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MODAL VERBS

I. CAN 1.aptitudini fizice: Can you run fast? I can swim


mentale: They can recite this poem
= to be able to (a fi in stare sa)
-2. cerem permisiunea (e.g. Can/Could/May/Might I go swimming?
No, you cant)
3. oferta: Can/Could/Shall I get you anything from the supermarket?
4. sugestia: What shall we do tonight?
We can/could go to the cinema.
5. cerinta politicoasa: Can/Could/Will/Would you help me with my homework?
6. posibilitate: John is late.
He could be stuck in the traffic.
7. a fost posibil dar din fericire nu s-a intamplat : Yesterday there was a terrible
accident. The driver could have been killed. (Luckily, he wasnt)
3.CAN/COULD + see, hear, feel smell, taste, understand, guess, remember
(reda ideea de continuitate)
I can hear that noise now.
present tense
I
am
You
We
They
He
She
(It)

able to

learn (the lesson) today


(pot sa invat azi)

are
is
CAN

CANT 8. nu sunt in stare sa.. (e.g. I cant swim )


-9. interdictie (impotriva regulamentului): You cant park your car here.
-10. imposibilitate a. in prezent
b. in trecut (Presupunere logica negativa)
IT IS IMPOSSIBLE THAT
a. my brother behaves rudelyMy brother CANT
IT IS UNBELIEVABLE THAT
behave rudely
I DONT BELIEVE THAT
b. my son broke your window My son CANT
have broken your
window
IT IS OBVIOUS that my brother doesnt behave rudely.
CERTAIN
SURE
perfect infinitive=have +V+ed/V3

Past tense

I
He
She
(It)
You
We
They

was

able to

learn

the lesson

yesterday
(am putut sa invat ieri)

were
COULD

-COULD 11. capacitatea repetata a cuiva de a face ceva in trecut


e.g.He could run very fast when he was very young.
12.cer permisiunea (Could/can/will/would I use your telephone?)
13.WAS ABLE TO am reusit sa fac ceva intr-o situatie deosebita
(dificila)(cu effort) din trecut
e.g. He was able to climb the top of the mountain.
I was able to reach the seashore in spite of the stormy sea.
Future tense
I
will be able to learn the lesson tomorrow
W
(voi putea sa invat maine)
You
He
She
It
They
CAN

II. MAY
1.permisiune: May/might/can/could I come in?
= to be allowed to
present tense
I
am
allowed to
go (to a party) today
We
are
(mi se permite sa
You
merg..
They
He
is
She
It
MAY
Past tense
I
was
allowed to drive
the car
yesterday
He
(mi s-a permis sa
She
conduc ieri)
(It)
You
were
We
They
Future tense

I
We
You
He
She
It
They

will

be allowed to

talk to

the school
headmaster

tomorrow
(mi se va permite
sa vorbesc
cumaine)

MAY

2. posibilitate a. in prezent
b. in curs de desfasurare in prezent
c. in trecut
IT IS POSSIBLE THAT a. he knows the truth He may/might/could know the truth
POSSIBLY
b. they are talking about their holidays now
MAYBE
They may be talking about their holidays now
PERHAPS
c. she had problems with her carShe may have had problems
ITS LIKELY THAT
with her car
3. in propozitii subordonate concesive
WHOEVER he MAY/MIGHT be (oricine) ar fi
WHENEVER he MAY come (oricand) ar veni
WHEREVER he MAY go (oriunde)
WHATEVER he MAY say (orice)
HOWEVER difficult it MAY be (oricat de dificil ar fi
NO MATTER how difficult it MAY be
MIGHT
1. permisiune legata de trecut (I understood then that he might go out of the room
whenever he wanted) (permisiune legata de prezent:I understand that he may go out
of the room whenever he wants)
2. posibilitate in prezent (Your cousin might be in the garden now)
in curs de desfasurare in momentul vorbirii (Your sister might be still
sleeping)
in trecut (The foreigner thought he might find the way to the museum by
himself
They might have heard some noises when their car was stolen)
in viitor (Granny might arrive on Thursday)
3. nesiguranta, dubiu: I wonder where he might be.
She might have heard you.
4. repros indignare, iritare: You might behave more politely.
You might have told us the truth from the very beginning.
III.. MUST
1. obligatie(impusa de decizia mea) (I must finish this project by the end of this week).
= to have to (a trebui sa) (obligatie impusa de decizia unor factori din afara)
(e.g. I have to read my daughter a story whenever she asks it to me)
2. necessitate, datorie: (You must work to earn your living).

3. sfat ferm: (Mother to daughter: You must behave yourself at school)


You are to beheve yourself at school.
Present tense
I
have to go to school
today
You
(eu trebuie sa merg la scoala azi)
We
They
He
has to
She
It
MUST
Secretary to boss: Do I have to type all these letters? (is it necessary for me to type?)
Son to mum: Must I do the homework now? (do you insist on my doing?)
Past tense
I
had to go
You
He
She
It
We
They
Future tense
I
will
We
You
He
She
It
They

to school

have to

go

yesterday

to
school

(a trebuit sa merg la scoala ieri)

tomorrow

(=va trebui sa merg la scoala


maine)

MUST

4. MUSTNT interdictia
Pedestrians mustnt/can/may not cross the street if the traffic light is red.
(nu trebuie sa / nu au voie sa traverseze.)
5. probabilitate (presupunere logica pozitiva) a. in prezent
b. in curs de desfasurare in prezent
c. in trecut
PROBABLY
a. he knows the truth He must know the truth
ITS PROBABLE THAT b. she is cooking nowShe must be cooking now.
ITS OBVIOUS THAT c. they drove too fastThey must have driven to fast.
CERTAINLY
IM SURE he knows the truth
IM POSITIVE
6. lipsa obligatiei

- I dont have to (dont need to / neednt)cross the street. The shop I am


looking for is on this side of the street. (nu-i nevoie sa)
- He doesnt have to eat this sandwich if he doesnt like it.
- We didnt have to use our umbrellas yesterday because it didnt rain
(n-a fost nevoie sa)
- They wont have to come to school next Sunday. (nu va fi nevoie
sa)
I didnt need to (actiunea nu s-a intamplat in trecut pt. ca noi am stiut ca nu e necesara)
I didnt need to water the garden because it had rained before.
You neednt have told her the bad news. Now she is crying. (actiunea s-a intamplat in
trecut desi n-a fost necesara)
III. SHALL
- ofer ajutorul: Shall I help you choose Marys present?
-formulez o sugestie: Shall we go to a restaurant tonight?
-cerem sugestii sau instructiuni: Shall I buy this car?
IV. SHOULD/OUGHT TO
+ present infinitive sfat (You should/ought to be more careful)
You must/had better/are supposed to/should/ought to behave politely
+ perfect infinitivecritica (You should/ought to have tried harder)
I recommend that you should be present
suggest
propose
insist
advise
It is advisable /essential/ better / important/ natural / necessary / right that he should be
Present
I wake up early so that (astfel incat)
I shouldnt miss the train.
In order that (ca sa)
lest (ca sa nu)
I should miss the train
for fear that de teama ca sa nu)
V. I am
used to
+ V1 + ing (I am used to getting up early in the morning)
was
(accustomed to)
(sunt obisnuit sa ma trezesc)
will be
+ substantiv (I will be used to the street noise) (voi fi
obisnuit cu..)
I get
used to + V1 + ing (I get used to living in a big city)
got
(ma obisnuiesc sa locuiesc)
will be
+ substantiv (I will get used to my new job) (ma voi obisnui cu)

VI. WOULD
-o obisnuinta, o actiune repetata din trecut (I would meet that man whenever I crossed the
=I used to meet
street)
-vointa (She had to do it whether she would or would not =wanted/didnt want to)
-future in the past: She promised that she would buy him a toy the next day.
-if clause type 2 (would + V1): I would buy the car if I had money
type 3 (would + have + V + ed )
V3 )
I.1.doresc o schimbare a unei situatii suparatoare/comportamentul insuportabil al cuiva:
I wish he wouldnt give me so much work to do.
I wish the wind would stop.
I wish John would stop insulting people.
2. un imperative politicos: I wish you would stop shouting.
I would have helped you if you had asked it to me
II. I WISH + PAST SIMPLE/PAST CONTINUOUS: doresc ca ceva sa fie diferit in
present
I wish I had a room of my own.
III. I WISH + PAST PERFECT: regret ca ceva s-a intamplat sau nu s-a intamplat in
trecut
I wish I had got your message earlier.
I wish I had talked to him. (but I didnt talk to him)