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Physical Education in Ancient near East Countries


Historical Development in P.E.

The terms Physical Education and Sport are used in reference to early
historical developments, with Physical Education typically used to refer to
schoolbased programmes and Sport used to refer to organised, competitive
History enlightens us- it enables us to understand how the fields of
Physical Education, Exercise Science and Sport today have been shaped by
the leaders and events of the past. History guides us-it suggests future
possibilities and courses of action that might be most effective in the years
to come. History is a field of study, focusing on the study of change over
History expands our understanding of society as well as Physical
Education, Exercise Science, and Sport.
In ancient times people engaged in physical activity and participated in
sports for many different purposes. During this time the growth of physical
activity and sport was influenced by religious beliefs, social class, geography,
activities of daily living, and conceptions of the relationship between the
mind and body.
Physical education goes back to Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece but
has now become an integral subject in schools around the nation. Initially,
most P.E. was linked with military trainings. However, we will also develop
our upper body strength in some activities such as javelin or for sword
fighting. Lastly, most of the men in the Ancient Greeks are undertaking the
military services and was relatively low in the women.
Some students who are studying here at NVC will be interested in
undertaking courses in the development of P.E. In this program, we will
understand how certain techniques of teaching and skills have come about
and are vital in this field.


Physical Education in Greece

Physical Education had its golden age in ancient Greece. The

two city states which gave physical activities much importance

were Sparta and Athens. However, these states were exact
opposites in their objectives of physical education.
In Sparta, the main objective of Physical Education was to
contribute to a strong and powerful army. The individual existed
for the state so that he did not enjoy individual freedom. Only the
strong and vigorous babies were allowed to live in this military
state. Any new born infant when found weak or defective was left
to die on Mount Taygetus. A conditioning program subjected all
boys after six years of age to a rigid training in the public
barracks, and entered the Agoge which was a system of public
compulsory training. The physical activities consisted of wrestling,
jumping, running, throwing discus and the javelin, horseback
riding, hunting and marching, among others.

Various physical activities were providing the six year old boys
in the palaestra which was a building for exercises and an open
space for jumping and wrestling. The proprietor of the palastra
who was also responsible for directing the activities was called
paidotribe. At the age of 14 to 16 the Greek youth coming from
the palaestra entered the gymnasium which was the physical,
social and intellectual center of Greece. The main areas of
concern were special sports and exercises under an expert
instructor called the gymnast. The gymnasiarch was the chief
official and overall in charge of the entire gymnastics program.
Greece laid the foundation for the present Olympic Games
which were first held in 776 B.C. and continued every four years
after. In these games the contestant had to undergo a rigid
screening. A number of Greek of Philosophers, teachers and
medical men contributed to the worth of physical education and
among them are the following:


Physical Education in Ancient Oriental Countries

Ancient China
Ancient Chinas policy of isolation was favored by two factors:
the topography of the land which provided a natural and
necessary protection against invaders, and the Great Wall. Laws
were also passed to keep invaders out the country. This policy of
isolation lacked the motivating factor to be physically strong
because there was no fear of aggression.
The people were concerned with intellectual excellence. A
sedentary life was much favored by their concern with
memorizing the teaching of Confucius, the Great Teacher at that
time. Chinese classics show that reach families engaged in music,
dancing and archery. The popular dances were the skill dances,
such as Split Feather Dance, Whole- Feather Dance, Battle
Dance, and the humanity dance. There was also wrestling,
jujitsu, polo, tag-of-war, kite flying and water games.
As early as 2698 B.C. a form of medical gymnastics was
developed. The people felt that the cost of their illnesses was
their inactivity due to their sedentary life. They soon realize that a
kind of gymnastic could provide the activity for a cure of their
illnesses. The Kung-Fu was the earliest of exercises recorded in

history. This has been met with much enthusiasm by the present
generation in the Philippines after World War II.

The history of dance mentions Hindu dancing as the oldest of
organized dancing. Some of the favorite pastimes of the people
were throwing balls, dice, tumbling, chariot races, marbles, riding
elephants, plowing contest, horse riding, and swordsmanship,
boxing, and dancing.
A great contribution of India to physical Education is
Yoga which is composed of exercises in posture and regulated
breathing. Although this is a religious activity in India, it is being
accepted today as important activity to discipline the mind and
body because it involves 84 different positions.
They are the most common acquiring physical education and
some authorities believed that in almost four thousand years
ago as a part of curriculum in Education. If there is no formal
education, the acquire knowledge through imitating the
movement of their parents of tutor.
The promotion of P.E. are only the healthy child are allowed
and if your child is not healthy, they dont even care of it.

The countries in Ancient Oriented Countries also develop

their P.E. to attain vocational, recreational and religious belief.
However, others are for military and body conditioning


Physical Education during the Age of Feudalism

The period of feudalism came into being after death of a

powerful ruler, Charlemagne, in 1814 when there was a
disintegration of the whole empire and there was decentralization
of government. In the absence of a strong leader, the people
turned to the nobleman or lord for protection. Feudalism was a
system of land tenure based upon the allegiance and service to
the nobleman or lord. The lord who owned the land was called fief
who let out the land to a subordinate who was called his vassal.
This vassal had people who worked the land but shared little in
the profits and these were called serfs.


Primitive Society
Primitive man moved in order to satisfy a felt need for a

necessity. He had to satisfy his hunger and so he had to search for

food. This he did by hunting wild animals in the forest or by
fishing along the rivers and streams. Sometimes, he had to
engage in warfare in order to ensure protection from his enemies.
He had to erect shelter to protect him from adverse elements or a
hostile environment.
The physical activities of primitive man were not organized. His
motives for physical activity were mainly to search for food and to
protect himself from his enemies. However, his gregarious nature
and his innate drives for mating and propagation give him the
desire to dance and play. All this physical activities of primitive
man where very much unorganized.


P.E. during the Dark Ages

Referred to as the Dark Ages in history was the period

following the fall of the Roman Empire in A.D. 476. The strong
Teutonic barbarians overruled the lands the lands that
experienced glory and grandeur. The invasions brought about the
lowest ebb in literature and in learning. It is, however, interesting
to note the lesson derived from this period in history: that the
Teutonic barbicans who lived a life characterized by much
physical activity were strong and healthy and conquered the
Romans who were physically and morally deteriorated due to their
way of life.
During the dark period, two major movements grew out which
swept all over Europe: asceticism and scholasticism. These
movements affected tremendously physical education.

Christianity grew and thrived in this period with the ascetic belief
that one can attain high spiritual level through solitude,
mortification of the flesh, and devotional contemplation. These
people did not believe in worldly pleasures but this life should be
a means of preparing for the next world. The body should be
tortured and not improved because the body is evil. A Christian
emperor, Theodosius, abolished the Olympic Games in A.D. 394
because these were believed as being pagan. The customs and
practices at the time resulted in poor health and shattered
nervous system of many people.


P.E. during Renaissance

The renaissance period which came after the dark ages lasted

until the beginning of modern times. This was called the revival of
learning which also brought about the dignity of man and a
renewed spirit of nationalism. This period also had its impact on
physical education. The theory that the body and the soul were
inseparable and indivisible became popular. It was the belief that
good physical health promoted learning, and that rest and
recreation were needed by the body after study and work.
This renaissance period helped to interpret the worth of
physical education to the public. This was with the belief that it

was necessary for health, as a means of developing the body, as

a preparation for warfare, and a means of providing recreation for
the wealthier classes of people. It, however, failed to recognize
the important contribution of physical education to the aesthetic,
social, and moral life in general.


P.E in the Philippines

Just like in the primitive society, the activities in physical

education were very important for survival because this was not
affected of what every activities they have. Except for those
enforce labor in a lower class which generally had a sedentary
likes. While in American period its an interesting worthwhile for
There are some states that marked and significant event to the

1901 Physical exercise was one of the subjects introduced in

the public schools and regular program of athletics was
1905 Baseball and track and field were introduced and taught
to the young boys in school.
1909 The athletic program for the school was inaugurated
and much emphasis was given to the playing of western sports
and the coaching of tennis.
1910 Basketball was first introduced as a game for girls in the
Carnival Meet held in Manila, but was later discontinued in 1914
because it was found very strenuous for the girls.
1928 A summer for coaching was held with the aim of helping
the public school teachers in charge of athletics to improve their
coaching methods.

Year Present
November 15, 1935, the Philippine Commonwealth
interrupted the Japanese occupation during the World War II. In
1937 Physical Education was made curricular subject in the
secondary schools. The summer schools for Physical Education
was been opened by the Bureau of Education under the direction
of Serufin Aquino.

The Physical Education was no able to have a chance to

emphasis and it was sadly neglected by some Philippine School,
after granting Americans independence. But because of the
performance of the Filipino athletics this was being launched by
the Secretary Education Honorable Carlos P. Romulo. He order
No.15 series 1967 entitled Physical Education and Sports
Development Program this was consider shots to the arms which
made gladness to the hearts of the Physical Educators of the
Today it revised to all of those schools in the country as one
of the subjects in academic and to development and evaluation of
programs for promoting and improving organized sports in
physical fitness for all numbers of the community.


Physical Education in Rome

Roman physical education focused on training for battle. Of the

many contributors made by the Greeks to classical culture, the

notion of a mutual dependence between a sound, mind and a

healthy body persisted in Rome throughout the Republican and

imperial periods. Yet the romans were intent on making practical
use of physical training beyond its favorable impact or general
health. Roma political impact incorporated physical education into
a national program for military preparedness. Centering on boys
and men.
A great and well-disciplined army with great leaders brought
about the grandeur of the Roman Empire at the time when almost
all of Europe was under its influence. The objectives of physical
education in Rome affected the sound objectives held by the
Greeks whom they conquered.
Army life was considered very important to the Romans and
considered health as important only for military life. In order to be
in top physical shape for the army, a Roman soldier had to
engage in various physical activities following a rigid schedule of
training. Activities such as marching, jumping, running, throwing
the discus and javelin, swimming, among others, were included.
He had to be ready at a moments notice to serve the state from
17 to 60 years of age.


P.E. in America

School-based physical educations history goes all the way

back to Greece in 386 B.C. at Platos school, named
simply Akademia, or The Academy. The Greek philosopher well
understood the importance of physical fitness. He was, after all,
an athlete, particularly skilled as a wrestler. In fact, he is quoted
as once saying, In order for man to succeed in life, God provided
him with two means, education and physical activity. Not
separately, one for the soul and the other for the body, but for the
two together. With these two means, man can attain perfection.
Of course, American physical education has come a long way
sincebut we owe our physical education system to Greece and
many other countries, from which weve derived the system we
use now. According to the official United States government
website,, the goal of physical education in American
schools is to develop physically educated individuals who have
the knowledge, skills, and confidence to enjoy a lifetime of
healthful physical activity.
Interestingly, the driver behind the establishment of the
physical education system in America was warin short, the
fitness of soldiers in combat became a country-wide priority. After
the end of the American Civil War, school systems implemented
physical education programs and enacted laws that would make
the inclusion of physical education programs compulsory in all
public schools.


Brief History of Philippine Music

Music of Philippines are performance arts composed in various

genre and styles. The music of the Philippines is a mixture
of indigenous, other Asian, European, Latin American, and
American influences.
Filipinos are conservative in nature, thus, rock scene in the
Philippines has taken them aback. But since when did Filipinos
started to love rock music? Blame it to the West again. Its when
Americans and British bands like, The Shadow and The Ventures
flourished way back 1960s and so, Filipino instrumental bands
arose and they just couldnt stop from loving it since it thrive their
sense of dynamism. Among other famous bands during 60s were,
not to mention the British band, The Beatles, this struck the
Filipino mainstream and boundlessly influenced Filipino rock
scene. Their popularity and use of counterculture has produced a
socio-political lyrics with mature comments in life has as well
deeply influenced Filipino rock artists. Filipino bands began
adopting this music and some groups enhanced their styles by
adding unconventional instruments. In the late 60s the rock
culture of bands like Jimmy Hendrix, Led Zeppilin, Ironbutterfly,
etc. have greatly influenced Pinoy Rock. With its influence, it
produced bands like Maria Cafra Band and the Juan Dela Cruz
Band to name a few, in Pinoy rock scene.


Sociological Foundation in P.E.

Sociology is the study of people, groups, institutions, human

activities in terms of social behavior, and social order within
society. u Concerned about institutions in society such as religion,
family, government, education, and leisure.
The influence of social institutions on the individual, the social
behavior and human relations that occur within a group or an
institution, and how they influence the individual, and the
interrelationship between various institutions within society, such
as sport, education, religion, and government.
Sport Sociology u Examination of the relationship between sport
and society. The Goals of Sport Sociology (Coakley):
Factors underlying the creation and the organization of
Relationship between sport and other aspects of society such
as family, education, and the media.
Influence of sport and sport participation on individuals
beliefs relative to equity, gender, race, ethnicity, disability,
and other societal issues.
The social dynamics within the sport setting, i.e.,
organizational structure, group actions, and interaction
patterns. The influence of cultural, structural, and situational
factors on the nature of sport and the sport experience.
The social processes associated with sport, including
competition, socialization, conflict, and change.


Psychological Aspects of P.E.

Psychology has an important part to play in the teaching and

practice of physical education and sport, and this volume,

originally published in 1972, provided a systematic and
authoritative introduction to the major areas in this field at the
The contributors, leading experts in the UK and US, cover five
major areas of psychology: perception, learning, personality,
motivation and emotion, focusing attention on important current
research of the time, and opening up these areas for the serious
student. They review controversial issues of central importance in
physical education and sport, pointing to practical implications for
learning, teaching and coaching.
A great opportunity to read an early take on what has become
a central part of physical education and sport today.