1 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

4.9K (de) vizualizări149 paginicourse material..computer science and engineering

Jun 02, 2010

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PPT, PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

course material..computer science and engineering

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

4.9K (de) vizualizări

course material..computer science and engineering

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- Micro: A Novel
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The 6th Extinction
- The Black Swan
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- The Last Battle
- Prince Caspian
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Theory of Death: A Decker/Lazarus Novel

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 149

INTRODUCTION TO

CLASSICAL SETS AND

FUZZY SETS

1

FUZZY LOGIC

Fuzzy logic is the logic underlying approximate, rather than

exact, modes of reasoning.

truth, is a matter of degree.

logic and multivalue logic systems, but also probabilistic

logic.

• 0 or 1 in two-value system,

• element of a set T in multivalue system,

• Range over the fuzzy subsets of T in fuzzy logic.

2

FUZZY LOGIC

knowledge representation and reasoning based on degrees

of membership.

3

TYPES AND MODELING

OF UNCERTAINTY

4

FUZZY vs PROBABILITY

Fuzzy ≠ Probability

likelihood

vagueness

5

FUZZY vs PROBABILITY

6

NEED OF FUZZY

LOGIC

Based on intuition and judgment.

members and nonmembers.

to express mathematically, in linguistic or

descriptive rules.

7

CLASSICAL SETS (CRISP

SETS)

Conventional or crisp sets are

Binary. An element either belongs to

the set or does not.

{True, False}

{1, 0}

8

CRISP SETS

9

OPERATIONS ON CRISP

SETS

UNION:

INTERSECTION:

COMPLEMENT:

DIFFERENCE:

10

PROPERTIES OF CRISP

The various properties ofSETS

crisp sets are as follows:

11

PROPERTIES OF CRISP

SETS

12

FUZZY SETS

13

FUZZY SETS

14

FUZZY SETS

15

OPERATIONS ON FUZZY

SETS

16

PROPERTIES OF FUZZY

SETS

17

PROPERTIES OF FUZZY

SETS

18

PROPERTIES OF FUZZY

SETS

19

RELATIONS

Relations represent mappings between sets

and connectives in logic.

presence or absence of a connection or

interaction or association between the

elements of two sets.

of crisp binary relations, and they allow

various degrees of relationship (association)

between elements.

20

CRISP CARTESIAN

PRODUCT

21

CRISP RELATIONS

22

CRISP RELATIONS

23

CRISP BINARY

RELATIONS

Examples of binary relations

24

OPERATIONS ON CRISP

RELATIONS

25

PROPERTIES OF CRISP

RELATIONS

The properties of crisp sets (given below)

hold good for crisp relations as well.

Commutativity,

Associativity,

Distributivity,

Involution,

Idempotency,

DeMorgan’s Law,

Excluded Middle Laws.

26

COMPOSITION ON CRISP

RELATIONS

27

FUZZY CARTESIAN

PRODUCT

Let R be a fuzzy subset of M and S be a fuzzy subset of N.

Then the Cartesian product R × S is a fuzzy subset of N ×

M such that

Example:

Let R be a fuzzy subset of {a, b, c} such that R = a/1 + b/0.8

+ c/0.2 and S be a fuzzy subset of {1, 2, 3} such that S =

1/1 + 3/0.8 + 2/0.5. Then R x S is given by

28

FUZZY RELATION

29

FUZZY RELATION

30

OPERATIONS ON FUZZY

RELATION

The basic operation on fuzzy sets also apply on fuzzy

relations.

31

OPERATIONS ON FUZZY

RELATION

32

PROPERTIES OF FUZZY

RELATIONS

The properties of fuzzy sets (given below)

hold good for fuzzy relations as well.

Commutativity,

Associativity,

Distributivity,

Involution,

Idempotency,

DeMorgan’s Law,

Excluded Middle Laws.

33

COMPOSITION OF FUZZY

RELATIONS

34

COMPOSITION OF FUZZY

RELATIONS

35

COMPOSITION OF FUZZY

RELATIONS

36

COMPOSITION OF FUZZY

RELATIONS

37

CLASSICAL EQUIVALENCE

RELATION

38

CLASSICAL TOLERANCE

RELATION

39

FUZZY EQUIVALENCE

RELATION

40

FUZZY TOLERANCE

RELATION

A binary fuzzy relation that possesses the properties of

reflexivity and symmetry is called fuzzy tolerance

relation or resemblance relation.

tolerance relation. The fuzzy tolerance relation can be

reformed into fuzzy equivalence relation in the same

way as a crisp tolerance relation is reformed into crisp

equivalence relation, i.e.,

41

CRISP MEMBERSHIP

FUCNTIONS

Crisp membership functions (µ ) are either one or zero.

membership curve for the set A is given by

42

REPRESENTING A

DOMAIN IN FUZZY

LOGIC

43

FUZZY MEMBERSHIP

FUCNTIONS

44

FUZZY MEMBERSHIP

FUCNTIONS

The set B of numbers approaching 2 can be represented by

the membership function

45

FUZZINESS vs

PROBABILITY

46

LINGUISTIC VARIABLE

47

LINGUISTIC VARIABLE

Let x be a linguistic variable with the label “speed”.

Terms of x, which are fuzzy sets, could be “positive low”,

“negative high” from the term set T:

NegativeHigh, Zero}

which might be the scale of all relevant velocities.

48

MEMBERSHIP FUCNTIONS

49

MEMBERSHIP FUCNTIONS

50

FEATURES OF

MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS

CORE:

SUPPORT:

BOUNDARY:

51

FUZZIFICATION

52

FUZZIFICATION

Use crisp inputs from the user.

classes (i.e., in right Universe of Discourse).

53

EXAMPLE -

FUZZIFICATION

54

FUZZIFICATION OF

HEIGHT

55

FUZZIFICATION OF

WEIGHT

56

METHODS OF

MEMBERSHIP VALUE

ASSIGNMENT

The various methods of assigning membership values are:

Intuition,

Inference,

Rank ordering,

Neural networks,

Genetic algorithm,

Inductive reasoning.

57

DEFUZZIFICATION

Defuzzification is a mapping process from a space of

fuzzy control actions defined over an output universe of

discourse into a space of crisp (nonfuzzy) control

actions.

fuzzy variable into a unique number .

fuzzy set into a crisp single-valued quantity or into a

crisp set; to convert a fuzzy matrix into a crisp matrix;

or to convert a fuzzy number into a crisp number.

58

LAMBDA CUT FOR FUZZY

SETS

59

LAMBDA CUT FOR FUZZY

RELATIONS

60

METHODS OF

DEFUZZIFICATION

Defuzzification is the process of conversion of a fuzzy quantity

into a precise quantity. Defuzzification methods include:

Max-membership principle,

Centroid method,

Mean-max membership,

Center of sums,

61

FUZZY DECISION

62

MAX MEMBERSHIP

Fuzzy set with the METHOD

largest membership value is selected.

Fuzzy decision: Fn = {P, F. G, VG, E}

Fn = {0.6, 0.4, 0.2, 0.2, 0}

Final decision (FD) = Poor Student

If two decisions have same membership max, use the

average of the two.

63

CENTROID METHOD

This method is also known as center-of-mass, center-of-

area, or center-of-gravity method. It is the most commonly

used defuzzification method. The defuzzified output x* is

defined as

64

WEIGHTED AVERAGE

METHOD

65

MEAN MAX MEMBERSHIP

METHOD

66

CENTER OF SUMS

This method employs the algebraic sum of the individual

fuzzy subsets instead of their unions. The calculations here

are very fast but the main drawback is that the intersecting

areas are added twice. The defuzzified value x* is given by

67

CENTER OF LARGEST AREA

This method can be adopted when the output consists of at least two

convex fuzzy subsets which are not overlapping. The output in this

case is biased towards a side of one membership function. When

output fuzzy set has at least two convex regions then the center-of-

gravity of the convex fuzzy subregion having the largest area is used to

obtain the defuzzified value x*. This value is given by

where is the convex subregion that has the largest area making

up

68

FIRST OF MAXIMA (LAST OF

MAXIMA)

The steps used for obtaining crisp values are as follows:

69

SUMMARY

Defuzzification process is essential because some

engineering applications need exact values for

performing the operation.

cannot instruct to raise it “slightly”, “high”, etc.,

using linguistic variables; rather, it should be

specified as raise it by 200 rpm or so, i.e., a

specific amount of raise should be mentioned.

on the basis of the output in the context of data

available.

70

FUZZY ARITHMETIC

Distributions do not have to be precise.

correlations.

probability.

way to do risk assessments.

71

FUZZY NUMBERS AND

THEIR ARITHMETIC

Fuzzy numbers

• Fuzzy sets of the real line,

• Unimodal,

• Reach possibility level one.

Fuzzy arithmetic

• Interval arithmetic at each possibility level.

72

FEATURES OF FUZZY

ARITHMETIC

Fully developed arithmetic and logic

• Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, min,

max;

• Log, exp, sqrt, abs, powers, and, or, not;

• Backcalculation, updating, mixtures, etc.

Very easy to explain.

Results robust to choice about shape.

73

TYPES OF NUMBERS

Scalars are well-known or mathematically

defined integers and real numbers.

know with certainty but about which bounds

can be established.

which, in addition to knowing a range of

possible values, one can say that some values

are more plausible than others.

74

FUZZY NUMBERS

Fuzzy set that is unimodal and reaches 1.

1

no no YES

0.5

75

LEVEL-WISE INTERVAL

ARITHMETIC

76

FUZZY INTERVALS BY TRAPEZOIDAL

SHAPES

77

FUZZY ADDITION

1

A B A+B

0.5

0

0 2 4 6 8

exponentiation, logarithms, etc. are also defined.

than just simple fuzzy arithmetic) is required.

78

FUZZY ARITHMETIC

Interval Arithmetic

[a, b] + [d, e] = [a+d, b+e]

[a, b] - [d, e] = [a-e, b-d]

[a, b] x [d, e] = [min(a.d, a.e, b.d, b.e), max(a.d, a.e, b.d, b.e)]

[a, b]/[d, e] = [min(a/d, a/e, b/d, b/e), max(a/d, a/e, b/d, b/e)]

79

FUZZY ARITHMETIC

80

FUZZY ARITHMETIC

81

EXTENSION PRINCIPLE

82

VARIOUS FUZZY

MEASURES

Belief and Plausibility Measure.

Probability Measure.

83

POSSIBILITY MEASURE

No single definition.

• Subjective assessments.

• Social consensus.

• Measurement error.

• Upper betting rates (Giles)

• Extra-observational ranges (Gaines).

84

FUZZY SET AS POSSIBILITY

MEASURE

85

GETTING FUZZY INPUTS

Subjective assignments:

• Make them up from highest, lowest and

best-guess estimates.

Objective consensus:

• Stack up consistent interval estimates or

bridge inconsistent ones.

Measurement error:

• Infer from measurement protocols.

86

SUBJECTIVE

ASSIGNMENTS

Triangular fuzzy numbers, e.g. [1,2,3].

1 1

Possibility

0.5 0.5

0 0

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 5

87

OBJECTIVE CONSENSUS

[1000, 3000]

1

[2000, 2400]

[500, 2500]

[800, 4000]

[1900, 2300] Possibility

0.5

0

0 2000 4000

88

MEASUREMENT ERROR

1

Possibility

46.8 ± 0.3

[46.5, 46.8, 47.1]

0

46.5 46.7 46.9 47.1

Possibility

[12.32]

[12.315, 12.32, 12.325]

0

12.31 12.32 12.33

89

SHAPE OF X AFFECTING

aX+b

90

ROBUSTNESS OF THE

ANSWER

Different choices for the fuzzy number X all

yield very similar distributions for aX + b

91

PROBABILITY MEASURE

distribution P if,

• the right side of F is larger than 1-P(x) for each x.

than the probability, so it is an upper bound.

92

POSSIBILITY MEASURE

93

ADVANTAGES OF FUZZY

ARITHMETIC

Requires little data.

Applicable to all kinds of uncertainty.

Fully comprehensive.

Fast and easy to compute.

Doesn’t require information about correlations.

Conservative, but not hyper-conservative

In between worst case and probability.

Backcalculations easy to solve.

94

LIMITATIONS OF FUZZY

ARITHMETIC

Controversial.

Are alpha levels comparable for different

variables?

Not optimal when there're a lot of data.

Can’t use knowledge of correlations to tighten

answers.

Not conservative against all possible

dependencies.

Repeated variables make calculations

cumbersome.

95

SOFTWARES FOR FUZZY

ARITHMETIC

FuziCalc

• (Windows 3.1) FuziWare, 800-472-6183

• (C code) anonymous ftp to mathct.dipmat.unict.it

and get \fuzzy\fznum*.*

Cosmet (Phaser)

• (DOS, soon for Windows) acooper@sandia.gov

Risk Calc

• (Windows) 800-735-4350; www.ramas.com

96

SCREEN SHOT OF FUZZY

CALCULATOR - FzCalc

97

SUMMARY

on Fuzzy Arithmetic and Fuzzy

Measures.

98

FUZZY RULES AND

REASONING

The degree of an element in a fuzzy

set corresponds to the truth value of a

proposition in fuzzy logic systems.

99

LINGUISTIC VARIABLES

A linguistic variable is a fuzzy variable.

and includes the fuzzy sets slow, very slow, fast, …

• Fuzzy sets define the linguistic values.

• Probability: likely, unlikely

• Quantifiers: most, several, few

• Possibilities: almost impossible, quite possible

100

LINGUISTIC HEDGES

(LINGUISTIC

QUANTIFIERS)

Hedges modify the shape of a fuzzy set.

101

TRUTH TABLES

Truth tables define logic functions of two

propositions. Let X and Y be two propositions,

either of which can be true or false.

2.Disjunction (∨): X OR Y.

102

FUZZY RULES

of the form

If x is A

THEN y is B

are linguistic values determined by fuzzy sets on

the universes of discourse X and Y.

103

FUZZY RULES

The decision-making process is based on rules with

sentence conjunctives AND, OR and ALSO.

Example:

If (Distance x to second car is SMALL) OR

(Distance y to obstacle is CLOSE) AND (speed v is

HIGH) THEN (perform LARGE correction to steering

angle θ ) ALSO (make MEDIUM reduction in speed v).

to two outputs (consequences).

104

FUZZY RULE FORMATION

IF height is tall

THEN weight is heavy.

a given range (i.e., the universe of discourse).

range (weight) = [50, 250]

105

FORMATION OF FUZZY

RULES

Three general forms are adopted for forming

fuzzy rules. They are:

Assignment statements,

Conditional statements,

Unconditional statements.

106

FORMATION OF FUZZY

RULES

Assignment Statements Unconditional Statements

Conditional Statements

107

DECOMPOSITION OF

FUZZY RULES

A compound rule is a collection of several simple

rules combined together.

UNLESS).

108

DECOMPOSITION OF

FUZZY RULES

Multiple Conjunctive

Multiple disjunctive

Antecedants

antecedent

109

AGGREGATION OF FUZZY

RULES

Aggregation of rules is the process of

obtaining the overall consequents from the

individual consequents provided by each rule.

110

AGGREGATION OF FUZZY

RULES

Conjunctive system of rules

111

FUZZY RULE - EXAMPLE

light.

medium.

heavy.

112

FUZZY RULE - EXAMPLE

Problem: Given

(a) membership functions for short,

medium-height, tall, light, medium-weight

and heavy;

(b) The three fuzzy rules;

(c) the fact that John’s height is 6’1”

estimate John’s weight.

113

FUZZY RULE - EXAMPLE

Solution:

(1) From John’s height we know that

John is short (degree 0.3)

John is of medium height (degree 0.6).

John is tall (degree 0.2).

(2) Each rule produces a fuzzy set as output by

truncating the consequent membership function

at the value of the antecedent membership.

114

FUZZY RULE - EXAMPLE

115

FUZZY RULE - EXAMPLE

116

FUZZY RULE - EXAMPLE

117

FUZZY RULE - EXAMPLE

The cumulative fuzzy output is obtained by OR-

ing the output from each rule.

Cumulative fuzzy output (weight at 6’1”).

118

FUZZY RULE - EXAMPLE

1. De-fuzzify to obtain a numerical

estimate of the output.

the truth value is maximum.

119

FUZZY REASONING

approximate reasoning, which include:

1. Categorical reasoning,

2. Qualitative reasoning,

3. Syllogistic reasoning,

4. Dispositional reasoning.

120

REASONING WITH FUZZY

RULES

In classical systems, rules with true

antecedents fire.

membership in some class) is relative, so

all rules fire (to some extent).

121

REASONING WITH FUZZY

RULES

122

SINGLE RULE WITH

SINGLE ANTECEDANT

123

SINGLE RULE WITH

MULTIPLE ANTECEDANTS

124

MULTIPLE ANTECEDANTS

IF x is A AND y is B THEN z is C

IF x is A OR y is B THEN z is C

calculate a membership value for the whole antecedent.

125

MULTIPLE RULE WITH

MULTIPLE ANTECEDANTS

126

MULTIPLE CONSEQUENTS

IF x is A THEN y is B AND z is C

membership in the antecedent class(es).

large feet.

127

FUZZY INFERENCE

SYSTEMS (FIS)

Fuzzy rule based systems, fuzzy models, and

fuzzy expert systems are also known as fuzzy

inference systems.

making.

“OR” or “AND” for making necessary decision rules.

128

FUZZY INFERENCE

SYSTEMS

The input to FIS may be fuzzy or crisp, but the

output from FIS is always a fuzzy set.

necessary to have crisp output.

for converting fuzzy variables into crisp variables

along FIS.

129

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF FIS

130

TYPES OF FIS

Systems:

Mamdani FIS(1975)

Sugeno FIS(1985)

131

MAMDANI FUZZY

INFERENCE SYSTEMS

(FIS)

Fuzzify input variables:

Determine membership values.

Evaluate rules:

Based on membership values of (composite)

antecedents.

Unify all membership values for the output from

all rules.

COG: Center of gravity (approx. by summation).

132

SUGENO FUZZY

INFERENCE SYSTEMS

(FIS)

The main steps of the fuzzy inference process namely,

1.fuzzifying the inputs and

2.applying the fuzzy operator

are exactly the same as in MAMDANI FIS.

is that Sugeno output membership functions are either linear or

constant.

133

SUGENO FIS

134

FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEMS

An expert system contains three major blocks:

specific to the domain of application.

knowledge base for performing suitable reasoning

for user’s queries.

communication between the user and the system.

135

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF

FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEMS

Z-II, MILORD.

136

SUMMARY

Advantages of fuzzy logic

• Allows the use of vague linguistic terms in the

rules.

Disadvantages of fuzzy logic

• Difficult to estimate membership function

• There are many ways of interpreting fuzzy

rules, combining the outputs of several fuzzy

rules and de-fuzzifying the output.

137

FUZZY DECISION MAKING

Decision making is a very important social,

economical and scientific endeavor.

three steps:

1. Determining the set of alternatives,

2. Evaluating alternatives,

3. Comparison between alternatives.

FUZZY DECISION MAKING

Certain fuzzy decision-making process are as

follows:

Individual decision making,

Multiperson decision making,

Multiobjective decision making,

Multiattribute decision making,

Fuzzy Bayesian decision making.

INDIVIDUAL DECISION

MAKING

MULTIPERSON DECISION

MAKING

In multiperson decision making, the decision makers have

access to different information upon which to base their

decision.

MULTIOBJECTIVE DECISION

MAKING

In making a decision when there are several objectives to be

realized, then the decision making is called multiobjective

decision making.

such as cost minimization, time consumption, profit

maximization and so on.

the objectives by various alternatives.

To weigh the relative importance of each objective.

MULTIATTRIBUTE DECISION

MAKING

The evaluation of alternatives can be carried out

based on several attributes of the object called

multiattribute decision making.

data, linguistic data and qualitative data.

MULTIATTRIBUTE DECISION

MAKING

The problem of decision-making structure in multiattributes

deals with determination of an evaluation structure for the

multiattribute decision making from the available

multiattribute data xi (i = 1 to n) and alternative evaluations

y shown in the table.

FUZZY BAYESIAN DECISION

MAKING

Probability theory.

Bayesian inference:

• Use probability theory and information about

independence.

• Reason diagnostically [from evidence (effects) to

conclusions (causes)] or casually (from causes to

effects).

Bayesian networks:

• Compact representation of probability distribution over a

set of propositional random variables.

• Take advantage of independence relationships.

FUZZY BAYESIAN DECISION

MAKING

FUZZY BAYESIAN DECISION

MAKING

Expected Utility

FUZZY BAYESIAN DECISION

MAKING

SUMMARY

The chapter has discussed the various decision-making

process.

and consequences of the defined alternatives are known

imprecisely, which is due to ambiguity and vagueness.

important for dealing with many of the uncertainties we

deal within human systems.

- Fuzzy Sets ExercisesÎncărcat deHaisum Bhatti
- AI - Characteristics of Neural NetworksÎncărcat deGirish Kumar Nistala
- Fuzzy Logic and Application 2007 question paperÎncărcat deelimelek
- Fuzzy Logic PptÎncărcat devlucknow
- Neuro-Fuzzy and Soft Computing (Jang Sun Mizutani)Încărcat deRj Calderonni
- Genetic Algorithms and Engineering OptimizationÎncărcat deprakashrout
- Fuzzy Logic With Engineering ApplicationsÎncărcat deburhanseker
- Fuzzy numbers & Fuzzy Equation.pptxÎncărcat devpkvikas
- Neural Network completeÎncărcat deDeepthi Katragadda
- Fuzzy Logic - Controls Concepts Theories and ApplicationsÎncărcat deSchreiber_Dieses
- Fuzzyfication and DefuzzificationÎncărcat demohit1485
- Intro-to-fuzzy-logic-with-matlabÎncărcat deIrwan P Gunawan
- Genetic algorithm.pptÎncărcat deRushikesh Dandagwhal
- Traffic Signal Control Using Fuzzy LogicÎncărcat deShreedhar
- Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic Theory and Applications - George j. Klir , Bo YuanÎncărcat devasanthdvd
- Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic Theory and ApplicationsÎncărcat deamsubra8874
- Compiler DesignÎncărcat deAlexis
- Fuzzy BookÎncărcat demselman
- A Course in Fuzzy Systems and ControlÎncărcat deTrAvEsSo84
- Fuzzy NeuralÎncărcat deapi-3834446
- fuzzy logicÎncărcat deJigar Patel
- Fuzzification & DefuzzificationÎncărcat deAles Sierra
- Fuzzy Logic DocumentationÎncărcat develmuruganlv
- Concepts and Fuzzy LogicÎncărcat devnikov0101
- fuzzy logic conceptsÎncărcat deDrGopikrishna Pasam
- fuzzyÎncărcat dedeeksha2502
- Fuzzy LogicÎncărcat deshibu100
- International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems IJAE_V2_I2Încărcat deAI Coordinator - CSC Journals

- The Red Bull with one eyeÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- LO1 Operations Management Basic Level v1 5-5-2016Încărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- LO1 Marketing Basic LevelÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- LO1 Personnel Management Basic Level PMS Recruitment L&D v1 13-4-2016Încărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Black and WhiteÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- XLRI HRM GD and PI ExperiencesÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Individual Versus B-School Brand Individual Wins and Here's WhyÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- My Mothers Battle with CancerÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- STRATEGY TO CRACK MBA ENTRANCESÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Does a mba specialization in Marketing or HR guarantee a Marketing or HR job?Încărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- An Experience of a Life TimeÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Choice of MBA SPECIALIZATIONSÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Picture Story by UBJÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Village Exposure ProgramÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Catching the ThiefÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Importance of Profile in Mba AdmissionsÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- WHY HRÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Picture Stories by UBJÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Manthan eXpertsÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Lighting Up Your LifeÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- HR POETRIESÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Summer InternshipÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Delhi Gang RapeÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- My Understanding of HRM TERM 1 in the Form of a FigureÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- A WRITE UP FOR COMPETITIONÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- UBJ'S EMPLONOMICSÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- MBA ESSAYÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee
- Fest of Xlri- ValhallaÎncărcat deUddalak Banerjee

- Wendel PrincessÎncărcat deAndrea Kristina E. Diego
- Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project: Relocation and Rehabilitation of Project Affected PeopleÎncărcat deThe Bartlett Development Planning Unit - UCL
- Informed Consent JournalÎncărcat deLaronda Gibson
- 01 EIND4303 IntroductionÎncărcat deAbed Soliman
- EC302 Lecture 1Încărcat deOm Prakash
- Unit 1Încărcat deAditya Singh Bhadoria
- BrainstormingÎncărcat deDaniel R. Quintero
- KLIJN Governance Network TheoryÎncărcat dejaesaraujo
- Benito and Welch, MIR 1997Încărcat defiscalito
- Management - Planning and Decision MakingÎncărcat deUsama Gilani
- Decision Making, Engineering ManagementÎncărcat denep
- Van Vught; Westerheijden 1994 Towards a General Model of Quality Assessment in Higher EducationÎncărcat decastorypolux20762
- JAZON-ELLICA-Quantitative-Techniques-and-Models.pptxÎncărcat deQueen Ann Navallo
- 13- ABC of Risk Culture - Hillson PaperÎncărcat deimran jamil
- Chapter 1- Intro to MISÎncărcat deridhimaamit
- 3-faces-PowerÎncărcat deBrigid Flaherty
- third to print.docxÎncărcat deBriendon Palma Mayor
- Advocacy GuideÎncărcat deBernard Joseph RingoStar
- Nature and Characteristics of PlanningÎncărcat deBalamanichalaBmc
- PnG QuestionÎncărcat desistrerehere
- [Studies in Policy-Making] Keith G. Banting (auth.) - Poverty, Politics and Policy_ Britain in the 1960s (1979, Palgrave Macmillan UK).pdfÎncărcat debbuenaventurar
- HOMEWORKÎncărcat deBurak Zararsız
- An Institutional Framework for Policy Analysis and Design_OstromÎncărcat deSandro Silva
- The Operational CodeÎncărcat deAzrina Hidup
- FOS User GuideÎncărcat deadsrjm
- SIM Module HnadbookÎncărcat dePiyu
- HRM RevisionÎncărcat deAgi Keogh
- Fundamental of Management Chap 6Încărcat deToàn Stark
- Business ResearchÎncărcat deshruthid894
- Managerial EconomicsÎncărcat desdvikki

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.