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3. Increase load by 50 gm each time and measure time‘t’. Calculate period T for each case.

4 Plot the graph of T2 against M. Take (0, 0) origin. The graph is straight line. The
intercept on negative M-axis gives mass of the spring (Ms)

Precautions: 1.The amplitude of oscillation should be as small as possible..


2. The spring should oscillate in vertical plane only.
3. Take large number of oscillations & find the mean value.
4. There should not be twist in the string.

Results: Mass of the spring from the graph = Ms = ………… gm.

Experiment No. 3
Title: Sonometer - I
Aim: To verify First law of vibrating string & to determine unknown frequency
of the tuning fork.

Apparatus: Sonometer, slotted weights, set of tuning forks, paper rider, rubber pad.

Diagram:

String

Sonometer Box

First law of vibrating String: Fundamental frequency of string is inversely


proportional to vibrating length, when tension & mass per unit length are constant.

Observation Table:
Tension in the wire = T = ………… dynes

Obs. Frequency
Experiment
Vibrating Length No. 1
L cm 1/L nL Mean
No. n ( Hz) Mean cm-1 nL
1 2 3
L (cm)
1
2
3
4
5 nx Lx=
1/Lx=

1
Vernier Vernier Scale
Obs. M.S.R. coinciding Reading Total Mean Radius
Precautions: No. a cm Divisions b x L.C.= c Reading Diameter r = d/2
1. The length of the string should be as large as possible. b div cm. a + c cm d cm cm
2. The amplitude of the oscillation should be as small as possible.
1
3. The pendulum should oscillate in one plane only.
2
Observation Table: For Period of simple pendulum
3
Length Length of Time for 20 L Slope
Obs. of Pendulum Oscillations. Period Mean
No. String L= Mea T= T2 L / T2 L / T2
l cm ( l + r) 1 2 3
n
t
t sec2 cm/sec2 cm/sec2

cm 20
sec sec
1
2
3 T2
4
5 Results: 1. Acceleration due to gravity ‘g’ by calculation = ………….cm/sec2
6

Procedure: 2. Acceleration due to gravity ‘g’ by graph = ………….. cm/sec2

1. Find least count of vernier calipers.


Experiment No. 2
2. Measure diameter of the bob and calculate radius of the bob.
Title: Spring – mass oscillator.
3. Suspend the bob from the stand by light string. Aim: To determine force constant & P.E. of a spring.

4. Take the length of the string as 50 cm. Apparatus: Spring, Slotted weights, scale, retort stand, etc.
5. Measure the time for 20 oscillations.

6. Vary the length of the string from 70 to 120 cm. Diagram:

7. Find period of pendulum (T). Hence find L / T2 in each case.


8. Calculate acceleration due to gravity.
4π 2 L
Calculations: 1.The acceleration due to gravity ‘g’ = 2
cm/sec2
T
2. Acceleration due to gravity ‘g’ = 4π2 x slope cm/sec2
Graph:
2
(0,0) M

Procedure:

1. Suspend the spring vertically from rigid support. Attach suitable mass (M) from the
Microscope Reading Diameter Mean Radius of lower end of the spring.
Obs. d = x– y Diameter bore 2. Apply a small force to the mass attached in the downward direction so that there are vertical
No. x (cm) y (cm) cm d (cm) r = d/2 cm
1
Period
Obs. Mass attached Time for 20 oscillations t T2
2 No. to the spring T = sec2
Mean 20
M gm 1 2
Observation Table: t sec sec
1
2
3
4
5
oscillations of small amplitude of the spring. Measure the time for 20 oscillations twice.
Observations:
1. Density of water = ρ = 1 gm/cm3
2. Angle of contact for water = θ = 0º
3. Smallest division on main scale = S = …………………. cm.
4. No. of divisions on vernier scale = N = ………………..

5. Least count of travelling microscope = S / N = ………………..cm.


For Radius of the Capillary tube bore:
Microscope Reading Height
Mean
Obs. h=a–b
a (cm) b (cm) h (cm)
No. cm
1
2
For height of water in capillary tube:
3

Graph: Plot the graph of T2 against M. The intercept on negative M-axis gives
mass of the spring (Ms) rh ρg
Calculations: T = But θ = 0º
2 cos θ
rh ρg
Hence T =
dyne / cm
T2 2
Results: Surface tension of water = T = ……………… dyne / cm

Procedure:

3
1). Measurement of height ‘h’: Take a clean capillary tube and fix it in the clamp Procedure:
vertically. Mount a thin needle parallel to the tube. Adjust the position of the cork so that
the lower end of the needle just touches the water surface. Focus the microscope on water Apply suitable weight to the sonometer wire. Both bridges are brought to
meniscus in capillary tube. Move the microscope vertically until the horizontal cross wire is the middle of the wire. Paper rider is kept on the wire midway between the
tangential to the meniscus. Note the reading ‘a’ on the vertical scale. Focus the microscope bridges. The tuning fork of highest frequency is vibrated by striking it gently on
on the tip of the needle. Note the microscope reading “b”. Take two more readings by
the rubber pad & keep on the sonometer box. The bridges are moved such that
dipping the capillary tube to different levels in water.
2). Measurement of radius ‘r’: Clamp the capillary horizontally. Focus the microscope on the paper rider vibrates vigorously & thrown off the wire. The length between
the bore of the capillary. Adjust the cross wire tangential to the bore. Note the microscope the bridges is measured as vibrating length. For the same tuning fork the
reading ‘x’ cm. Move the microscope vertically by fine adjustment until the horizontal cross experiment is repeated twice and mean resonating length is obtained. This
wire is tangential to the bore at the diametrically opposite point. Note the microscope
reading ‘y’ cm.
procedure is repeated for other tuning forks of lower frequencies.
Graph:
Precautions:
1. The tuning fork should be held by the stem only.
2. The tuning fork should be vibrated gently.
n Slope = nL = …….. 3. The paper rider should be placed at the centre of the wire between the
bridges.
nx

Experiment No. 4
1 / Lx 1/L
Title: Sonometer - II
Aim: To verify Second law of vibrating string & to determine unknown
Mean ( nL ) frequency of the tuning fork.
Calculations: nx = = …………. Hz Apparatus: Sonometer, slotted weights, set of tuning forks, paper rider, rubber pad.
Lx
Diagram: Same as in Experiment No. 3.
Slope
nx = = …………..Hz
Lx
First law of vibrating String: Fundamental frequency of string is directly
Results: proportional to square root of tension when vibrating length & mass per unit length
are constant.
1. Unknown frequency by calculation = nx = ………… Hz
Observation Table:
2. Unknown frequency by intercept from graph = nx = ………… Hz Linear density of wire = m = ……………….. gm/cm
3. As the product nL is constant, first law of vibrating string is verified.

4. As graph of n against 1/L is a straight line so first law of vibration string is


verified

5. Unknown frequency from slope = nx = ………… Hz

4
between the bridges such that the paper rider vibrates vigorously and thrown off. Measure
Mass Resonating Length L the distance between the bridges. This is vibrating length of the wire. Repeat twice & find
Obs. attached to Tension cm Mean
No. the wire T = Mg T mean vibrating length. Then increase the tension in steps of 500 gm wt. Repeat the
T procedure for other different tensions.
M gm dyne Mean L L T
1 2
cm
L Precautions:
1
2 1. The paper rider should be placed at the centre of the wire between the
3 bridges.
4 2. The vibrating tuning fork is held vertically such that its stem is in contact
with the sonometer box.
3. Keep the wire under maximum tension. This will give maximum resonating
length thereby minimizing the error in the measurement of L.
T
Graph: T Slope =
L
Experiment No. 5
L
Title: Surface Tension
 T 
Aim: To determine surface tension of water by capillary rise method.
1 T 1  
Calculations : 1) n= =  L  Hz
2L m 2 m  Mean Apparatus: Capillary tube, travelling microscope, clamp, retort stand, etc.

1
2) n= × Slope Hz
2 m
Diagram:
Results:

1. Frequency of tuning fork by calculation = n = ……………..Hz

2. Frequency of tuning fork by graph = n = ……………..Hz

T
3. As is constant, Second law of vibrating string is verified.
L Experiment No. 8
4. As the graph of T against L is a straight line, Second law of vibrating Title: Newton’s law of cooling.
string is verified. Aim: To Verify Newton’s law of cooling.

Procedure: Apparatus: Calorimeter, Constant temperature enclosure, thermometer,

Apply suitable tension to the wire. Keep the bridges close together in the middle of Retort stand, Stop clock, stirrer etc.,
the wire. Place a paper rider on the wire mid way between the bridges. The vibrated tuning
fork is held on the sonometer box with its stem in contact with the box. Adjust the distance Diagram:
5
Title: Resonance tube
Aim: To determine velocity of sound in air by resonance tube.

Apparatus: Glass jar with water, metallic tube, rubber pad, meter scale, vernier

calipers, set of tuning forks.

Newton’s law of cooling: Diagram:


The rate of fall of temperature is directly proportional to the excess
temperature of the body over the surroundings provided excess is small.

Observations: Room temperature = θ = ………… ºC


+ e
L = 
Obs. Time Temp. Obs. Time Temp.
No t min θ ºC No t min θ ºC
1 13

2 14

3 15

4 16

5 17 Observations:

6 18 1. Least Count ( L.C.) of vernier calipers = ………………..cm


7 19
2. Inner diameter of the tube = i) …………… ii) ………….. iii) …………...
8 20
Mean inner diameter = d = …………….. cm
9 21

10 22 End correction e = 0.3d = ………………cm


11 23 For Resonating Length of air column:

12 24 Graph:
n Vibrating Length SlopeCorrected
= nL = …….. cm/sec
Obs. Frequency  cm Length 1/L nL Mean
Precautions: No. n ( Hz) + e nL
L= 
-1
Mean cm
1. While measuring rise of water in the capillary, water in the beaker should not be 1 2 3
 (cm) cm
touched with fingers as that action will change the S.T. of water.
2. Capillary should be clean and wet inside. 1
3. The microscope scale should be exactly vertical. 2
4. The capillary should be dipped in water again & again so that there is no air bubble 3
inside it. 4

Experiment No. 6 5 nx Lx= 1/Lx=

6
nx

1 / Lx 1/L
Calculations:
V = 4n L = 4 [Mean(nL)] = …………..cm/sec
Mean (nL )
nx = = …………. Hz
Lx Observations:
By Graph: V = 4 (Slope) = …………..cm/sec
1. Vibrating length of the string = L = ……………… cm.
Slope
nx = = …………..Hz
Lx 2. Mass of empty pan = M0 = ……………gm
Results:
1. Velocity of sound in air = V = ………….cm/sec. 3. Mass per unit length of the string = m = ………………gm/cm.
2. Unknown frequency by calculation = nx = ………… Hz

3. Velocity of sound in air by graph = V = ………….cm/sec. Mass Total Length


4. Unknown frequency by slope = nx = ………… Hz Obs. in pan mass M = Tension No. of. T Mean of loop=
5. Unknown frequency by intercept from graph = nx = ………… Hz No. M1 (M0+M1) T=Mg Loops ρ T ρ T L
gm gm dyne P =
P
Procedure:
The least count of vernier calipers is determined. The inner diameter of the 1
resonance tube is measured and mean diameter ‘d’ is obtained. The tuning fork of highest 2
frequency is vibrated with rubber pad and held above the tube as shown in figure. The 3
vibrating length of the tube is adjusted till loud sound is heard. The length of the tube 4
above the water level is measured as ‘  ’. For the same tuning fork the readings are 5
repeated and mean value is taken. The experiment is repeated for other tuning forks. Calculations: For parallel position.
Precautions:
P T Mean ( P T )
1. The tuning fork is held above the tube with its plane of vibration vertical. Frequency of A.C.= n = = Hz.
2L m 2L m
2. The tuning fork should be vibrated gently.
Results:
Frequency of A.C.= n = ……………………..Hz
Experiment No. 7
Procedure:
Title: Melde’s Experiment Keep the apparatus in parallel position. Pass the current. Add small
Aim: To determine the frequency of alternating current (a.c.) by Melde’s expt. mass in the pan. Adjust the position of vibrator so that well defined loops are
obtained. Note the mass in the pan as M1 and number of loops as P. Reduce the
Apparatus: A.C. source, Electromagnet, vibrator, string, key, light pan & weights. number of loops in steps of one, by increasing the mass in the pan.

Diagram: Precautions:
1. The pan should be light.

7
2. The length of the string between vibrator & pulley should be as large as Again take reading by interchanging the positions of X 1 & R. Repeat
possible. the procedure for X2. Then connect X1 & X2 in series & find LX & LR after
3. The pan or string should not touch the table. Obs Rate of cooling Temperatures at which Temperature interchanging
4. The string between the vibrator & the pulley should be horizontal. No. dθ Slopes are found Excess the gaps.
5. The tension should be adjusted such that well defined loops are obtained dt θ ºC (θ - θ0) ºC Also connect
on the string. 1 X1 & X2 in
Observation Table: parallel in left
2
Lx gap & find LX
X = R. Ω & LR after
Obs Unknown resistance R LX LR LR Mean 3
interchanging
No. X Ω Ω cm cm Ω 4 the gaps.
1 X1 X1 =
5 Calculate XS
2 X1 & XP by
3 X2 X2 = formula.
Hence verify laws of resistances in series & parallel by comparing observed &
4 X2 calculated values of XS and XP
5 XS XS =
For rate of cooling:
6 XS
7 XP XP =

8 XP
Lx
Calculations: X = R.
LR
XS = X1 + X2
X1X 2
XP =
X1 + X 2
Results:
i) XS (Observed) = ……………….. Ω
ii) XS (Calculated) = ……………….. Ω Graphs:
iii) XP (Observed) = ……………….. Ω
iv) XP (Calculated) = ……………….. Ω θ
Procedure: θ1
Make plug key K on. Connect one unknown resistance X 1 in left gap. dθ
The jockey is touched to two ends of the bridge wire. The galvanometer should θ2
dt
show opposite deflections. Take out some resistance from resistance box R.
(0,0) t (0,0) (θ - θ0)
Touch the jockey at different points of the bridge wire and find the point of contact
such that the galvanometer shows zero deflection. This is called null point. The
value of R is so chosen that the null point should be in middle one-third part of the
wire. The length of the wire opposite to X1 is taken as LX & the length of the wire Results:
opposite to R is taken as LR. The lengths LX & LR are measured up to null point.

8
dθ 2
The graph of against (θ - θ0) is a straight line. Hence Newton’s law of
dt 3
cooling is verified.
4
Procedure:
5
Note the room temperature. The calorimeter is filled to about its two third
capacity with boiling water. The calorimeter is placed in constant temperature 6
enclosure. The thermometer & stirrer are inserted in hot water. The stop clock is θ
started & temp. of water is noted after every minute. The hot water is constantly Calculations: Sensitivity S = div / amp.
I
stirred.
A graph of temperature against time is plotted. It is a smooth exponentiall curve. Graph:
Find the slopes at different temperatures & plot the second graph of (dθ / dt)
against (θ - θ0). It is a straight line graph passing through the origin. θ Slope = S
Precautions:
1. The water in the calorimeter should be gently stirred.
2. The initial temperature of water in the calorimeter should be 30 ºC above the I
temperature of the surroundings.
Results:
3. Time interval between two temperature readings should be 0.5 minute..
4. Least count of thermometer should be small (0.5 ºC). Sensitivity of galvanometer by calculation S = ………………div / amp.
Experiment No. 9 Sensitivity of galvanometer by graph S = ………………div / amp.

Title: Current sensitivity of Moving Coil Galvanometer ( M.C.G.) Procedure:


Aim: To find current sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer. The connections are made as given in the circuit diagram. High
resistance key is removed from the resistance box. The plug key K is closed and
Apparatus: Battery, reversing key, resistance box, galvanometer, plug key, the value of resistance R in R box is so adjusted that nearly full scale deflection in
galvanometer is obtained. The defection in divisions and current in amperes is
microammeter etc.
noted. Then the current is reversed by reversing key and the deflection is noted.
Circuit Diagram: The experiment is repeated for other values of resistance R.
Precautions:
1. All connections should be tight.
2. The keys of resistance box are not left loose.
3. Initially one key of high resistance from the resistance box should be left
open to avoid the damage of electrical meters.
4. All readings are also taken after reversing the reversing key.
Observation Table:
Gavanometer Deflection θ Sensitivity
Experiment No. 10
Obs Current θ Mean
No. I Amp. Before After Mean θ S= Sensitivity Title: Meter Bridge (Laws of Resistances)
Reversing Reversing div. I S div / A Aim: To verify the laws of series and parallel combination of resistances.
div / amp
1
Apparatus: Meter Bridge, Two unknown resistances, slider, resistance box,
9
Galvanometer, Battery, plug key, rheostat etc. Circuit Diagram:

Circuit Diagram:

Observation Table:
Balancing Internal
Obs. Balancing length Resistance from length When Resistance Ω
+ - No. When K2 open Resistance box K2 closed R ( L1 − L2 ) Mean
L1 cm R Ω L2 cm r= r
L2 Ω
Fig. (a) Fig. (b)
1
1. Law of Series: The equivalent resistance in series is equal to the sum of 2
individual resistances.
3
2. Law of Parallel: The reciprocal of equivalent resistance in parallel 4
arrangement is equal to the sum of reciprocals of individual resistances.
5
Sum & Difference method: Connect the two cells as shown in Fig. (a). The Cell
E1 i.e Leclanche cell should be of greater E.M.F. Find the balancing length L 1. R( L1 − L2 )
Then connect the two cells as shown in Fig. (b). Find the balancing length L2. Calculations: r=
L2
Precautions:
1. The battery must be of greater E.M.F. than the E.M.F. to be measured. Precautions:
2. While taking null point, the jockey should not be slide along the wire, but should be 1. A suitable value of R in resistance is adjusted such that null point is
touched at various points.
3. In sum & difference method, E.M.F. of first cell in series should be of higher E.M.F. obtained in the middle one-third of the bridge wire.
4. Positive of the battery & positive of the cell should be connected to common 2. Readings are taken after interchanging the gaps to minimize errors due to
terminal P of the wire. non uniformity of wire.
3. All connections must be tight.
Experiment No. 13 Experiment No. 11
Title: Potentiometer (Internal Resistance of Cell)
Title: Meter Bridge (Kelvin’s Method)
Aim: To find internal resistance of a cell.
Aim: To determine the resistance of galvanometer by Kelvin’s method
Apparatus: Potentiometer, galvanometer, Cell, Battery, keys, rheostat, resistance using meter bridge.

box, etc. Apparatus: Meter Bridge, slider, resistance box, galvanometer, Battery, plug key,

10
rheostat etc.

Circuit Diagram: Circuit Diagram:

Observation Table:
Fig. (a) Fig. (b)
Obs LG
No. R LX LR RG = R. Ω Mean
L LR
Calculations: RG = R. G Ω Ω cm cm RG Ω
LR 1

Results: Resistance of Galvanometer = RG = ……………….. Ω 2

Procedure: 3
Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.Plug key K is closed.
Jockey is touched to two different points of the bridge wire, the galvanometer should show Interchanging the positions of G and R
opposite deflection. The value of R is so chosen that there is no change in the deflection if 1
the contact is made or broken. Such a point is the balance point. The balance point should
be in the middle one-third of the bridge wire. L G & LR are measured. Experiment is repeated 2
by interchanging the positions of galvanometer G and resistance box R.
3
Precautions:
1. The balance point is obtained in the middle one-third of the bridge wire. E1 = Leclanche Cell & E2 = Daniel Cell
2. Readings are taken after interchanging the gaps.
Observation Tables:
3. All connections must be tight.
i) For separate cell method:
Experiment No. 12 Balancing Length for E1 L1 Mean
Obs. =
No. Cell E1 Cell E2 E2 L2 E1
Title: Potentiometer ( Comparison of E.M.Fs)
L1 cm L2 cm E2
Aim: To compare the e.m.fs of two cells using potentiometer by separate
1
method and Sum & Difference method.
2
Apparatus: Potentiometer, galvanometer, rheostat, jockey, Daniel Cell,
3
Leclanche cell etc.

11
ii) For Sum & Difference method: V
D.C. Resistance = R dc = Ω
I
Balancing Length when E1 L1 + L2 Mean 1
Obs. = A. C. Resistance =
No. Cell assist Cell oppose E2 L1 − L2 E1 Slope
L1 cm L2 cm E2
Procedure:
1 The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram. The
rheostat is used as a potential divider. Starting with lowest potential difference in
2
the voltmeter, the P.D. is gradually increased & corresponding current I is
3 measured with the help of milliammeter. Plot the graph current I (Amp) against
potential difference V (Volt). Hence calculate d. c. & a. c. resistance of diode.

E1 L1 Results:
Calculations: 1. For individual method: = 1. D.C. Resistance = ……………….. Ω
E2 L2
E1 L1 + L2 2. A. C. Resistance = …………………. Ω
2. For Sum & Difference Method: =
E2 L1 − L2 Precautions:
Results: 1. E1 / E2 (by separate method) = …………….
1. p-n junction diode should be connected in forward biased mode only i.e.
2. E1 / E2 (by sum & difference method) = ……………. anode of the diode should be connected to positive of D.C. source &
Procedure: cathode of diode should be connected to negative of D.C. source.
2. Polarities of voltmeter and milliammeter should be maintained according to
Individual Method: First connect the cell E1 i.e. Leclanche cell in the circuit. circuit diagram.
Close the key. Touch the jockey to the points P & Q and see that the galvanometer 3. Rheostat of large value should be used.
deflections are opposite. If not, adjust the rheostat. Now touch the jockey at 4. All the connections must be tight.
various points on the wire AB and find the null point where the galvanometer 5. Do not apply large D.C. voltage across the diode during forward bias.
shows no deflection. Measure the length of the wire from the starting point A to null
point. This is balancing length L1 for cell E1. Now disconnect the cell E1 & connect
the Daniel cell E2. Find the balancing length L2 for the cell E2.

Graph: Results: Internal resistance of the cell = r = ………….. Ω.

Procedure:
Close the key K1. Adjust rheostat such that when jockey is touched to P & Q the
galvanometer shows opposite deflection. With the key K2 open, touch the jockey at
various points on the wire PQ & find the null point such that galvanometer shows
no deflection. Measure the length of the wire from point P to null point. This is
balancing length L1. Then by plucking out a resistance from the resistance box &
by closing the key K2, balancing length L2 is obtained. The experiment is repeated
for different values of R.
Formula:
Precautions:
12
1. The positive of battery B & positive of cell E are connected to common terminal A.
2. While taking null point, the jockey should not be slide along the wire but should be
touched at various points on the wire.
3. The emf of the driving battery should be greater than the emf of the cell.
4. All the connections should be tight.
5. Keep all the keys in the resistance box tight.
µ0 n
Calculations: BH = x mean (K) ……. Wb / m2
Experiment No. 14 2r
Where µ0 = 4 π x 10-7 Wb / A-m
Title: Tangent Galvanometer
Aim: To determine horizontal component of earth’s magnetic induction. I
Graph: Slope = K =
tan θ
Apparatus: Tangent galvanometer, cell, plug key, Reversing key, spirit level,
I
Rheostat, milliammeter etc.
tan θ
µ0 n
Calculations: BH = (Slope) …………………………. Wb / m2
2r
Circuit Diagram:
Results: 1. BH (By Calculation) = ……………………… Wb / m2

2. BH (By Graph) = ……………………… Wb / m2


Procedure:
1. Level the Tangent galvanometer with help of sprit level & leveling screws.
2. Adjust T.G. in magnetic meridian i.e. the plane of the coil should be parallel
to the length of the needle.
3. Adjust magnetometer box such that the pointer is on 0-0 marks of the
scale. Close the key K. By adjusting rheostat, pass a suitable current
Observations: through the circuit so that the deflection of the needle is about 30º. Note
milliammeter reading I & the readings at both ends of the pointer of the
1. Number of turns in the coil = n = …………… galvanometer.
2. Circumference of the coil = C = ………………m Reverse the reversing key. Again note the readings at both ends of the
pointer. Change the current by rheostat & repeat the procedure for different
3. Radius of the coil r = C / 2π = ………………….m. values of current. The deflections should be between 30º to 60º.
Observation Table: Precautions:

Deflections in Tangent Mean Reduction


Obs Current Galvanometer Deflection Factor Mean
No. I amp θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4 θ degree tan θ I K
K=
tan θ

13
1. The deflections of galvanometer should be within 30º to 60º.
2. Readings of pointer in T.G. should be taken by removing the parallax between
Experiment No. 18
pointer & its image.
3. Readings are taken by reversing the current in T.G. coil. Title: Basic Logic gates.
4. All connections must be tight. Aim: To verify the truth tables of logic gates.
5. The magnetic fields of ammeter & rheostat will affect the needle of T.G. Hence
keep them at a sufficiently large distance from T.G. Apparatus: IC-7404, 7408, 7432, 7400, 7402 LEDs, DPDT Toggle switches etc.

Experiment No. 15 Circuit diagrams Pin Connections of IC

Title: P-N junction diode characteristics.


Aim: To study characteristics of P-N junction diode when it is forward biased.
1. AND Gate:
Apparatus: P-N junction diode, D.C. battery, plug key, Voltmeter, milliammeter,

Rheostat, etc.
+ve
Circuit Diagram:

Obs. Potential Difference Current 2. NOT Gate:


No. V volts I A
Observation Table:
1 0.1
2 0.2 +ve
3 0.3
4 0.4
5 0.5
6 0.6
7 0.7
3. OR Gate:
8 0.8
9 0.9
10 1
+ve

14
Experiment No. 16
Title: Zener diode characteristics.
Aim: To study characteristics of zener diode when it is reverse biased.
Results: Break down voltage = VB = ………… Volt
Apparatus: Zener diode, 9 V D.C. source, Voltmeter, milliammeter, Rheostat, etc.
Procedure:
Circuit Diagram:
Connect 9 V D.C. source to rheostat. To measure current milliammeter
is connected in series with zener diode. Zener diode is connected in reverse bias
condition. Voltmeter is connected across the zener diode. Measure zener current
& voltage by varying the rheostat. Plot the characteristics of zener diode i.e.
current against voltage in reverse biased condition.

Precautions:
Observation Table: 1. The zener diode should be connected in reverse biased mode.
2. Polarities of meters
Obs. Potential Difference Current should be properly
No. V volts I A maintained.
3. All connections
1 0.5 must be tight.
2 1 4. Rheostat should be
used as potential
3 1.5
divider.
4 2
5 2.5
6 3
7 3.5
8 4
9 4.5
10 5

Experiment No. 17
Characteristics of Zener Diode:
15
Title: Full wave Rectifier.
Procedure:
Aim: To study Load regulation of full wave rectifier.
Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Connect AC voltage
to primary of the transformer. Anodes of diodes D1 & D2 are connected to S1 & S2
Apparatus: Transformer 6 - 0 - 6 V,500 mA, Diodes BY 127, Condenser 2200 μf,
terminals of the secondary of the transformer. The common cathodes of two
diodes is connected to + ve of the condenser. The negative of the condenser is
12V, Potentiometer,Voltmeter, milliammeter, etc.
connected to centre tap of the transformer. DC output voltage appears across the
condenser. Plot the graph of VL (volt) against IL (Amp).

Circuit Diagram: Load Regulation:


Connect potentiometer ( 10 KΩ ) across the output voltage. Vary the
load & measure the output voltage. Measure output voltage Vr.m.s. by AC meter &
DC voltage Vdc by DC meter.
Vr .m.s.
Calculation: Ripple Factor =
Vd .c.
Results: Ripple factor for given current = …………………

Precautions:
1. Always start from maximum load.
2. Connect the diodes & meters with proper polarity.
3. Positive of the condenser must be connected to positive of D.C. supply.
4. Connect the primary to A.C. mains & secondary to diodes.
5. All connections must be tight.

Observation Table:

Obs. Load Current Output Voltage


No. IL Amp VL volts
1

16
Observation Tables: Truth Tables for Logic gates:
Truth Tables Boolean Equation
1. AND Gate IC-7408

A B Y Boolean
0 0 0
0 1 0 equait Y= A · B
1 0 0
1 1 1

2. OR Gate IC-7432

A B Y
0 0 0
Boolean Equati Y= A+ B
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1

3. NOT Gate IC-7404


A Y
Boolea
0 1
1 0 n equation Y= Ā
4. NAND Gate:
Truth Tables Boolean Algebra

4. NAND Gate IC-7400


A B Y
0 0 1
0 1 1 Y=
1 0 1 Boolean Alge
1 1 0

5. NOR Gate:
5. NOR Gate IC-7402
A B Y
0 0 1
0 1 0 Y =
1 0 0 Boolean Alge
1 1 0
17
Procedure:

Take any one of the IC consider one of its gate. Connect the input
terminals of gate to the switches poles and two terminals of switch to +5V & -5V.
Connect LED to the output of gate through resistor. Connect +5V to pin 14 of IC &
-5V to pin 7 of the IC. Now give different combinations of inputs & note the output
states & verify the truth table for the gate. Glowing LED indicates logic 1 & LED in
off position indicates logic 0 state. Sr.No. Title head for marks Marks

Results: The truth tables of all the logic gates are verified.
1 Diagram 1
Precautions:
2 Setting or Connections 1
1. The supply voltage should be exactly 5V d.c.
2. For IC, socket should be used.
3. Place the IC in the socket properly. 3 Formula or Law 1
4. Do not short the output of logic gates. It may damage the logic circuit.

4 Observations 3

5 Graph / Calculations or both 1

Results or Conclusions with


6 1
units

Scheme of Marking 7 Precautions 1

8 Journal 2

18
NATURAL TANGENTS

19
20
th
XII Science

Physics
Name:
Name:
………………………………………………
Practical
………………
………………………………………
…………
Roll No: ……………………
Roll No.
Batch: ……………
Handbook
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Batch:
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By

Experienced Teachers

For Private Circulation only.

21
CONTENTS

Experimen Title of the Experiment Page


t No. No.
1 Simple Pendulum 1
2 Spring-mass Oscillator 3
3 Sonometer - I 4
4 Sonometer - II 6
5 Surface Tension 7
6 Resonance Tube 9
7 Melde’s Experiment 10
8 Newton’s Law of Cooling 12
Current sensitivity of Moving Coil 14
9
galvanometer
10 Meter Bridge ( Laws of Resistances) 15
11 Meter Bridge ( Kelvin’s Method) 17
12 Potentiometer ( Comparison of E.M.Fs.) 18
13 Potentiometer (Internal Resistance of a Cell.) 20
14 Tangent Galvanometer 21
15 p – n Junction diode Characteristics 23
16 Zener diode Characteristics 25
17 Full Wave Rectifier 26
18 Basic Logic gates. 28
Log Tables 32

NATURAL TANGENTS

22