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The Human


The Digestive System

The Digestive system is a series of tube-like organs that

converts our meal into body fuel. In a normal adult, the size
is about 30 feet or 9 meters long.
The parts of Digestive System are :
Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach,
Small Intestines, Large Intestine, Rectum,
Key organs that has valuable participation in digestion
process includes, Liver, Gall Bladder, and Pancreas.


The mouth is the beginning of the

digestive tractThe Process is called
Chewing mechanically break foods
into pieces that helps for easy
digestion. During chewing food is
mixed with saliva. Saliva is excreted
from salivary gland located on the
lower jaw between the tongue and
Saliva converts starch in the food
into sugar and also soften the food.

Is a fleshy muscular organ that is attached to the floor of
buccal cavity. The taste of food is determined by the taste
bud receptors present in the tongue.

It moves the food freely inside the oral cavity.

It pushes the bolus toward the Pharynx and

into the esophagus when swallowing.


Food is pushed to the

Pharynx is situated by the
tongue. Tongue blocks the
mouth and soft palate closes
off nose.
Larynx or the Adams apple
rises so that the flap-like
tissue called epiglottis can
close the opening of the
trachea to prevent food
entering to the lungs.


Esophagus is a muscular tube extending from the pharynx

to the stomach. It is about 10 inches long in a normal adult.

The esophagus delivers food to the stomach by the

process of peristalsis it is the series of smooth muscle

Peristalsis propels food and liquid slowly down the

esophagus and the stomach.

The food travels 4-8 second from the mouth to the




The stomach is a J shaped sac-like organ with strong

muscular walls.

In addition to holding the food, it's also a mixer and grinder.

The stomach secretes acid and powerful enzymes that

continue the process of breaking down the food.

The acid also kills bacteria that is present in the food.

When it leaves the stomach, food is the consistency of a

liquid or paste. From there the food moves to the small

5. Small


Small Intestine are made up of duodenum, jejunum, and

It is a long tube loosely coiled that is about 20 inches long.

The small intestine continues the process of breaking down

food by using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile
from the liver. Bile is a compound that aids in the digestion
of fat and eliminates waste products from the blood.

Peristalsis is also at work in this organ.

The duodenum is largely responsible for continuing the

process of breaking down food.
The Jejunum and ileum being mainly responsible for the
absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream

Small Intestine
It takes 4 to 8 hrs. to complete its journey in the small
3 organs that play pivotal role in helping the stomach and
small Intestine I digesting foods.
Pancreas secretes enzymes in the small intestines, the
enzymes breakdown protein, carbohydrates and fats from
the food we eat.
Liver 2 main function is to make and secret bile and to
cleanse and purify blood coming from small intestine
containing nutrients.
Gall Bladder pear- shapes located under the liver and
stores bile. Bile is made in the liver travels to the gall
bladder via cystic duct.
During meal, the gall bladder contracts sending bile to the
small Intestine. Once the nutrient have been absorbed and
the left over liquid has passed through the small intestine,
what is left is handed by the Large Intestine other known as


It is also known as colon.

It is 5 to 6 foot long muscular

tube that connect cecum to the
rectum. Cecum is the first part of
the large intestine while the
rectum is the distal part.

Stool or waste over the digestion

process is passed through the
colon by means of peristalsis first
in the liquid state and then
through solid form. A stool is
stored in the colon for about 1012 hours until mass movement
empties it into the rectum.

Large Intestine

stool is mostly debris and bacteria.


bacteria serves several important function

such as synthesizing various vitamins, processing
waste product and food particles and protecting
against harmful bacteria.


the descending colon becomes full of stool

or feces it empties itself in the rectum to begin
the process of elimination.

It is an 8 inches chamber
that connect colon to the
The job of the rectum is
to receive stools from
the colon to be
When gas or stool comes
to the rectum, sensory
receptors will send
message to the brain,
the brain then decides if
the contents can be
release or not. If the
contents cannot be
expelled, the sphincters
contract and the rectum
accommodates, so that
the sensation
temporarily goes away.


The anus is the opening where the

gastrointestinal tract ends and
exits the body.
It is the last part of the Digestive
system where the stool/ feces