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Teoria Atribuirii

Descriere
Noi trebuie s ne explicm lumea nou nine i celorlali, atribuind o cauz evenimentelor
din jurul nostru. Aceasta ne confer un sentiment mai mare de control. Atunci cnd explicm
un comportament, acesta poate afecta statutul oamenilor n cadrul unui grup (mai ales pe noi
nine).
Explicarea situaiilor de eec: Atunci cnd o alt persoan a greit, vom utiliza de cele mai
multe ori atribuirea intern spunnd c aceasta se datoreaz factorilor interni de
personalitate. Atunci cnd noi greim, vom utiliza cel mai probabil atribuirea extern,
atribuind cauzele factorilor situaionali mai mult dect s ne nvinovim pe noi nine.
Explicarea situaiilor de succes: i vice versa, vom atribui succesul nostru intern i
succesele rivalilor notri unui noroc extern.
Atunci cnd o echip de fotbal ctig, suporterii spun am ctigat. Dar atunci cnd echipa
pierde, suporterii vor spune au pierdut.
Atribuirile noastre sunt de asemenea conduse n mod semnificativ de impulsurile noastre
emoionale i motivaionale. nvinovirea altor oameni i evitarea incriminrii personale
sunt nite atribuiri care servesc foarte mult nsi persoana. Vom face de asemenea atribuiri
pentru a ne apra de ceea ce noi percepem ca atacuri. Vom arta injustiiile existe ntr-o lume
imperfect.
Atunci vom avea tendina de a nvinovi victimele (ale noastre i ale altora) pentru soarta lor
pe msur ce cutm s ne distanm de gndul de a trece prin aceeai situaie.
Vom avea tendina de a recunoate mai puin variabilitatea altor oameni dect pe a noastr
nine, deoarece ne vedem ca persoane multifaetate i mai puin predictibile dect alte
persoane. Aceasta poate fi i din cauz c putem vedea mai mult n interiorul nostru (i
petrecem mai mult timp fcnd aceasta).
n practic, avem deseori tendina de a trece printr-un proces cu dou etape ncepnd cu o
atribuire intern automat urmat de o considerare mai lent a faptului dac o atribuire
extern este mai adecvat. Aa cum este cazul i cu ncrederea Automat, dac ne-am grbi
sau am fi distrai, s-ar putea s nu ajungem la aceast a doua etap. Aceasta face atribuirea
intern mai frecvent dect atribuirea extern.

Cercetare
Roesch i Amirkham (1997) au descoperit c atleii cu mai mult experien efectuau mai
puine atribuiri externe care s le serveasc lor nii, astfel ei gsind i rezolvnd cauzele
reale. Astfel, ei erau mai capabili s-i mbunteasc performanele.
Utilizarea sa
Fii ateni la pierderea ncrederii prin nvinovirea altora (adic efectuarea atribuirilor interne
despre ei). De asemenea, fii ateni la crearea scuzelor (atribuire externe) care v conduc la
repetarea greelilor i la o disonan cognitiv cu privire la alii atunci cnd ei fac atribuirii
externe despre voi.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Fii ateni la oamenii care fac atribuiri false.
Consultai de asemenea i

Teoria Corespondenei Inferente, Modelul Co-variaie, Eroarea Fundamental de Atribuire,


Diferena Actor - Observator, Eroarea Ultim de Atribuire, Idealizare, Post Hoc
http://www.as.wvu.edu/~sbb/comm221/chapters/attrib.htm
1

Pentru variantele originale, in limba englez, vezi partea a doua a acestui fisier.

Bilbiografie Roesch i Amirkham (1997), Heider (1958), Jones i Davis (1965), Kelley (1967), Kammer (1982)

Teorii din categoria aciunea mpotriva altora

Teoria apului ispitor

Descriere
Atunci cnd se produc anumite probleme, oamenilor nu le place s se nvinoveasc pe ei
nii. Astfel ei vor aciona pentru a cuta api ispitori asupra crora s-i poat plasa
agresivitatea. Acetia pot fi indivizi din afara grupului sau chiar grupuri ntregi. Ca i copiii
agresivi din coli, ne vom orienta cel mai des asupra oamenilor fr aprare.
Ideea de ap ispitor crete n intensitate atunci cnd oamenii sunt frustrai i caut o
scpare pentru mnia lor.
Odat atribuit eticheta de ap ispitor, poate fi dificil de eliminat aceast clasificare.

Cercetare
Weatherly (1961) a provocat frustrarea studenilor i apoi i-a rugat pe acetia s scrie
povestiri pe baza unor imagini date. Acolo unde oamenii din imagini aveau nume evreieti,
studenii cu tendine anti-semite au scris povestiri care includeau agresiunea asupra
personajelor evrei.

Exemplu
Evreii au constituit apul ispitor pentru muli oameni i grupuri pn la perioada
Holocaustului din timpul celui de-al doilea rzboi mondial. n anumite comuniti ei sunt nc
folosii ca api ispitori.
Utilizarea sa
Atunci cnd avei o problem, gsii pe cineva pe care s dai vina i care nu poate riposta.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Refuzai s devenii un ap ispitor. n situaia cnd oamenii dau vina pe voi n mod incorect,
fii duri i ripostai cu putere chiar dac acesta nu este rolul vostru obinuit.

Consultai de asemenea i

Teoria Atribuirii, Agresivitate, Roluri, Omogenitatea din afara

grupului

Bibliografie
Allport (1954), Weatherly (1961), Berkowitz i Green (1962), Gemmill (1998)

Agresivitate

Descriere
Cu toate c agresivitatea este un impuls natural, aceasta reprezint un act foarte social. Ea
este nvat de la prini, colegi i din mass-media i este foarte probabil ca oamenii s fie
mai agresivi atunci cnd ei cred ca aceasta va conduce la cretere poziiei lor sociale. Ea
poate avea de asemenea caracterul de catharsis permindu-ne s ne descrcm.
Agresivitatea crete de asemenea cnd:
Credei c un rspuns nu se va produce.
Cealalt persoan acioneaz n mod deliberat mpotriva voastr.
Suferii fizic sau emoional (nu neaprat din cauza unei alte persoane).
Ai consumat alcool sau alte stimulente.
Testosteronul este prezent.
A existat agresivitate la nceputul vieii voastre.
Credei c obinei mai puin dect meritai.
Ai fost atacat i v aprai sau rspundei.
Dai vina pe victim i apoi v rzbunai.
Ai vzut mult violen la televizor, mai ales cnd erai mic.
Atunci cnd oamenii vd violena, indiferent dac n viaa real sau prin mass media, aceasta
legitimeaz, nva oamenii cum s fie agresivi i i desensibilizeaz cu privire la orori.

Cercetare
Phillips (1983, 1986) a descoperit c crimele cresc dup un meci de box cruia i-a fost fcut
foarte mult publicitate. Atunci cnd boxerii albi au pierdut, au fost ucii mai muli oameni albi
i vice versa.
Utilizarea sa
Simulai agresivitatea pentru a obine un rspuns imediat pe termen scurt.
Dac chiar v simii agresivi, luai o pauz pentru a v calma. Altfel este foarte probabil s
facei ceva ce vei regreta mai trziu.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Pedeapsa grav conduce de fapt la o agresivitate mai mare i nu o reduce. Este mai eficient
s utilizai ameninarea cu pedeapsa medie.
Dai oamenilor ndeajuns spaiu pentru a-i elibera frustrrile prin mijloace cum ar fi sporturile
de competiie. Chiar i spunndu-le Sunt furios va ajuta. Scuzele reduc de asemenea furia.
nvai-i s fie empatici. Fii un model de persoan ne-agresiv.
Scuzai-v (chiar dac nu este vina voastr). Spunei c nu se va mai repeta. Fii empatici cu
privire la durerea lor (dar nu cu agresivitatea lor sau cu actele lor agresive). Artai c suntei
uman (aprai-v n faa tendinei lor de a v dezumaniza).

Consultai de asemenea i Coerciie, Teoria Frustrare - Agresivitate


Bibliografie Phillips (1983), Phillips (1986)

Lenea social
Descriere
Aceasta reprezint tendina oamenilor de a performa mai slab la sarcinile simple i mai
bine la sarcinile mai complicate pe care le desfoar n prezena altora.
Aceasta pare s fie o contrazicere direct a Facilitrii Sociale dar poate fi explicat prin
circumstanele diferite n care se produce. n particular, atunci cnd lucrm ntr-un grup de
oameni care acioneaz mpreun poate fi mai uor de ascuns lenea.
Aspectul esenial aici este c persoana lene nu este ngrijorat cu privire la evaluarea sa.
Aceasta poate constitui de asemenea atracia siturii n poziia unui expert sau ntr-un post de
autoritate: cu toate c ia mult timp s urci muntele, atunci cnd ajungi n vrf te poi relaxa.
Totui, atunci cnd suntem evaluai aa cum se ntmpl cnd lucrm la o sarcin de echip,
vom munci mai bine pentru a ne asigura c nimeni nu ne critic pentru ca nu am depus
destule eforturi.
Oamenii care sunt mai puin preocupai de grupuri sunt mai probabil s fie lenei social, cum
ar fi brbaii i societile vestice n general.

Cercetare
Max Ringelmann (1913) a descoperit c atunci cnd unui grup de brbai le-a fost cerut s
trag de o frnghie, fiecare dintre ei a tras mai puin dect atunci cnd a tras singur.

Exemple
Atunci cnd bai din palme la un concert nu trebuie s faci prea mult zgomot (i astfel evii s
te doar palmele) i nimeni nu va observa.

Utilizarea sa
Pentru a evita lenea social, asigurai-v c toat lumea din cadrul unui grup tie c poate fi
evaluat cu uurin de alii. Dac suntei un lene social, atunci gsii-v de munc acolo
unde nimeni nu v poate arta cu degetul i spune c nu depunei toate eforturile necesare.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Atunci cnd lucrai ntr-o echip asigurai-v c nu exist lenei social:
a) fie prin discutarea principiului (stimularea contiinei)
b) fie prin asigurarea c nimeni nu se ascunde n ppuri.

Consultai de asemenea i
Facilitarea Social, Norme Sociale

Bibliografie
Ringelmann (1913), Moede (1927), Williams i Harkins (1979), Karau i Williams (1993)

Teoria politeii
Descriere
Oamenii au dou tipuri de fee:
Faa pozitiv, atunci cnd placem altora, ei ne respect i sunt de acord cu noi.
Faa negativ, atunci cnd simim c alii nu ne pot constrnge n niciun fel.
Ambele fee pot fi provocate atunci cnd cineva ne cere ceva.
Aceasta conduce la o dilem deoarece dac cer ceva ntr-un mod plcut, faa pozitiv a
celuilalt este satisfcut, dar faa negativ l poate conduce la concluzia c se poate folosi de
noi. Reversul medaliei este de asemenea adevrat, deoarece vorbirea defensiv poate
provoca faa pozitiv.
Conformarea la regulile sociale de politee urmeaz o cale central i sigur care nici nu
amenin, nici nu semnaleaz c poi fi ameninat.
Politeea nseamn acionarea pentru a-i ajuta pe ceilali la salvarea feei.

Exemple
Atunci cnd sunt cu eful meu, mi art faa pozitiv. Atunci cnd sunt cu noul meu coleg
(care pare destul de incompetent) mi art faa negativ.
Utilizarea sa
Construii ncrederea celorlali n dv. prin comportarea politicoas. Utilizai faa negativ cu
oamenii din afara grupului sau cu cei care ar putea sftui cealalt persoan n defavoarea dv.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Numai pentru c o persoan este politicoas aceasta nu nseamn c ea are intenii bune cu
privire la voi.

Consultai de asemenea i
Norme sociale

Bibliografie
Brown i Levinson (1978)

Teoria conflictului realist


Descriere
Atunci cnd exist resurse limitate, aceasta conduce la conflict, prejudecat i discriminare
ntre grupurile care vor s obin resursele comune. Odat ce s-a nscut ostilitatea, este
foarte dificil de ntors la relaiile normale i poate aprea o lupt continu.

Cercetare
Muzafer Sherif a mprit o tabr de tineri cercetai n dou grupuri, Vulturii i erpii cu
clopoei. Dup ce a ajutat grupurile s devin coezive, el a introdus jocuri competitive i alte
conflicte. Nu dup mult timp s-a iscat o revolt la scar mare i cercettorii au trebuit s
lucreze asiduu pentru a rezolva problema.

Exemple
O situaie des ntlnit este atunci cnd locurile de munc sunt puine i un grup deja creat d
vina pe imigrani pentru luarea pinii de la gura copiilor lor.

Utilizarea sa
Obinei controlul asupra unei resurse cerute de muli. Atunci cnd nu putei face aceasta,
indicai-i pe cei care utilizeaz resursa ca fiind cei care cauzeaz propriile voastre probleme.
Aprare mpotriva sa
Atunci cnd resursele sunt limitate, prentmpinai conflictul prin crearea consiliilor comune,
etc. pentru a decide n mod corect alocarea acestora.

Consultai de asemenea i
Teoria apului ispitor
http://www.ppu.org.uk/learn/peaceed/pe_robbers_cave.html

Bibliografie
Sherif (1966), Levine i Campbell (1972), Jackson (1993)

Ipoteza repulsiei
Descriere
Preferm oamenii care au atitudini similare cu al noastre. Ne putem nelege bine cu oamenii
ale cror atitudini sunt puin diferite de ale noastre dar vom simi repulsie fa de oamenii ale
cror atitudini sunt total diferite de ale noastre.
Atunci cnd v facei prieteni, excludei ntr-o prim etap oamenii ale cror atitudini sunt n
afara unei game acceptabile nainte de a cuta prieteni apropiai.

Exemple
Acesta este unul dintre motivele pentru care oamenii din culturi i ri diferite simt repulsie
fa de comportamente cum ar fi execuiile publice i ingerarea diferitelor alimente.

Utilizarea sa
Fii ateni la mbriarea atitudinilor extreme deoarece putei elimina prima categorie de
prieteni. Dac nu putei fi prieteni foarte buni cu o persoan prin manifestarea unei atitudini
moderate, cel puin putei vorbi cu aceasta.

Consultai de asemenea i
Legea atraciei, Dragostea, Decizia n dou etape

Bibliografie
Rosenbaum (1986)

Teoria meninerii auto-evalurii

Descriere
Imaginea de sine ne poate fi ameninat de modul n care ali oameni se comport. Nivelul
ameninrii noastre depinde de ct de aproape de noi este persoana care ne amenin i de
ct de relevant este comportamentul acesteia pentru noi.
Avei mai multe opiuni atunci cnd un prieten spune ceva ce dv. considerai a fi deosebit de
neplcut:
V putei distana de acest i prieten.
Putei reduce relevana comportamentului lui pentru voi.
Putei ncerca s v mbuntii i s reducei astfel nivelul ameninrii.

Exemple
M mndresc c sunt un expert la cursele de cai. Discut despre curse ntr-un grup de prieteni
i unul dintre aceti se dovedete a fi fiica unui antrenor faimos i arat o nelegere mai
profund a subiectului dect mine. Nu am nici o idee despre felul n care ar trebui s
reacionez fa de ea.
Utilizarea sa
Observai modalitatea n care alte persoane reacioneaz la ceea ce voi i alii le spun.
Construii o nelegere a imaginii de sine (self-concept) a celuilalt i a reaciilor la ameninarea
acesteia. Apoi asigurai-v c ceea ce spunei conduce la apropierea celorlai de voi.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Cunoatei-v. Sau cel puin mbuntii-v cunoaterea de sine. Observai cum reacionai
fa de alii care v amenin imaginea de sine.

Consultai de asemenea i
Disonana Cognitiv, Teoria nclcrii ateptrilor

Bibliografie
Tesser (1988), Tesser, Martin i Mendolia (1995)

Facilitarea social

Descriere
Atunci cnd avem sarcini pe care le considerm relativ uoare, considerm prezena altor
oameni a fi un stimul pozitiv astfel nct performm mai bine. Totui, atunci cnd sarcinile
sunt dificile considerm audiena deranjant i este mai probabil s avem o performan
slab.
Aceasta deoarece, n primul rnd, prezena celorlali crete stresul psihologic, astfel nct
corpurile noastre devin mai alerte i n al doilea rnd pentru c atunci cnd suntem anxioi
este mai dificil s performm sarcini noi sau dificile. n consecin stresul uor [eustresul]
conduce la realizarea mai uoar a sarcinilor uoare.
Prezena altor oameni ne face s suspectm faptul c suntem supui unei evaluri. n funcie
de cum considerm c va decurge evaluarea, putem atepta de la ei fie adularea, fie critica i
respingerea.

Cercetare
Zajonc, Heingartner i Herman (1969) au fcut nite gndaci de buctrie s mearg printrun tub nspre lumin. Ei alearg mai repede atunci cnd sunt observai de ali gndaci. Atunci
cnd au fost pui ntr-un labirint simplu, acestora le-a luat mai mult timp s l parcurg atunci
cnd erau supravegheai. (Dar oare oamenii care i priveau au avut vreo influen? Cine
tie ?).
Michaels (1982) i ali trei colegi au supravegheat n mod deschis studenii care jucau biliard.
Cei mai buni juctori au jucat i mai bine. Novicii au jucat i mai prost.

Exemple
Sportivii foarte buni sunt de multe ori ajutai de mulime spre a avea cele mai bune
performane n cadrul evenimentelor sportive importante. Sportivii din josul clasamentului pot
considera mulimea deranjant i n consecin fac greeli.

Utilizarea sa
Atunci cnd vrei ca cineva s se simt bine, dai-i o audien pentru o sarcin uoar. Dac
dorii s-l deranjai, dai-i o audien pentru o sarcin dificil. Aceasta v va da posibilitatea
de a-l salva, construind-i ncrederea.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Atunci cnd o audien apare subit atunci cnd nu suntei siguri cu privire la o sarcin
important, rugai-i s plece. Refuzai s continuai pn cnd acetia nu pleac i pn cnd
nu v linitii ca urmare a acestei aciuni.

Consultai de asemenea
Teoria Impactului Social, Lenea Social
http://samiam.colorado.edu/~mcclella/expersim/introsocial.html,

Bibliografie
Zajonc, Heingartner i Herman (1969), Alport (1954), Michaels, Blommel, Brocato, Linkous i
Rowe (1982)

Teoria spiralei tcerii

Descriere
Oamenii nu vor dori s-i exprime opinia n public dac ei consider c se afl n minoritate.
Ei se vor exprima mai mult dac consider c sunt o parte a majoritii.
Aceasta funcioneaz deoarece ne temem de respingere n cadrul societii.
Opinia public reprezint "atitudinile i comportamentele pe care o persoan trebuie s le
exprime n public dac aceasta nu este o persoan izolat cu privire la domeniile de
controverse sau schimbare; opiniile publice sunt acele atitudini pe care o persoan le poate
exprima fr a fi pus n faa pericolului de a se izola."

Cercetare
Noelle-Neumann a artat subiecilor o imagine cu o persoan care spunea suprat, "Mi se
pare c fumtorii sunt foarte nepoliticoi. Ei i foreaz pe alii s le inhaleze fumul
care pune sntatea n pericol." Respondenilor li s-a cerut s formuleze un rspuns cu
privire la aceast afirmaie n timp ce i ali oameni se aflau n ncpere (adui acolo n cadrul
experimentului). Atunci cnd n apropiere erau nefumtori, muli fumtori erau mai puin
dornici de a sprijini n mod deschid drepturile fumtorilor.

Exemple
Dac v-ai afla ntr-o cltorie lung cu trenul i o persoan de lng voi ncepe s discute
problemele siguranei alimentar, v-ai nscrie n conversaie expunndu-v opinia real? i
dac aceasta ar fi controversat?

Deci?
Utilizarea sa
Artai-le oamenilor cum opiniile pe care dorii ca ei s le exprime sunt majoritare i c
opiniile pe care voi dorii s le schimbai sunt minoritare i n pericol de a conduce la
respingerea lor n cadrul societii.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Atunci cnd dorii s spunei ceva, facei-o. Fii ateni s nu fii pui la col.

Consultai de asemenea i
Influena Minoritii, Teoria judecii sociale
www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/media/spiral.html

Bibliografie
Noelle-Neumann (1984)

10

Teoria reactanei
Descriere
Atunci cnd oamenii consider c libertatea lor de alegere a unei aciuni este ameninat,
ei au un sentiment neplcut numit reactan. Aceasta i motiveaz s realizeze
comportamentul vizat, astfel dovedindu-i c voina proprie nu a fost compromis.

Cercetare
Pennebaker and Sanders (1976) au pus cte un afi pe pereii unei toalete din cadrul unei
faculti. Unul era Nu scriei pe aceti perei sub niciun motiv n timp ce al doilea spunea V
rugm s nu scriei pe aceti perei. Dou sptmni mai trziu, pereii cu primul afi aveau
mult mai mult grafitti dect ceilali.

Exemple
Atunci cnd mi conving copiii, trebuie s fiu atent deoarece tiu c dac merg prea departe ei
vor face exact ceea ce le-am spus s nu fac numai pentru a-mi arta mie cine este eful.

Utilizarea sa
Fii ateni la exercitarea puterii de convingere prea deschis sau prea mult. Dac oamenii i
dau seama c sunt influenai, ei vor face exact contrariul.

Consultai de asemenea i
Disonana Cognitiv
http://www.as.wvu.edu/~sbb/comm221/chapters/react.htm

Bibliografie
Brehm (1966), Pennebaker i Sanders (1976)

11

Susinerea /aprarea contra-atitudinilor


Descriere
Uneori oamenii susin o opinie sau sprijin un punct de vedere care este de fapt mpotriva
propriilor lor convingeri.
De exemplu, atunci cnd spunem minciuni inofensive pentru a ajuta ali oameni sau atunci
cnd ne declarareaconvingerilor noastre ne-ar putea afecta. Atunci cnd facem aceasta vom
cuta s reducem disonana prin justificarea aciunilor noastre. Dac nu putem gsi o
justificare extern, vom cuta o justificare intern. Apoi, aceasta va conduce la schimbarea
convingerilor noastre.
Susinerea atitudinilor contrare este prezent mai ales acolo unde este dificil pentru o
persoan s nege mai apoi c comportamentul care cauzat disonana a avut loc cu adevrat.
Astfel, declaraiile scrise (i mai ales semnate) i activitile publice pot fi unelte puternice de
persuasiune.

Cercetare
Festinger i Carlsmith (1959) au convins participanii unui experiment s efectueze o sarcin
plictisitoare i apoi le.a cerut s spun o minciun inofensiv despre ct de plcut a fost
aceasta. Unii au fost pltii cu 1$, alii cu 20$. Mai trziu, ei au fost ntrebai n mod deschis
cu privire la ct de mult plcere le-a fcut sarcina respectiv. Cei care au fost pltii cu 20$
au spus c a fost plictisitoare. Cei care au fost pltii cu 1$ au considerat c sarcina a fost
plcut.

Exemple
Susinerea atitudinilor contrarea a fost utilizat la scar mare pentru splarea creierului n
ceea ce privete prizonierii de rzboi i membrii sectelor religioase pe timp de pace. Aceasta
este fcut de obicei prin formularea cererilor incrementale. Sunt oferite recompense mici,
care sunt prea mici pentru ca victimele s le utilizeze pentru a le atribui lor schimbarea
comportamentului, i astfel ei foreaz atribuirea intern.

Utilizarea sa
Convingei oamenii s fie de acord cu voi, poate la un grad mai mic cu privire la ceva pe ce
dorii ca ei s adopte. Asigurai-v c nu exist nicio justificare extern semnificativ. Dup
un timp, convingerile lor se vor schimba.

Consultai de asemenea i
Teoria atribuirii, Disonana cognitiv, Teoria consistenei, Justificarea extern

Bibliografie
Festinger i Carlsmith (1959)

12

Teoria nclcrii expectanelor

Descriere
Oamenii au ateptri cu privire la cum trebuie i se vor comporta ali oameni. Reacia lor la
deviaiile altora de la ateptri depind de ceea ce au de pierdut sau de ctigat.
Aceasta se refer de obicei la comportamentul non-verbal (limbajul trupului).
Cu toii avem un spaiu al corpului dincolo de care ne ateptm ca ali oameni s rmn cu
excepia situaiilor speciale. Atunci cnd o alt persoan este prea apropiat, m voi simi
ameninat deoarece aceasta le d posibilitatea de prim lovitur dac situaia devine
agresiv.
Exist patru zone ale spaiului corporal (pentru americanul obinuit):
Distan intim: de la 0 al 18 inci. Pentru contact sexual sau intim de alt tip.
Distan personal: de la 18 inci la 4 feet. n mod obinuit, acesta este rezervat pentru
interaciunile cu familia i prietenii apropiai.
Distana social: de la 4 la 12 feet. n mod obinuit acesta este rezervat pentru
situaiile de zi cu zi i sociale.
Distana public: de la 12 feet n sus. n mod obinuit rezervat pentru situaiile
oficiale.
Atunci cnd vorbesc cu ali oameni, am de asemenea ateptri cu privire la distana maxim.
Dac o persoan st prea departe de mine, m-a putea ntreba dac miros sau dac sunt
neatractiv social n vreun fel.
Cum reacionm la nclcri depinde de valoarea recompensei sau de ceea ce ne ateptm s
obinem din aceast relaie. Astfel un brbat este probabil s reacioneze mai pozitiv cu
privire la o femeie tnr atractiv care st aproape de el, dect la un brbat corpolent din
afara grupului su.

Utilizarea sa
Facei experimente pentru a determina spaiul corporal al celui cu care interacionai.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Dac oamenii stau n spaiul vostru personal sau mai departe dect v ateptai, ntrebai-v
de ce. Dac vi se pare greit, mutai-v voi niv.

Consultai de asemenea i
Comportamentul non-verbal, Teoria expectanei

Bibliografie
Burgoon (1978), Burgoon i Hale (1988), Burgoon i Le Poire (1993)

13

Cursa raionalizrii
Descriere
Atunci cnd acionm pentru a reduce disonana aceasta poate ajunge la un ntreg set de
justificri i raionalizri care conduc la aciuni ridicole sau chiar imorale. Cum este cazul
nasului lui Pinnochio, o aprare conduce la alta pn cnd cu toii suntem diformi.
Ideea este s evitm reaciile negndite i s tolerm disonana pentru suficient timp pentru a
fi capabili s decidem cu privire la o aciune mai adecvat.

Exemple
Atunci cnd Preedintele Richard Nixon a fost prins cu scandalul Watergate, argumentele i
negrile sale au condus la demiterea sa n cele din urm. Bill Clinton a alunecat de asemenea
pe pant, dar a reuit s supravieuiasc numai prin mrturisii foarte publice i jenante.
Utilizarea sa
Atunci cnd oamenii caut justificri de obicei ei sunt disperai. Dai-le paie de care s se
agae i care s-i conduc n direcia bun sau dai-le frnghia cu care s se spnzure. Putei
chiar s-i pclii cu privire la nevoia de a raionaliza n primul rnd.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Avei nevoie cu adevrat s mergei pe firul spiralei raionalizrii? Pentru cine? Ai ajuns acolo
datorit faptului c ai fost pclii de altcineva?

Consultai de asemenea i
Teoria atribuirii, Disonana cognitiv

14

Ipoteza suprancrcrii urbane


Descriere
Atenia oamenilor din oraele mari este bambardat constant cu stimul. Astfel ei au tendina
de a se izola mai mult dect oamenii de la ar. Putei fi cu uurin destul de singuri n
mijlocul unui ora cu mai multe milioane de locuitori.
Oraele au de asemenea rate de criminalitate crescute care sunt foarte bine mediatizate.
Oamenii sunt strivii n trenuri i magazine i spaiul lor corporal, n afara cruia ar prefera s
rmn ali oameni, este mai mic dect cel al oamenilor de la ar.
Ai putea cred c aceasta face oamenii din orae mai puin altruiti, dar studiile au artat c
aceasta nu este adevrat.

Exemple
Luai n considerare numrul de locuri n orae acolo unde se ntlnesc oamenii singuri i
singuratici. Acestea sunt baruri pentru oamenii singuri, cluburi, societi, etc. Doar uitai-v la
coloanele de anunuri matrimoniale din ziare.
Utilizarea sa
n mediile urbane dai-le oamenilor ansa de a arta c sunt indivizi nu doar statistici. Utilizai
ameninri aparente i apoi rugai-i s v ajute.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Dac v simii singur n ora, fii ateni la rechinii care se hrnesc cu fricile voastre. Cutaiv prieteni adevrai i cerei-le opinia atunci cnd v simii constrni de alii.

Consultai de asemenea i
Euristica disponibilitii, Comportamentul pro-social

Bibliografie
Milgram (1970), Steblay (1987), Morris (1969)

15

Teorii despre minciuni

Aici sunt prezentate teoriile academice despre cum spunem minciuni altor oameni.
Modelul celor patru factori: exist patru factori asociai minciunii.
Teoria Manipulrii Informaiilor: nclcarea uneia dintre cele patru elemente
conversaionale n scopul persuadrii.
Teoria nelrii Interpersonale: minciuna reprezint un dans dinamic ntre mincinos i
asculttor.
Modelul celor patru factori
Teoria manipulrii informaiei
Teoria decepiei interpersonale

Consultai de asemenea i
Mincinoi
Teorii despre ncredere
Teorii despre a fi altfel

16

Modelul celor patru factori


Descriere
Atunci cnd oamenii spun minciuni, exist patru mecanisme subiacente implicate:
Excitare: Minciuna cauzeaz anxietate i excitaie, fie din cauza disonanei dintre valori
i comportamente conflictuale, fie fin cauza fricii de a fi prins. Aceasta poate fi
detectat prin detectoare de minciuni, erori de vorbire i ezitri, repetiiile, activism
agitat i mobilitate n spaiu, clipit, timbru vocal mai nalt i dilatarea pupilelor.
Controlul comportamentului: ncercm s ne controlm limbajul trupului care ar putea
s ne dea de gol. De fapt, acest lucru este imposibil i deseori se produc scpri, de
exemplu atunci cnd ne controlm faa, iar picioarele ne dau de gol.
Emoie: Emoiile noastre se schimb atunci cnd minim. De exemplu, plcerea nelrii,
cnd mincinosul este mulumit n secret cu privire la succesul su. Poate aprea de
asemenea vina. Micro-micrile muchilor faciali pot trda emoiile ascunse.
Gndirea: Pentru a mini, de obicei trebuie s gndim mai serios pentru a asigura
coerena argumentelor noastre. Aceasta ne conduce la pauze. Avem de asemenea
tendina de a utiliza mai mult generaliti pentru a evita prinderea n capcana detaliilor
specifice.

Cercetare
Zuckerman et al. au descoperit c dilatarea pupilelor este un indicator destul de bun al
neltoriei. Au fost descoperii muli ali indicatori cum ar fi mucarea degetelor, clipitul,
timbrul vocal, etc. Totui, la fel ca n cazul comportamentul non-verbal, nicio metod unic nu
este garantat a funciona de fiecare dat.

Exemple
Juctorii de poker poart adesea ochelari de soare pentru a ascunde dilatarea pupilelor lor
atunci cnd sunt excitai i nu se pot controla. Altfel, ei sunt de obicei maetri ai controlrii
comportamentului non-verbal.

Deci?
Utilizarea sa
Nu minii, mai ales n faa cuiva (cum ar fi poliia) care este instruit s depisteze minciunile.
Utilizai indicaii de mai sus pentru a detecta atunci cnd alte persoane mint.

Consultai de asemenea i
Teoria nelrii interpersonale, Comportamentul non-verbal

Bibliografie
Zuckerman, DePaulo i Rosenthal (1981), Zuckerman i Driver (1985)

17

Teoria manipulrii informaiei


Descriere
Pentru a convinge sau a nela, o persoan ncalc n mod deliberat unul dintre cele patru
elemente ale conversaiei:
Cantitate: Informaia furnizat complet (aa cum este ateptat de asculttor) i fr
omisiuni.
Calitatea: Informaiile furnizate vor fi adevrate i corecte.
Relaia: informaiile vor fi relevante pentru obiectul conversaiei purtate.
Maniera: lucrurile vor fi prezentate ntr-un mod care permite celorlali s neleag i cu
un limbaj non-verbal adecvat.

Exemple
Un student ntrzie predarea unei lucrri. El vorbete cu profesorul tremurnd i plngnd
spunnd c tocmai l-a prsit prietena i a uitat de aceea s predea lucrarea (dar pe cuvnt
c a terminat-o la timp!).

Utilizarea sa
Persuadarea prin omiterea informaiilor, spunerea neadevrurilor, deraierea de la subiect i
ameirea celeilalte persoane. Utilizai scuze. Fii economic cu adevrul. Vorbii foarte mult.

Aprarea mpotriva sa
Punei la ndoiala ceea ce vi se spune, mai ales dac descoperii c v rzgndii ca un
rezultat al conversaiei. Cutai detalii. Cutai dovezi care s coroboreze afirmaiile. Fii atent
la limbajul trupului.

Consultai de asemenea i
Persuadare, Comportament non-verbal, Teorii despre ncredere, Teoria nclcrii ateptrilor

Bibliografie
Dawson i Brashers (1996), McCornack, Levine, Solowczuk, Torres i Campbell (1992)

18

Teoria nelrii interpersonale

Descriere
Minciuna apare ntr-o interaciune dinamic n care mincinosul i asculttorul danseaz unul n
jurul altuia schimbndu-i gndurile ca rspuns la micrile celuilalt. Comportamentul
mincinosului include:
Manipularea informaiei: pentru a se distana de mesaj, astfel nct dac mesajul este
descoperit a fi fals, el s scpe de responsabilitate. Astfel el utilizeaz generaliti vagi
i va vorbi despre ali oameni.
Comportamentul de control strategic: pentru a suprima semnalele care pot indica c
mint. De exemplu, faa lor poate fi impasiv i corpul mai rigid.
Managementul imaginii: de exemplu prin mai multe zmbete i dat din cap.

Exemple
Fii ateni la copiii mici care au fost descoperii c mint. Ei vor arta spre fraii lor, i vor lua o
fa inocent, i vor ine minile la spate. La acea vrst ei sunt foarte flexibili i nva
repede. Nu dup mult timp ei vor fi capabili s-i induc prinii n eroare.

Utilizarea sa
Pentru a detecta mincinoii, fii ateni la pattern-urile de comportament de mai sus. Oamenii
care mint tind s fie mai buni la detectatul minciunilor deoarece ei nii cunosc tehnicile mai
bine.

Consultai de asemenea i
Modelul celor patru factori

Bibliografie
Buller i Burgoon (1994, 1996), Buller, Strzyzewski i Comstock (1991), Burgoon i Buller
(1994)

19

Emiterea minciunilor
Emiterea minciunilor este o form interesant de nelare care implic:

Detectarea minciunilor: modaliti eseniale pentru a detecta minciunile.


Mulumirea celui care neal: semnalele mulumirii urmnd unei nelri.

Consultai de asemenea i
Limbajul trupului, Teorii despre minciuni
Interogare
ChangingMinds Blog!: 07-Dec-05: Ofertele pompoase, Hainele mpratului, regulile sociale i
conducerea.

20

Detectarea minciunilor
Dac lucrai cu alii, este de obicei foarte util s fii capabili s detectai minciunile.

Mincinoii...

Astfel nct...

...vorbesc pe un ton mai nalt.


...sunt de obicei ngrijorai s nu ...ezit.
fie prini sau se simt vinovai i
...fac erori de vorbire.
de aceea sunt tensionai.
...se mic nervos.
...nu-i amintesc ceea ce spun c ...spun lucruri care nu se potrivesc ntre ele.
s-a ntmplat.
...exclud detaliile irelevante.
...inventeaz lucruri.

...ezit pe msur ce se gndesc la ce s spun.

...vorbesc mult pentru a epuiza timpul.


...sunt ngrijorai cu privire la ce
...se emoioneaz i ncearc s v induc n eroare.
ai putea ntreba.
...se simt foarte bine dac ncercai s schimbai subiectul.
...utilizeaz limbajul cu atenie.
...sunt ngrijorai cu privire la ce ...fac pauze de gndire nainte de a vorbi.
ar putea s spun.
...furnizeaz rspunsuri scurte.
...utilizeaz un ton monoton.
...evit contactul vizual.
...se tem c contactul vizual i va
...clipesc mai des.
da de gol.
...se freac mai mult la ochi.
...se tem c vor fi prini.
...ncearc
s-i
limbajul trupului.

...spun ct de puin posibil.


...ncearc s scape sau schimb subiectul.
...pareaz cuvintele voastre cu o negaie.

controleze ...i in corpul rigid.


...zmbesc cu gura, dar nu cu ochii.

...transmit semnale contradictorii cu diferite pri ale trupului.


...nu-i pot controla limbajul ...au o dilatare a pupilelor ochilor.
trupului.
...ridic din umeri i au grimase.
...au ntrzieri mici n potrivirea trupului cu ceea ce spun.
...se simt ameninai.

...atac, se apr sau pareaz.


...plaseaz bariere n faa lor, de la brae la crile de pa mas.

...au nevoie de timp pentru a se ...repet ntrebarea.


simi ameninai.
...plvrgesc despre lucruri banale.
...cunosc cele de mai sus i supra- ...par relaxai.
compenseaz.
...se holbeaz.
...sunt prea rigizi.
...prezint detalii neimportante.

21

...nu prezint niciun fel de discrepane.


...poart ochelari de soare.

Plcerea celui care neal

Plcerea pclitorului este mulumirea pe care oamenii o simt atunci cnd i neal pe ceilali.

Mulumirea nelrii
nelarea este un alt cuvnt pentru a induce n eroare, pentru a pcli oamenii s fac ceva
sau s cread ceva eronat.
ncntarea determinat de deinerea puterii i controlului
Oamenii care neal au de obicei o plcere secret cu privire la succesul lor. Aceasta este
asemntoare cu plcerea pe care oamenii o au atunci cnd exercit puterea. Este ca i cum
creierul ne rspltete pentru realizarea controlului asupra celorlali oameni.
Mulumirea deinerii unui secret
Legat de putere este deinerea a ceva ce ali oameni nu au. Astfel avem tendina de a ne face
plcere natura secret a nelrii, nu numai din cunoaterea c am ctigat ceva, dar i din
faptul c cealalt persoan nu tie aceasta.

Detectarea lucrurilor care dau de gol mincinoii


Oamenii care i neal pe ceilali simt ncntarea celui care neal i, de cele mai multe ori,
nu-i pot ascunde sentimentele. Dac putei detecta semnale prin care acetia se dau de gol,
putei s evitai s fii indui n eroare.
Limbajul trupului
Exist o plcere tipic momentan cu privire la nelare care apare de obicei ca un semnal al
trupului care semnaleaz plcerea, prin:
ntoarcerea colurilor gurii n sus;
Ochi strni;
Capul dat pe spate.
Semnale momentane
Limbajul corpului poate fi de asemenea combinat cu ncercrile, contiente sau nu, de a
ascunde aceasta ceea ce conduce la semnalele care apar pentru o durat scurt nainte ca ele
s fie reprimate i nbuite.

Deci?
Fii ateni la ceilali oameni pentru a detecta semnele ncntrii atunci cnd ei pot s ncerce
s v conving de ceva sau s v pcleasc n alt fel. Atunci cnd cunoatei aceasta, vei fi
inversat situaia: avei puterea cunotinelor pe care ei nu le au deci fii ateni la trimiterea
napoi a unui alt semnal de ncntare a celui care neal!

Consultai de asemenea i
Puterea

22

Teorii despre putere


Aici sunt prezentate teoriile academice despre cum este obinut i utilizat puterea.
Coerciie: acioneaz pentru a schimba un comportament al unei persoane mpotriva
dorinei ei.
Principiul interesului minim: persoana care are un interes minim are cea mai mare
putere.
Putere: reprezint capacitatea de a determina o persoan s-i schimbe
comportamentul.
Teoria schimbului social: d pentru a primi mai mult.
Teoria contingenelor strategice: puterea depinde de abilitatea de rezolva problemele,
de centralism i de unicitatea abilitilor.

23

Tipurile puterii
Exist cinci baze ale puterii definite de French i Raven (1960):
Puterea de recompensare: controlul asupra resurselor valorizate.
Puterea coercitiv: capacitatea de a pedepsi, posibil la nivel fizic.
Puterea expertului: cunotine superioare.
Puterea legitim: poziie sau funcie oficial.
Puterea de referin: atunci cnd oamenii vor s fie ca tine.
Iat o list mai complet a formelor puterii:
1. Proprietatea
Proprietatea asupra unor obiecte mi permite utilizarea acestora dup bunul meu plac (am un
scaun? Pot face i focul cu el. Am bani? i cheltuiesc cum vreau).
2. Funcia
Dac deii o funcie (manager, poliist etc.), obii supunerea celorlali la prerogativele funciei, chiar
dac nu la tine ca persoan. Firma sau ara au investit o autoritate formal n persoanele cu funcie.
Controlul accesului la ceva dorit de ceilali, unde tu eti portar: secretara managerului,
bibliotecarul care controleaz accesul la cunoatere.
3. Cunoaterea
Cunoaterea nseamn putere, se spune. Dac eu tiu ceva, pot folosi acea informaie n avantajul
meu.
Forme ale cunoaterii
Cunoaterea tehnic a ti cum funcioneaz lucrurile.este puterea experilor i oamenilor de
tiin.
Cunoaterea social nseamn s tii anumite lucruri despre oameni (de exemplu secrete care
pot fi folosite pentru antaj).
Dac nimeni nu este interesat de cunoaterea respectiv, atunci ea deine o putere redus.
4. Abilitatea practic
Abilitatea capacitatea de a face ceva, mai degrab dect de a ti ceva. Ea poate fi tehnic sai social.
Inginerii au abiliti tehnice, comercianii au abiliti sociale, care include abilitile de comunicare
i de persuadare.
5. Obligaia
Dac m simt obligat fa de tine, tu i poi aminti acest lucru: Obligaiile decurg din:
Servicii pe care mi le-ai fcut n trecut i de care trebuie s ma achit.
Reguli pe care eu trebuie s le urmez, cum ar fi regulile sociale de ntr-ajutorare a unei
persoane n dificultate.
Responsabiliti pe care simt c le am, de ex ca printe, priete sau manager.
6. ncrederea
Dac tu ai dobndit respectul meu, atunci eu voi avea ncredere n tine, iar acest fapt i confer mai
mult putere n a-mi cere anumite lucruri, pentru c eu nu-mi voi pune problema c profii de mine.
7. Auto-determinarea
Sunt singurul care poate decide ce face i ce spune. De exemplu, pot decide dac s m opun sau s
prsesc locul.
Deci?

24

Aceste forme de putere pot fi folosite ca check-list pentru a ne inventaria formele de putere. De
regul oamenii presupun n mod eronat c nu dein puterea sau c au o putere inferioar
celorlali.

Potenarea puterii

1. Oferta limitat /resursele insuficiente (vezi principiul ofertei limitate)


Principiul resurselor insuficiente face ca orice este greu accesibil s fie mai dorit. Dac oamenii
nu au genul de putere pe care o am eu, atunci sunt singurul deintor al acestei puteri i prin
urmare pot s decid cum s o utilizez.

2.Dezirabilitate
Dac ceea ce am eu este mai dezirabil, atunci pot cere mai mult.
Dac puterea mea este indezirabil , ca puterea de a pedepsi, este acelai lucru. Cu ct
indezirabilitatea puterii este mai mare, cu att crete puterea deintorului.

3.Abilitatea
Unii oameni au putere dar nu se pricep s o administreze. Un posesor al puterii abil va avea
abilitatea de a utiliza exact cantitatea de putere suficient pentru a obine un lucru i nu mai
mult.

4.Impactul
Dac puterea mea are un impact mare asupra oamenilor, atunci ei i vor acorda mai mare
atenie. Un jefuitor de banc dobndete puterea mare (i bani) din utilizarea unei puti.

5.Costul de achiziie
Uneori preul dobndirii puterii este mare, ca n cazul puterii expertului, pentru care a fost
nevoie de timp i bani pentru a face studii universitare.

6.Rata consumului puterii


Uneori prin utilizare puterea se poate epuiza, alteori i pstreaz fora intact. De exemplu, un
bun profesor face limite n clas doar prin ridicarea unui deget, nu prin strigte.

25

Principiul ofertei limitate /resurselor insuficiente


Descriere
n nevoia de a controla lumea n care trim, a fi capabil s facem alegeri constituie o libertate
important. Dac ceva devine insuficient, noi anticipm un posibil regret c nu l-am achiziionat,
astfel nct l dorim i mai mult. Aceast dorin este intensificat dac credem c altcineva ar putea
s l dobndeasc i astfel s dobndeasc o poziie social pe care am fi putut s o avem noi.
Exemplu. n comer.
Utilizarea principiului
Intimate that what you want the other person to choose is only going to available for a limited time
and that there may not be many left in any case. Hint of other people waiting in the wings to for the
chance to get it.
Aprare
Cnd ceva este insuficient, ntreb-te dac l vrei cu adevrat.
References
Cialdini (1993), Brehm (1966)

26

Teoria comparrii sociale


Descriere
Ne cunoatem propriile abiliti i aptitudini prin compararea cu ali oameni i cu opiniile lor.
Dar ndeosebi ne comparm cu persoanele cu care credem c ne asemnm.
Compararea social ndreptat n sus survine cnd ne comparm cu oameni pe care i
considerm ca fiind mai buni din punct de vedere social dect noi, ntr-un anumit fel.
Compararea n jos acioneaz n sensul invers.
Research
Hornstein et al. dropped a wallet containing some trivial items, a return address, $2 and a
letter in midtown Manhattan, then watched what people did when they picked it up. There
were two variations, each with a different letter. Some letters were from an articulate
English-speaker (who would be like the person picking up the letter) whilst others were
from a clear foreigner. Some letters had a positive tone, some were neutral and some
were negative.
Letter from the 'foreigner' led to the wallet being returned around 30% of the time.
Letters from the 'native' with positive or neutral tones were returned around 65% of the
time, whilst native letters with negative tone were returned only around 10% of the time.
Thus, when the person finding the letter felt similar to the letter-writer, they were more
motivated to return the wallet. However, when the letter writer seemed like them, but
wrote in a negative way, they 'punished' the person by not returning the wallet.

Exemplu
Ca s vd ct de bun artist sunt, m compar cu un prieten competent, i nu cu
Michelangelo sau cu fetia mea de 4 ani.

Aprare
Ferii-v s v comparai cu oameni ale cror standarde nu le putei atinge sau care au
caracteristici indezirabile.
Festinger (1954), Hornstein Fisch and Holmes (1968)

Puterea
Descriere
Puterea reprezint capacitatea de a-i determina pe alii s-i schimbe comportamentul chiar
dac ei nu doresc s fac aceasta.
Exist cinci baze ale puterii definite de French i Raven (1960):
Puterea de recompensare: controlul asupra resurselor valorizate.
Puterea coercitiv: capacitatea de a pedepsi, posibil la nivel fizic.
Puterea experilor: cunotine superioare.
Puterea legitim: poziie sau funcie oficial.
Puterea referinei: atunci cnd oamenii vor s fie ca tine.
Despre putere s-a scris mult i alte tipologii includ:

27

Jeffery Pfeffer: Atributele personale, structura organizaional i potrivirea dintre


cerinele unei situaii i trsturile personale.
Charles Handy: Resursele de putere (fizic, financiar, poziie, de expert, personale),
metodele de influen (for, reguli /proceduri, schimb, persuadare, ecologie,
magnetism).
Henry Mintzberg: Resurse, abiliti tehnice, cunotine, putere oficial i accesul la
ceilali.

Mai simplu, puterea este determinat de:


Capacitatea de a face ceva pe care celelalte persoane nu l doresc.
Deinerea a ceva ce celelalte persoane vor s aib (sau cel puin controlarea accesului la
acest lucru).
Capacitatea de schimba credinele sau nelegerea celorlalte persoane (prin logic
raional sau prin carism iraional).

Exemple
Dein toate formele de putere asupra copiilor mei. Ei au puterea recompensei asupra mea prin
reinerea afeciunii lor.
Utilizarea sa
nelegei-v situaia de putere. Cutai s o construii n timp. Utilizai-o cu drmuial:
abuzul de putere are de multe ori efecte negative neintenionate cum ar fi reactana.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Recunoatei puterea pe care ai avut-o dintotdeauna. Cel puin avei putere asupra propriilor
voastre aciuni, aa cum muncitorii au tiut de secole.

Bibliografie
French i Raven (1960), Pfeffer (1992), Mintzberg (1983)

28

Coerciie

Descriere
Aceasta este aciunea pentru care se schimb comportamentul unui persoane chiar atunci
cnd aceasta nu dorete s fac asta. Metodele de coerciie acioneaz mai ales prin
ameninare sau mit. Ambele utilizeaz o motivaie extrinsec cu mesajul f asta i vei
obine asta.
Ameninrile pot duce la o nou aciune, care este dureroas, cum ar fi atacul fizic sau psihic.
Ameninrile pot lua de multe ori forma negrii, cum ar fi nlturarea beneficiilor sau
mpiedicarea accesului al resursa dorit.
Poziia social este foarte important pentru noi, astfel nct respingerea dintr-un grup sau o
situaie jenant public pot constitui ameninri foarte puternice. Putem exercita coerciia prin
ncadrarea comportamentelor dezirabile ca fiind necesare din cauza regulilor sociale cum ar fi
returnarea favorurilor sau aderarea la normele unui grup (cu respingerea social implicit ca
pedeapsa cu care persoana este ameninat).

Exemple
Prinii exercit de obicei coerciia asupra copiilor lor, chiar i la nivel psihic. Situarea liniei
legitimitii depinde de normele morale ale fiecruia i aceasta reprezint un subiect de
dezbateri aprinse.
La cel mai nalt nivel, rzboiul este coerciia suprem dintre ri.

Utilizarea sa
Descoperii ceea ce oamenii doresc sau de ce se tem ei, ctigai controlul asupra acestora i
apoi oferii accesul ca o mit sau o negare ca fiind pedeapsa cu care individul este ameninat.

Aprarea mpotriva sa
Exist patru tipuri de aprare mpotriva coerciiei:
Peretele de stnc: refuzai imediat, spunei pur i simplu nu.
Separarea identitii: Refuzai pe motivul dv. nu facei ceva de acest gen.
Justificare: Prezentai cauza i efectul negativ spunnd c nu v vei conforma.
Negociere: Facei contra-oferte pentru a permite celeilalte persoane s-i realizeze
scopurile.
Bibliografie
Marwell i Schmitt (1967), McLaughlin, Cody i Robey (1980)

29

Principiul interesului minim


Descriere
n orice relaie, persoana care are cel mai mic interes cu privire la continuarea relaiei (adic
are cea mai bun strategie de detaare) deine cea mai mare putere.

Exemple
Dac m gndesc vag s-mi vnd casa i cumprtorul este foarte doritor s o cumpere, nu
trebuie s reduc deloc preul. A putea chiar s inventez o alt persoan interesat pentru a
ajuta la creterea preului.

Utilizarea sa
Dezvoltai-v propria poziie de detaare. Asigurai-v c v putei retrage n orice moment.
ncercai s prejudiciai capacitatea celeilalte persoane de a se detaa. Fii ateni ca ei s nu
v prejudicieze poziia voastr de detaare.

Aprarea mpotriva sa
Nu prei niciodat disperat s ajungei la o nelegere: nu avei dect de pierdut.

30

Teoria schimbului social


Descriere
Toate relaiile au o parte de luat i una de dat cu toate c balana acestui schimb nu este
ntotdeauna egal. Teoria schimbului social explic ceea ce simt oamenii ntr-o relaie cu o alt
persoan, n funcie de perceperea urmtoarelor:
Echilibrul ntre ceea ce aducem ntr-o relaie i ceea ce obinem din ea.
Tipul de relaie pe care l meritm.
ansele de a avea o relaie mai bun cu o alt persoan.
Pentru a decide ceea ce este corect, ne crem un nivel de comparaie cu care comparm
proporia dat / luat. Acest nivel va varia de la o relaie la alta, cu anumite relaii din care
obinem mai mult i altele n care aducem mai mult. Acestea vor varia de asemenea foarte
mult cu privire la ce este dat i primit. Astfel, de exemplu, schimburile de acas pot fi foarte
diferite att cu privire la balan, ct i la coninut.
Avem, de asemenea, un nivel de comparaie pentru relaiile alternative. Cu un nivel nalt de
comparaie, am putea crede c lumea este plin de oameni drgui care abia ateapt s ne
ntlneasc. Atunci cnd nivelul este sczut, am putea rmne ntr-o relaie costisitoare
deoarece credem c nu am putea gsi pe cineva mai bun.

Cercetare
Rusbult (1983) a descoperit c n timpul perioadei iniiale de lun de miere a unei relaii
romantice, balana schimburilor a fost ignorat la un nivel mare. Numai mai trziu costurile
erau legate de satisfacia existent n cadrul relaiei.

Exemple
Fiica mea s-a strduit mult ca s-i cumpere fratelui ei un cadou pentru ziua lui de natere. El
nu a fost ndeajuns de entuziasmat cu privire la cadou, astfel nct ea a decis s petreac mai
mult timp singur dect s fie ignorat de el.

Deci?
Utilizarea sa
Atunci cnd dorii s cerei ceva n schimbul a altceva, asigurai-v c balana schimbului este
n favoarea voastr. Putei, de asemenea, lucra la percepia voastr cu privire la modul n care
au loc schimburile n cadrul relaiei voastre.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Atunci cnd oamenii apeleaz la favoruri, gndii-v la ce tip de relaie de schimb avei cu ei i
dac aceasta este rezonabil.

Consultai de asemenea i
Teoria Echitii, Norma Reciprocitii, Normele sociale, Teoria schimbului ef-subordonat
http://www.washington.edu/research/pathbreakers/1978a.html,

Bibliografie
Thibaut i Kelley (1959), Kelley i Thibaut (1978), Homans (1961), Rusbult (1983)

31

Teoria contingenei strategice


Descriere
Puterea din interiorul unei organizaii depinde de trei factori: abilitile de rezolvare a
problemelor, centralismul actorului i unicitatea abilitilor.
Dac avei abilitile i expertiza de a rezolva probleme importante, atunci vei fi foarte
preuit. i n conformitate cu legea cererii i ofertei care v d un avantaj n cadrul
negocierilor. V d de asemenea puterea din reciprocitatea creat.
Dac lucrai ntr-o parte central a fluxului activitilor organizaiei, atunci ceea ce facei este
foarte important. Asta v d multe oportuniti de a fi vzut. nseamn de asemenea c v
aflai pe o cale critic astfel nct dac partea dvs. din companie are eecuri, ntreaga
activitate se oprete. Iar aceasta v va da din nou atenie i o putere de negociere mare.
n final, dac suntei foarte greu de nlocuit, chiar dac v facei dumanila vrful ierarhiei, ei
nu v vor putea muta sau da afar.

Exemple
Un manager de producie dintr-o organizaie este responsabil cu operaiile principale de
producie (centralism) i el / ea nelege problemele respective sale foarte bine (unicitate).
Dintr-o experien ndelungat, atunci cnd lucrurile merg prost el se pricepe foarte bine s
remedieze lucrurile, din punct de vedere mecanic dar i n ceea ce privete sindicatele.

Deci?
Utilizarea sa
Obinei o slujb pe firul central al activitilor organizaiei. Devenii un expert n rezolvarea
problemelor n cadrul acesteia. Obinei i aprai-v cunotinele i abilitile pe care nimeni
altcineva nu le mai are.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Nu permitei niciunei alte persoane s devin indispensabil.

Bibliografie
Hickson et al (1971)

32

Putere
Puterea reprezint capacitatea de a obine ceea ce-i doreti. i cum ceea ce doreti este de
obicei restrns de ceilali oameni, utilizarea puterii include de multe ori schimbarea sau
influenarea a ceea ce ali oameni gndesc, cred sau fac. Puterea este nucleul tuturor
tehnicilor de influenare.
Informaii suplimentare asupra puterii:
French i Raven: cea mai des ntlnit clasificare este alctuit din cinci forme de
putere
Hobbes i Puterea: Punctul de vedere al lui Thomas Hobbes din secolul al XVII-lea.
Sporirea puterii: ceea ce crete eficacitatea puterii voastre.
Lipsa puterii: Modul n care ne convingem pe noi nine.
Tipuri de putere: ceea ce extinde i simplific alte liste.
Teoria contingenei strategice: devenii de nenlocuit.
Trei dimensiuni ale puterii: canale, intenie i voin proprie.
Cele trei forme de putere ale lui Toffler: violena, averea i cunotinele.

Deci?
nelegei puterea pe care o avei ca i puterea altor oameni. Utilizai-v propria putere
prudent. Poate cea mai mare putere pe care o avei este s-i facei pe alii s i utilizeze
puterea n numele vostru.
Fii ateni la instinctele latente: muli oameni i vor utiliza propria putere atunci cnd sunt
excitai. Cea mai eficient putere este aceea utilizat subtil, astfel nct oamenii s nu-i dea
seama c aceasta este utilizat.
Puterea nu trebuie s fie utilizat direct: ameninrile sunt de obicei eficiente, mai ales atunci
cnd sunt acompaniate de mostrele de utilizare a puterii. Aa cum gorilele se bat n piept, i
noi simim deseori nevoia de lupta.

Consultai de asemenea i
Teorii despre putere, Limbajul corpului cu privire la putere, Cuvintele de putere, Politica

33

Puterea exprimat prin mesajele nonverbale


Power is often expressed in communication as a combination of strength and humanity. This is
very attractive and is a form of Hurt and Rescue.

Greeting
Handshake
As the other person approaches, move to left side, extend your arm horizontally, palm down
(be first to do this). Grab their palm firmly, pull them in and hold their elbow with your left
hand.
The horizontal arm is an unmissable signal. Palm on top is being dominant, putting yourself on
top. Holding the elbow further controls them.
The royal handshake is outstretched arm to keep the other at their distance. A limp hand, palm
down, stops them doing a power shake.
Touching
Touching is power symbol. Touching people can be threatening, and is used by leaders to
demonstrate power.
The handshake is, of course, a touch, and can lead to further touching, such as the elbow (cot)
grip and patting shoulders and back.
Guide people with a palm in the small of the back. Greet them with a hand on the back. Touch
them on the elbow or other 'safe' areas.

Speaking
Talking
Talk with confidence and use the body beat in time with assertions. Beat with a finger, a palm
or even a fist pumn (which is rather aggressive). Emphasize and exaggerate your points.
Use silences too. Pause in the middle of speaking and look around at everyone. If you are not
interrupted they are probably respecting your power. Stand confidently without speaking. Look
around, gazing (privind fix) into people's eyes for slightly longer than usual.
Emoting
It is powerful to show that you have emotion, but in the right place only. It shows you are
human. At other times it emphasizes how you are in control. A neat trick is to bite the lower
lip, as it shows both emotion and control (Bill Clinton did it 15 times in 2 minutes during the
Monica Lewinsky 'confession').

And...
Walking
Walk with exaggerated swinging of arms, palm down and out. Kink elbows outwards, making
the body seem wider. Add a slight swagger.
When walking with others, be in front of them. When going through doors, if you are going to
an audience, go first. If you are going from an audience, go last (guiding others through shows
dominance).
Position
Generally be higher. Sit on a higher chair. Stand over people. Wear heels. Drive a higher car.

See also
Dominant body language, Aggressive body language

34

Cuvinte investite cu putere


There are words that are hardly noticed. There are words that stand out. And there are words
which stand out so much they almost seem to have some kind of special power. If you know
these words and know how to use them, then you, too, can wield this power.

God words Cuvinte Dumnezeu


Sometimes words arise in a society or even across societies which, like a God, demand
absolute obedience. When they are invoked, you rebuke them at your peril. If I say 'Racial
equality is important' then you will be taking your life in your hands to say 'No, racial equality
is not important'.
God words often indicate beliefs, attitudes and values, which can be utilized by the attentive
persuader. For example if I hear you talking about people being hurt, I might deduce that you
have a strong value about safety and hence sell you a car based on its airbags and crumple
zones.
There's even a word for it: when words become 'canonized', they become unchallengeable, in a
similar way that a particularly good person is canonized into sainthood.
'In' words Cuvinte in
Within companies and specific social groups, if I say 'this is profitable' to an executive, he or
she will be hard put to turn me down. God words can indicate attitude and can even take the
form of apparently meaningless utterances. 'Yo!' can invoke (and even demand) a positive cando excitement.
God talks jargon
Jargon words can very often be God words, as they have special meaning to closed groups.
Invoking them both has a special meaning and tells others you a member of the group. As a
policeman walks past a group of youths, one might mutter 'Pig' under his breath. This sends a
strong signal to the others, reminding them of their 'outlaw' attitude, binding them more
closely together and raising the utterer's standing within the group for risking the ire of the
lawman.

Devil words Cuvinte diavoleti


Just as God terms give you power, there are also words which will sap your power. Using these
in a positive sense is taking your life in your hands. Saying 'sexual harassment is not that
important' will make you a subject of attack and even people who agree with you will quietly
distance themselves from you.
To illustrate the power of devil words, a reader of this page was so incensed even by examples
I gave here, that he used very strong language in a communication (in consideration, I have
removed the examples).
Devil word repulse
Devil words are so repulsive and so scary, people will quickly turn away from them. The mere
thought of being associated with them (or, worse, being seen to be associated with them) is
enough to make most people run a mile in record time.
These words are thus useful for attaching to the things which you want people to avoid. If I say
'Brown is so unfashionable' to my daughter who is looking at an expensive brown dress, she
will almost immediately drop the dress and move away.

35

Non-PC words
Non-politically-correct words were once quite acceptable, but as society's values changed
and people realized that they were using something unacceptable, it made them run even
harder away from them.
Insults
Beyond non-PC words, variations can easily become pejorative and intended to insult,
denigrate and belittle. Such words are even more emotionally charged and will provoke others
into strong reaction -- which may be the intent of those using the words.
Words may even be invented or subverted with the deliberate purpose of insult.

Charisma words
Between God and Devil words are words that invoke particular effects on other people and can
make you appear to have a mystical persuasive charisma. Sales books are full of these words
and each list is different. They are sold as magical sales secrets based on years of research,
but you can easily invent your own. All you do is take a basic need and find words which
trigger the need (the stronger the better) in the person to who you are talking. Thus, for
example, you can use:
Safety-oriented words: guaranteed, safe, secure, sound, healthy, strong.
Greed-oriented words: cash, deserve, money, more, free.
Control-oriented words: easy, quick, discover, proven, best, grab.
Belonging/Identity-oriented words: you, love, good, approved, favorite, new.
Trust-oriented words: certain, good, proven, real, right, scientific, sure, truth.
Notice how these are all positive words, as they aim to invoke good feelings. They are, as such,
God-Charisma words. Words also can address more than one need (and most do). For example
'easy' also triggers greed and safety needs.
You can also leverage negative emotions to scare people into action with Devil-Charisma words
such as only (as in 'only two days left!') risky and dark.

Context counts
The power effect of the words you use depend on the context within which you use them.
'Profit' is very likely to be a God word in most companies, yet in the public services it may well
be a Devil word, being taken as an indication of all that is bad about our selfish society.
Words also sit within the context of other words within the sentence. Thus 'This is profitable' is
nowhere near as powerful as 'How much more profit will this make you?'
Craft your speech with care and place your power words with even more care and you will
become more and more persuasive!

The Yale list


An oft-quoted set of power words is commonly attributed to a study at Yale, Duke or California
Universities, although it was sighted early in the Vidette Messenger in 1963.
Easy
Results
Save
Discover
Guarantee
Safety
Health
Love
Money

36

Need
Proven
You

One of the dilemmas of such lists is that without context, it is not clear where these are most
powerful -- in advertising, one might reasonably assume. They certainly seem to be able to
add power, though the truth of being the most powerful words, as they are often quoted, is
perhaps doubtful.

Don't over-do it!


If you are going to use power words effectively, then they should have a subtle effect. Look at
the following sentence:

Our new and exclusive products give instant, proven results and come with a free, money-back
guarantee, strongly recommended by TVI. Apply now for this limited offer to discover these
amazing benefits.
Overloading sentences with power words is like a teenage boy spraying on large amounts of
scent in the hope of attracting more girls. The main effect on most people is that it is so
obvious that it engenders either scorn or anger.

See also
http://www.freereports.net/powerwords.html
http://www.uacc.ua.edu/content/all/careerguide/Powerwords.htm
http://www.riger.com/know_base/advertising/top_ten.html
http://www.youthjobs.ca/power_words.html
http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/003662.html

37

Ce este Teoria jocului?


de David K. Levine, Facultatea de Economie, UCLA
Ceea ce economitii numesc teoria jocului, psihologii numesc teoria situaiilor sociale ceea ce
reprezint o descriere corect a teoriei jocului. Cu toate c teoria jocului este relevant pentru
jocurile de salon cum ar fi poker sau bridge, cei mai muli cercettori cu privire la teoria jocului
se centreaz pe modul n care grupurile de oameni interacioneaz. Exist dou abordri ale
teoriei jocului: teoria jocului cooperativ i ne-cooperativ. Teoria ne-cooperativ a jocului are
n vedere n general modul n care indivizii inteligeni interacioneaz unul cu cealalt cu privire
la realizarea propriilor scopuri. Aceasta este abordarea teoriei jocului pe care o voi discuta aici.
Suplimentar la teoria jocului, teoria economic are alte trei ramuri principale: teoria deciziei,
teoria echilibrului general i teoria design-ului mecanismului. Toate sunt legate strns de teoria
jocului.
Teoria deciziei poate fi vzut ca o teorie a jocurilor cu o singur persoan sau a jocului cu un
singur juctor mpotriva naturii. Centrul se afl pe preferinele i pe formarea credinelor. Cea
mai des utilizat form de teorie a deciziei afirm c preferinele dintre alternative riscante pot
fi descrise prin maximizarea valorii ateptate a unei funcii utilitare numerice acolo unde
utilitatea poate depinde de un numr de lucruri, dar n situaiile de interes pentru economiti
aceasta depinde de cele mai multe ori de venitul bnesc. Teoria probabilitii este utilizat
foarte mult pentru a reprezenta incertitudinea rezultatelor i Lega Bayes este utilizat frecvent
pentru a modela modalitatea n care noile informaii sunt utilizate pentru a revizui credinele.
Teoria deciziei este utilizat de multe ori n forma analizei deciziei care arat care este cea mai
bun modalitate de a obine informaii nainte de a lua o decizie.
Teoria echilibrului general poate fi considerat o ramur specializat a teoriei jocului care are n
vedere comerul i productorii. Aceasta este utilizat la scar larg n analiza macroeconomic
a politicilor economic majore cum ar fi politica monetar sau cea fiscal, n finane pentru a
analiza pieele de aciuni, pentru a studia dobnda i ratele de schimb valutar i alte preuri. n
ultimii anii, a aprut economia politic ca o combinaie a teoriei echilibrului general, n timp ce
comportamentul de vot i impulsurile guvernelor sunt analizate prin intermediul teoriei jocului.
Probleme studiate includ politica fiscal, politica comercial i rolul acordurilor internaionale de
comer cum ar fi Uniunea European.
Teoria design-ului mecanismului difer de teoria jocului pentru c n teoria jocului regulile
jocului sunt date n timp ce teoria design-ului mecanismului cerceteaz consecinele diferitelor
tipuri de reguli. n mod natural, aceasta se bazeaz foarte mult pe teoria jocului. ntrebrile
adresate de teoria design-ului mecanismului includ design-ul acordurilor de compensaii i
salarii care rspndesc n mod efectiv riscul n timp ce menin impulsurile i design-ul licitaiilor
pentru a maximiza venitul sau pentru a realiza alte scopuri.

Un exemplu instructiv
O modalitate pentru a descrie un jos este listarea juctorilor (sau indivizilor) care iau parte la
joc si, pentru fiecare juctor, listarea alegerilor alternative (numit aciuni sau strategii)
disponibile acelui juctor. n cazul jocurilor cu doi juctori, aciunile primul judector formeaz
rndurile i aciunile celui de-al doilea juctor coloanele unei matrici. Intrrile din matrice
sunt dou numere care reprezint utilitatea avantajelor pentru primul i alt doilea juctor. Un
joc foarte faimos este jocul Dilema Prizonierului. n acest joc cei doi juctori sunt parteneri la
o infraciune care au fost mai apoi prini de poliie. Fiecare suspect este pus ntr-o celul
separat i i este oferit posibilitatea de a mrturisi infraciunea. Jocul poate fi reprezentat
prin urmtoarea matrice de avantaje.

S
nu
S mrturiseasc
mrturiseasc

38

S
mrturiseasc

nu

S mrturiseasc

5,5

0,10

10,0

1,1

Observai c numerele mai mari sunt mai bune (mai mult utilitate). Dac niciunul dintre
suspeci nu mrturisete, ambii sunt eliberai i i vor mpri ctigurile de pe urma
infraciunii care reprezint 5 uniti de utilitate pentru fiecare suspect. Totui, dac unul dintre
prizonieri mrturisete i cellalt nu mrturisete, prizonierul care a mrturisit va depune
mrturie mpotriva celuilalt n schimbul libertii i obine toate cele 10 uniti de utilitate, n
timp ce prizonierul care nu a mrturisit merge la nchisoare i nu obine nimic. Dac ambii
prizonieri mrturisesc, atunci ei vor avea o sentin redus ca mrime dar vor fi amndoi
condamnai ceea ce am reprezentat prin atribuirea fiecruia 1 unitate de utilitate: mai bine
dect un prizonier care s mrturiseasc dar nu aa de bine ca punerea n libertate.
Acest joc a fascinat teoreticienii jocului din mai multe cauze. Mai nti, aceasta este o
reprezentare simpl a varietii de situaii importante, de exemplu, n loc de s mrturiseasc /
s nu mrturiseasc, am putea eticheta strategiile "contribuirea la binele comun sau
comportamentul egoist. Aceasta surprinde o varietate de situaii pe care economitii le
descriu ca problemele bunurilor. Un exemplu este construirea unui pod. Este cel mai bine
pentru toat lumea s fie construit un pod dar cel mai bine pentru fiecare individ ar fi ca
altcineva s construiasc podul. Aceasta este numit uneori n teoria economic externalitate.
Similar, acest joc ar putea descrie alternativa a dou firme care sunt n competiie pe aceeai
pia i n loc de a mrturisi / de a nu mrturisi, am putea eticheta strategiile "stabilirea unui
pre mare" i "stabilirea unui pre mic." n mod natural, este cel mai bine pentru ambele firma
dac ar stabili preuri mari dar ar fi cel mai bine pentru fiecare firm s stabileasc preuri
sczute n timp ce concurena stabilete preuri mari.
O a doua caracteristic a acestui joc este c este evident modul n care o persoan inteligent
ar trebui s se comporte. Indiferent de ceea ce un suspect crede c face partenerul su, este
ntotdeauna mai bine s mrturiseti. Dac partenerul din cealalt celul nu mrturisete, este
posibil de obinut 10 n loc de 5. Dac partenerul din cealalt celul mrturisete, este posibil
de obinut 1 n loc de 10. Dar, cutarea comportamentului raional uman conduce la fiecare
partener s obin mai puin de 5 uniti pe care le-ar fi obinut fiecare dac niciunul nu ar fi
mrturisit. Acest conflict dintre cutarea scopurilor individuale i binele comun se afl n centul
multor probleme teoretice ale jocului.
O a treia caracteristic a jocului este c schimb ntr-un mod semnificativ modul n care jocul
este repetat sau dac juctorii vor interaciona unul cu cellalt din nou n viitor. S presupunem
de exemplu c dup ce jocul se termin i suspecii sunt fie eliberai fie ies din nchisoare, ei
vor comite o alt infraciune i jocul va fi jucat din nou. n acest caz, prima dat suspecii pot
raiona c ei nu trebuie s mrturiseasc deoarece dac fac aceasta nici partenerul nu va
mrturisi n al doilea joc. Strict vorbind, aceast concluzie nu este valabil deoarece n al doilea
joc ambii suspeci vor mrturisi indiferent de ce se va ntmpla n primul joc. Totui, repetiia
deschide posibilitatea de a fi rspltit sau pedepsit n viitor pentru comportamentul prezent i
teoreticienii jocului au furnizat un numr de teorii pentru a explica intuiia evident c, dac
jocul este repetat, suspecii ar trebui s coopereze.

39

Teoria echitii
Explicaii > Teorii > Teoria echitii
Descriere | Exemple | Deci? | Consultai de asemenea i| Bibliografie

Descriere
Oamenii sunt cei mai fericii n relaiile n care dau i primesc n mod aproximativ egal. Dac o
persoan obine prea puin dintr-o relaie, atunci nu numai c ea / el va fi nefericit
persoana care obine partea leului se va simi de asemenea destul de vinovat cu privire la
acest dezechilibru. Aceasta vine s sprijine normele sociale puternice cu privire la
corectitudine.
n relaiile pe termen scurt tindem s dm lucruri la schimb Cum ar fi mprumutarea sumelor
mici de bani sau cumprarea berilor. n relaiile pe termen lung schimbul se desfoar mai
mult la nivel emoional.
Totui, per total este mai bine s obinem mai mult dect mai puin cu toate c v-ai putea
simi mai bine cu privire la relaie, beneficiile pe care le obinei din ea v-ar putea cumpra
fericirea compensatorie n alt parte.

Exemple
Brbaii care au fost ndeprtai de familia lor din cauza muncii lor ncearc s echilibreze totul
prin vacane foarte scumpe. Aceasta nu merge bine deoarece ei ncearc s schimbe banii
(valoarea pe termen scurt) pentru sentimente (valoare pe termen lung).

Deci?
Utilizarea sa
Dac ajungei la captul puterilor ntr-o relaie, utilizai aceasta pentru a face cealalt
persoan s se simt i mai vinovat dect se simte deja. Convingei-i s se centreze pe
valoarea relaiei n sine mai mult dect pe lucrurile materiale pe care le obin din ea.
Aprarea mpotriva sa
Dac obinei ceea ce v dorii dintr-o relaie, rezistai ncercrilor de a schimba echilibrul.

Consultai de asemenea i
Ipoteza Cntririi Epistemologice, Norma Reciprocitii, Teoria Schimbului Social
http://www.cba.uri.edu/Scholl/Notes/Equity.html

Bibliografie
Adams (1963), Adams (1965), Homans (1961), Walster, Walster i Berscheid (1978)

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Originalele n limba englez

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Attribution Theory
Explanations > Theories > Attribution Theory
Description | Research | So What? | See also | References

Description
We all have a need to explain the world, both to ourselves and to other people, attributing
cause to the events around us. This gives us a greater sense of control. When explaining
behavior, it can affect the standing of people within a group (especially ourselves).
When another person has erred, we will often use internal attribution, saying it is due to
internal personality factors. When we have erred, we will more likely use external attribution,
attributing causes to situational factors rather than blaming ourselves. And vice versa. We will
attribute our successes internally and the successes of our rivals to external luck.
When a football team wins, supporters say we won. But when the team loses, the supporters
say they lost.
Our attributions are also significantly driven by our emotional and motivational drives.
Blaming other people and avoiding personal recrimination are very real self-serving
attributions. We will also make attributions to defend what we perceive as attacks. We will
point to injustice in an unfair world.
We will even tend to blame victims (of us and of others) for their fate as we seek to distance
ourselves from thoughts of suffering the same plight.
We will also tend to ascribe less variability to other people than ourselves, seeing ourselves as
more multifaceted and less predictable than others. This may well because we can see more
of what is inside ourselves (and spend more time doing this).
In practice, we often tend to go through a two-step process, starting with an automatic
internal attribution, followed by a slower consideration of whether an external attribution is
more appropriate. As with Automatic Believing, if we are hurrying or are distracted, we may
not get to this second step. This makes internal attribution more likely than external
attribution.

Research
Roesch and Amirkham (1997) found that more experienced athletes made less self-serving
external attributions, leading them to find and address real causes and hence were better
able to improve their performance.

So What?
Using it
Beware of losing trust by blaming others (i.e. making internal attributions about them). Also
beware of making excuses (external attributions) that lead you to repeat mistakes and leads
to Cognitive Dissonance in others when they are making internal attributions about you.
Defending
Watch out for people making untrue attributions.

See also
Correspondent Inference Theory, Covariation Model, Fundamental Attribution Error, ActorObserver Difference, Ultimate Attribution Error, Idealization, Post Hoc
http://www.as.wvu.edu/~sbb/comm221/chapters/attrib.htm

References

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Roesch and Amirkham (1997), Heider (1958), Jones and Davis (1965), Kelley (1967),
Kammer (1982)

Teorii din categoria Acting Against Others


Scapegoat Theory
Explanations > Theories > Scapegoat Theory
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
When problems occur, people do not like to blame themselves. They will thus actively seek
scapegoats onto whom we can displace our aggression. These may be out-group individuals
or even entire groups. Like bullies, we will often pick on powerless people who cannot easily
resist.
Scapegoating increases when people are frustrated and seeking an outlet for their anger.
Once cast as a scapegoat it can be difficult to shake off the classification.

Research
Weatherly (1961) got students frustrated and then asked them to write stories based on given
pictures. Where the people in the pictures were given Jewish names, students with antiSemitic tendencies wrote stories that included aggression towards the Jewish characters.

Example
Jews had been the scapegoat for many people and groups up until the holocaust of World War
II. In some communities they are still are used as scapegoats.

So what?
Using it
When you have a problem, find someone to blame who cannot fight back.
Defending
Refuse to be a scapegoat. When you find people unfairly blaming you, be a tiger and fight
back strongly, even if this is not your normal role.

See also
Attribution Theory, Aggression, Roles, Out-Group Homogeneity

References
Allport (1954), Weatherly (1961), Berkowitz and Green (1962), Gemmill (1998)

Aggression
Explanations > Theories > Aggression
Description | Research | So What? | See also | References

Description
Although aggression is a natural emotion, it is a very social act. It is learned from parents,
peers and the media and people are likely to be more aggressive when they believe it will
increase their social standing. It can also be cathartic, allowing us to let of steam.

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Aggression also increases when:


You think you are safe from response.
The other person deliberately acts against you.
You hurt, physically or emotionally (not necessarily caused by the other person).
You have been drinking alcohol or taking other stimulants.
Testosterone is present.
There was aggression in your early life.
You think you are getting less than you deserve.
You have been attacked and are defending or responding.
You blame your victim and then take further revenge.
You watched a lot of violence on TV, especially when you were a child.
Seeing violence, whether it is real-life or via the media gives legitimacy, teaches people how
to do it and desensitizes them to the horrors.

Research
Phillips (1983, 1986) found that homicides increased after a well-publicized boxing match.
When white boxers lost, more white men were killed, and vice versa.

So What?
Using it
Feign aggression in order to get short-term immediate response.
If you really do feel aggressive, take a break to cool down. Otherwise you'll likely do
something you regret later.
Defending
Severe punishment usually requires significant aggression and does not reduce it. It is more
effective to use the threat of mild punishment.
Give people space to vent their frustrations by such as competitive sports. Even letting them
say I am angry will help. Apology also reduces anger. Teach them empathy. Be a model nonaggressive person.
Apologize (even it if is not your fault). Say that it will not happen again. Empathize with their
pain (but not with their aggression or aggressive acts). Show that you are human (defend
against them dehumanizing you).

See also
Coercion, Frustration-Aggression Theory

References
Phillips (1983), Phillips (1986)

Social Loafing
Explanations > Theories > Social Loafing
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
This is the tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks, yet better at complex tasks
when they are in the presence of others.
This appears to be a direct contradiction to Social Facilitation, but can be explained by the
differing circumstances in which it occurs. In particular, when we are working in a group, it

44

can be easier to conceal laziness when working in a group of people who are working
together.
The key here is that the loafer is not worried about being evaluated. This can also be an
attraction of being an acknowledge expert or in a position of authority: although it may take
time to climb the mountain, you may be able to relax once you have got there.
However, when we are being evaluated, such as when working on a team task, we will work
hard to ensure nobody can criticize us for not pulling our weight.
People who have less concern for groups are more likely to be social loafers, such as men and
Western societies in general.

Research
Max Ringelmann (1913) found that when a group of men were asked to pull on a rope, they
each pulled less hard than when pulling alone.

Example
Clapping at concert need not make much noise (saving your painful hands) and nobody will
notice.

So what?
Using it
To avoid social loafing, make sure everyone in a group knows that they can easily be
evaluated by others. If you are a social loafer, then by all means find work where nobody can
point at you and say you are not pulling your weight.
Defending
When working in a team, ensure there are no social loafers, either by discussing the principle
(prodding consciences) or ensuring nobody can hide in the woodwork.

See also
Social Facilitation, Social Norms

References
Ringelmann (1913), Moede (1927), Williams and Harkins (1979), Karau and Williams (1993)

Politeness Theory
Explanations > Theories > Politeness Theory
Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
We maintain two kinds of face:
Positive face, when others like, respect and approve of us.
Negative face, when we feel that others cannot constrain us in any way.
Both of these may be threatened when someone makes a request of us.
This causes a dilemma, as if I ask in a pleasant way, positive face is satisfied but negative
face may lead them to think they can take advantage of us. The reverse is also true, as
defensive talk will threaten the positive face.

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Conformance to the social rules of politeness is treading a central and safe path which neither
threatens nor signals that you may be threatened.
Politeness means acting to help save face for others.

Example
When I am with my boss, I show positive face. When I am with the new guy (who seems
pretty incompetent) I show negative face.

So what?
Using it
Build trust by being polite. Use negative face with out-group people or those who would
dissuade the other person.
Defending
Just because a person is polite it does not mean they have good intentions towards you.

See also
Social Norms

References
Brown and Levinson (1978)

Realistic Conflict Theory


Explanations > Theories > Realistic Conflict Theory
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
When there is limited resources, then this leads to conflict, prejudice and discrimination
between groups who seek that common resource. Once hostility has been aroused, it is very
difficult to return to normal relations and an ongoing feud can arise.

Research
Muzafer Sherif divided a Boy Scout camp into two groups, the Eagles and the Rattlers. After
helping the groups to each become cohesive, he introduced competitive games and other
conflicts. Before long, a full-scale riot was in progress and the researchers had to work hard
at mediation to defuse the situation.

Example
A common situation is where jobs are scarce and an established group blames immigrants for
taking the food out of our childrens mouths.

So what?
Using it
Gain control over a resource required by many. Where you cannot, point to others who use
the resource as causes of your own ills.
Defending
When resources are limited, pre-empt conflict by setting up joint councils, etc. to decide fairly
on allocation.

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See also
Scapegoat Theory
http://www.ppu.org.uk/learn/peaceed/pe_robbers_cave.html

References
Sherif (1966), Levine and Campbell (1972), Jackson (1993)

Repulsion Hypothesis
Explanations > Theories > Repulsion Hypothesis
Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
We prefer people who have similar attitudes to us. We can get on with people whose attitudes
are moderately different, but we will be repulsed by people whose attitudes are particularly
different from us.
When looking for friends, we will first exclude people whose attitudes are outside of an
acceptable range, before looking more positively for closer friends.

Example
This is one of the reasons why people from different cultures and countries are repulsed by
behaviors such as public executions and eating different foods.

So what?
Using it
Beware of holding extreme attitudes as you may fall the first hurdle of friendship. If you
cannot get to be a good friend with a person, by being moderate, you can at least get to talk
with them.

See also
Law of Attraction, Love, Two-stage decision

References
Rosenbaum (1986)

Self-Evaluation Maintenance Theory


Explanations > Theories > Self-Evaluation Maintenance Theory
Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
Our self-concept can be threatened by how other people behave. The level of threat to us
depends both on how close the threatening person is to us and also how personally relevant
the behavior is.
You have several choices when a friend says something that you find particularly
uncomfortable:
You can distance yourself from them.
You can reduce the relevance of their behavior to you.
You can try and improve yourself, reducing the level of threat.

47

Example
I pride myself as being an expert on racehorses. I am discussing racing in a group of friends
and one friend turns out to be the daughter of a famous trainer and shows an even deeper
understanding than me. I now have to figure out how to react to her.

So what?
Using it
Watch how the other person reacts to what you and others say to them. Build an
understanding of their self-concept and their reactions to threats to it. Then ensure what you
say leads to them getting closer to you.
Defending
Know yourself. Or at least get better at knowing yourself. Notice how you react to others who
threaten your self-concept.

See also
Cognitive Dissonance, Expectancy Violations Theory

References
Tesser (1988), Tesser, Martin and Mendolia (1995)

Social Facilitation
Explanations > Theories > Social Facilitation
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
When we are have tasks which we find relatively easy, we find the presence of other people a
positive stimulus such that we perform even better. However, when the tasks are difficult, we
find the audience unnerving and we are more likely to put in a worse performance.
This is because first, the presence of others increases physiological arousal such that our
bodies become more energized, and secondly because when we are aroused it is more
difficult to perform new or difficult tasks. The dominant response is that under arousal it is
easier to do things we can easily perform.
The presence of others makes us suspect evaluation. Depending on how we forecast that
evaluation, we may look forward to either adulation or criticism and rejection.

Research
Zajonc, Heingartner and Herman (1969) got cockroaches to run down a clear tube towards a
light. They ran faster when watched by other cockroaches. When put in a simple maze, it took
them longer when they were being watched. (But did the watching humans have an effect?
Who knows? :).
Michaels (1982) and three colleagues overtly watched students play pool. The better players
got better. The novices got worse.

Example
Top sports people are often lifted by the crowd to give their best ever performances at big
events. Lower down the order, less confident sports people can find the crowds unnerving and
consequently make mistakes.

So what?

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Using it
When you want someone to feel good, give them an audience for an easy task. If you want to
destabilize them, give them an audience for a difficult task. This will give you an opportunity
to rescue them, building trust.
Defending
When an audience suddenly appears when you are uncertain about an important task, ask
them to go away. Refuse to continue until they do and you have subsequently calmed down.

See also
Social Impact Theory, Social Loafing
http://samiam.colorado.edu/~mcclella/expersim/introsocial.html,

References
Zajonc, Heingartner and Herman (1969), Alport (1954), Michaels, Blommel, Brocato, Linkous
and Rowe (1982)

Spiral of Silence Theory


Explanations > Theories > Spiral of Silence Theory
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
People will be unwilling to publicly express their opinion if they believe they are in the
minority. They will also be more vocal if they believe they are a part of the majority.
This works because we fear social rejection.
Public opinion is the "attitudes or behaviors one must express in public if one is not to isolate
oneself, in areas of controversy or change; public opinions are those attitudes one can
express without running the danger of isolating oneself."

Research
Noelle-Neumann showed subjects a picture with one person angrily saying, "It seems to me
that smokers are terribly inconsiderate. They force others to inhale their health-endangering
smoke." Respondents were asked to phrase a response to the statement whilst other 'planted'
people were there. When nonsmokers were nearby, many smokers were less willing to openly
support smokers rights.

Example
If you were on a long train journey, and a person next to you starts to discuss the problems of
food safety. Would you join in the conversation, speaking your true opinion? What if it were
controversial, what then?

So what?
Using it
Show people how the views you want them to express are mainstream, and that the views
you want them to change are minority and in danger of causing them to be socially rejected.
Defending
When you want to say something, say it. Watch out for being maneuvered into a corner.

See also
Minority Influence, Social Judgment Theory

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www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/media/spiral.html

References
Noelle-Neumann (1984)

Doing Contrary Things


Reactance Theory
Explanations > Theories > Reactance Theory
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
When people feel that their freedom to choose an action is threatened, they get an
unpleasant feeling called reactance. This also motivates them to perform the threatened
behavior, thus proving that their free will has not been compromised.

Research
Pennebaker and Sanders (1976) put one of two signs on college bathroom walls. One read Do
not write on these walls under any circumstances whilst the other read Please dont write on
these walls. A couple of weeks later, the former walls had far more graffiti on them.

Example
When persuading my children, I have to be careful because I know that if I push too hard
they will do what I have told them not to do, just to show me who is really in charge!

So what?
Using it
Beware of persuading too overtly or too much. If people get wind that they are being
railroaded, they will leap right off the tracks.

See also
Cognitive Dissonance
http://www.as.wvu.edu/~sbb/comm221/chapters/react.htm

References
Brehm (1966), Pennebaker and Sanders (1976)

Counter-Attitudinal Advocacy
Explanations > Theories > Counter-Attitudinal Advocacy
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
Sometimes people will state an opinion or otherwise support a point of view that is actually
against their own beliefs.
For example, where we tell white lies in order to help other people or where stating our beliefs
could harm us. When we do this, we will seek to reduce dissonance by justifying our actions.
If we cannot find external justification, we will seek internal justification. This then leads to us
change our beliefs.

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Counter-Attitudinal Advocacy is particularly effective where it is difficult for the person to later
deny that the dissonance-causing behavior actually took place. Thus written (and especially
signed) statements and public activities can be powerful tools of persuasion.

Research
Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) got experiment participants to do a boring task and then tell a
white lie about how enjoyable it was. Some were paid $1, others were paid $20. Later, they
were asked openly how much they had enjoyed the task. Those who were paid $20 said it
was boring. Those who had been paid $1 rated the task as significantly more enjoyable.

Example
Counter-Attitudinal Advocacy has been extensively used for brainwashing, both with
prisoners-of-war and peacetime cult members. It usually is done by making incrementally
escalating requests. Small rewards are offered, which are too small for the victims to use to
attribute their behavior change to, thus forcing internal attribution.

So what?
Using it
Get people to agree with you, perhaps on a small point, about something which you want to
persuade them. Ensure there is no significant external justification. After a while, their beliefs
will change.

See also
Attribution Theory, Cognitive Dissonance, Consistency Theory, External Justification

References
Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)

Expectancy Violations Theory


Explanations > Theories > Expectancy Violations Theory
Description | So What? | See also | References

Description
People have expectations about how other people should and will behave. Their reaction to
the deviations of others from expectancy depends on what they have to lose or gain.
This is often about non-verbal behavior (body language).
We all have body space outside of which we expect other people to remain except in specific
conditions. When the other person is too close, I will feel threatened as it gives them the first
strike capability should the situation become aggressive.
There are four zones of body space (for the average American):
Intimate distance: from 0 to 18 inches. For sexual and other intimate contact.
Personal distance: from 18 inches to 4 feet. Typically for interactions with family and
close friends.
Social distance: from 4 to 12 feet. Typically for casual and social settings.
Public distance: from 12 feet and beyond. Typically for formal situations.
When talking with other people, we also have expectations about what is too far away. If a
person stands too distant from me, I might wonder if I smell or are socially unattractive in
some way.

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How we react to violations depend on reward value, or what we expect to get from the
relationship. Thus a man is likely to react more positively towards an attractive younger
woman standing close than a larger man from an out-group.

So what?
Using it
Do experiments to determine the other person's body space.
Defending
If people are standing in your body space or further away than you expect, wonder why. If it
seems wrong, move yourself.

See also
Non-Verbal Behavior, Expectancy Theory

References
Burgoon (1978), Burgoon and Hale (1988), Burgoon and Le Poire (1993)

Rationalization Trap
Explanations > Theories > Rationalization Trap
Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
When we act to reduce dissonance it can end up as a whole set of justifications and
rationalizations that lead to ridiculous or even immoral actions. Like Pinocchio's nose, one
defense leads to another until we are all out of shape.
The trick is to avoid unthinking reaction, tolerating dissonance for long enough to be able to
decide on a more appropriate action.

Example
When President Richard Nixon got caught up in the Watergate scandal, his arguments and
denials led to his eventual demise. Bill Clinton also fell down the slippery slope but managed
to survive only through some embarrassing and very public confessions.

So what?
Using it
When people are seeking justification they are usually desperate. Give them straws to clutch
at that lead them in the right direction or give them rope with which they hang themselves.
You can even tip them into the need for rationalization in the first place.
Defending
Do you really need to go down that spiral of justification? For whom? Did you get there
through the trickery of someone else?

See also
Attribution Theory, Cognitive Dissonance

References

Urban-Overload Hypothesis
52

Explanations > Theories > Urban-Overload Hypothesis


Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
People in crowded cities are constantly bombarded with stimuli and demands on their
attention. They thus tend to keep themselves to themselves more than country folk. You can
easily be quite alone in the middle of a multi-million-person city.
Cities also have higher crime rates, which are well publicized. People are squashed together in
trains and shops and their body-space, outside of which they prefer to keep other people, is
smaller than country folk.
You might think that this makes city folk less altruistic, but studies have shown that this is not
true.

Example
Consider the number of places in cities where single and lonely people can meet. There are
singles bars, clubs, societies etc. Just look at the lonely hearts columns in newspapers.

So what?
Using it
In urban environments, give people the chance to show that they are individuals and not just
statistics. Utilize apparent threats and then ask for help.
Defending
If you are feeling alone in the city, beware of the sharks who will prey on your fears. Seek out
real friends and ask their opinions when feeling coerced by others.

See also
Availability Heuristic, Prosocial Behavior

References
Milgram (1970), Steblay (1987), Morris (1969)

Theories about lies


Explanations > Theories > Theories about lies

Here are academic theories about how we tell lies to other people.
Four-factor Model: there are four underlying things happening when people lie.
Information Manipulation Theory: Breaking one of the four conversational maxims to
persuade.
Interpersonal Deception Theory: lying is a dynamic dance of liar and listener.

Modelul celor patru factori


Teoria manipulrii informaiei
Teoria decepiei interpersonale

53

See also
Liars
Theories about trust
Theories about being contrary

Four-factor Model
Explanations > Theories > Four-factor Model
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
When people tell lies, there are four underlying mechanisms at work:
Arousal: Lying causes anxiety and arousal, either because of dissonance at conflicting
values and behavior, or due to fear of getting caught. This can be detected via lie
detectors, speech errors and hesitations, repetitions, fidgeting and displacement
activity, blinking, higher vocal pitch and pupil dilation.
Behavior control: We try to control body language that might give us away. In fact this
is impossible and leakage often occurs, for example where we are controlling our face
and our legs give us away.
Emotion: Our emotions change when we are lying. For example, duping delight, where
the liar is secretly pleased at their perceived success. Guilt may also appear. Micromotions in facial muscles can betray hidden emotions.
Thinking: To lie, we usually have to think a lot harder, such as to ensure coherence in
our arguments. This leads us to take longer in speaking with more pauses. We also
tend to use more generalities to avoid getting trapped by specific detail.

Research
Zuckerman et al. found pupil dilation to be a fairly good indicator of deception. Many other
indicators have been found, such as fidgeting, blinking, vocal pitch, etc. Like non-verbal
behavior, however, no single method is guaranteed to work each time.

Example
Poker players often wear dark glasses to hide the dilation of their pupils when they are
aroused that they cannot control. Otherwise, they are often masters of controlling their nonverbal behavior.

So what?
Using it
Do not lie, especially in front of someone (like the police) who are trained to spot lies. Use the
above pointers to detect when others are lying.

See also
Interpersonal Deception Theory, Non-Verbal Behavior

References
Zuckerman, DePaulo and Rosenthal (1981), Zuckerman and Driver (1985)

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Information Manipulation Theory


Explanations > Theories > Information Manipulation Theory
Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
In order to persuade or deceive, a person deliberately breaks one of the four conversational
maxims:
Quantity: Information given will be full (as per expected by the listener) and without
omission.
Quality: information given will be truthful and correct.
Relation: information will be relevant to the subject matter of the conversation in hand.
Manner: things will be presented in a way that enables others to understand and with
aligned non-verbal language.

Example
A student is late handing in an essay. They approach the lecture trembling and weeping,
saying how they have just been dumped by their long-term partner and forgot to hand in the
essay (they had done it in time, honestly!).

So what?
Using it
Persuade by omitting information, telling untruths, going off the subject and confusing the
other person. Use excuses. Be economical with the truth. Woffle.
Defending
Question what you are told, especially you find yourself changing your mind as a result. Probe
for detail. Seek corroborating evidence. Watch the body language.

See also
Persuasion, Non-Verbal Behavior, Theories about trust, Expectancy Violations Theory

References
Dawson and Brashers (1996), McCornack, Levine, Solowczuk, Torres and Campbell (1992)

Interpersonal Deception Theory


Explanations > Theories > Interpersonal Deception Theory
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
Lying happens in a dynamic interaction where liar and listener dance around one another,
changing their thoughts in response to each others moves. Liar behavior includes:
Manipulating information: to distance themselves from the message, so if the message
is found to be false, they can extricate themselves. Thus they use vague generalities
and talk about other people.
Strategically control behavior: to suppress signals that might indicate that they are
lying. For example their face may be more impassive and body more rigid.
Image management: for example by smiling and nodding more.

55

Example
Watch small children who have found out about lying. They point at their siblings, put on
their best 'innocent' expression, hold their hands behind their backs. At that age they are very
flexible and learn fast. Before long they can pull the wool very well over their parent's eyes.

So what?
Using it
To detect liars, watch for the above behavioral patterns. People who are liars themselves tend
to be better at detecting lying because they know the techniques better.

See also
Four-factor Model

References
Buller and Burgoon (1994, 1996), Buller, Strzyzewski and Comstock (1991), Burgoon and
Buller (1994)

Lying
Explanations > Behaviors > Lying

Lying is an interesting form of deception that


Detecting lying: keys ways to spot the fibbers.
Duper's delight: the signals of delighted deception.

See also
Body language, Theories about lies
Interrogation
ChangingMinds Blog!: 07-Dec-05: Barmecidal feasts, Emperor's clothes, social rules and
leadership

Detecting lies
Explanations > Behaviors > Liars

Lying is a widespread phenomenon which we all do to some extent. If you are working with
others, it is often very useful to be able to spot the fibs.
Liars...
...are often worried about being
caught or feel guilty, and are hence
tense.
...do not 'remember' what they say
happened

So they...
...speak in a higher pitched voice
...hesitate.
...make speech errors.
...move jerkily.
...say things which are inconsistent.
...miss out irrelevant detail.

56

...hesitate as they think about what


to say.

...make up stuff.

...talk a lot to use up the time.


...get 'emotional' to try and put you
off.

...are worried about what you might


ask.

...goes along easily if you change


the subject.
...use language carefully.

...are worried about what they might


say.

...pause to think before answering.


...give short answers.
...use a monotonous tone.

...fear eye contact will give the


game away.

...avoid eye contact.


...blink more often.
...rub their eyes more.
...say as little as possible.

...fear being detected.

...try to get away or change the


subject.
...parrot back your words with a
denial.
...hold the body rigid.

...try to control body language.

...
...smile with the mouth but not the
eyes.
...send conflicting signals with
different parts of the body.

...cannot control body language.

...have eye pupil dilation.


...shrug and grimace.
...has slight delays in speech-body
alignment.
...attack, defend or deflect.

...feel threatened.

...place barriers in front of them,


from arms to books to tables.
...repeat the question.

...need time to think threatened.

...adjust their clothing.


...ramble on about inconsequential
things.
...appear too relaxed.
...stare.

...know about the above and overcompensate.

...go too rigid.


...go into excessive detail.
...show no discrepancies at all.
...wear dark glasses.

57

See also
Body language

Duper's delight
Explanations > Behaviors > Duper's delight
The delight of deception | Spotting the giveaways | So what

'Duper's delight' is the delight that people feel when they deceive others.

The delight of deception


Duping is another word for deception, for tricking people into some kind of action or
misunderstanding.
The delight of power and control
People who deceive often find a secret pleasure in their success. It is similar to the pleasure
that people get when they exercise power. It is as if the brain rewards us for achieving control
over other people.
The delight of secrecy
Related to power is having something that others do not have. We thus tend to take pleasure
in the secret nature of deception, of not only knowing that we have gained something, but
also that the other person does not know this.

Spotting the giveaways


People who deceive others and hence feel duper's delight often cannot hide their feelings. If
you can spot the signals by which they give themselves away, you can avoid being deceived.
Body language
There is typically a transient pleasure in deception that appears typically as a pleasuresignaling body language, including:
Upturn of corners of the mouth
Creased eyes
Throwing the head back
Transient signals
The body language may also be combined with attempts, conscious or otherwise, to conceal
this, which will lead to the signals appearing very briefly before they are quashed and
suppressed.

So what?
So watch other people for the signs of delight when they might be trying to persuade you of
something or otherwise deceive you. When you know this, then you will have reversed the
situation: you have the power of knowledge that they do not have -- so beware of sending
them back another 'duper's delight' signal!

See also
Power

Theories about power


58

Explanations > Theories > Theories about power

Here are academic theories about how we gain and use power.
Coercion: is acting to change a person's behavior against their will.
Least Interest Principle: the person with the least interest has most power.
Power: is the ability to get a person to change their behavior.
Social Exchange Theory: give in order to get more.
Strategic Contingencies Theory: power depends on problem skill, centrality and
uniqueness of skill.

See also
Power

Coerciia
Principiul interesului minim
Teoria schimbului social
Teoria contingenelor strategice

Power
Explanations > Theories > Power
Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
Power is the ability to get others to change their behavior even if they do not wish to do so.
There are five bases of power defined by French and Raven (1960):
Reward power: control over valued resources.
Coercive power: ability to inflict punishment, possibly physical.
Expert power: superior knowledge.
Legitimate power: formal rank or position.
Referent power: when people want to be like you.
Power is much written about and other typologies include:
Jeffery Pfeffer: Personal attributes, organization structure and the fit between
situational requirements and personal traits
Charles Handy: Power resources (physical, financial, position, expert, personal),
methods of influence (force, rules/procedures, exchange, persuasion, ecology,
magnetism)
Henry Mintzberg: Resources, technical skill, knowledge, formal power and access to
others
Simplifying, power comes from:
Being able to do something that the other person does not want.
Having something that the other person wants (or at least controlling access to it).
Being able to change the beliefs or understanding of the other person ( through rational
logic or irrational charisma).

Example

59

I have all forms of power over my children. They have reward power over me, by withholding
their affections.

So what?
Using it
Understand your situation of power. Seek to build it over time. Use it sparingly: abuse of
power often has unintended negative effects, such as reactance.
Defending
Recognize the power that you always have. At minimum you always have power over your
own actions, as workers have known for centuries.

See also
Coercion, Least Interest Principle, Reactance Theory, Persuasion
, http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/1650/htmlpower.html,
http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/teaching/338/power_and_leadership.htm,
http://www.westga.edu/~sclimate/powertypology.htm,

References
French and Raven (1960), Pfeffer (1992), Mintzberg (1983)

Coercion
Explanations > Theories > Coercion
Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
This is the acting to change a persons behavior, even when they do not wish to do so.
Coercive methods work mostly be threat or bribery. Both use extrinsic motivation with the
message do this and you will get that.
Threats can be for new action that is painful, such as physical or psychological attack. Threats
can often take the form of denial, such as removal of benefits or prevention from access to a
desired resource.
Social position is very important to us, so rejection from a group or public embarrassment can
be very serious threats. We can coerce by framing desired behaviors as necessary because of
social rules such as returning favors or adherence to group norms (with implied social
rejection as the threatened punishment).

Example
Parents regularly coerce their children, even physically. Where the line of legitimacy is
depends on your morals and is a topic of heated debate.
At the highest level, war is ultimate coercion between countries.

So what?
Using it
Find what people want or fear, gain control over it, then offer access as a bribe or denial as a
threatened punishment.
Defending
There are four types of defense against coercion.

60

Stonewall: refuse outright, just saying no.


Identity separation: Refuse on the grounds that it is not the kind of thing I do.
Justification: Show cause and negative effect, saying why you will not comply.
Negotiation: Make counter-offers to allow the other person to achieve their goals.

See also
Power

References
Marwell and Schmitt (1967), McLaughlin, Cody and Robey (1980)

Least Interest Principle


Explanations > Theories > Least Interest Principle
Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
In any relationship, the person who has the least interest in continuing the relationship (i.e.
has the best walk-away strategy) has the greatest power.

Example
If I am thinking vaguely about selling my house and the buyer is desperately keen on buying
it, I have no need at all to reduce my price. I could even invent 'another interested person' to
help crank the price up.

So what?
Using it
Develop your walk-away position. Ensure you can leave at any time. Try to damage the other
persons ability to walk away. Watch out for them damaging your walk-away position.
Defending
Never appear desperate for agreement: you will only lose.

See also
Power

References

Social Exchange Theory


Explanations > Theories > Social Exchange Theory
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
All relationships have give and take, although the balance of this exchange is not always
equal. Social Exchange theory explains how we feel about a relationship with another person
as depending on our perceptions of:
The balance between what we put into the relationship and what we get out of it.
The kind of relationship we deserve.
The chances of having a better relationship with someone else.

61

In deciding what is fair, we develop a comparison level against which we compare the
give/take ratio. This level will vary between relationships, with some being more giving and
others where we get more from the relationship. They will also vary greatly in what is given
and received. Thus, for example, exchanges at home may be very different, both in balance
and content.
We also have a comparison level for the alternative relationships. With a high such
comparison level, we might believe the world is full of lovely people just waiting to meet us.
When this level is low, we may stay in a high-cost relationship simply because we believe we
could not find any better elsewhere.

Research
Rusbult (1983) found that during the early 'honeymoon' period of a romantic relationship, the
balance of exchange was largely ignored. Only later were costs related to satisfaction with the
relationship.

Example
My daughter put a lot of effort into buying her brother a birthday present. He was not
sufficiently enthusiastic about it and so she decided to spend more time on her own rather
than 'being ignored' by him.

So what?
Using it
When you want to ask something else for something, make sure the balance of exchange is in
your favor. You can also work on their perception of how exchanges happen within your
relationship.
Defending
When people call in favors, think about what kind of exchange relationship you have with
them and whether this is reasonable.

See also
Equity Theory, Reciprocity Norm, Social Norms, Leader-Member Exchange Theory
http://www.washington.edu/research/pathbreakers/1978a.html,

References
Thibaut and Kelley (1959), Kelley and Thibaut (1978), Homans (1961), Rusbult (1983)

Strategic Contingencies Theory


Explanations > Theories > Strategic Contingencies Theory
Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
Intraorganizational power depends on three factors: problem skills, actor centrality and
uniqueness of skill.
If you have the skills and expertise to resolve important problems, then you are going to be in
demand. And by the law of supply and demand, that gives your the upper hand in
negotiations. It also gives you power from the reciprocity created.
If you work in a central part of the workflow of the organization, then what you do is very
important. This gives you many opportunities to be noticed. It also means you are on the
critical path, such that if your part of the company fails, the whole show stops. Again creating
attention and giving you bargaining power.

62

Finally, if you are difficult to replace, then if you do make enemies up the hierarchy, then they
cannot just move you out or sideways.

Example
A production manager in an organization is in charge of a key manufacturing operation
(centrality), and understands its complexities very well (uniqueness). From a long experience,
when things go wrong, he is very good at fixing things, both mechanically and with the
unions.

So what?
Using it
Get a job on the critical path through the organization. Become expert in problem solving in
it. Acquire and defend knowledge and skills that nobody else has.
Defending
Do not let any one person become indispensable.

See also
Power

References
Hickson et al (1971)

Power
Explanations > Power

Power is the ability to get what you want. As what you want is often constrained by other
people, the use of power often includes changing or influencing what others think, believe and
do. It is at the heart of all techniques of changing minds.
Further information on power:
French and Raven's: five forms of power are the most common classification.
Hobbes and Power: Thomas Hobbes' 17th century view.
Power enhancers: that increase the efficacy of your power.
Powerlessness: How we convince ourselves.
Power types: that extent and simplify other lists.
Strategic Contingencies Theory: become irreplaceable.
Three dimensions of power: channels, intent and deliberateness.
Toffler's Three Forms of Power: Violence, wealth and knowledge.

So What?
Understand the power you have as well as the power of other people. Use your own power
carefully. Perhaps the greatest power you can have is to get others to use their power on your
behalf.
Beware of sleeping dragons: many people will only use their power when aroused. The most
effective power is that used so subtly that people do not realize it is being used.
Power does not have to be used directly: threats are often effective, especially when
accompanied by displays of power. Like gorillas thumping their chests, we seldom need to
fight.

63

See also
Theories about power, Power body language, Power words, Politics

What is Game Theory?


by David K. Levine, Department of Economics, UCLA
What economists call game theory psychologists call the theory of social situations, which is an
accurate description of what game theory is about. Although game theory is relevant to parlor
games such as poker or bridge, most research in game theory focuses on how groups of people
interact. There are two main branches of game theory: cooperative and noncooperative game
theory. Noncooperative game theory deals largely with how intelligent individuals interact with
one another in an effort to achieve their own goals. That is the branch of game theory I will
discuss here.
In addition to game theory, economic theory has three other main branches: decision theory,
general equilibrium theory and mechanism design theory. All are closely connected to game
theory.
Decision theory can be viewed as a theory of one person games, or a game of a single player
against nature. The focus is on preferences and the formation of beliefs. The most widely used
form of decision theory argues that preferences among risky alternatives can be described by
the maximization the expected value of a numerical utility function, where utility may depend
on a number of things, but in situations of interest to economists often depends on money
income. Probability theory is heavily used in order to represent the uncertainty of outcomes,
and Bayes Law is frequently used to model the way in which new information is used to revise
beliefs. Decision theory is often used in the form of decision analysis, which shows how best to
acquire information before making a decision.
General equilibrium theory can be viewed as a specialized branch of game theory that deals
with trade and production, and typically with a relatively large number of individual consumers
and producers. It is widely used in the macroeconomic analysis of broad based economic
policies such as monetary or tax policy, in finance to analyze stock markets, to study interest
and exchange rates and other prices. In recent years, political economy has emerged as a
combination of general equilibrium theory and game theory in which the private sector of the
economy is modeled by general equilibrium theory, while voting behavior and the incentive of
governments is analyzed using game theory. Issues studied include tax policy, trade policy, and
the role of international trade agreements such as the European Union.
Mechanism design theory differs from game theory in that game theory takes the rules of the
game as given, while mechanism design theory asks about the consequences of different types
of rules. Naturally this relies heavily on game theory. Questions addressed by mechanism
design theory include the design of compensation and wage agreements that effectively spread
risk while maintaining incentives, and the design of auctions to maximize revenue, or achieve
other goals.

An Instructive Example
One way to describe a game is by listing the players (or individuals) participating in the game,
and for each player, listing the alternative choices (called actions or strategies) available to that
player. In the case of a two-player game, the actions of the first player form the rows, and the
actions of the second player the columns, of a matrix. The entries in the matrix are two
numbers representing the utility or payoff to the first and second player respectively. A very
famous game is the Prisoner's Dilemma game. In this game the two players are partners in a
crime who have been captured by the police. Each suspect is placed in a separate cell, and

64

offered the opportunity to confess to the crime. The game can be represented by the following
matrix of payoffs

not confess confess


not confess 5,5

0,10

confess

1,1

10,0

Note that higher numbers are better (more utility). If neither suspect confesses, they go free,
and split the proceeds of their crime which we represent by 5 units of utility for each suspect.
However, if one prisoner confesses and the other does not, the prisoner who confesses testifies
against the other in exchange for going free and gets the entire 10 units of utility, while the
prisoner who did not confess goes to prison and gets nothing. If both prisoners confess, then
both are given a reduced term, but both are convicted, which we represent by giving each 1
unit of utility: better than having the other prisoner confess, but not so good as going free.
This game has fascinated game theorists for a variety of reasons. First, it is a simple
representation of a variety of important situations. For example, instead of confess/not confess
we could label the strategies "contribute to the common good" or "behave selfishly." This
captures a variety of situations economists describe as public goods problems. An example is
the construction of a bridge. It is best for everyone if the bridge is built, but best for each
individual if someone else builds the bridge. This is sometimes refered to in economics as an
externality. Similarly this game could describe the alternative of two firms competing in the
same market, and instead of confess/not confess we could label the strategies "set a high
price" and "set a low price." Naturally is is best for both firms if they both set high prices, but
best for each individual firm to set a low price while the opposition sets a high price.
A second feature of this game, is that it is self-evident how an intelligent individual should
behave. No matter what a suspect believes his partner is going to do, is is always best to
confess. If the partner in the other cell is not confessing, it is possible to get 10 instead of 5. If
the partner in the other cell is confessing, it is possible to get 1 instead of 0. Yet the pursuit of
individually sensible behavior results in each player getting only 1 unit of utility, much less than
the 5 units each that they would get if neither confessed. This conflict between the pursuit of
individual goals and the common good is at the heart of many game theoretic problems.
A third feature of this game is that it changes in a very significant way if the game is repeated,
or if the players will interact with each other again in the future. Suppose for example that
after this game is over, and the suspects either are freed or are released from jail they will
commit another crime and the game will be played again. In this case in the first period the
suspects may reason that they should not confess because if they do not their partner will not
confess in the second game. Strictly speaking, this conclusion is not valid, since in the second
game both suspects will confess no matter what happened in the first game. However,
repetition opens up the possibility of being rewarded or punished in the future for current
behavior, and game theorists have provided a number of theories to explain the obvious
intuition that if the game is repeated often enough, the suspects ought to cooperate.

Equity Theory
Explanations > Theories > Equity Theory
Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
People are happiest in relationships where the give and take are about equal. If one person is
getting too little from the relationship, then not only are they going to be unhappy with this
the person getting the lions share will also be feeling rather guilty about this imbalance. This
is reinforced by strong social norms about fairness.

65

In short-term relationships we tend to trade in things, such as loaning small sums or buying
beers. In longer-term relationships the trade is more emotional.
Overall, though, it is still better to be getting more than lessalthough you could feel better
about the relationship, the benefits you get from it can buy you compensatory happiness
elsewhere.

Example
Men who have been pulled away from their family by their work sometimes try to even the
scales with expensive holidays. This does not work well as they are trying to trade (shortterm value) money for (long-term value) emotion.

So what?
Using it
If you are getting the short end of the stick in a relationship, use this to make the other
person feel even more guilt than they already feel. Get them to focus on the value of the
relationship itself rather than the more material things they are getting from it.
Defending
If you are getting what you want from a relationship, resist attempts to change the balance.

See also
Epistemological Weighting Hypothesis, Reciprocity Norm, Social Exchange Theory
http://www.cba.uri.edu/Scholl/Notes/Equity.html

References
Adams (1963), Adams (1965), Homans (1961), Walster, Walster and Berscheid (1978)

Power enhancers
Explanations > Power > Power enhancers
Scarcity | Desirability | Skill | Impact | Acquisition cost | Burn rate | So what?

Although there are many different types or power, there are a number of things that may be
considered which will increase the power you have.

Scarcity
The Scarcity Principle makes anything that is not easily available more desirable. If the power I
have is something that other people do not have, then I am the only wielder of this power and
hence I can choose how it is used.

Desirability
If what I have is more desirable, then I can make greater demands, asking more for it and so
on.
A negative form of this is where my power is undesirable, such as the power to punish. Again,
the greater the undesirability of my power the stronger the power is (although it will create
very different reactions to a positive and desirable thing).

Skill
Some people have power but are not good at wielding it. Like a swordsman with a sharp
cutlass, a skilful user of power uses just enough to get what they want and no more.

Impact

66

If my power has a great impact on people, then they will pay greater attention to it. Thus a
bank robber acquires great power (and money) from the use of a gun.

Acquisition cost
Sometimes power costs a great deal to acquire, such as expert power, for which takes time and
money to get through college.

Burn rate
Power, when used, may be used up or it may retain its 'full strength'. Thus when a teacher
shouts at a class, it will only work for a while and if they keep it up, before long the children
will ignore the loud thing at the front of the class. A good teacher only needs to hint or raise an
eyebrow.

So what?
So not only build your power, but also make it scarce, desirable, etc (as above).

References
Scarcity Principle

Scarcity Principle
Explanations > Theories > Scarcity Principle
Description | Example | So What? | See also | References

Description
In our need to control our world, being able to choose is an important freedom. If something
becomes scarce, we anticipate possible regret that we did not acquire it, and so we desire it
more. This desire is increased further if we think that someone else might get it and hence gain
social position that we might have had.

Example
The scarcity principle is used in sales, with sale ends today (scarcity of time), whilst stock
last (scarcity of product) and so on.

So what?
Using it
Intimate that what you want the other person to choose is only going to available for a limited
time and that there may not be many left in any case. Hint of other people waiting in the wings
to for the chance to get it.
Defending
When something is scarce, thing about whether you really want it. If you keep buying things
you do not want, you money will be scarce instead, which is probably worse

See also
Social Comparison Theory, Reactance Theory

References
Cialdini (1993), Brehm (1966)

Social Comparison Theory


Explanations > Theories > Social Comparison Theory
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References

67

Description
We learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves with other people and
their opinions. Mostly, we seek to compare ourselves with someone against whom we believe
we should have reasonable similarity, although in the absence of such a benchmark, we will
use almost anyone.
Upward social comparison occurs where we mostly compare ourselves with people who we
deem to be socially better than us in some way. Downward social comparison acts in the
opposite direction.

Research
Hornstein et al. dropped a wallet containing some trivial items, a return address, $2 and a
letter in midtown Manhattan, then watched what people did when they picked it up. There were
two variations, each with a different letter. Some letters were from an articulate Englishspeaker (who would be like the person picking up the letter) whilst others were from a clear
foreigner. Some letters had a positive tone, some were neutral and some were negative.
Letter from the 'foreigner' led to the wallet being returned around 30% of the time. Letters
from the 'native' with positive or neutral tones were returned around 65% of the time, whilst
native letters with negative tone were returned only around 10% of the time.
Thus, when the person finding the letter felt similar to the letter-writer, they were more
motivated to return the wallet. However, when the letter writer seemed like them, but wrote in
a negative way, they 'punished' the person by not returning the wallet.

Example
To determine how good an artist I am, I will compare myself with a competent friend rather
than Michaelangelo or my 4-year-old niece.

So what?
Using it
Find out other people with whom the target people compares themselves, then either get those
reference people to adopt the desired action or find a way of persuading the target to select a
better reference.
Defending
Who are your social references? Are they normal people or have you adopted (or been
persuaded to adopt) unreasonable comparisons. Beware of comparing yourself against people
whose standards you cannot reasonably attain or who have other attributes which are not so
desirable.

See also
Informational Social Influence, Normative Social Influence

References
Festinger (1954), Hornstein Fisch and Holmes (1968)

Types of power
Explanations > Power > Types of power
Ownership | Position | Access control | Knowledge | Skill | Obligation | Trust | Self-determination | So what?

Although the French and Raven list is common, here is a composite and extended list that is
perhaps easier to use.

68

Ownership
If I own something then I can also use it in any way I like. If I own a chair I can set fire to it,
which I couldn't do if I had borrowed it from you. If I own money, I can spend it any way I
choose.

Position
Where you occupy a recognized position, then I will obey the rules regarding that position
(rather than obeying you, per se).
Formal positions include managers, policemen, and so on. These may well have formal
authority vested in them by the company or the country.
Informal positions also exist, such as social leaders or team roles such as the Belbin Team
Types. If you hold a creative social position such as a 'plant' then I will listen carefully to your
ideas.

Access control
Another form of ownership is where you are the gatekeeper to something that is desired.
Bouncers at night clubs and company receptionists are gatekeepers to entire organizations.
Personal assistants control access to the managers they serve. Librarians control access to
knowledge.

Knowledge
Knowledge is power, as they say. If I know something, then I can use it to my advantage.
Knowledge may come in several forms:
Technical knowledge is knowing how things work. It is the power of experts and academics.
Social knowledge is knowing things about people. This may include secrets that could be

used for blackmail.


The degree of power that a knowledge user has depends even more than other forms of power
on a supply and demand situation. If nobody wants the knowledge or cares about it, then there
is little power. But if the world is being invaded by aliens and I know how to repel them, I can
demand a high price for my services.

Skill
Skill is closely related to knowledge, but is the ability to do something rather than just know it.
As with knowledge, there is technical skill and social skill. Engineers have technical skills. Sales
people have social skills, which include the ability to communicate and the ability to persuade
others.

Obligation
If I feel obligation towards you, you can tip the scales by reminding me of that obligation.
Obligations may come from:
Favors you did me in the past and which I must now repay.
Rules that I must follow, such as social rules to help a person in distress.
Responsibilities that I feel, for example as a parent, friend or a manager.

Trust
If you earn my respect then I will trust you and this gives you far greater power to ask me for
things, as I will not need to wonder whether you may take advantage of me.

Self determination

69

I am the only person who can decide what I say and do. As such I have power, which can be
much greater than is suspected. I can, for example, always choose to say no and to walk out.
This is of course, the basic power of Trade Unions.

So what?
So use these categories as a checklist to determine what forms of power you and others have
available. It is a common mistake to assume you are powerless or have less power than the
other person.

References
Power

Belbin's team roles


Explanations > Preferences > Belbin team roles
Belbin types | Balanced teams | So what?

These types (or 'roles') were defined by Dr. R. Meredith Belbin after studying teams at Henley
Management College.

Belbin roles
The Belbin roles and brief descriptions are:
Overall

Doing / acting

Thinking /
problem-solving

Belbin roles

Description

Implementer

Well-organized and predictable. Takes


basic ideas and makes them work in
practice. Can be slow.

Shaper

Lots of energy and action, challenging


others to move forwards. Can be
insensitive.

Completer/Finisher

Reliably sees things through to the


end, ironing out the wrinkles and
ensuring everything works well. Can
worry too much and not trust others.

Plant

Solves difficult problems with


original and creative ideas. Can be
poor communicator and may ignore
the details.

Monitor/Evaluator

Sees the big picture. Thinks carefully


and accurately about things. May lack
energy or ability to inspire others.

Specialist

Has expert knowledge/skills in key


areas and will solve many problems
here. Can be disinterested in all other

70

areas.

People / feelings

Coordinator

Respected leader who helps everyone


focus on their task. Can be seen as
excessively controlling.

Team worker

Cares for individuals and the team.


Good listener and works to resolve
social problems. Can have problems
making difficult decisions.

Explores new ideas and possibilities


with energy and with others. Good
Resource/investigator
networker. Can be too optimistic and
lose energy after the initial flush.
Note the linkage here to Head, hands and heart preferences.
Another way of dividing them is:
Overall

Leading
Doing

Belbin role

Coordinator
Shaper
Implementer
Completer/finisher
Monitor/Evaluator

Thinking

Plant
Specialist

Socializing

Resource/investigator
Team Worker

Balanced teams
Teams work best when there is a balance of primary roles and when team members know their
roles, work to their strengths and actively manage weaknesses.
To achieve the best balance, there should be:
One Co-ordinator or Shaper (not both) for leader
A Plant to stimulate ideas
A Monitor/evaluator to maintain honesty and clarity
One or more Implementer, Team worker, Resource investigator or Completer/finisher to

make things happen

So what?
Identify types when starting up teams and ensure you have a good balance (or handle the
difference).

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See also
Margerison-McCann Team Performance Wheel
http://www.belbin.com/belbin-team-roles.htm

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