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SLIDE NUMBER 6: Basic ideas About Light

• I. Why talk about light?

 • Three great theories of 19th & 20th century physics • came from the need to resolve fundamental issues about the nature of light (Relativity, Electromagnetism, Quantum Mechanics) It helps us see and manipulate the very small • It provides information about remote objects

II.

The Nature of Light

• A. “Particle” theory I: corpuscles

Isaac Newton: explained the reflection and refraction of

light in terms of a “stream of corpuscular bodies

Optics

allowed the development of Geometric (light propagating as straight rays)

• B. “Wave” theory: light waves

Christian Huygens (late 1600’s): described light in terms of advancing wavefronts instead of streams of particles

Thomas Young and others (early 1800’s): performed experiments to demonstrate the wave nature of light, particularly when encountering small obstacles

light travels very fast Olaus Roemer 1676 : speed of light measured using the moons of Jupiter using one of Jupiter's he established that the speed of light is finite. • Observed eclipse times (about once every 1.76 days) of Io deviated from predictions cyclically • Roemer realized deviation caused by difference in Earth- Jupiter distance and finite speed of light • According to Huygens: orbital diameter of Earth was about: 3 x 10 m Roemer observed a cumulative discrepancy of 22 minutes Using Huygen’s estimate of distance, and Roemer’s idea what value would have been computed for the speed of light? c = 3 x 10 m / 22 minutes =3 x 10 m / 1320 s = 230,000 km/s " id="pdf-obj-0-58" src="pdf-obj-0-58.jpg">
• C. “Particle” theory II: photons

Max Planck: Explained emission of radiation (light) by blackbodies in terms of “energy quanta”

Albert Einstein, 1905: Explained photoelectric effect using photons energy packets

• D. Modern view

Light is both a wave and a particle

 • The propagation of light is more completely • described by the wave theory (but can be approximated to some extent by geometric optics). The interaction of light with matter (absorption and emission) is best explained by a quantum theory (i.e. photons).

III. The Speed of Light

 • How did we realize that the speed of light is finite? • What is the speed of light? • Is the speed of light measurable/finite ?

Kepler : Speed of light infinite because vacuum of space did not slow the speed of light down.

Galileo : started the measurement game

Flash from military artillery shows light travels faster than sound. Speed of light not necessarily infinite.

Speed of light measured using lanterns:

Suggestion 1638, experiments 1667

• 1. Two people stood at least a mile apart.

• 2. Both had covered lanterns.

• 3. When one person uncovered his lantern, the other person had to uncover his lantern when he saw this.

• 4. Third person measured the time between when the first and second lanterns where uncovered.

 Repeated experiments failed to accurately measure any time interval between when the first and second lanterns were uncovered. They could only say that light travels very fast

Olaus Roemer 1676 : speed of light measured using the moons of Jupiter using one of Jupiter's he established that the speed of light is finite.

light travels very fast Olaus Roemer 1676 : speed of light measured using the moons of Jupiter using one of Jupiter's he established that the speed of light is finite. • Observed eclipse times (about once every 1.76 days) of Io deviated from predictions cyclically • Roemer realized deviation caused by difference in Earth- Jupiter distance and finite speed of light • According to Huygens: orbital diameter of Earth was about: 3 x 10 m Roemer observed a cumulative discrepancy of 22 minutes Using Huygen’s estimate of distance, and Roemer’s idea what value would have been computed for the speed of light? c = 3 x 10 m / 22 minutes =3 x 10 m / 1320 s = 230,000 km/s " id="pdf-obj-0-163" src="pdf-obj-0-163.jpg">

Observed eclipse times (about once every 1.76 days) of Io deviated from predictions cyclically

Roemer realized deviation

caused by difference in Earth-

 Jupiter distance and finite speed of light

According to Huygens: orbital diameter of Earth was about: 3 x 10 11 m

Roemer observed a cumulative discrepancy of 22 minutes

Using Huygen’s estimate of distance, and Roemer’s idea what value would have been computed for the speed of light?

c Roemer = 3 x 10 11 m / 22 minutes =3 x 10 11 m / 1320 s = 230,000 km/s

James Bradley 1728 : stellar aberration Discovers that the finite speed of light, combined with the motion of the Earth causes a shift in the observed position of the stars – stellar aberration

c =301 000 km/s

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/lightandcolor/speedoflig ht.html What is the speed of light? By the 1970’s lasers and cesium clocks made very accurate measurements possible - to the point where the speed of light was known more accurately to the nearest metre per second than the definition of a metre itself. It made sense to define a standard metre by fixing the speed of light. In 1983, SI (Systeme International) definition of a metre: The metre is the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. So: c = 299 792 458 m/s " id="pdf-obj-1-7" src="pdf-obj-1-7.jpg">

Other measurements of the speed of light

Fizeau 1849 : rotating toothed wheel c = 315,000 km/s

Foucault 1850: rotating mirror device c = 298,000 km/s

Albert Michelson: used Foucault's method but with very high accuracy mirrors farther apart: 2000 ft instead of 60 ft

 1879 Albert Michelson Rotating Mirror 299,910 1888 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz Radiation 300,000 Electromagnetic 1889 Edward Bennett Rosa Electrical Measurements 300,000 1890s Henry Rowland Spectroscopy 301,800 1907 Edward Bennett Rosa/Noah Dorsey Electrical Measurements 299,788 1923 Andre Mercier Electrical Measurements 299,795 1926 estimate:299,796 km/s 1928 August Karolus and Otto Mittelstaedt Kerr Cell Shutter 299,778 1932 to 1935 Pease and Pearson Rotating Mirror (Interferometer) 299,774 1947 Louis Essen Cavity Resonator 299,792 1949 Carl I. Aslakson Shoran Radar 299,792.4 1951 Keith Davy Froome Radio Interferometer 299,792.75 1973 Kenneth M. Evenson Laser 299,792.457 1978 Peter Woods and Colleagues Laser 299,792.4588

Source:

What is the speed of light?

By the 1970’s lasers and cesium clocks made very accurate measurements possible - to the point where the speed of light was known more accurately to the nearest metre per second than the definition of a metre itself.

It made sense to define a standard metre by fixing the speed of light.

In 1983, SI (Systeme International) definition of a metre:

The metre is the length of the path traveled by light in

vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second.

So: c = 299 792 458 m/s

SLIDE NUMBER 7: Electricity, Magnetism, & Light

Guide Questions

 What is electric charge? What are some properties Back to Repulsion and Attraction of charge? What are electric and magnetic fields? How are 1. The electric charge Charles Coulomb studied the forces between q q 1 2 electric and magnetic fields produced? What is the relationship between light and other electrical charges. Coulomb’s Law is similar to Newton’s Law of electromagnetic waves? Gravitation: F = k 2 Charge is an intrinsic property of matter, the same way All matter is composed of r mass is an intrinsic property of matter. Compare: k= 9 x 10 9 N-m 2 / C 2 N-m 2 / kg 2 vs G=6.67300 × 10 -11 discretely charged particles – electrons and protons. 3. The electric field How does a distant charge know if other charges have moved? Michael Faraday conceived electric field lines or unit of electric charge : coulomb, C. “Lines of Force” to resolve his discomfort with the action-at-a-distance concept. Electric field lines point along the direction which 2. Properties of a charge a “test charge” would experience a force.

Dichotomy of Charge: There are 2 kinds of charge, positive and negative.

Unlike charges attract, like charges repel.

The charged particles themselves are referred to as electric charges.

Conservation of Charge:

 Neutral objects contain equal amounts of positive and negative charges. Excess of one type of charge over the other results in the object having a net charge. Charges are not created or destroyed, only transferred between objects.

Quantization of Charge

Charge always appears in multiples of e

e = 1.602 x 10-19 C = the charge of a proton/electron

 An electric charge sets-up an electric field in the Benjamin Franklin & Electricity: space around it. Studied static electricity between different materials. Other charges experience a force due to that Found that objects could be positively or negatively charged. battery, conductor, condenser, charge, discharge, uncharged, negative, minus, plus, electric shock, and electrician electric field. Any changes to the position or magnitude of the original charge translates to a change in the electric field that propagates outward at the speed of light.

Annihilation of Charges

 Actually, charges can be destroyed (and even created) but always in equal and opposite pairs. THE NET CHARGE OF THE UNIVERSE IS CONSTANT.

4.

The magnetic field

 Maxwell did not form these equations.* The magnetism associated with iron (ferromagnetism), particularly magnetite was a long known phenomenon. But by combining them, he predicted the existence of traveling electromagnetic waves with a very interesting property ... Similar to electric charges, there are two types of magnetic poles: north and south.* * He did make a slight correction to the last equation.

* Nobody has ever been able to observe a single pole by

itself (a magnetic monopole).

• 5. Electromagnetism

Hans Christian Oersted and Andre-Marie Ampere showed that moving charges (electrical current ) could influence, and be influenced by magnets.

Moving charges create magnetic fields (B)

Magnetic fields exert forces on other moving charges (and conductors carrying electrical current).

This electro-dynamic principle* makes the electric motor** possible (as first constructed by Michael Faraday.)

* Also known as electromagnetic induction **Electrical to Mechanical Energy

 Faraday constructed the first electric generator* via electromagnetic induction Moving a wire through a magnetic field generates an electrical current. Moving a magnet around a wire does the same.

Changing magnetic field will cause charges to move (thus produce current).

SUMMARY

 Electric charges create electric fields. Moving electric charges create magnetic fields. Changing (time-varying) magnetic fields create electric fields.

James Clerk Maxwell…

Organized the existing concepts of electricity and magnetism in a cohesive mathematical framework. Added his own discovery: changing (time-varying) electric fields create magnetic fields

r
q
E ⋅ ndA ˆ =
ε
0
r
∫ B ⋅ ndA ˆ = 0
r
r
d
Φ
B
E
dl
= −
dt
r
r
d Φ ⎞
E
B
dl
=
µ
i
+
ε
0
c
0
dt

Maxwell did not form these equations.* But by combining them, he predicted the existence of traveling electromagnetic waves with a very interesting property ...

• 6. Light as an electromagnetic wave

According to Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light! Maxwell concluded: Light is an electromagnetic wave.

The EM Spectrum

Visible light is only a small segment of the very
wide electromagnetic spectrum.
The properties of different magnetic waves depend
on their wavelength (frequency), but they all
represent oscillating electric and magnetic fields.

SLIDE NUMBER 8: Blue Skies, Red Sunsets, Rainbows & Other Optical Spectacles

What happens when light hits an object?

• A. The waves can be absorbed by the object.

• B. The waves can be transmitted through the object.

• C. The waves can be reflected off the object.

• D. The waves can be refracted through the object.

• E. For small objects, the waves can be scattered in different directions.
A.
B.
C.
D.

 • The specific behavior of light when it strikes an object depends on its wavelength. • For visible light, we experience different wavelengths as different colors (demo on transmission & reflection).

Illustration 1: Reflecting the beauty of light …

Illustration 2: Why are most leaves green?

 • Chlorophyll: RED and VIOLET light are • ABSORBED Green light is REFLECTED

Illustration 3: Why pencils look bent when submerged in

water?

Snells law (Law of Refraction): n 1 sin (θ 1 ) = n 2 sin (θ 2 )

n = index of refraction = c / v

n air ~ 1.0

n water = 1.33

v = speed of light in the medium

Illustration 4: Why are there rainbows?

 • White light is made up of various colors • Speed of light in vacuum (c) is the same for all • colors Speed of light in a medium (v) depends on • color/wavelength Therefore n depends on wavelenght (DISPERSION)

Secondary reflected light also form rainbow patterns

Illustration 4.2: Uniqueness of rainbows …

Two observers standing apart from one another do not see

the same rainbow.

Illustration 4.3: Pot of Gold at the end of a rainbow?

Sorry Rainbows are suspended in mid air, hence it does not

end anywhere in the ground

Illustration 5: Why is the sky blue? Scattering.

 • Particles much smaller than wavelengths of light • scatter light in all directions. Blue (~450 nanometer wavelength) is scattered over four times more strongly than red (~650 nm). • Small dust particles are Rayleigh scatterers.

Illustration 5.1: Why are clouds white

Illustration 5.2: Why are sunsets red?

 • Light of lower frequency is scattered the least by Longer Answer • nitrogen and oxygen molecules Thicker atmosphere presented to sunlight at sunset • than at noon So more blue is scattered at sunset, so transmitted light becomes redder • Tuning fork analog • Atoms, molecules and very tiny particles absorb • and reemit light at the same frequency The tinier the particle, the higher the frequency of • light it will scatter (think of bells: smaller bells tend to ring with higher notes than larger bells) Of the visible frequency light, violet is scattered • the most, followed by blue, green, yellow, orange, and red Red is scattered only 1/10th as much as violet light • Although violet light is more scattered than blue, • our eyes are not very sensitive to violet light The lesser amount of blue predominates in our • vision – so we see a blue sky If there are a lot of dust particles, light of lower • frequency/higher wavelength is also scattered – so sky may be whitish blue Most ultraviolet light from sun absorbed by ozone • layer Remaining UV light scattered by atmospheric particles and molecules

Q1: After a heavy rainstorm, the sky becomes a deeper blue. Why? Q2: If molecules in the sky scatters low frequency light (longer wavelength) more than high frequency (shorter wavelength) light, how would the colors of the sky and sunsets appear? Q3: Distant dark mountains are bluish in color. What is the source of this blueness? Q4: Why is the ocean blue?

SLIDE NUMBER 9: On Particles,

II.

Brief Historical Overview

Corpuscular Theory of Light (1704) Isaac Newton proposed that light consists of a stream of small particles, because it

travels in straight lines at great speeds
is reflected from mirrors in a
predictable way

Wave Theory of Light (1802) Thomas Young showed that light is a wave, because it

undergoes diffraction and interference (Young’s double-slit experiment)

II.

Defining properties of particles & waves

Particles: Position x, Mass m, Momentum p = mv

Waves:

Wavelengthλ, Amplitude A, Frequency f (inverse of period T) number of cycles per second (Hertz)

f = c /λ
T = 1/λ

Waves, & Wave-Particles

Waves vs Particles:

 A particle is localized in space, and has discrete physical p roperties such as mass A wave is inherently spread out over many wave-lengths in space, and could have amplitudes in a continuous range Waves superpose and pass through (interference) each other, while parti cles collide and bounce off each other

I II.

Wave theory of light

Diffraction
Interference

In terference Fringes on a Screen

Double-Slit Experiment

IV.

Modern particle theo ry of Light

 A. Introduction Any hot body radiates light over the whole spectrum of frequencies The spectrum depends on both freq uency and temperature Examples: light bulbs, the Universe B . The Blackbody Radiation

Definition: A blackbody is an object which totally absorbs all radiation that falls on it

Spectrum

Plot of intensity of the blackbod y radiation versus wavelength for various temp eratures

Plot of intensity of the blackbody radiation versus frequency for various temperatures

Ultraviolet Catastrophe

Classical theory predicts a graph that deviates from experimental data, especia lly at short wavelengths

Planck’s Quantum Postulate (1900)

Max Planck (1858-1947) is generally regarded as the father of quantum theory

A blackbody can only em it radiation in discrete packets or quanta, i.e., in multiples of the minimum energy:

E = hf

where h is a constant and f is the frequency of the radiation

Result: A radiation law in extremely go od agreement with experiment

Planck’s Constant

 Experimentally determined to be h = 6.63 x 10-34 Joule sec (Joule = kg m2 / sec2) A new constant of nature, which turns out to be of fundamental importance in the new ‘quantum theory’

C. Photoelectric effe ct: What is it?

Light falling on metallic surface can eject electrons from surface.

Photoelectric Effect: Response to Blue Light

When blue light is shone on the emitter plate, a current flows in the circuit

But for red light, no current flows in the circuit

Photoelectric Effect: Experimental Observations

 Only light with a frequency (f) greater than a certain threshold (f>fthresh) will produce a current Current begins almost instantaneously (for f > fthresh), even for light of very low intensity Current is proportional to the intensity of the incident light

Pho toelectric Effect: Problems with Wave Theory

 The wave theory of light cannot explain these observations For waves, energy depends on amplitude and not frequency This implies that a current should be produced when say, high-intensity red light is used
• D. Ein stein’s Postulate (1905)

 Light consists of particles, now kn own as photons A photon hitting the emitter plate will eject an electron if it has enough energy Each photon has energy:

E = hf

(same as Planck’s formula)

• E. Everyday Evidence for Photons

 Red light is used in photographic darkroom s because it is not energetic enough to break the halogen-silver bond in black and white films Ultraviolet light causes sunburn but visible light does not because UV photons are more e nergetic O ur eyes detect colour because photons of

different energies trigger different chemical

reactions in retina cells

Oth
er
E
vidence for Photons: Atomic spectra
• V. Wave-particle duality

 Determines the probability of an electron arriving at a certain spot on the screen Electron as a wave: After many electrons,

resembles the interference pattern of light

Electron interference pattern after (a) 8 electrons, (b) 270

Electron as a particle: trying to detect

which

slit the electrons pass through causes them to

behave like particles

 VI. Summary Waves and particles exhibit very different behaviour Yet, light sometimes behaves like particles – spectrum of blackbody radiation – photoelectric effect – spectral lines And electrons sometimes behave like waves – interference pattern of electrons In quantum theory, the distinction between

waves and particles is blurred

SLIDE NUMBER 10: Relativity

I. Newton´s Laws vs. Maxwell’s Equations

Galilean transformation: Speed observed (v) = c - u

Principia - Newton Newton’s laws – Consistent with Galilean transformation

A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field (1864) - Maxwell

Maxwell´s equations – NOT consistent with Galilean transformation

At least one had to be wrong.

II. Special Relativity

A. Postulates

• 1. The Speed of Light is Constant

The speed of light in vacuum is the same for all

observers

• 2. Principle of Invariance The laws of physics are the same for all inertial reference systems

B. Consequences of Special Relativity Postulates

• 1. W e have to stop thinking of time and space as

independ ent of each other

• 2. Velocity addition formula modified

• 3. Time Dilation

• 4. Length Contraction

• 5. Relativity of Simultaneity

Set Up 1:

A concludes the two events (p and q) were simultaneous if A & B have the same speed --- B agrees with A

Set Up 2:

A: still concludes the two events (p and q) were simultaneous

B: light hits p before it hits q, there fore the two events (p

a nd q) were NOT simultaneous

A and B are both right; simultaneity is relative.

6.

E =mc

2

Slid es: Visualization of the consequences of SR

III. General Relativity

 • Special relativity had problems dealing with • gravitation Special relativity is only valid for constant velocity • frames It took 10 years for Einstein to come up with a Postulates satisfactory theory of gravity. • Principle of Equivalence: Inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent / indistinguishability of gravitational field and accelerating re ference frame • Principle of Relativity: The laws of physics are the same in all reference systems

Consequences:

• 1. Predicts that Gravity bends light

P ath of light from distant quasar bent by gravitational field o f nearby galaxy

four bright outer images

2.

Correct Perihelion Shift of Mercury

5 . Time is slowed as the strength of gravitational fields

 in creases Newton's th eory - predicted a shift only ½ of observed v alue 6 . Gravitational w aves???

Einstein's predictions exactly matched the observation

• 3. Predicts the existence of Blackhole s

A stronomers have

If gravity can bend light then a very large gravitational

field can bend light so much that it can not escape –

this is a black hole.

re alized that a rare set

o f double stars is made

u p of two pulsars1.

T his unique discovery

w ill allow them to test

E instein's theory of

re lativity in novel

w ays, and to better

u nderstand the energy

beams that pulsar s

g enerate.

"Thi s is a hugely

sign icant discovery,"

if

says Robert Massey of

the Royal Observatory,

Greenwich, in London, UK. Einstein predicted the existence

of gravitational waves, but they have never been directly

observed. "There aren't many objects out there that could be

a copious enough source of gravitational waves, but this is

one of them," he says.

Source: Nature Science Update, 30 December 2003

EINSTEIN’s QUOTES

"I sometimes ask myself how it came about that I was the

one to develop the theory of relativity. The reason, I think, is

space and time. These are things which he has thought

about as a child. But my intellectual development was

retarded,as a result of which I began to wonder about space

"Put your hand on a hot stove for a minute, and it seems like

an hour. Sit with a pretty girl for an hour, and it seems like

a minute. THAT'S relativity."

4. V

eri cation of expanding universe

fi

 • Our univer se is not static – it is expanding and has been since it started about 14 billion years ago. • First observed by Edwin Hubb le • Observatory in Mount Wilson, California • Ho w? The Doppler Effect

"Few are those who see with their own eyes and feel with

their own hearts."

"Gravitation can not be held responsible for people fa

llin g

in love"

1960 Ha rvard

Beam of high energy gamma rays slightly red shifted

at higher elevation

"Two things inspire me to awe -- the starry heavens above

and the moral universe within ."

"Only two things are infin ite, the universe and human

stupidity, and I'm not sure about the former."

SL
ID
E
NUMBER 11: Extrasolar
planets
 1. What’s a Planet? B. Radial Velocity Measurements • Mass - less than 10 times the mass of Jupiter Proponents: Michael Mayo r, Didier Queloz, Geoff Butler (the deuterium fusion limit) Paul Marcy • Formation - built up from particles in a dusty disk not condensed from a gas cloud like a star or a brown dwarf Stellar Wobble: E ven the sun is moving • Types – Terrestrial or Jovian 2. Why We Search • to discover new horizons • to get around the dangerous problem of using a single example to create a theory • to cure cosmic loneliness 3 . Search Techniques S ome Planet Detection Methods A . Pulsar timing P ulsars • old, collapsed stars that spin up to several thousand times a second. • send out beams of radiation along their magnetic axes. • As a beam sweeps by us, C. Astrometry we see a pulse of light, as if the • Definition : measures the position of a star against the sky (the proper motion) Earth was a ship floating near a lighthouse • beat of a pulsar is extremely regular • The first extrasolar planets ever found were detected this way. • In 1991 – Alexander Wolszcan at Pennsylvania St ate University detected irregularities in the beat of a pulsar in Virgo. Virgo - group of galaxies 97.8 Millio n light years away from earth • Basic Idea : low-mass companions will cause a • Analysis of the data, led to the conclusion that 3 wiggle in a star’s path planets, each about the size of the Earth were • possible to obtain more information than by orbiting the pulsar. observing the radial velocity • requires high-precision observations

D. Photometry

Basic Idea: look fo r variations in a star’s brightness
caused by transiti ng planets
Limitation: orbital plane oriented correctly

E. Gravitational Microlensing

F. Direct Imaging

NO EXAMPLES MENTIONED

• 4. What Have Been Found

 • Basic Idea: A star passing in front of a more distant • Planets are everywhere! object w ill act as a lens. • The probability that a star harbors a planet • A planet orbiting the lensing star will leave a depends on the star's metal content. special signature in the light profile. Candida te planets around main sequence stars July 22 February August January 2004 24 2005 04 2005 31 2006 Planetary 108 132 138 14 7 systems Planet s 123 152 162 17 0 Multiple 13 14 18 18 planets

5. R

e

ce

nt News

Dete

ct

io

n of a planet smaller than Pluto reported

F

ou

rth

p

lanet in Wolszcan’s original

pulsar system * (first planets detected).

*Revolving around a pulsar not a regular star.