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# SMK PUCHONG BATU 14

47100 PUCHONG
SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN.

## PROBABILITY IN OUR DAILY LIFE

CLASS : 5 AMANAH

IC NUMBER : 930805-10-5119

## Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 1

[ CONTENT ]

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………..1

AIM………………………………………………………….2

PART 1…………………………………………………...3 - 6

PART 2……………………………………………….…..7 - 8

PART 3………………………………………………….9 - 12

CONCLUSION………………………………………...13 - 14

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………..15

[ INTRODUCTION ]

## fashion. Although an individual coin toss or the roll of a die is a random

event, if repeated many times the sequence of random events will exhibit

## probabilistic nature of physical phenomena at atomic scales, described

in quantum mechanics.

[ AIM ]

problem;

## iv. to develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way

that increases students’ interest and confidence;

precisely;

## vi. to provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances

effective learning;

PROJECT WORK

[ PART 1 ]

(A) History:

## Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 5

(B) Two categories of PROBABILITY

## experience and theoretical probability or speculative are as clear as night

and day. Empirical probability is the data that has been proven through

trial and error such as the statics on the accidents that involve driving

while under the influence. Even the proven data for deaths that are

## smoking related. The theoretical probability is like guessing and taking a

chance you are right much like playing a game of cards you are taking

that chance you have the better hand. Insurance policies are made

## and we know the amount of times something happens without error.

Based on that, it can be calculated what the chance (and thus the cost) is

## Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 6

of a certain event. (professional) Gambling is about theoretical

probability. One can assume that all the chips, cards, tables or whatever

are completely fair (or even calculate the unfairness, based on the

## Dangerous medical procedures can also have empirical probability

playing as a factor. There is always a chance that someone dies under the

knife, or that someone cures on their own. Based on those odds, a doctor

could advise for or against certain procedures. Those odds are based on

## Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 7

[ PART 2 ]

(A) When we playing the monopoly, we have to toss the die once to find

who is going to start the game first. The possible outcomes when we toss

the die is 1,2,3,4,5, and 6. This is because a die has 6 surface as shown

in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

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(B) When we tossed two dice simultaneously, the possible outcomes is as

## shown in the Table 2.

DIE1/DI
E2 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 (1,1) (1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (1,6)
2 (2,1) (2,2) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (2,6)
3 (3,1) (3,2) (3,3) (3,4) (3,5) (3,6)
4 (4,1) (4,2) (4,3) (4,4) (4,5) (4,6)
5 (5,1) (5,2) (5,3) (5,4) (5,5) (5,6)
6 (6,1) (6,2) (6,3) (6,4) (6,5) (6,6)
Table 1.

[ PART 3 ]

## outcomes to get the sum of the dots on both turned-up faces.

Sum of the
dots on both
turned-up Probability,
faces (x) Possible outcomes P(x)
2 (1,1) 1/36
3 (1,2),(2,1) 1/18
4 (1,3),(2,2),(3,1) 1/12
5 (1,4),(2,3),(4,1),(3,2) 1/9
(5,1),(4,2),(3,3),(2,4),
6 (1,5) 5/36
(6,1),(5,2),(4,3),(3,4),
7 (2,5),(1,6) 6/36
(6,2),(5,3),(4,4),(3,5),
8 (2,6) 5/36
9 (6,3),(5,4),(4,5),(3,6) 1/9
10 (6,4),(4,6),(5,5) 1/12
11 (6,5),(5,6) 1/18
12 (6,6) 1/36
Table 2.
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(B) Based on the Table 2:

## A ={The two numbers are not the same} ={(1,2),(1,3),

(1,4),(1,5),(1,6),(2,1),(2,3),(2,4),(2,5),(2,6),
(3,1),(3,2),(3,4),(3,5),(3,6),(4,1),(4,2),(4,3),(4,5),(4,6),
(5,1), (5,2),(5,3),(5,4),(5,6),(6,1),(6,2),(6,3),(6,4),(6,5)}

## P = Both number are prime

P = {(2,2),(2,3),(2,5),(3,3),(3,5),(5,3),(5,5)}

## Q = Difference of 2 number is odd

Q = {(1,2),(1,4),(1,6),(2,1),(3,4),(3,6),(4,1),(4,3),(4,5),(5,4),
(5,6),(6,1),(6,3),(6,5)}

## C = {Both numbers are prime number or the difference

between two numbers is odd}
C = {P U Q}
C = {(1,2),(1,4),(1,6),(2,1),(2,2),(2,3),(2,5),(3,2),(3,3),(3,4),
(3,6),(4,1),(4,3),(4,5),(5,2),(5,3),(5,4),(5,5),(5,6),(6,1),
(6,3),(6,5)}

## D = {The sum of the two numbers are even and both }

D = {P ∩ R}
Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 11
D = {(2,2),(3,3),(3,5),(5,3),(5,5)}

[ PART 4 ]

## (A) An activity has been conducted by tossing two dice simultaneously 50

times. The frequency (f) of the sum of all dots on both turned-up faces

has been recorded in Table 3 below. The value of mean, variance and

## Sum of the two numbers

(x) Frequency(f) fx fx²
2 2 4 8
3 5 15 45
4 5 20 80
5 1 5 25
6 4 24 144
7 8 56 392
8 8 64 512
9 5 45 405
10 7 70 700
11 3 33 363
12 2 24 288
Total 50 360 2962
Table 3.
Mean = 360÷50
= 7.2

Varience = 2962÷50-7.2²
= 7.4
Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 12
Standard Deviation = √7.4
= 2.72

(B) When the number of tossed of the two dice simultaneously is increase to

## 100 times, the value of mean is also change.

(C)Another activity same as (A) has been conducted by tossing two dice

## Sum of the two Frequenc

numbers (x) y(f) fx fx²
2 2 4 8
3 6 18 54
4 10 40 160
5 9 45 144
6 16 96 576
7 17 119 833
8 12 96 768
9 11 99 891
10 13 130 1300
11 2 22 242
12 2 24 288
Total 100 693 5264
Table 4.

Mean = 693÷100
= 6.93

Varience = 5264÷100-6.93²
= 4.6151
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Standard Deviation = √4.6151
= 2.148

## Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 14

[ PART 5 ]

(A)Based on Table 2, the actual mean, the varience and the standard

deviation of the sum of all dots on the turned-up faces by using the

Mean = ∑ x P(x)

## Sum of the two

numbers (x) Frequency (f) fx fx²
2 1 2 4
3 2 6 18
4 3 12 48
5 4 20 100
6 5 30 180
7 6 42 294
8 5 40 320
9 4 36 324
10 3 30 300
11 2 22 242
12 1 12 144
total 36 252 1974

## Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 15

Maen = 252÷36

=7

Varience = 1974÷36-7²

= 5.83

= 2.415

## Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 16

(B) The mean, variance and standard deviation obtained in

## comparison between Mean, Variance, and Standard

Deviation.

Part 4
Part 5
n= 50 n= 100
Mean 7.2 6.93 7
Variance 7.4 4.6151 5.83
Standard
deviation 2.72 2.148 2.415

## Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 17

(C)The range of mean of the sum of all dots on the turned-

## is the theoretical mean.

FURTHER EXPLORATION

## Common intuition suggests that if a fair coin is tossed many times,

then roughly half of the time it will turn up heads, and the other half it

## Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 18

will turn up tails. Furthermore, the more often the coin is tossed, the

more likely it should be that the ratio of the number of heads to the

## the law of large numbers is considered as a pillar in the history of

statistical theory.

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It follows from LLN that if an event of probability p is observed

towards p.

## are independent Bernoulli random variables taking values 1 with

probability p and 0 with probability 1-p. E(Yi) = p for all i and it follows

## Additional Mathematics Project Work 2010| 20

[ ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ]

complete

## this project work. Next, is to my parents for their continuous support to me

throughout this experiment. Special thanks to my friends for their help, and

## Throughout this project, I acquired many valuable skills, and hope

that in the years to come, those skills will be put to good use.