education of
persons within the
informal sector will
restrict their
chances for upward
mobility through the
formal sector.

Of the males in the


informal sector,
~82% did not pass
any exams
compared to 74%
of the females.
Data suggests that
lack of certification
keeps males in the
informal sector
indefinitely.

15

Table 12 Employment by Industry Group


Industry

Informal Sector
Female
Total
0
0
0
25,800
11,300
37,100
0
0
0
67,300
0
68,100
71,000
86,000 157,000
10,600
21,800
32,400
40,200
1,600
41,800
10,800
6,400
17,200
1,000
3,400
4,400
17,100
26,500
43,600
10,100
11,800
21,900
0
0
0
255,200 170,200 425,400
Male

Mining & Quarrying


Manufacturing
Elec., Gas & Water
Construction
Wholesale, Retail & Repairs
Hotels & Restaurants
Transport & Storage
Real estates, Business Act & finance
Public Admin., Education & Defence
Health, Social work & Personal Services
Private Household employee
Not Stated
TOTAL

xviii.

xix.

xx.

xxi.

xxii.

Formal
Sector
5,400
34,000
7,900
10,100
63,700
46,200
32,200
73,600
122,200
44,100
1,400
2,000
443,000

The services and


other professional
industries cannot
absorb as many
employees as the
manufacturing,
mining and
construction
industries.

The definition of Informal Sector being used by STATIN in the Labour


Social Welfare
Force
benefits such as NIS
Survey (LFS) is in accordance with the international definition being used
and pensions are
by the ILO:
not available to
a. All own-account workers and employers who own informal
persons in the
enterprises
informal sector.
b. Employees working in enterprises with less than 10 employees
c. All contributing family members
d. All employees in jobs where NIS contributions are not deducted from the wages.
It is to be noted that the definition does not include workers in the agricultural sector
(207,800 in 2014; 18.5% of the LFS) and household domestic workers (32,100 in 2014; 2.9% of
the LFS)
Social welfare benefits such as National Insurance (NIS) and pensions are not available to
persons in the informal sector. The comparative ages of the persons employed in the formal and
informal sector (Table 10) indicates that more persons remain employed in the informal sector
after the usual retirement age of 65. In addition there are a higher number of persons in the 5465 age group, who are approaching their pensionable age without the necessary securities for
retirement.
The Labour Force Survey statistics indicate the overall under-education of the informal sector
(Table 11). This under-education of persons within the informal sector will restrict their chances
of upward mobility through transferring to jobs which require higher levels of skills and
competencies, particularly within the formal sector.
Formal employment dominates only for real estate, business and finance, public administration,
education and hotel/restaurants. All other sectors are either equivalent with or surpassed by
numbers in the informal sector.

16

Youth unemployment
xxiii.

xxiv.

Youth employment (15-29 years of age) has its own challenges.


a. Unemployment rate among youth (14-24 years) was 36.0 %12
Only 50.1% of the
b. More young females than males are expected to complete
respondents stated
university/tertiary level education (62% versus 55%)
that they were
c. More females are expected to complete post-graduate studies than
better educated
males (25% versus 18%)
than their fathers
d. Only 50.1% of the respondents stated that they were better educated
than their fathers
e. Youth were working mainly in the informal sector (42%) and in informal employment
outside the informal sector (33.2%)
38% of unemployed
f. 38% of unemployed youth were seeking employment for over 2
youth were seeking
years
employment for
g. For females, 31.5% cited family responsibility or housework as the
over 2 years
reason for not being in school or seeking work; 20.2% cited
pregnancy; 20.3% cited illness, injury or disability
h. 38.7% had spells of unemployment with or without spells of employment or inactivity in
their transition from school to satisfactory employment
i. Youths who were still in transition were largely unemployed (78.6%) or inactive, nonstudents with future aspirations (10.7%). Disaggregated by wealth
The data shows that
quintiles, the data shows that in-transition youths from the
in-transition youth
poorest two quintiles had the longest current duration of
from the poorest
transition. The current duration of transition declines from 73
two quintiles had
months for the poorest quintile to 50 months for the wealthiest
the longest current
quintile.
duration of
Youth are the largest subgroup (15-24 years) involved as both the
transition.
primary victims and perpetrators of violent crimes and murder in
particular.13

Child labour
xxv.

xxvi.

12
13

Many Jamaicans believe that children are the property of their


parents/ caregivers and that children dont have rights of their
own until they are older, or out from under their parents roof.
These beliefs underpin child labour and other forms of child
exploitation.
Article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child defines
child labour as any activity engaged in by children,

School-to-Work Transition Survey results, 2013


Vision 2030, pg. 104

22% both lived and worked on


the street; 25% worked on the
street and lived elsewhere; 4%
were sexually exploited; 8%
were commercial/industrial
employees.
Most children begun
work/street life at age 10;
11.3% begun at age 6 and
6.6% at age 5.

17

xxvii.

xxviii.

compensated or not, but which implies exploitation and interferes with optimal development
including education14.
Four major baseline studies were conducted in Negril, Montego Bay, Spanish Town, Rocky Point
and Old Harbour Bay as part of Jamaicas involvement in the International Programme on the
Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC). In Spanish Town, 1,220 children were estimated to be
workers, with 41% being agriculture/domestic helpers. About 22% both lived and worked on the
street, while 25% worked on the street and lived elsewhere, 4% were sexually exploited and 8%
were commercial/industrial employees. Most children begun work/street life at age 10; 11.3%
begun at age 6 and 6.6% at age 5. Boys were twice as likely to be involved in commercial and
industrial establishments or living/working on the streets while more girls were involved in
domestic and agricultural labour. Only about 13% of the sexually exploited children were male.
There were 800 children estimated to be child labourers in Montego Bay and Negril, 450 of
which were female. Most of the males were street vendors, while 100 of the girls were in the
sex industry. There were also reports of 6-8 year old children transporting drugs and 11-12 year
olds transporting guns. In Rocky Point and Old Harbour Bay, absenteeism in school was used to
estimate that about 2,000 students were street/working children.

Policy recommendations
Strategies
1- Employee and talent pool data
should be analysed by gender, age,
education level, location (rural
versus urban) and formal versus
informal sectors etc. to complement
economic analysis of productivity
and innovation

14

Proposed
responsibility
Led by JPC
Charles
Douglas
Collaborators:
STATIN
Carol Coy, PIOJ
Colin Bullock,
chair of HFWG,
JEF Brenda
Cuthbert, PSOJ
Janet
Morrison,
MLSS
Minister and
PS, UWI
specifically
Heather
Ricketts as

Think tank
15
support

Expected outcomes

TIPC esp. all


members of
HFWG, LMRC,
UWI esp.
Orville Taylor,
Edwin Jones,
Clement
Branche,
Silburn Clarke,
Danny Roberts,
UTECH,
ResearchGate
community,
Barrington
Robinson HR
consultant,
CAPRI,

Results should fill gaps in


knowledge for use in solutions,
such as:
- What are the relationships
between attitudes towards
productivity, performance and
organizational productivity
levels (non-economic
measures) analysed by age,
gender, sector, location,
education level etc.?
- What are the perceived pros
and cons and attitudes towards
formal and informal
employment, child labour and
youth employment analyses by
the same variables?
- How is success and
productivity defined and what

The impact of the social environment on Early Childhood Development and Survival , FINAL REPORT, Dudley
Grant Memorial Trust Resource Center Upgrading Project, M. Ramkissoon, October 2005
15
The idea of having a think tank to support each initiative is based on the fact that some persons contribute
effectively based on their knowledge base and analytical/critical thinking skills, while others are better at
implementation of ideas and coordinating efforts

18
Strategies

2-The talent pool is severely undereducated; reform the education


system in general, but at least to
educate and train the talent pool
based on findings of the consultants
report.
2a- Conduct separate focus groups
discussions with boys and girls in
schools, 10-13 years old, on career
options in formal and informal
sectors
2b- Create an effective strategy to
increase collaboration between
employers and schools to improve
school-work transition rates such as
internship programmes
2c- Create an effective strategy to
increase collaboration between
Child Development Agency (CDA)
and schools etc. to manage
exploitation of children and child
labour
2d- Community outreach
programmes should be funded by
the government to encourage out of
school males to get certified and
16

Proposed
responsibility
head of
16
SPSW

Think tank
15
support

Led by MOE
Minister of
Education and
PS

LMRC, TIPC esp.


HFWG and LMIS
WG, HEART/NTA,
UWI School of
Education, and
SPSW, CDA,
Caribbean Child
Development
Center, UN Envoy
to Jamaica

Collaborators:
LMRC
Marshall Hall,
HEART/NTA
Wayne
Wesley, MLSS
Minister and
PS, LMIS TIPC
chair, National
Youth Service,
MYC
Minister and
PS

Sociology, Psychology and Social Work

Expected outcomes
are the aspirations analysed by
same variables?
- What are the psychological
effects of precarious
employment on talent pool
members?
- What are the differences in
views on entrepreneurship
analysed by these variables?
- What are the variations in
productivity profiles of
employees at the intersection
of these variables? E.g., males
in the informal sector with a
degree versus females with
CXCs in administrative jobs?
- Are persons with postgraduate degrees absorbed
into the formal or informal
sectors and what is their
transition story?
Collaborations should result in:
- males performing better in
examinations
- females being encouraged to
explore entrepreneurship
- males being educated about
risks of informal employment
- males being encouraged to
seek education and training for
formal sector jobs and skilled
work
- more opportunities for youth
transitioning from school to
work
- strengthening of approaches
to prevent child labour and
education of child labourers

19
Strategies

Proposed
responsibility

Think tank
15
support

trained, and to educate them about


some of the negative effects of
informality as a value on which to
base their livelihood
3- Government needs to create
more and better jobs especially in
manufacturing, construction and
mining
3a- More opportunities for youth
employment should be created as
well

All of the above

Expected outcomes

20

Chapter 2: Independent thought and governance


Dependency
i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

Speaking about post-emancipation society and the imperative to develop independence and
freedom for development, Lloyd Best wrote: How could we, in defense and defiance, not have
assumed a whole new identity? How could we, on that basis alone, not have become
entrepreneurs in human development, innovating and creating anew, in the mere act of
survival?17. Overall, Best proposed an ideology of self-responsibility and independent thought
as a means through which Caribbean states could attain freedom, charting a course of individual
self-determination and emancipation from other-determined behaviours. Without individual
ambition, drive and self-determination, any environment which is pregnant with opportunities
for self-development and personal growth would not be exploited.18
Development as freedom requires removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as
tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation, neglect of public
facilitates as well as intolerance of over-activity of repressive states19
New World thinkers argued that the root of the Caribbean development problmatique lay in
epistemic dependence, the reliance of regional elites on imported concepts and theories of
limited relevance to actual conditions in the region. They proposed the creation of a Caribbeancentred cosmology and theory of society derived from historical study: the epistemic
decolonization of the region.20
You cant lead your country to Independence wearing a waistcoat (Lloyd Best)

Policy recommendations
Strategies
1- Independent thought, selfresponsibility, integrity and freedom
should be considered for addition to
the list of core values for Jamaicans
in Vision 2030 if consultations deem
22
them applicable .
1a- Consultations should be held
with a wide cross-section of
Jamaicans.
1b- Definitions of these terms should
17

Proposed
responsibility
Led by PIOJ
Colin Bullock
(then
approved by
Cabinet)
Collaborators:
Min. of Youth
and Culture
Minister and
PS

Think tank
21
support

Expected outcomes

Brian Meeks,
Denis Benn,
Edwin Jones,
Center for
Caribbean
Thought,
conscious
reggae artistes,
Bob Marley
Foundation

Any campaigns promoting


national values and positive
attitudes will include
promotions of these additional
values, which may then have a
positive impact to reduce
foreign-mindedness, braindrain, civic disengagement,
increase calls for greater
transparency and reduced
corruption, greater collective

Best (1967)
Silburn Clarke, (November, 1995). Jamaican Constitutional Reform Issues.
19
Sen (1999). Development as freedom
20
Norma Girvan, Caribbean dependency thought, revisited
21
The idea of having a think tank to support each initiative is based on the fact that some persons contribute
effectively based on their knowledge base and analytical/critical thinking skills, while others are better at
implementation of ideas and coordinating efforts
22
Honesty may be subsumed under integrity
18

21
Strategies
be generated using the references
cited above and other global sources
and meanings.
2- The teaching of civics in primary
schools should be extended into
secondary schools and reinforced
throughout the curriculum.

Proposed
responsibility

Led by MOE
Minister and
PS, amina
blackwood
meeks

Think tank
21
support

Expected outcomes

representatives

participation in nation building


initiatives etc.

Same

22

Chapter 3: Cultural values and practices


Post-colonial value system
i.

ii.

Carl Stones analysis of Jamaican society23 paints a dismal picture in relation to cultivating
productivity values. He stated that for each historical period, we need to identify how far the
core values are reinforcing the existing power structure and how far core values critique or
challenge that power structure to reform or change it (pg. 6)
The core values characterizing post-emancipation Jamaica are as follows, (excerpts from Stone)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Low self esteem among blacks


Deference to superiors
Conformist behaviour
Status and worth being defined mainly by ascribed rather than achievement values
Rigid moral and behaviour codes that attached a stigma to deviant behaviour
A pre-occupation with social status and recognition
Eurocentric values and strong psychological identity with Britain and colonial authority
symbols reinforced by belief systems that associated civilisation and refined culture with
things European
h. Acceptance of the authority and power of whites [Euro-centric Jamaicans] and lightskinned persons and their natural right to be dominant
i. Acceptance of inegalitarian values derived from a strong master-servant social ideology
j. A strong sense of everyones entitlement to social justice derived from religious ethics
and morality and justification of defiant and rebellious behaviour where social justice is
defined.
k. Strong identity with family and community
l. Admiration for the brave few who beat the system of this rigid social order by being
clever, cunning and street wise in finding loopholes in and around the system
m. Great admiration for education and educators but tempered by the notion that only a
few blacks had the brains to assimilate much of it
iii.

The newer core values and features of Jamaican society which he identified are as follows
(excerpt from Stone):
a. Paternalism and deference to superiors have declined as all groups now compete for
social space in this more open and competitive social order.
b. Strong strivings for upward social mobility and improved life chances have replaced
acceptance by the poor of their poverty
c. Large scale upward social mobility has resulted in blacks constituting a majority of the
countrys upper middle professional, technical and managerial class. But these upwardly
mobile blacks have yet to behave with the authority and confidence of the traditional
white and light skinned elite or to gain full legitimacy or acceptance of their authority by
the more disadvantaged black majority.

23

Stone, C. (1992). Values, norms and personality development in Jamaica.

23
d. Black self-esteem has grown and the lower classes have begun to display greater selfacceptance, confidence and aggression in their dealings with the upper and middle
classes
e. In sports and entertainment there has been a flowering of creative talent reflecting a
new sense of self-acceptance, confidence and positive self-images at the base of the
society. Entertainers, artistes, sportsmen and sportswomen come increasingly from
lower income households. Forms of creative expression increasingly reflect local culture,
values and styles rather than imitation of foreigners. This new self-confidence is
expressed in the creative outpourings of popular drama, reggae music and new dance
forms
f. There is a massive demand for expanded training and educational opportunities that
runs far ahead of the growth of the expanded education system leading to a deep sense
of frustration
g. Behaviour styles of deference and docility have been replaced by aggression,
assertiveness and competitiveness (added emphasis)
h. Rampant individualism has replaced and weakened the strong family bonds and
community ties of the past, thereby weakening the traditional mechanisms of social
control (added emphasis)
i. Exposure to new ideas and modes of behaviour through new exposure to mass
communication media and large scale foreign travel have undermined the rigidly
conformist behaviour patterns and have created a social climate supportive of a greater
diversity in styles and modes of behaviour
j. New notions of egalitarianism have challenged the traditional master-servant ideology
and modified relations between the classes and ethnic groups
k. The majority strives after more power and to unburden itself of the legacy of being
marginalised and strongly identifies with political parties, leaders and political
personalities supportive of that aspiration.
l. Violence and aggression are increasingly justified as legitimate responses to injustice
and social oppression, resulting in increased social violence.
m. Rigid behaviour codes give way to a great diversity of behaviour modes and styles and
a tendency towards experimentation and deviant behaviour. Taken to extremes this
syndrome manifests itself in a drift towards lawlessness and indiscipline and a refusal
to conform to rigid standards and rules of behaviour. (added emphasis)
n. Status respectability based on speech patterns, modes of dress, old school ties from
high status high schools, light skin colour and high educational attainment have declined
in importance as money has become the dominant currency defining social rank and
status (added emphasis)
o. New sources of wealth and income have opened up the rigid and closed class and racial
structure of the past and created more diverse middle and affluent classes with very
pluralistic values, norms, behaviour styles among the lower classes

24
p. In the past the lower classes invariably tried to imitate the upper classes to get
recognition and status. In this new social order the younger generation among the elite
and the middle class are imitating behaviour styles among the lower classes
q. As competing old and new values create a climate of social disequilibrium and
weakened authority systems, violence and capacity for violence has emerged as a major
mode of articulating power, hence the power, influence and prestige of inner-city dons
and drug dealers
r. Overall, goal fulfilment at the base of the society has declined as aspirations for a better
life have run far ahead of the social and economic opportunities, leading to increased
political and social disaffection and a view of the new social order as promoting social
injustice and oppression combined with resentment against those who visibly display
symbols of success and affluence
s. This has been compounded by the failure of the economy to grow over the past 20
years and the failure of both government and corporate private sector to expand fast
enough to accommodate the employment, income and welfare needs of the majority.
As a result, a huge underground economy based on drugs, contraband imports, buying
and selling and self-employed occupations has emerged as the major growth sector of
the economy and it thrives on corruption, lawlessness and illegality, creating serious
problems for law and order and efforts to regulate behaviour in the society (added
emphasis)
t. Strong institutions, the enforcement of rules of behaviour, sanctions against rule
breakers, strong leadership and the strengthening of authority systems in all domains
and social space are required to stabilize the new social order but they are
conspicuously absent in most areas of social space from schools, to sports, to politics,
to entertainment, to law enforcement and to religion, community affairs and the
workplace environment.
Lawlessness and the tendencies towards anarchy,
indiscipline and weak control of behaviour plague organizational performance,
productivity, resource use and efficiency in virtually all domains of social space.
(added emphasis)
u. Large scale emigration has weakened the traditionally strong family bonds between
mothers and children and has undermined the nurturing and parenting associated with
family life, leading to the emergence of more aggressive, violent and criminal tendencies
throughout the society.
v. The dominance of money as the single most important currency of influence, power and
status and the decline of respectability as a status defining factor have promoted
increased and rampant corruption both in government and in the private sector
corporate world.
w. These profound changes in values, norms and modes of behaviour in all domains of
social space have undermined the old authority systems without giving birth to a strong
new and legitimate social order. The old order is still crumbling but new and coherent
authority systems have not emerged to replace it.

25
x. The masses or majority classes feel marginalised by the evident concentration of wealth
and economic power in the hands of the dominant elite families and ethnic minorities.
y. The undeveloped new social order is laying to waste most of the enormous talent and
creative energies that are abundant at the base of the society among the majority
classes because it has failed to expand opportunities for human development and to
harness and make use of this talent in the building of a stronger nation and more
viable economic base. (added emphasis)
z. The new social order increased the flow of information to people and stimulated a
heightened and keen interest in public affairs. This increased the potential to develop
greater and deeper channels for democratic participation but there has been a
reluctance by the elite and the political powerbrokers to undertake far reaching
democratic political reforms to facilitate this. (added emphasis)
iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

viii.

ix.

24

There is a tension between African and European cultural norms and value systems in todays
society which is the product of slavery and colonialism.24 This duality and ambivalence
reinforced the historical African fictional character Anancy who used methods like play acting,
joking and trickery to achieve his goals.25
As a consequence of the double bind, Jamaican society is also described as striving to hold itself
together or to complete its creation and to push past its debilitating history through strengths
forged out of constant struggle (Brathwaite, 1974).
The structural/ functional instability of the society, the ambiguities introduced into it through
the plural framework and the persistent poverty and low status of the overwhelming majority of
is numbers, led/leads, according to most of those who have written on this, to social and
individual disnomia: inhibiting growth, change and the realization of identity. (p. 6)
todays disorder [is not] channelled through political processes informed by a vision of the
future which is collectively shared. Rather, it is the spontaneous result of individualistic antisocial behaviour sanctioned by the morality of the free market that is more aptly described as a
social implosion (Witter and Lindsay, 1996, xxii, in Weis, 2005)26
Jamaican post-colonial society has strong individualism that contributes more to clashes of
interest in interpersonal relations than to co-operative activity; the exploitative tradition that
prevents cooperative decision-making and associative productive effort, and the tendency for
the masses to emulate the ethics of this higher in the social order and aspire to a great house
lifestyle with characteristic high propensities to consume imported luxuries and to invest in nonproductive assets (Beckford, 1972, 216-17, in Weis 2005, pg. 131).
Jamaican society is characterized as having crisis management mode of economic planning,
the hardening and atomisation of social ethics; the factorialization of ghetto communities by

Brathwaite, E. K. (1974). Caribbean man in space and time: A bibliographic and conceptual approach. Austin,
Texas: Savacou Publications.
25
Marshall, E. Z. (2012). Anansi's journey: A story of Jamaican cultural resistance. University of the West Indies
Press.
26
Weis, T. (2005). A precarious balance: Neoliberalism, crisis management, and the social implosion in
Jamaica. Capital & Class, 29(1), 115-147.

26

x.
xi.

xii.

xiii.

xiv.

xv.
xvi.

xvii.

27

both politics and the drug trade; the rise of a security complex (i.e. the militarization of police
forces and the proliferation of private security enterprises); and the derogatory, migrationaspiring youth culture (Weis, 2005, pg. 117)
Patterson (2000) also states that Jamaican youth are foreign-minded and are influenced by
American media (in Weis, 2005)
In a case study of Jamaica, Jones (2015) describes the public service culture as essentially
conservative, more committed to gradualism in politico-administrative action and with a strong
predilection to bureaucracy.27
National values impact the extent to which CEOs have control over actions in their firms. CEOs in
America have more impact on their firms performance than those in Japan and Germany
(Crossland and Hambrick, 2007). The US cultural value system has a more individualism and less
uncertainty avoidance compared to the other two countries.
Data collected from the late 60s to early 70s28 showed that Jamaica was low on power distance:
(score of 45) which means that the following characterised the Jamaican style29: Being
independent, hierarchy for convenience only, equal rights, superiors accessible, coaching leader,
management facilitates and empowers. The interpretation is that power is decentralized,
managers count on the experience of their team members and employees expect to be
consulted. Control is disliked and attitude towards managers are informal and on first name
basis. Communication is direct and participative. Some of these results may not be applicable
for contemporary Jamaican society.
Jamaica had a low preference for avoiding uncertainty. In other words, people believe there
should be no more rules than are necessary and if they are ambiguous or do not work they
should be abandoned or changed. Schedules are flexible, hard work is undertaken when
necessary but not for its own sake, precision and punctuality do not come naturally, innovation
is not seen as threatening.
The LMRC process positions Cultural Change as the first action item in its Path to Labour
Market Reform.
Vision 2030 (pg. 89, chapter 3) states that we recognize that a positive sense of self and prosocial and transformative values such as respect for others and their rights, punctuality, honesty
and tolerance for the differences between us are essential to the maintenance of harmony and
a productive environment. It also notes that values are learnt, taught, enduring, morally
desirable, and a basis for action (pg. 89)
The Values and Attitudes Secretariat (2002) advocated the following core values:
n. Respect
o. Honesty and truthfulness
p. Forgiveness and tolerance
q. Fairness

Edwin Jones, (2015). Contending with Administrivia: Competition for Space, Benefits and Power. Kingston:
Arawak Publications.
28
Geert Hofstede, Cultures consequences: International differences in work-related values.
Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1980.
29
http://geert-hofstede.com/jamaica.html

27

xviii.

xix.

xx.

xxi.

xxii.

r. Discipline
s. Responsibility
t. National pride
u. Love/ compassion
v. Cooperation
w. Punctuality
x. Good work ethic
The National Transformation Programme (NTP), branded as Fresh Start Jamaica, was launched
in 2009 and aimed to mobilise, co-ordinate and energise a process of positive renewal for the
Jamaican people, by the Jamaican people. It was designed to be a non-partisan initiative with
collaborators from the state, church, private sector and civil society. The NTPs focus was on
moral, social and economic interventions and inculcating the 12 select national core values and
attitudes necessary for individual prosperity, community development and sustainable growth
of the national economy.30
The NTP should have involved a communication programme, technology-based coordination,
and appropriate monitoring and evaluation strategies. In the Medium Term Social Policy
Framework 2009-2012 (PIOJ), no estimated cost or completion date were identified to
determine how core values should be communicated or inculcated (pg. 135)
The Students for Transformation Jamaica Facebook page, which was launched in 2008 as the
youth outreach arm of the National Transformation Programme, made its last post on May 4,
2014. It announced that a new project was coming soon in April 2013, but no further details
were shared. There appeared to be more activity on the page in 2012.
A 2006 case study of Jamaicas Values and Attitudes campaign concluded that barriers to the
success of the programme included lack of visibility of the programme, insufficient funding, and
negative perceptions of political leadership31
A disproportionate amount of effort has been allocated to cultural heritage, Brand Jamaica and
sport, compared to promoting core/transformative values and family in Jamaica.

Policy recommendations
1) Research on contemporary values is required to better understand the cultural landscape, and how
this relates to productivity and performance. The JPC, in collaboration with research institutions,
STATIN, and PIOJ should commission a study of national values and attitudes, especially as they
relate to productivity and performance at the individual, firm and community levels.
2) The JPC should create a post for an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist or Organizational
Behaviour Specialist who can use the psycho-socio-cultural framework to conduct analyses into
human factors affecting productivity, complementing the current work of the JPC. The JPC should
adopt such a framework into their analysis of productivity and output. Without this complementary
paradigm addition, the JPCs stated priority objectives of promoting a national productivity30

http://jis.gov.jm/transformation-programme-introduces-fresh-start-jamaica/
Grey, Sandra Melissa Nicola. "Social capital formation: A case study of the Jamaican values and attitudes
campaign." Social and Economic Studies (2008): 149-170.
31

28
conscious culture and building productivity-driven private and public sector organizations may only
be partially achieved.
3) Re-visit Vision 2030: the government should increase support for the following Vision 2030
strategies:
a) Infuse the teaching of core values in all areas of the education system
b) Use media to promote core values through programming
c) Facilitate psychosocial healing in communities
d) Build parenting capacity
4) A. Success with integrity media campaign this initiative should be funded by the government to
empower the following groups/agents to promote productivity and integrity, as well as other
positive national values. The Ministry of Youth and Culture should be the governments
representative on this project. Change agents would serve as ambassadors. They should be initially
identified by the LMRC, but then be subject to popular election using a highly transparent system to
identify voters and evaluate ambassadors. Ambassadors may include but are not limited to:
Sportsmen and women (e.g., Bolt, Fraser)
Media personalities community leaders and organizations (e.g., Smile Jamaica hosts,
radio DJs, Rotary clubs, churches)
Youth and children
NGOs (especially related to youth development)
Successful entrepreneurs in the public and private sector (e.g., Yaneek Page, Gary
Matalon, Silburn Clarke, Trevor Munroe, Deane Shepherd)
Educators and advocates (e.g., Prof. Verene Shepherd, Prof. Elsa Leo Rhynie)
Successful professionals in the diaspora
Professional and technical societies and associations
The concept is that with the currently diminished perception of political leadership and general
societal distrust, the campaign has a better chance of being impactful if led by change leaders in
other sectors of the society, but funded by the government. The media campaign needs to also
take full advantage of all social media outlets and ICT. A coordinator to manage the
collaborations is needed. Integrity is the primary value underpinning this campaign. All
ambassadors should have publicly recognized and trusted reputations of integrity. A significant
aspect of the campaign will highlight positive stories of success through integrity and other
values to combat the negative myths, perceptions and values.
Examine the Digicel be extraordinary brand for ideas on promoting integrity-related
values.
Put out a tender for private contractors of campaign development and implementation.
B. Creative fund raising i. The Ministry of Youth and Culture should fund a representative to attend the Bahamas Social
Media Summit 2016 scheduled to take place April 5th, 2016 at Grand Lucayan in Freeport, Grand
Bahama Island (or a similar event). The theme is Maximizing profits through Social Media, will
feature New York Times Best-selling author Joel Comm who will address internet fund-raising

29
through New Media, Twitter and Periscope. John Cornetta, who has been named one of the top 12
Internet marketers in the world, speak about generating profits through Facebook while Jocelyn
Jones will present on creative ways to earn money through Instagram. LinkedIn expert Gary Kissel
will talk on how to optimize your LinkedIn profile for success and Mitch Carson and David Mackey
will present on video marketing through YouTube and how to produce for YouTube. Attending this
event should generate ideas and contacts for creating effective campaigns that can be financially
self-sustaining.
ii. Options like Mobile Money, WhatsApp commerce should be explored to fund the Success with
integrity campaign
iii. The campaign managers should seek to collaborate with Digicel, Scotia Bank and International
Finance Corporation (World Bank Group) to determine if the Tcho Tcho Mobile service can be used
in the campaign. This m-banking service operates in Haiti, and recently won the 2011 Consumer
Service Innovation Award from Global Telecoms Business Magazine.
iv. The LMRC should consider the potential of crowdfunding for the campaign. According to a
Forbes.com contributor, crowdfunding websites promoting crowdfunding campaigns of all types
raised $US 5.1 billion dollars in 2013. However, crowdfunding depends a great deal on established
trust.
v. Volunteer programme: the idea here is that talent is underutilized because of general apathy,
despair and disengagement in the population32, 33. A state-of-the-art volunteer campaign and
programme can provide talent at low or no cost for the campaign. CUSO International should be
examined as a volunteer programme model. A coordinator to manage the collaborations is needed.
vi. There is also the potential for a small portion of remittances to go towards the campaign.
5) Non-governmental support
A. Youth and child-based change programmes these programmes can be quite persuasive and
should also assist with guiding future generations.
B. Grass-roots initiatives community-based initiatives for productivity may reach more members of
the talent pool who are in precarious positions, rather than formal or organization-based initiatives.
6) Models of campaigns for examination
A. Respect Jamaica
B. Yes we can
C. Man in the mirror
D. Top 15 media campaigns of the 21st Century (http://adage.com/lp/top15/#intro)

32

Silburn Clarke, (November, 1995). Jamaican Constitutional Reform Issues.


Views recently echoed in newspaper articles: The joke is on us Empty promises and pathetic, outdated antics
Adiel Thomas, Thursday, February 11, 2016, Jamaica Observer; Ian Boyne: Roll Call For The Uncommitted, February
14, 2016, The Gleaner
33

30

Chapter 4: Interpersonal relationships


Personal sensitivities
i.

ii.
iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

34

Caribbean people pay more attention to the interpersonal relationships in the workplace than
the work itself. Interpersonal relationships are the basis of the organizing experience. People
engage in micro-plays of power. Institutions and formal structures are constantly disrupted by
the personal and interpersonal challenges (Branche, n.d.).
There is both psychological and cultural informalism in Jamaican workplaces (Branche, n.d.)
In the colonial world, the emotional sensitivity of the native is kept on the surface of the skin
like an open sore which flinches from the caustic agent; and the psyche shrinks back, obliterates
itself and finds outlet in muscular demonstrations which have caused certain very wise men to
say that the native is a hysterical type.34
the colonization of the body and of the material world is also always, the colonization of
psychic space35. What this means is that we are particularly prone to taking things personally,
recognition and respect are extremely significant to our sense of self, and that power-over is
desired, rather than power-with
In a study of 351 individuals diagnosed as having a personality disorder who visited a
psychiatrist in Jamaica (47.3% male and 53.7% female), (83.5% born and raised in Jamaica),
(mean age of 33.92 years), results of factor analysis of phenomenological features of the
disorders identified five components: psychosis, major depression, power management
problems, psychosexual issues, and physiological dependency.36 The authors propose a novel
Axis I unitary concept of problems with impulse control and authority and conflict management
as its replacement (p. 260)
Based on a study of employees at a large institution of higher education in Jamaica:37
a. Perceptions of defensive culture environment negatively impact feelings of
psychological safety in the workplace
b. Employees who display more self-serving defensive behaviours have less of a desire to
share knowledge with their colleagues; employees with an adaptive ego defense style
have a stronger desire to share knowledge
c. Employees with stronger maladaptive defense styles exhibit more self-serving defensive
behaviours
d. Employees who dealt with conflicts, stresses and anxiety in a more positive way
engaged in more innovation at work

Fanon (1968), Wretched of the Earth, pg. 56


Kelly Oliver (), The Colonization of Psychic Space: a psychoanalytic social theory of oppression
36
Hickling FW, Paisley V. Redefining personality disorder: a Jamaican perspective. Rev Panam Salud
Publica. 2011;30(3):25561.
37
Ramkissoon, M. Doctoral dissertation, 2014: Exploring individual defensiveness, psychological safety and
employee learning activities at a university in Jamaica
35

31

Social networks
i.

ii.

iii.
iv.
v.

vi.

vii.
viii.

ix.

x.

The AmericasBarometer 2014 survey shows that for Jamaica, levels of interpersonal trust
have been somewhat stable, with changes statistically insignificant over all periods, except for a
decline between 2012 and 2014 (pg. 154)38. Average score on interpersonal trust from 2006 to
2014 was 58.4 out of 100 points (a little more than half).
However, results showed a negative and statistically significant relationship between citizens
level of trust in one another and perception of insecurity. On the other hand, neighbours
willingness to help, getting along with neighbours, wealth and age were positively related to
interpersonal trust.
The results also showed that 73% of Jamaicans believed that most people would try to take
advantage of you if they got the chance (pg. 204)
Approximately 90% say that you can never be too careful in dealing with people in the
government (pg. 205)
Nearly two thirds of Jamaicans (61.7%) say their lived experience is a you-or-me one,
implying that the dominant mode of perception for them most of the time is a zero-sum one.
Only about a third (38.3%) indicates that they perceive the social world to be a cooperative
you-and-me one (pg. 208). The authors argue that this context is hostile to building social
capital and trust in Jamaican society between citizens and government, labour and management
etc.
Malaysias Prosper Thy Neighbour campaign is credited with aiding social transformation and
supporting that societys present cohesiveness and economic success39. Successes of the
campaign and policies include increased efficiency and competitiveness generally.
Currently, lack of collaboration among institutions is hindering attempts of TIPC sub-groups
(LMIS) to achieve their goals
The national MSME Entrepreneurship policy (2013) noted that there needs to be greater
collaboration among all the key stakeholders at all levels nationwide for the provision of training
and development services for MSMEs.
Despite numerous calls for increased collaboration and despite numerous meetings, individuals
and organizations continue to operate in silos because they lack collaborative skills and
intentions
The impact of the LMRC may be significantly diminished if lack of collaboration results in its
policy recommendations not being implemented in a coherent manner across all relevant
organizations.

Employer-employee relations
Based on the Global Competitiveness Report for 2015-16:

38

Harriott, Lewis and Zechmeister (2015)


Yean, T. S., & Teng, K. K. (2007). Prosper-Thy-Neighbour Policies: Malaysia's Contributions after the Asian
Financial Crisis. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 24(1), 72-97.
39

32
i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

Cooperation in labour-employer relations was identified as a significant problem with a global


rating in the 6th decile (global ranking of 75 out of 140), although it is important to point out that
data came from executives rather than employees. Executives were asked In your country, how
do you characterize labour-employer relations? where 1 = generally confrontational to 7 =
generally cooperative. The score was 4.3.
Reliance on professional management was seen as a competitive advantage. Executives were
asked, In your country, who holds senior management positions? where 1 = usually relatives
or friends without regard to merit to 7 = mostly professional managers chosen for merits and
qualifications. The score was 4.6
Pay and productivity is viewed as a major detractor to competitiveness. Executives were asked
In your country, to what extent is pay related to employee productivity? where 1 = not at all
to 7 = to a great extent. The score was 3.4
Data also indicate some degree of brain drain. Executives were asked To what extent does your
country retain talent? where 1 = not at all the best and brightest leave to pursue
opportunities abroad to 7 = to a great extent the best and brightest stay and pursue
opportunities in the country. The score was 2.9.
In a Jamaican study based on data from several sectors including manufacturing, banking and
finance, health, education, transportation, utilities, services, agriculture and tourism conducted
in 1974 to 1988, 24% of the employees (N = ~10,800) described themselves as motivated, 3% as
highly motivated, 76% to be generally demotivated, 40% of whom were considered to be
marginally or irretrievably demotivated; reasons which workers cited as the source of their lack
of motivation included: lack of respect an recognition for workers by management, poor
communication, top-down decision making, poor opportunities for professional development,
and lack of trust in management.
In a national sample of 1,026 private sector workers from various industries including mining,
manufacturing, wholesale and retail, hotels/ restaurants, financial services and
communications/IT, only about 15% had negative attitudes towards working; 65.7% saw their
job as central to their lives; 49.3% were satisfied with opportunities for growth and
development on the job; 71.2% were satisfied with how they were treated by their supervisors;
and 62.8% were satisfied overall with their jobs; 36.9% agreed that management does not
really trust workers (30.6% were neutral on this question); 50.8% agreed that management has
a real interest in the welfare and happiness of employees.
In a sample of 150 private sector employees, autonomy-supportive work climate positively
predicted autonomous motivation40

Theoretical perspectives on building trust


i.
ii.

40

The community level is likely to transfer to the organizational level, and therefore affect the
workplace
Social capital is in the general sense, a measure for an actor of the value of his social
connections41

Briscoe, T., Masters research paper: Work Climate and Motivation in a Corporate Organization in Jamaica

33
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

vii.
viii.

ix.

Creating networks which tie organizations together can be useful for sharing information and
building social capital which leads to other benefits
Organizations in innovation networks form ties with new organizations rather than only
maintain ties with prior alliances so that they can benefit from diversity42
Social networks and social capital are difficult to build in low trust societies
Effective collaboration is not only necessary in order to thrive, it has become essential even to
survive, because organizations cannot compete externally if they cant first collaborate
internally.
Effective collaboration has become the fastest, easiest, most cost effective way to become more
competitive in the market place.
FIRO theory (Will Schutz) states that all individuals want to feel significant, liked and competent
in their relationships. Fulfilment of these needs is the basis of healthy relationships and
collaborations.
Psychological safety must be fostered in the workplace to ensure that employees concerns are
heard.

Policy recommendations
1. Conduct training workshops to build collaborative skills with key stakeholders from organizations
including but not limited to: Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN), Planning Institute of Jamaica
(PIOJ), Ministry of Labour and Social Security, Private Sector Organization of Jamaica, Jamaica
Productivity Center, HEART/NTA, leading institutions of higher education, Ministry of Youth and
Culture, Ministry of Education, LMRC, and trade unions (See appendix for detailed proposal).
2. Exploiting Caribbeanness in behaviour change programmes: change programmes that follow a
strictly formal approach are unlikely to be successful in changing the masses. Clement Branche
suggests that change agents work within the constraints of cultural and psychological informalism to
achieve buy-in for change. Jamaicans want a sense of ownership, empowerment and autonomy and
a sense that their self-interests will be served in any change programme. Giving a sense of power,
control and gain, while also promoting collective productivity and integrity may be more successful
than telling approaches from above. With respect to organization culture transformation, Edwin
Jones states that the ascendancy of a hybridized and ambivalent administrative culture is explained
as the product of contradictory socio-historical, organisational and contemporary interaction of
political and structural forces. In consequence, a highly sophisticated and modern wing of this
culture has been operating side by side with, but often separately from the colonial oriented
section. This operating cultural system accounts for various patterns of tensions, conflicts and other
bureaupathologies that create overarching problems for programmes of change and reform. The
nature of such overarching problems resides in cultural practices and legacies of direct and indirect

41
42

Kenis and Oerlemans


Kenis and Oerlemans

34

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

43

politicization, administrative sabotage, institutional corruption, various patterns of capacity


destruction, and new and old commitments to administrivia.43
Additional training: should include but is not limited to interpersonal skills, intra-personal skills,
emotional intelligence, and human resource development. All employees should have training in
emotional intelligence and conducting conversations, to assist with interpersonal conflict, starting
with those who have been identified as disruptive, combative/argumentative, non-team players,
and for those especially in occupations where they interface with internal and external customers
on a daily basis.
A national diagnostic tool is needed which allows educators and employers to assess both students
and employees on key psychological and soft-skill factors. This tool can be used in career coaching.
Additionally, to assist SMEs in selecting appropriate talent for their organisations, they should have
affordable access to low-cost tools for conducting psychometric tests, diagnosis and analyses of
recruits.
Organizational status reports including periodic assessments of engagement and climate should also
be conducted.
Given the prevalence of interpersonal challenges and stressors within the workplace and based on
global best practice, organizations should employ trained specialist professionals (e.g., HRD
consultants, Occupational Psychologists, I/O Psychologists) to deal with the psychological well-being
and health of employees in the workplace. The required work involves the diagnosis, study and
intervention into psychological issues at the levels of the employee and the firm. Depending on the
size of the organisation, these professionals may be in-house or outsourced.
Labour relations laws which protect employees (Whistleblowing Act, Official Secrets Act, Access to
Information Act, Employment Act etc.) must be enforced by the government so that employees do
not feel disempowered.

Edwin Jones, (2015). Contending with Administrivia: Competition for Space, Benefits and Power. Kingston:
Arawak Publications

35

Chapter 5: The leadership challenge


Challenges with leadership
i.

ii.

iii.

Columbia, Argentina, Guyana and Jamaica all have levels of reported corruption victimization
that are below the hemisphere average, but rank in the top seven countries where citizens
perceive that corruption is common among government officials44
a. Canada was lowest in perceived corruption victimization with 61.8%
b. Jamaica was in-between with 78.1%
c. Venezuela was the highest with 80.0%
the sense of trust in public institutions among Jamaicans is generally low The army and the
mass media enjoy the highest level of trust, scoring approximately 66 and 61 points respectively.
Other institutions receiving marginally above 50 points were the Electoral Office and Supreme
Court. The institutions in which citizens expressed the least trust were the Police and Political
Parties, having received mean scores of about 33 and 34 respectively45
Public trust in politicians, and favouritism in decisions of governmental officials were seen as
major detractors to building strong institutions for competitiveness on a global level46

Theoretical perspectives
iv.

v.

44

Leadership is less about managing and more about inspiring, coaching and guiding. Leadership is
creating the guiding vision and direction, communicating and sharing the vision in a manner that
all the stakeholders will see it, buy into it and mobilise the staff to deliver.
Northhouse (1997) (in Russell and Stone, 2002) says that integrity incorporates honesty and
trustworthiness while Clawson (1999) (in Russell and Stone, 2002) states that the moral
foundation of leadership are essential values: truth-telling, promise-keeping, fairness and
respect for the individual.

Harriott, Lewis and Zechmeister, 2015, AmericasBarometer 2014 study. (p. 60)
LAPOP study, 2010. (p. 129)
46
Global Competitiveness Report, 2015-16
45

36

Table 13 - Management versus Leadership 47


MANAGEMENT
Planning and Budgeting:
Establishing detailed steps and timetables for
achieving needed results, then allocating the
resources necessary to make it happen.

Organizing and Staffing:


Establishing some structure for accomplishing
the planned requirements, staffing that
structure
with individuals, delegating
responsibility and authority for carrying out the
plan, providing policies and procedures to help
guide people and creating methods or systems
to monitor implementation.
Controlling and Problem Solving:

47

LEADERSHIP
Establishing Directions:
Developing a vision of the future- often the
distant future and the strategies for
producing the changes needed to achieve
the vision.
Aligning People:
Communicating directions in words and
deeds to all those whose cooperation may
be needed so as to create teams of coalition
that understand the vision and strategies
and accept their validity.

Motivating and Inspiring:

Monitoring results, identifying deviations from


the plan, then planning and organizing to solve
the problems.

Energizing people to overcome major


political, bureaucratic and resource barriers
to change by satisfying basic, but often
unfilled, human needs.

Produces a degree of predictability and


order and has the potential to
consistently produce short term results
expected various stakeholders (e.g. for
customers, always being on time; for
stock holders being on budget).

Produces Change often to a


dramatic degree and has the
potential to produce extremely
useful change (e.g. new products
that
customers
want,
new
approaches to labour relations that
help make the firm more
competitive).

Leading Change John P. Kotter

37

Table 14: Servant Leadership Attributes

48

Figure 1: Servant Leadership Model 49

48

Russell, R. F., & Gregory Stone, A. (2002). A review of servant leadership attributes: Developing a practical
model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 145-157.
49
Russell, R. F., & Gregory Stone, A. (2002). A review of servant leadership attributes: Developing a practical
model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 145-157.

38

Policy recommendations
1. Leadership training: leaders in both the public and private sector, but especially the public sector,
should be selected based on perceived and demonstrated reputations of integrity, in addition to the
other meritocratic principles. The Cabinet, PSOJ and Unions should be responsible for participation
and funding. Additionally, leaders should be measured on their leadership maturity levels and
receive coaching to develop their levels of maturity in leadership. The Leadership Development
Profile provides a detailed assessment and can categorize leadership style and behaviour as50:

Table 15 Leadership Styles and Action Logics


Action Logic

Key Characteristics Leadership style associated with each Action Logic

Opportunist

Wins any way


possible. Selforiented;
manipulative;
"might makes
right".

Short term horizon; focus on concrete things; deceptive;


rejects feedback; externalizes blame; distrustful; fragile selfcontrol; possibly hostile humor or "happy-go-lucky"; views
luck as central; views rules as loss of freedom; punishes
according to "eye for eye" ethic; treats what they can get
away with as legitimate. Seeks personal advantage: takes an
opportunity when it arises.

Diplomat

Avoids overt
conflict. Wants to
belong; obeys
group norm;
rarely rocks the
boat.

Observes protocol; avoids inner and outer conflict; works to


group standard; speaks in cliches and platitudes; conforms;
feels shame if they violate norm; avoids hurting others;
seeks membership and status; face-saving essential; loyalty
is to immediate group, not distant organization or principles.
Attends to social affairs of group and individuals. Provides
supportive social glue.

Expert

Rules by logic and


expertise.
Searches for
improvement and
rational
efficiency.

Is immersed in the self referential logic of their own belief


system, regarding it as the only valid way of thinking.
Interested in problem solving; critical of self and others
based on their belief system; chooses efficiency over
effectiveness; perfectionist; accepts feedback only from
"objective" experts in their own field; dogmatic; values
decisions based on the incontrovertible facts; wants to
stand out and be unique as an expert; sense of obligation to
wider, internally consistent moral order. Consistent in
pursuit of improvement. Strong individual contributor.

50

http://www.clevelandconsultinggroup.com/articles/leadership-development-profile.php

39

Achiever

Meets strategic
goals. Delivery of
results by most
effective means.
Success focused.

Effectiveness and results oriented; long-term goals; future is


vivid, inspiring; welcomes behavioral feedback; feels like
initiator, not pawn; begins to appreciate complexity and
systems; seeks increasing mutuality in relationships; feels
guilt if does not meet own standards; blind to own shadow,
to the subjectivity behind objectivity; seeks to find ways
around problems in order to deliver, may be unorthodox.
Adopts rather than creates goals.

Individualist

Innovates
processes.
Relativistic
position with
fewer fixed
truths. Self,
relationships and
interaction with
the system.

Focus on self and less on goals; increased understanding of


complexity, systems operating and working through
relationships; deepening personal relationships; takes on
different role in different situations; increasingly questions
own assumptions (part of rise in self absorption) and
assumptions of others; attracted by change and difference
more than by stability and similarity; increasingly aware of
own shadow.

Strategist

Creates personal
and
organizational
transformations.
Links between
principles,
contracts,
theories and
judgment.

Recognizes importance of principle, contract, theory and


judgment - not just rules and customs; creative at conflict
resolution; process oriented as well as goal oriented; aware
of paradox and contradiction; aware that what one sees
depends upon one"s world view; high value on individuality,
unique market niches, particular historical movements;
enjoys playing a variety of roles; witty, existential humor (as
contrasted to prefabricated jokes); aware of dark side of
power and may be tempted by it - may misuse their own
abilities and manipulate others. Post conventional.

Strategists have been shown to have excellent leadership records and impact on organizational
performance. Notably, three types of leaders were associated with below-average corporate
performance (Opportunists, Diplomats, and Experts) accounted for 55% of a sample of CEOs. They were
significantly less effective at implementing organizational strategies than the 30% of the sample who
measured as Achievers. Moreover, only 15% of managers in the sample (Individualists, Strategists, and
Alchemists) showed the consistent capacity to innovate and to successfully transform their
organizations.51

51

Rooke and Torbert, 2005 (HBR)

40

Chapter 6: Training in human resource development


Lack of training opportunities
i.

There is a significant deficiency in the availability of training in human resource development.


a. Development of skills and competencies which are relevant to addressing fundamental
human-factor issues facing organizations (leaders and employees) are not facilitated on a
wide-scale, regular or systematic basis, and therefore, these skills are scarcely available to
influence organizational outcomes, except where organizations specifically desire to include
them. Both leaders and employees lack the ability to recognize and characterize issues as
HRD issues. There is no wide-spread and ingrained acknowledgement of the significance of
developing human resources for enhancing productivity within organizations.
b. Jamaica Business Development Corporation (JBDC) provides business services, technical
services, marketing, research and project development etc.
c. Jamaica Employers Federation (JEF) offers programmes on managing emotions, workplace
etiquette, project management, events planning, occupational health and safety,
fundamentals of human resource management, planning and managing organisational
change, labour laws etc.
d. The Small Businesses Association of Jamaica (SBAJ) provides IT consulting, IT project
management, software implementation etc.
e. The Human Resource Management Association of Jamaica (HRMAJ) offers training in
administration, introduction to HRM, supervisory management etc.

Theoretical perspectives
i.
ii.
iii.

HRD training is a key driver of individual and organizational productivity


HRD is fundamentally distinct from human resource management
A psycho-socio-cultural framework is required to understand human behaviour in the workplace

Policy recommendations
Strategies

Proposed
responsibility

Expected outcomes

1- Put out tender for the services of an


HRD consultant to create a
comprehensive package of HRD training
options offered through the JPC. See
Appendix 2 for sample compendium of
training options.

Led by JPC
Charles
Douglas

- Management philosophies
of organizational leaders will
incorporate the well-being
and development of
employees

Collaborators:

- circulate package widely throughout

Olivene
Thomas and

- perceptions of and actual


unjust treatment may be

41
Strategies

Proposed
responsibility

Expected outcomes

public and private sector

Clement
Branche (UWI
Mona), JEF,
PSOJ, MSEC

reduced

- establish a formal network of providers


for this type of training
- create a central coordination hub
within the JPC to manage the network
alliances and to facilitate collaboration
among the providers. The central
coordination hub should have a web
portal to allow interface between
trainees, trainers and organizations.
- Examine model hubs like Mountain
States Employers Council in Denver
Colorado (MSEC)
- consult with the University of the West
Indies, Mona campus (HRD Unit in
Department of Sociology, Psychology
and Social Work) which already provides
graduate degrees in human resource
development, applied psychology and
organizational behaviour

- employees should feel more


engaged and empowered,
which may lead to greater
productivity

42

Chapter 7: Paucity of human factors data


Lack of human factors indicators nationally
i.

Labour Force Survey traditionally focused on underemployment although it has included the
informal sector recently.
JSLC focuses mostly on households and emphasizes poverty assessment.
Data on innovation and knowledge use are sometimes measured in terms of patents generated or
literacy rates rather than in terms of individual behaviour.
Lack of empirical support for the impact of human factor variables on productivity and innovation
result in these factors being neglected in planning and design of strategies to increase productivity
and innovation at the national level. Productivity continues to be viewed in mostly economic terms.

ii.
iii.
iv.

Theoretical perspectives
i.

A psycho-socio-cultural framework for understanding human behaviour in the workplace is required


to complement the current knowledge on productivity and innovation.

Policy recommendations
1. STATIN needs to include human factor variables in data collection procedures in surveys at the
national level in a regular and systematic manner. The JPC should collaborate with STATIN to design and
execute an annual survey on human factors which impact innovation and productivity. Both
organizations should consult with an HRD expert to inform the content of the survey. See Appendix 2 for
suggested human factor variables and items for the surveys.
2. Qualitative studies must also be extensively conducted using the critical incidents approach to create
and examine profiles of typical employees in various organizational contexts.52

52

McDonald, S. (2005). Studying actions in context: a qualitative shadowing method for organizational
research. Qualitative research, 5(4), 455-473.

43

Chapter 8: Learning organization approach


Learning organization model
Referring to the turnaround made by Jamaica Producers group (2002 2012), Lawrence (2015)53 stated
that:
i.

ii.

53

Firms in turnaround situations need appropriate managerial cognition to build and deploy
competitive resources profitably to recover from decline. The cognition is intensely
entrepreneurial to figure out ways to reverse decline and sustain recovery. (p. 30)
A firms ordinary capabilities are high-level organizational routines for deploying resources to
produce and sell goods and services. These capabilities become dynamic when firms
purposefully reconfigure and redeploy resources by sensing threats, seizing opportunities and
transforming organizational behaviour to cope with environmental changes. (p. 27)

Lawrence (2015), Enterprise transformation in the Caribbean.

44

Chapter 9: Social affirmation


Barriers to collective efficacy
i.

ii.
iii.

Most citizens report that they feel relatively powerless to affect outcomes or to make a political
difference. When asked if the average Jamaican citizen can have an influence on government
decisions or theres not much that people like you can do about how the country is run, 74%
of Jamaicans choose the latter (LAPOP study? Pg. 190).
64% feel that no matter which party you vote for, it wont make any difference in what
happens.
49% did however feel that by taking an active part in political and social affairs, the people can
influence events (pg. 191)

Figure 2 Voter participation in Jamaica, 1949-2011 54


100.0%
90.0%
80.0%

Percentage

70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
30.0%
20.0%
10.0%
0.0%

1949 1955 1959 1962 1967 1972 1976 1980 1983 1989 1993 1997 2002 2007 2011

Voter Turn-out 65.16 65.12 66.07 72.88 82.24 78.88 85.21 86.91 2.73% 78.38 67.68 65.42 59.06 60.40 53.17
VAP Turn-out 66.78 61.82 74.18 73.65 54.86 57.27 84.83 74.74 2.14% 58.96 44.67 48.77 50.89 49.56 46.18

54

Data from International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA),
http://www.idea.int/vt/countryview.cfm?CountryCode=JM. Voter Turn-out = The voter turnout as defined as the
percentage of registered voters who actually voted. VAP Turn-out = the voter turnout as defined as the percentage
of the voting age population that actually voted.

45
iv.

v.

vi.
vii.

viii.
ix.

In terms of perceived barriers to doing business, respondents saw the following as important in
descending order: inefficient government bureaucracy (16.4), corruption (10.5) and poor work
ethic in labour force (6.9)55.
Labour comes from the Latin word Laborem or Labor which means toil, trouble, hardship,
pain, fatigue. Late 14th century use of the word labor was associated with trouble, difficulty and
hardship. It is also associated with the word travail which means to endure pain and to suffer.
Labour is also originally associated with physical work, sometimes unskilled.
Labour is also used to represent a class of persons, and in this case, the antonym is
management. Labourers have less power and status in this usage, implicitly.
From a Hegelian philosophical perspective, although labouring can be self-defining and
liberating, it is enmeshed in a superordinate-subordinate relationship between a Lord and a
bondsman.
Modern trends tend to favour terms like Work (workers, workplace) and Employment
(employee, employers)
Australias Ministry was once named the Department of Employment and Workplace
Relations (currently dropped workplace relations in the title)

Theoretical perspectives
i.

ii.
iii.
iv.

v.

Social affirmation is a framework for Caribbean studies that emphasizes the process of positive
psycho-socio-cultural adaptation in the context of historical, structural and everyday challenges.
Social affirmation looks at a wide range of popular expressions and culture, as a fundamental
feature of the social affirmation process56 (pg. 3)
Social affirmation shifts the focus from distributive to collective power but maintains the
important of the two forms of power and of the interaction between them (pg. 3)
Promoting social affirmation strategies would be difficult in an environment of low trust.
Positive impact can result from name and label changes. Dignity is returned to individuals with
intellectual disabilities by discontinuing the labels retarded and handicapped. Using talent
management versus personnel management connotes attention to development and growth
and can publicly demonstrate a companys human resource philosophy.
"[A name change] sets the tone for a company as they evolve," (Brian White). "You wouldn't
make a change like that unless you were very confident in the strategy and where the company
was headed."

Policy recommendation
1. The title of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security should be changed to reflect a more positive
human growth and development orientation with respect to employees and their workplaces. The
55
56

Global Competitiveness Report, 2015-16


Branche (2007). Notes on social affirmation framework

46
LMRC should lead the dialogue with the Ministry about the name change. HRD consultants should
be consulted to advise on the name change as well.

47

Appendix 1
Workshop Proposal
Value of collaboration
As the worlds economies have become both more interdependent and more fragile, industry leaders are
recognizing that effective collaboration is not only necessary in order to thrive, it has become essential
even to survive, because organizations cannot compete externally if they cant first collaborate internally.
Effective collaboration has become the fastest, easiest, most cost effective way to become more
competitive in the market place.

Research support for enhancing collaborative skills


Radical collaboration (RC) is well-supported by scientific research.
One study showed that executives who were technically very competent, often brilliant, and who have
had a string of successes early in their careers, may still fail or be derailed, primarily because they had
interpersonal relationship problems and were unable to build strong collaborative working relationships
with other executives (see e.g., Capretta, Clark and Dai, 2008; Van Velsor and Leslie, 1995). It showed up
in a number of ways. They were not team players, they got defensive, were aloof and insensitive to
others, were not trustworthy, didnt communicate or listen well, or were seen by others as overly
ambitious. These are all classic behaviours that undermine effective collaboration.
Organizations where employees are effective at collaboration, including managing their emotions and
accepting feedback, tend to be significantly more creative and productive. This has a huge impact on the
bottom line. In more collaborative environments people feel safe enough to risk trying out new ideas. In
less collaborative organizations people tend to be risk avoidant because if they try something new and it
fails the result is that someone will be blamed. In more collaborative environments if someone tries
something new and it fails, the conversation is usually more about What can we learn from this? rather
than Who shall we blame?
The most definitive study of this was by John Kotter and Jim Heskett (1992), both from Harvard. In their
classic work Corporate Culture and Performance they started with over 200 corporations, from over 20
different industries, all listed on the NY Stock Exchange. Out of that 200+ companies they selected those
companies who had a clearly identifiable corporate culture that fit into one of two categories; a more
collaborative culture called a Supportive/Enhancing culture and a more adversarial non-collaborative
culture call Non-supportive/Non-enhancing culture. Then they compared the two groups over an 11 year
period regarding several factors like net income, revenue, stock price, etc. The results were staggering.
Over an 11 year period
Net income improved
Stock price grew
Revenue increased
Work force expanded

Enhancing Cultures
(Green Zone)
756%
901%
682%
282%

Non-enhancing Cultures
(Red Zone)
__________
1%
74%
166%
36%

48

While the Kotter & Heskett research is the most dramatic, the bottom line is that, generally speaking,
over time, companies skilled at collaboration outperform companies which are not skilled at
collaboration. Of course there are always exceptions to every general rule, but they are exceptions.
Analysis of post-workshop outcomes which was done by Professor Mayte Barba in 1999, focused on the
impact of open enrollment (RC) workshops over a 6 year period with participants from 9 different
countries. By focusing on learning the five key skills of Radical Collaboration, participants reported, on
average, the following gains:

A 49.5% increase in effectiveness in reducing their own defensiveness in conflicted situations.


A 44.8% increase in effectiveness at getting their interests met in conflicted situations.
A 31.5% increase in effectiveness at problem solving.
A 26.4% increase in effectiveness at building and maintaining climates of trust.

Programme content
The five skills of Radical Collaboration can be easily learned, practiced and make a big difference to any
organization in a very short period of time. This Radical Collaboration workshop is specifically focused
upon the concepts and five skills as outlined in the book Radical Collaboration: Five Essential Skills to
Overcome Defensiveness and Build Successful Relationships:

1. Collaborative Intention: Making a commitment to mutual success in working relationships.


2. Truthfulness: Creating a climate of openness that allows all people to feel safe enough to
discuss concerns, and raise difficult issues, dealing with them directly.
3. Self-Accountability: Individuals take responsibility for the circumstances of their lives, the
choices they make either through action or failing to act, and the intended and/or unforeseen
consequences of their actions.
4. Self-Awareness and Awareness of Others: Individuals commit to knowing themselves deeply
and are willing to explore difficult interpersonal issues. They seek to understand the concerns,
intentions, and motivations of others, as well as the culture and context of their circumstances.
5. Problem Solving and Negotiating: Individuals use problem solving methods that promote a
cooperative atmosphere. They avoid fostering subtle or unconscious competition internally
within the organization.

Learning objectives
This programme is focused on collaborative skill building. The specific objectives are to help participants:

Build collaborative skills


Gain understanding of the elements of building and maintaining long-term climates of trust
Develop skills establishing and solidifying partnerships and alliances
Learn about the dynamics of interpersonal relationships, particularly in conflicted situations
Practice problem solving in simulated and real-time situations
Gain personal insight into attitudes and behaviours in conflicted situations

Pedagogical approach

49
Participants learn best through active participation regarding issues that have direct relevance to their
lives, rather than listening to lectures. This workshop will be very experiential and hands-on with a direct
link back to the participants own lives. While there will be a few short presentations, most of the learning
will come from exercises, case simulations, interactions among participants, psychometric instruments,
and skillful debriefing sessions conducted by the trainers.

Materials for the workshop


Workshop materials will include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A Radical Collaboration participant workbook module


The Radical Collaboration book (English edition)
Case Simulations
The TLT Collaborative Skills Climate Survey (optional)
The FIRO Element B psychometric instrument

TLT Collaborative Skills Climate Survey (optional)


We suggest that the TLT Collaborative Skills Climate Survey be conducted with participants during the
month prior to the actual workshop. This is an on-line diagnostic survey measuring the five sets of
collaborative skills (Collaborative Intention, Truthfulness, Self-Accountability, Awareness of Self/Others
and Problem Solving/Negotiation) along two dimensions (Current and Desired). Research shows that high
scores on these skill sets are essential in situations where collaboration is necessary. It is both an
excellent diagnostic tool and an opportunity to measure and document collaborative growth over time.

Proposal for consideration


We propose to conduct a series of customized and shortened version of the Radical Collaboration
workshop to groups of up to 20 of key organizational leaders. The workshops will be two (2) days each.
The cost can be negotiated based on number of participants and needs of clients.
The clients will be responsible for providing airfare and reasonable hotel accommodation for 3 nights for
the core trainer. Additionally, the client is expected to provide suitably-equipped training rooms.
If, after experiencing the customized 2-day Radical Collaboration workshop, you believe that the
workshop is valuable, there can be negotiations around providing continuous training to leaders and
managers of the organizations through Dr. Ramkissoon.

Trainers
Jim Tamm
Jim Tamm is a former judge and an expert in building collaborative workplace environments, with 40
years of experience in the field of alliance building and conflict resolution. As a Senior Administrative Law
Judge for the State of California for 25 years Jim mediated almost 2,000 employment disputes. His legal
decisions have impacted national labour policy and he has authored training materials that have been
published in twelve languages.

50
The California Senate, the California Assembly and the California Public Employment Relations Board have
all recognized Jim for his work building more collaborative employment environments. His most recent
book, Radical Collaboration was on Amazon's top seller lists for workplace and negotiations books for
over a year.
He is a former law professor and is currently on the faculty of the International Management Program of
the Stockholm School of Economics, the Management Education Program at NASA, and the Leadership
Academy of the University of California, Santa Cruz. Jim has a diverse client base of international
organizations ranging from the United Nations, NASA, Toyota and Boeing, to universities and toy
companies.
Jim is one of the designers and original faculty members of a highly successful training program designed
to enhance collaborative work environments; a program that was underwritten by the Hewlett
Foundation and the State of California.
Jim is President of RC Group and is a senior consultant with the international consulting firm Business
Consultants Network with training partners in 18 countries. He specializes in building cultures of
collaboration within organizations and training other consultants and trainers how to teach collaborative
skills.

Marina Ramkissoon
Marina Ramkissoon was recently certified to deliver Radical Collaboration training (2015). She has
contributed to the UWI Monas Employee Engagement Initiative at the departmental, faculty, campus
and center levels. She has also volunteered her services to provide workshops to the UWI Mona
community through the HRMD Leadership Development programme and the Mona Change Makers
project. Marina teaches work motivation and organizational learning at the graduate level, as a member
of the Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work. Her experience and training at Mona spans
over 15 years. She is the Chair of the Human Factors Working Group, which is a sub-group of the TIPC.

51

Appendix 2
Compendium of Workshops
1. Radical Collaboration
Objectives:
This programme is focused on collaborative skill building. The specific objectives are to help participants:

Build collaborative skills

Gain understanding of the elements of building and maintaining long-term climates of trust

Develop skills establishing and solidifying partnerships and alliances

Learn about the dynamics of interpersonal relationships, particularly in conflicted situations

Practice problem solving in simulated and real-time situations

Gain personal insight into attitudes and behaviours in conflicted situations


Outline:
The five skills of Radical Collaboration can be easily learned, practiced and make a big difference to any
organization in a very short period of time. This Radical Collaboration workshop is specifically focused
upon the concepts and five skills as outlined in the book Radical Collaboration: Five Essential Skills to
Overcome Defensiveness and Build Successful Relationships:
1.
Collaborative Intention: Making a commitment to mutual success in working relationships.
2.
Truthfulness: Creating a climate of openness that allows all people to feel safe enough to
discuss concerns, and raise difficult issues, dealing with them directly.
3.
Self-Accountability: Individuals take responsibility for the circumstances of their lives, the
choices they make either through action or failing to act, and the intended and/or unforeseen
consequences of their actions.
4.
Self-Awareness and Awareness of Others: Individuals commit to knowing themselves deeply
and are willing to explore difficult interpersonal issues. They seek to understand the concerns,
intentions, and motivations of others, as well as the culture and context of their circumstances.
5.
Problem Solving and Negotiating: Individuals use problem solving methods that promote a
cooperative atmosphere. They avoid fostering subtle or unconscious competition internally within the
organization.
Designed for:

Anyone interested improving collaborative skills


Facilitator/Creator:
Jim Tamm
Jim Tamm is a former judge and an expert in building collaborative workplace environments, with 40
years of experience in the field of alliance building and conflict resolution. As a Senior Administrative
Law Judge for the State of California for 25 years Jim mediated almost 2,000 employment disputes. His
legal decisions have impacted national labour policy and he has authored training materials that have
been published in twelve languages.

52
The California Senate, the California Assembly and the California Public Employment Relations Board
have all recognized Jim for his work building more collaborative employment environments. His most
recent book, Radical Collaboration was on Amazon's top seller lists for workplace and negotiations
books for over a year.
He is a former law professor and is currently on the faculty of the International Management Program of
the Stockholm School of Economics, the Management Education Program at NASA, and the Leadership
Academy of the University of California, Santa Cruz. Jim has a diverse client base of international
organizations ranging from the United Nations, NASA, Toyota and Boeing, to universities and toy
companies.
Jim is one of the designers and original faculty members of a highly successful training program designed
to enhance collaborative work environments; a program that was underwritten by the Hewlett
Foundation and the State of California.
Jim is President of RC Group and is a senior consultant with the international consulting firm Business
Consultants Network with training partners in 18 countries. He specializes in building cultures of
collaboration within organizations and training other consultants and trainers how to teach
collaborative skills.
Follow-up training in this area:
1. The TLT Collaborative Skills Climate Survey can diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of
collaborative skills within your organization. The survey measures five skills found to be essential
in building and maintaining collaborative environments and relationships.
2. RC Training Certification Program

Contact information:
jimtamm@radicalcollaboration.com
R C Group LLC
James W. Tamm
401 Marina Blvd, South San Francisco, CA, United States 94080
Tel: 650-504-4559
JimTamm@RadicalCollaboration.com
www.RadicalCollaboration.com
Skype: jimtamm.rcgroup

http://www.radicalcollaboration.com/

53

2. Exploring Applied Creativity Workshop


Objectives:
This workshop offers participants a "taste" of the Simplexity Thinking System.
Outline:
Participants discover and learn:
The foundation creative thinking skills of divergence, convergence and deferral of judgment and
how transformational thinking works.
The difference between content and process in problem solving.
Their own unique problem solving style and how their individual preferences relate to others.
Designed for:
Anyone interested in learning about applied creativity
Facilitator/Creator:
Min Basadur, Founder
Dr. Min Basadur is Professor Emeritus of Innovation in the Michael G. DeGroote School of Business at
McMaster University and Founder of Basadur Applied Creativity. Dr. Basadur is a recognized world
leader in the field of applied creativity and specializes in organizational effectiveness, cost
improvements, innovation and problem solving.
His years of experience building creative thinking, innovation and problem solving capabilities across
organizations has helped numerous industry leaders, including Procter & Gamble, Frito-Lay, PepsiCo,
Goodrich and Pfizer increase employee engagement/effectiveness by using Simplexity Thinking and
Applied Creativity methods to improve costs and generate increased revenues. Dr. Basadur has recently
introduced a new online tool, the Basadur Creative Problem Solving Profile, which is helping
organizations build better teams and problem solving abilities.
His work is noted for its applicability and scalability within organizations. Dr. Basadur is the author of
two books on creativity, innovation and effective problem solving, The Power of Innovation and
Simplexity Thinking: A Flight to Creativity. He is the inventor of Simplexity Thinking and the NEW
Basadur Creative Problem Solving Profile for effective problem solving and team building. Basadur
Applied Creativity recently branched out helping healthcare institutions reduce wait times, optimize
results and substantially reduce costs through its Basadur Health division.
Follow-up training in this area:
Introduction to Applied Creativity Workshop
This is both a mind awakening experience as well as a skills development workshop. Individual and
group innovation skills and terminology are experienced at a concrete, person-to-person, table-top
level.
Level I: Using Applied Creativity Workshop

54
People who work in organizations are constantly faced with change issues and ill-structured problems.
This workshop builds skills in proactively seeking out problems and opportunities and implementing
creative solutions on the job.
Level II: Leading Applied Creativity Workshop
Participants build skills in facilitating small groups through the Simplexity Thinking process and gain a
deeper grasp of the Simplexity Thinking system, preconsulting, meeting roles, phases, group dynamics
and debriefing.
Level I & II: Using and Leading Applied Creativity Workshop
This special workshop combines all aspects of Simplexity Thinking Level I and Level II outlined above.
This five-day workshop first builds individuals skills in proactively seeking out problems and
opportunities and implementing creative solutions on the job.
Accelerated Intensive Level I & II: Using and Leading Applied Creativity Workshop
This special workshop is especially designed for smaller groups and combines all aspects of Simplexity
Thinking Level I and Level II outlined above. This three-day workshop first builds individuals skills in
proactively seeking out problems and opportunities and implementing creative solutions on the job.
Level III: Integrating Applied Creativity
Deepen your skills in using Simplexity Thinking to permanently change how you and others think and
behave on a daily basis. Supporting and inducing new innovative skills is a critical role for thought
leaders at every level.
Online Simplexity Thinking Level I e-Workshop
Our online Simplexity Thinking E-Learning workshop is the equivalent to our Level I: Using Applied
Creativity workshop. Although the online version of the workshop does not provide the same level of
real-time involvement and interaction with fellow participants it makes up for it through the detailed
feedback provided by our expert coaches.
The Basadur Creative Problem Solving Profile Inventory (CPSP) Certification Workshop
Certified users are trained and authorized to purchase and administer the Basadur Creative Problem
Solving Profile Inventory as both a training and development device, and a research instrument.
Contact information:
Basadur Applied Creativity
1850 Old Waterdown Road
Burlington, ON Canada
L7P 0T2
Phone: 1-905-690-4903, Toll Free: 1-888-88SOLVE, Fax: 1-905-689-7510, http://www.basadur.com/

55

3. CEO Roundtable
Objectives:
Our mission is to harness the power of the private sector, leveraging local resources and capabilities to
drive economic growth and working with businesses that are capable of creating real change in their
industry and their economy.
Outline:
Within these two areas of specialization, we help CEOs develop strategies to improve their business and
create market connections. We encourage clients who are seeking investment to complement this
pursuit with internal business and marketing strategies to bolster operations, efficiency and
transparency. We also help our clients look outside their business to build important partnerships, enter
new markets, make new relationships, and punch above their weight within their industry.
Designed for:
The CEO Roundtable is searching for business leaders and CEOs who are progressive, innovative
and agile.
Facilitator/Creator:
Julie Kennedy, CEO
Julie started her career as an entrepreneur, founding and leading AMERICA SCORES, a US-based
educational non-profit organization. She has since built her career managing international projects in
two spheres: those that support the role of the private sector and local markets in fostering sustainable
economic growth, and those that addressed populations living in extreme poverty across the developing
world.
Julie specializes in offering strategic support for firms undergoing reorganization, launching new
products, entering new markets, and seeking external sources of financing for stabilization, expansion,
and growth. She also specializes in helping her clients build robust relationships with external partners.
A native of Canada, Julie speaks French and Spanish.
Contact information:
info@kinesisconnect.com
New York City, USA
+1 646-590-3903
http://www.kinesisconnect.com/

56

Appendix 3
Potential measures/scales for HF module
(Note that some items will have to be reverse-coded)

Construct

Item

Definition

Collaboration

Members treat each other like they


belong to one system

Sullivans approach, which defines


collaboration as a dynamic, transforming
process of creating a power-sharing
partnership . . . for purposeful attention
to needs and problems (practice) in order
to achieve
likely successful outcomes. (In Orchard et
al 2012)

Collaboration

Members communicate frequently with


each other

Collaboration

Communication is characterized by
mutual trust

Collaboration

Consensus is reached on all decisions

Horizontal
individualism

I'd rather depend on myself than others

Horizontal
individualism

I rely on myself most of the time

Horizontal
individualism

I often do "my own thing."

Horizontal
collectivism

If a co-worker gets a prize, I would feel


proud

Horizontal

The well-being of my co-workers is

Seeing the self as fully autonomous, and


believing that equality between
individuals is the ideal.

Seeing the self as part of a collective but


perceiving all the members of that
collective as equal.

57
collectivism

important to me

10

Horizontal
collectivism

I feel good when I cooperate with others.

11

Adaptive
defense style

Im usually able to see the funny side of


an otherwise painful predicament.

12

Adaptive
defense style

I work out my anxiety through doing


something constructive and creative.

13

Adaptive
defense style

Im able to keep a problem out of my


mind until I have time to deal with it.

14

Proactive
personality
style

I tend to let others take the initiative to


start new projects.

15

Proactive
personality
style

If anyone sees something they dont like,


they should try to fix it.

16

Proactive
personality
style

I am always looking for better ways to do


things

17

Proactive
personality
style

Everyone should be a champion for


effective ideas, even against others
opposition

18

Proactive
personality
style

No matter what the odds, if I believe in


something I will make it happen

19

External
regulation

I work for the income it provides me

Adaptive style is an ego defense style


(Bond & Wesley, 1996) which comprises
mature ego defense mechanisms or those
which are considered signs of
psychological adjustment and healthy
coping with stress, anxiety and conflict.

Bateman and Grant defined the


prototypic
"proactive personality" as one who is
relatively unconstrained by situational
forces and who effects environmental
change. Proactive personalities identify
opportunities and act on them; they show
initiative, take action, and persevere until
they bring about meaningful change.
(Crant, 1996)

58
20

Identified
regulation

I work because this job will help me to


achieve my career goals

21

Intrinsic
motivation

I work because this type of work provides


me with security

22

Integrated
motivation

I work because this job is part of my life

23

Intrinsic
motivation

I work for the satisfaction I feel when


taking on difficult challenges

24

Intrinsic
motivation

I work for the satisfaction I experience


from taking on interesting challenges

25

Traditional org
climate

Senior management likes to keep to


established, traditional ways of doing
things

26

Traditional org
climate

The way this organization does things has


never changed very much

27

Traditional org
climate

Management are not interested in trying


out new ideas

28

Traditional org
climate

Changes in the way things are done here


happen very slowly

29

Clarity of org
goals (climate)

People have a good understanding of


what the organisation is trying to do

30

Clarity of org
goals (climate)

The future direction of the company is


clearly communicated to everyone

31

Clarity of org
goals (climate)

There is a strong sense of where the


company is going

32

Integration
(climate)

People are suspicious of other


departments

33

Integration
(climate)

People in different departments are


prepared to share information

34

Integration
(climate)

Collaboration between departments is


very effective

35

Employability

I use information and my professional or


workplace knowledge to come to
reasonable decisions and then act on

The extent to which established ways of


doing things are valued (Patterson et al,
2005)

A concern with clearly defining the goals


of the organization (Paterson et al, 2005)

The extent of interdepartmental trust and


cooperation (Patterson et al, 2005)

VAGUE: Employability can be understood


in different ways but at its heart is the
idea that an employable graduate is one

59
these.

36

Employability

I identify the knowledge I lack / need to


improve to be effective in the workplace

37

Employability

I take responsibility for my workplace or


professional practice, actions and
decisions.

who can be effective as a professional


employee on the very first day of
employment. (Smith, Ferns & Russell)