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Sponsored by

NCS Computech Pvt. Ltd.

We Deliver “ Safe, Secure and Managed IT Infrastructure”.
(Submitted In partial fulfillment for the award of “Bachelor of Technology” degree in
Computer Science Engineering of Rajasthan Technical University, Kota)



Guided by: Submitted by:

Mr. Narendra pandey Ashok Dhakar
(Techno Vantage) B.Tech (Computer Sc. Engg.)

NCS Computech Pvt. Ltd. VII Semester

Jaipur 07ECICS017
Br. Office-D157/A/B Durga Marg, Bani Park, Jaipur-302016

No.NCS/JPR/Mgr.(tag)/2010 /0517 Date:-19/06/2010


This is to certify that “Ashok Dhakar” completed their Industrial

training from “14th MAY 2010 to 19th JUNE 2010” in my
supervision in partial fulfillment for the Degree of “BACHELOR OF

During the training, he has worked on “Optical

Fibers In Communication” in Telecommunication Networking.
His overall performance during the period was Very Good.

I wish him success in life.

Mr. Narendra Pandey

(Training Incharge)

With the completion of the training my experience at the firm was excellent. The task of
undertaking the training travelled through a dynamic experience. With the constant
guidance, valuable suggestions, timely help and heart warming encouragement rendered to
me by Mr. Narendra Pandey the firm served as an excellent learning platform. During the
course of the training I came through the working pattern of the office along with
professionalism. Also the basic practical experience at the site helped a lot. Theoretical
discussions, off-site situation handling and on-site experience are to name a few of the
environments to which I was exposed. Along with it I was given enough opportunities and
encouragement to think independently in various problem solving situations.
I would also like to thank our lab technicians for their help and cooperation
throughout our project.
I would like to express my thanks to all those people who directly or indirectly supported
me throughout my term for the training.
Above all I want to thank Mr. N. Chandra, Dean of our college for recommending me to
the practical training; and Mr. Narendra Pandey for inducting me into the firm as
a trainee.

Thanking you sincerely,

Ashok Dhakar

Industrial training is one of the most important components in the fulfillment of any
engineering course conducted at any level at any college. Each and every one of us would
always have an added advantage if I have a chance to come face to face with the equipments
and the processes I am being taught in my engineering course .The main purpose of the
training program is to expose the trainees to practical experience of the actual industrial
conditions in which they are required to work in future.
I deem it a privilege to have undergone training in an organization, which has allowed me to
see the actual working of the software industry. At the department of information technology;
I have been given the chance to be familiar with new technologies.

Ashok dhakar

I hereby declare that the Industrial Training work entitled “Optical Fibers In
Communication” is an authentic record of my own work carried out at NCS Computech
Pvt. Ltd. , Jaipur as per the requirement of ONE month Industrial Training project for the
award of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY at CompuCom Institute of
Management & Information Technology Sitapura, Jaipur, under the guidance of Mr.
Narendra Pandey during ‘12th May 2010 to 18th June’ 2010.

Place: Jaipur
Date: 18th June 2010 Ashok Dhakar

It is certified that the above statement made by the students is correct to the best of our
knowledge and belief.

Mr. Narendra Pandey

(Training incharge)

Communication is an important part of our daily life. The communication process involves
information generation, transmission, reception and interpretation. As needs for various types
of communication such as voice, images, video and data communications increase demands
for large transmission capacity also increase. This need for large capacity has driven the rapid
development of light wave technology; a worldwide industry has developed. An optical or
light wave communication system is a system that uses light waves as the carrier for
transmission. An optical communication system mainly involves three parts. Transmitter,
receiver and channel. In optical communication transmitters are light sources, receivers are
light detectors and the channels are optical fibers. In optical communication the channel i.e,
optical fibers play an important role because it carries the data from transmitter to the
receiver. Hence, here we shall discuss mainly about optical fibers.

NCS Computech Profile

Who are we

Incorporated in March, 1994 NCS group has business interest in IT

services, Training, Organic Crop Care, Food Processing and Waste Management and
recycling. After laying the foundation NCS group has been witnessing and yearly growth
of over 100 Percent since 2002. The group is expanding its geographical footprint and
has offices and operations across India.

Living the key concept “Navigating Concepts to Solutions”

All NCS businesses have some key concepts to work upon. There is a constant flux of ideas
moving around in the group. The core team constantly keeps on working on these concepts
to figure out the best possible solution from that. It is not only about new product ideas; it is
about the processes, methods, means and at times well the philosophy behind the working.

The NCS Culture that makes the Magic Concept Work

NCS culture is what distinguishes us from the crowd. Mistakes are well come. That means
we are experimenting with new concepts. NCS stimulates the human capital to experiment
with new concepts regularly.

NCS team keeps working on simple ideas, simple implementation and simplification of so
called complex things. If you mingle with NCS culture, you may be surprised by the
simplicity with which business happens and gets executed.

At NCS, Wisdom denotes the pursuing of the best ends by the best means. Thus, the Means
are as important as the Ends.

Management Team

Manohar Malani (41 Years), Managing Director & CEO : An Engineer from
University of Pune and now a business leader. Handles many caps and juggles between
them with ease. A Leader in himself and has a special skill of creating leaders.

This coupled with his business vision has been instrumental in the diversification of
NCS in various areas.

He has been instrumental in establishing the marketing and support base of Quick Heal
since 1994 through 2002 as Director Business Development.
Rajkumar Damani (48 Years): A commerce graduate and a work horse. A street fighter
and an example of the adage “appearances are deceptive”. Holds the portfolio of
Marketing Director. Leads the team from the front and even today ensures that he explore
and creates new market himself regularly. This keeps the team motivated to go to
unexplored markets and work hard.

Sandeep Tambi (36 Years): His understanding of technology and knack of developing
relationship makes him ideal for creating new opportunities. He also shares the
responsibilities of delivering training, seminars to channel partners and customers. With
now 10 years of experience in the field of IT security he is also instrumental in creating
market for new and niche products dealt by NCS.

Apart from the Trio NCS has a great 2nd rung of leadership and execution team of over 20
powerful team members to carry the business to dizzling heights.

Advisory Board:
Poonam Chand Malani (76 Years), Chairman: The father figure and source of
inspiration. His rich experience has helped the company learn the art of doing things
economically with great returns. He had been instrumental in bringing discipline of all
nature in the organization otherwise driven by young blood.

Manmohan Malani (45 Years), Director : An homeopath doctor by profession who has
chosen to be into business rather than profession. He has across the years developed a good
knack at accounts and taxation and offers valuable advice.

Shyamal Chatterjee (56 years), Director : The experience of handling various

complicated matters reflects when you meet him. Has been handling various business
challanges for last 30 years. An LLB by qualification, his advice has great value for the


Managed IT Services
An IT structure well designed, developed, implemented and executed plays a vital role in a
business’s return on the investment in its IT Plan. Maximum mileages, lower cost, speed and
efficiency in delivery plays a major role that fuels a business success.

NCS recognizes this business need and can put together a complete team for a total or scalable
solution capitalizing the latest technologies and its vast global talent pool from its locations in

Collaboration with NCS revolves on a true partnership with our customers. The success of our
partnership is achieved by our recognition of the specific needs that each of our customer
requires and coming up with a tailor fit plan that addresses those needs.

NCS specializes in areas of Application Development and Application Managed Services.

Our substantial advantages in these areas include

• Business knowledge SMEs

• Talent pool across continents
• Right Alliances
• Flexible and Easy to maintain development approach

• Reliable on time delivery.

Permanant Staffing
In an industry rife with rampant professional migration, sourcing and securing the right kind
of staff is critical to every company’s protracted stability and long-term productivity.
At NCS, we understand the need for individuals with more than just the technical ability to
get the job completed
Work culture in a modern economy is constantly pressured to ‘do more with less’ and the
head count area within an organization is no exception. With changes and technological
advances ever evolving, businesses are ever required to retain, retrain and hire talent that
adapts fast to this nouveau environment to deliver results and maintain profitability.

With speed and accuracy in mind, NCS executes its staffing model for the right individual
with the right skills and at the right price. Our staffing model gives importance to every detail
to ensure candidates and the clients are matched in every aspect to understand each one’s
strategic and tactical goals. This ensures a union that is gainfully profitable with amazing

IT Staffing
NCS offers a full range of outsourced IT staffing services, backed by IT knowledge and
expertise across technologies and domains. We work closely with an organization’s staffing
department to ensure that IT staffing needs are met based on: pre-defined project metrics or
weekly or monthly staff augumentation programs.
Our IT staffing services provide companies with:

• Super-specialties driven human resource solutions across technologies

• The flexibility to choose a staffing model that meets short-term, long term and
strategic staffing needs
• Dedicated workforce for optimal performance
• Experienced professionals for seamless results

The firm's focus on current and emerging new technologies complement the client's in-house
technology skill sets and strengthens their ability to meet business goals, in a timely and cost-
effective manner.

The key skill our software professionals bring across the table:

SAP, Oracle Applications, Peoplesoft and Siebel
Operating Systems
Solaris, UNIX, Linux, Win2Kx/NT, MAC OS 9, OS X

Microsoft & Other Technologies

Java, J2EE, JavaBeans, EJB, JSP, Struts, JNI, Sun Portal, Web Sphere, Weblogic,
Vignette, Sun One, MS .NET: C#.NET, ASP.NET, ADO.NET, VB.NET, Web Services
C++, VC++, MFC, ActiveX, VB, ADO , STL, HTML, DHTML, XML, IIS/ASP, PHP, Perl

Oracle, DB2, MS-SQL, Sybase, Informix

Data warehousing
ETL, Informatica, Erwin, Ab Initio, Hyperion, Teradata etc.

Telecommunication Networking

Optical Fiber, Lan messenger etc.

Our IT staffing services are designed to provide you with optimal staffing solutions that
accurately assess and manage your manpower requirements enabling your core team to
effectively focus on critical assignments and effectively execute their responsibilities.
Partners Of NCS
Tectona SoftSolutions (P) Ltd.
QuickHeal Technologies
Tectona is a Software Incubator based at Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Simplifying the IT
infrastructure management isisthe
Quick Heal Technologies area of
leading focus at
provider ofTectona. Their
AntiVirus and winning products tools
Internet Security include
is leader inManagement Platform- OwnYIT
Anti-Virus Technology in India. and Remote held
A privately infrastructure
company,Managed Platform-
Quick Heal
Technologies Pvt. Ltd. (formerly known as Cat Computer Services (P) Ltd.) was founded in
1993 and has been actively involved in Research and Development of anti-virus software
Vembu Technologies
since then.
Founded in 2004, Vembu Technologies is a leader in providing cost effective, network based,
Serving more than million users worldwide, Quick Heal Technologies employs more than
disk to disk backup software solutions. Vembu's flagship product StoreGrid, which backs up
200 people in sixteen branches and its headquarters is in Pune, India. Quick Heal an
desktops and servers, comes in three editions. StoreGrid Service Provider Edition powers the
award-winning anti-virus product is installed in corporate, small business and consumers'
managed online backup services business of thousands of MSPs, VARs, ISPs and Managed
homes, protecting their PCs from viruses and other malicious threats.
Hosting Providers. StoreGrid Professional and Education Editions are trusted by thousands of
SMBs and educational institutions for on-premise and centralized backups for their
Quick Heal Technologies was formed for catering the demand of highly reliable anti-virus
heterogeneous environments.
software, which would successfully tackle the growing number of virus problems. Quick
Heal Technologies
Vembu has won many(P)awards
Ltd. was
has beenbyrecognized
Mr. Kailash
variousand Mr. Sanjay
leading Katkar
industry in
the year 1993.include the Deloitte Technology Fast 50 Award and the "Red Herring 100
Asia" list of innovative companies. Vembu has regularly been featured on CRN's annual
Emerging Vendors list, and was a finalist for a VAR Business Tech Innovator award and the
April IT Pro awardHeal
: Quick for Interoperability. Vembu
AntiVirus Plus 2008 hasisreceived
also actively
West involved withacclaimed
Coast Labs' various
industry bodies including
Check-Mark MSP Partners &on
certification MSP Mentor.Vista Business Edition.
February : Quick Heal Technologies has received Antivirus + Antispyware
Vembu Technologies is ledTMbydesignation
OESISOK an accomplished management
for Quick team -Version
Heal AntiVirus graduates
on some of
the best universities in the XP
Windows world who bring
Operating within
system them decades with
accordance of diverse industry testing
the OPSWAT experience
from across various domains. Vembu takes great pride in its exceptionally passionate team
and : Quick
its core values, the Heal
mostIndia’s leading
important antivirus
of which software
is that walked
of always another
placing step
its customers' &
partners' interestsachieving Microsoft the
first in everything Certified
This from Microsoft.
is especially reflected in the
fanatical customer support Vembu offers its customers.

The company is headquartered in Chennai, India.


1. History
2. Introduction
3. Fundamental of Optical Fiber
4. Construction of Fibers
5. Classification of Optical Fibers
5.1 Based on the materials used
5.2 Based on number of modes
5.3 Based on refractive index
6. Modes And Propagation Of Light In Fibers
7. Optical Fiber Cabels
8. Joint of Fiber
9. Fiber Splices
10. Fusion Splices
11. Equipment Required for OFC Joint
12. Electric Field With In Fiber Cladding
13. Repeaters And Regenerators
14. Light Sources
15. Detecting the Signal
16. Advantages Over Conventional Cables
17. Application of the Optical Fiber Communication
18. Features
19. Essential Features of an Optical Fiber
20. Drawbacks of Optical Fiber Communication
21. Conclusions
22. Bibliography
Optical Fibers in Communication

The use of visible optical carrier waves or light for communication has been common for
many years. Simple systems such as signal fires, reflecting mirrors and, more recently
signaling lamps have provided successful, if limited, information transfer. Moreover as
early as 1880 Alexander Graham Bell reported the transmission of speech using a light
beam. The photo phone proposed by Bell just for years after the invention of the
telephone modulated sunlight with a diaphragm giving speech transmission over a
distance of 200m.

However, although some investigation of the optical communication continued in the

early part of the 20th century its use was limited to mobile, low capacity communication
links. This was due to both the lack of suitable light sources and the problem that light
transmission in the atmosphere is restricted to line of sight and severely affected by

disturbances such as rain, snow, fog dust and atmospheric turbulence.

A renewed interest in optical communication was stimulated in the early 1960s with the
invention of the laser. This device provided a coherent light source, together with the
possibility of the modulation at high frequency.

The proposals for optical communication via optical fibers fabricated from glass to avoid
degradation of the optical signal by the atmosphere were made almost simultaneously in
1966 by Kao and Hock ham and Werts. Such systems were viewed as a replacement for
coaxial cable system, initially the optical fibers exhibited very high attenuation and were
therefore not comparable with the coaxial cable they were to replace. There were also
problems involved in jointing the fiber cables in a satisfactory manner to achieve low loss
and to enable the process to be performed relatively easily and repeatedly in the field.

In coaxial system the channel capacity is 300 to 10800 and the disadvantages of the
coaxial system are digging, electrical disturbance, in winter cable contracts and breaks
mutual induction. The coaxial cable loss is 0.3db per every km.
• In microwave system if we double the distance the loss will be increased by 6db.

• For the shorter distance the loss is higher.

• In ofc system Optical wire is small size, light weight, high strength and flexibility. Its
transmission benefits includes wide band width, low loss and low cost.

• They are suitable for both analog and digital transmission.

• It is not suffered by digging, electrical interference etc. proble

2. Introduction:-
Optical fibers are arguably one of the world’s most influential scientific developments from
the latter half of the 20th century. Normally we are unaware that we are using them, although
many of us do frequently. The majority of telephone calls and internet traffic at some stage in
their journey will be transmitted along an optical fiber. Why has the development of fibers
been given so much attention by the scientific community when we have alternatives? The
main reason is bandwidth – fibers can carry an extremely large amount of information. More
indirectly, many of the systems that we either rely on or enjoy in everyday life such as banks,
television and newspapers as (to name only a very limited selection) are themselves
dependent on communication systems that are dependent on optical fibers.

3. Fundamentals of Fibers:-
The fundamental principle that makes optical fibers possible is total internal reflection. This
is described using the ray model of light as shown in figure 1.

Figure 1 - Total Internal Reflection

From Snell’s Law we find that refraction (as shown by the dashed line) can only occur when
the angle theta1 is large enough. This implies that as the angle is reduced, there must be a
point when the light ray is reflected, where theta1 = theta2.
The angle where this happens is known as the critical angle and is:

In fibers, there are two significant sections – the core and the cladding. The core is part
where the light rays travel and the cladding is a similar material of slightly lower refractive
index to cause total internal reflection. Usually both sections are fabricated from silica
(glass). The light within the fiber is then continuously totally internally reflected along the

Figure 2: Structure of Fiber

When light enters the fiber we must also consider refraction at the interface of the air and the
fiber core. The difference in refractive index causes refraction of the ray as it enters the fiber,
allowing rays to enter the fiber at an angle greater than the angle allowed within the fiber as
shown in the figure 3.
Figure 3 - Acceptance Angle

This acceptance angle, theta, is a crucial parameter for fiber and system designers. More
widely recognized is the parameter NA (Numerical Aperture) that is given by the following


Optical fibers are classified into three types based on the material used, number of modes and
refractive index.

5.1. Based on the materials used:-

a. Glass fibers:
They have a glass core and glass cladding. The glass used in the fiber is ultra pure, ultra
transparent silicon dioxide (SiO2) or fused quartz. Impurities are purposely added to pure
glass to achieve the desired refractive index
b. Plastic clad silica:
This fiber has a glass core and plastic cladding. This performance though not as good as all
glass fibers, is quite respectable.
c. Plastic fibers:
They have a plastic core and plastic cladding. These fibers are attractive in applications
where high bandwidth and low loss are not a concern.

5.2. Based on the number of modes:-

a. Single Mode fiber:

When a fiber wave-guide can support only the HE11 mode, it is referred to as a single mode
wave-guide. In a step index structure this occurs w3hen the wave-guide is operating at v<2.4
where v is dimensionless number which relates the propagating in the cladding. These single
mode fibers have small size and low dopant level (typically 0.3% to 0.4% index elevation
over the lading index.)

In high silica fibers the wave-guide and the material dispersion are often of opposite signs.
This fact can be used conveniently to achieve a single mode fiber of extremely large
bandwidth. Reduced dopant level results in lower attenuation than in multimode fibres. A
single mode wave guide with its large and fully definable bandwidth characteristics is an
obvious candidate for long distance, high capacity transmission applications.

b. Multimode fiber:
It is a fiber in which more than one mode is propagating at the system operating wavelength.
Multimode fiber system does not have the information carrying capacity of single mode
fibers. However they offer several advantages for specific systems.

The larger core diameters result in easier splicing of fibers. Given the larger cores, higher
numerical apertures, and typically shorter link distances, multimode systems can use less
expensive light sources such as LED s . Multimode fibers have numerical apertures that
typically range from 0.2 to 0.29 and have core size that range from 35 to100 micro-meters.
5.3. Based on refractive index:-

a. Step index fiber:

The step index (SI) fiber consists of a central core whose refractive index is n1, surrounded
by a lading whose refractive index is n2, lower than that of core.

Because of an abrupt index change at the core cladding interface such fibers are called step
index fibers.
b. Graded index fibers:
The refractive index of the core in graded index fiber is not constant, but decreases gradually
from its maximum value n1 to its minimum value n2 at the core-cladding interface. The ray
velocity changes along the path because of variations in the refractive index.

The ray propagating along the fiber axis takes the shortest path but travels most slowly, as
the index is largest along this path in medium of lower refractive index where they travel
faster. It is therefore possible for all rays to arrive together at the fiber output by a suitable
choice of refractive index profile.


Also crucial to understanding fibers is the principle of modes. A more in-depth analysis of
the propagation of light along an optical fiber requires the light to be treated as an
electromagnetic wave (rather that as a ray).

Figure 4 – Modes
The solid line is the lowest order mode shown on figure 4. It is clear that according to the ray
model the lowest order mode will travel down a given length of fiber quicker than the others.
The electromagnetic field model predicts the opposite – that the highest order mode will
travel quicker.
However, the overall effect is still the same – if a signal is sent down the fiber
as several modes then as it travels along the fibre the pulse will spread out, this can lead to
the pulses merging and becoming indistinguishable.

Figure 5: Propagation of light in fibers

The propagation of light is as shown in figure 5. When light ray enters the core with an angle
strikes the surface of cladding whose refractive index is less than that of core. As the
incidence angle on surface of the cladding is greater than or equal to critical angle total
internal reflection takes place. Hence the ray is reflected back into the core in the
forward direction. This process continues until it reaches other end of the cable.


When optical fibers are to be installed in a working environment their mechanical
properties are of prime importance. In this respect the unprotected optical fiber has
several disadvantages with regard to its strength and durability.

Bare glass fibers are little

and have small cross sectional areas which make them very susceptible to damage when
employing normal transmission line handling procedures. It is therefore necessary to cover
the fibers to improve their tensile strength and to protect them against external influences.

The functions of the optical cable may be summarized into four main areas.
These are as follows:-

1. Fiber protection. The major function of the optical cable is to protect against fiber
damage and breakage both during installation and throughout the life of the fiber.

2. Stability of the fiber transmission characteristics. The cabled fiber must have good
stable transmission characteristics which are comparable with the uncabled fiber.
Increases in optical attenuation due to cabling are quite usual and must be minimized
within the cable design.

3. Cable strength. Optical cables must have similar mechanical properties to electrical
transmission cables in order that they may be handled in the same manner. These
mechanical properties include tension, torsion, compression, bending, squeezing and
vibration. Hence the cable strength may be improved by incorporating a suitable
strength member and by giving the cable a properly designed thick outer sheath
4. Identification and jointing of the fibers within the cable. This is especially important
for cables including a large number of optical fibers. If the fibers are arranged in a
suitable geometry it may be possible to use multiple jointing techniques rather than
jointing each fiber individually.

Optical fiber links, in common with any line communication system, have a requirement
for both jointing and termination of the transmission medium. The number of
intermediate fiber connections or joints is dependent upon the link length, the continuous
length of the fiber cable that may be produced by the preparation methods and the length
of the fiber cable that may be practically installed as a continuous section on the link.
It is therefore apparent that fiber to fiber connection with low loss and minimum
distortion (i.e. modal noise) remains an important aspect of optical fiber communication

Before optical fibers splicing and joining are done certain preparations are made with
fiber or fiber cables as case may be to achieve best results at the end surface. First of all
the protective plastic that covers the glass cladding is stripped from each fiber end, which
is then cleaved with a special tool, producing a smooth and flat end.

1. Fiber splices: these are semipermanent or permanent joints which find major use in
most optical fiber telecommunication system (analogous to electrical soldered joints).

2. Demountable fiber connectors or simple connectors: these are removable joints which
allow easy, fast, manual coupling and uncoupling of fibers (analogous to electrical
plugs and sockets).

The above fiber to fiber joints are designed ideally to couple all the light propagating in
one fiber into the adjoining fiber. By contrast fiber couplers are branching devices that
split all the light from main fiber into two or more fibers or, alternatively, couple a
proportion of the light propagating in the main fiber into main fiber.

A permanent joint formed between two individual optical fibers in the field or factory is
known as a fiber splice. Fiber splicing is frequently used to establish long haul optical
fiber links where smaller fiber lengths need to be joined, and there is no requirement for
repeated connection and disconnection. Splices may be divided into two broad categories
depending upon the splicing technique utilized. These are fusion splicing or welding and
mechanical splicing.

Fusion splicing is accomplished by applying localized heating(e.g. by a flame or an

electric are ) at the interface between two butted, prealigned fiber ends causing them to
soften and fuse. Mechanical splicing, in which the fibers are held in alignment by some
mechanical means, may be achieved by various methods including the use of tubes
around the fiber ends (groove splices).

A requirement with fibers intended for splicing is that they have smooth and square end
faces. In general this end preparation may be achieved using a suitable tool which cleaves
the fiber as illustrated.


The fusion splicing – of single fibers involves the heating of the two prepared fiber ends
to their fusing point with the application of sufficient axial pressure between the two
optical fibers. It is therefore essential that the stripped (of cabling and buffer coating)
fiber ends are adequately positioned and aligned in order to achieve good continuity of
the transmission medium at the junction point. Hence the fiber are usually positioned and
clamped with the aid of an inspection microscope
Flame heating sources such as micro plasma torches (argon and hydrogen) and oxhydric
microburners (oxygen, hydrogen and alcohol vapour) have been utilized with some
success. However, the most widely used heating source is an electric arc. This technique
offers advantages of consistent, easily controlled heat with adaptability for use under
field conditions. A schematic diagram of the basic two fibers are welded together. Shows
a development of the basic are fusion process which involves the rounding of the fiber
ends with a low energy discharge before pressing the fibers together and fusing with a
stronger arc. This technique, known as perfusion, removes the requirement for fiber end
preparation which has a distinct advantage in the field environment.

A possible drawback with fusion splicing is that the heat necessary to fuse the fibers may
weaken the fiber in the vicinity of the splice. It has been found that even with careful
handling; the tensile strength of the fused fiber may be as low as 30 % of that of the
uncoated fiber before fusion.

1) Optical fiber fusion splicer specification ( spicer machine )

• AC input – 100 to 240v, frequency – 50/60Hz
• DC input 12v/aA

2) Fiber cutter
• It converts irregular shaped fiber end into smooth & flat end.

3) Chemicals used in OFC joint

• HAXENE : To remove jelly from the fiber
• ACETONE : For cleaning the OFC
• ISO PROPENOT: For smoothness of optical glass.

4) Sleeve: - To enclose fiber joint.

5) Tool Kit

6) Joint kit.
• Joint encloser
• Buffer
• Adhesive tap.

7) Generator /12V Battery

8) Cotton clothes for fiber cleaning.


One other significant point should be noted from the electromagnetic field model. The
model predicts that the EM field does not suddenly drop to zero at the core-cladding
boundary – it instead decays as negative exponential within the cladding as shown in the
figure 6.
This is
crucial for various technologies relating to fibers.

Figure 6 - The Electric Field within the Fiber Cladding

This method of signal transmission has benefits in terms of security – for the signal to be
‘tapped’ the fiber must be broken (since effectively no energy escapes from the fiber) and
this can easily be detected (when no signal reaches the other end of the fiber!).
This is one of the
many advantages of the medium. But mainly two factors, attenuation and dispersion of light,
have to be considered while transmitting the light over large distances.

We use repeaters and regenerators to reduce the attenuation and dispersion.


Optical repeaters are purely optical devices that are used simply to combat attenuation in the
fiber; typically spans of 80km upwards are now possible. The recent introduction of soliton
transmission methods has increased the allowed distance between repeaters and systems
spanning 130km without a repeater are now possible.

Regenerators are devices consisting of

both electronic and optical components to provide ‘3R’ regeneration – Retiming, Reshaping,
Regeneration. Retiming and reshaping detect the digital signal that will be distorted and
noisy (partly due to the optical repeaters), and recreate it as a clean signal as shown in figure
6 This clean signal is then regenerated (optically amplified) to be sent on. It should be noted
that repeaters are purely optical devices whereas regenerators require optical-to-electrical
(O/E) conversion and electrical-to-optical (E/O) conversion.

The ultimate aim of many fiber system researchers is to create a purely

optical network without electronics, which would maximize efficiency and performance.
Many aspects of such a system are in place, but some still require the O/E and E/O
Figure7 - A digital signal before (noisy and attenuated) and after regeneration

The most common optical amplifier currently in use is the EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber
Amplifier). These consist of a coil of fiber doped with the rare earth metal erbium. A laser
diode pumps the erbium atoms to a high-energy state; when the signal reaches the doped
fiber the energy of the erbium atoms is transferred to the signal, thus amplifying it.

14. Light Sources:-

Two types of light source are used with fibers, LEDs and Laser Diodes. LEDs can operate in
the near infrared (the main wavelengths used in fibers are 1300nm and 1550nm, along with
850nm for some applications); they can emit light at 850nm and 1300nm. They also have the
advantages of long lifetimes and being cheap. Unfortunately they are large compared to the
cross-section of a fiber and so a large amount of light is lost in the coupling of an LED with a
fiber. This also reduces the amount of modal control designers have over incident light. Laser
diodes can be made to emit light at either 1300nm or 1550 nm, and also over a small spectral
width (unlike LEDs), which reduces chromatic dispersion. Their emitting areas are extremely
small and so the angle of incidence of light on a fiber can be accurately controlled such that
<5% of the possible modes within a multimode fiber will be initially used. They are more
efficient than LEDs in terms of coupling of light into the fiber, although they have shorter
lifetimes than and are more expensive than LEDs.

One crucial advantage of lasers over LEDs in today’s world of digital communications is
their high switching speed and small rise times, leading to increased bandwidth.

15. Detecting the Signal:-

The most efficient detectors are reverse-bias photo detectors. They essentially cause a current
to flow when light is incident on them. The choice of semiconductor that is used to fabricate
the detector is dependent on the wavelength sensitivity and the responsivity that are required.
Bandwidth considerations are also important (determined by the rise time and fall time of a
detector); in detectors the fall time is often appreciably greater than the rise time and so this
must be used to calculate the bandwidth of a detector.

There are many further complications in detectors, including noise equivalent power that
indicates how ‘clean’ a signal from a detector is. An analysis of how analogue and digital
signals are processed after the initial detector is also interesting.


a. Wide Bandwidth:

Optical fibers offer greater bandwidth due to the use of light as carrier. The frequency range
used for glass fiber communication extends from 2*e14Hz to 4*e14Hz. Hence optical fibers
are suitable for high speed, large capacity telecommunication lines.

b. Low Loss:

In a coaxial cable attenuation increases with frequency. The higher the frequency of
information signals the greater the loss, whereas in an optical fiber the attenuation is
independent of frequency. They offer a loss of0.2 dBm/km, allowing repeater
separation upto 50Km or more.

Freedom from electromagnetic interference:

Optical fibers are not affected by interference originating from power cables, railways and
radio waves. They do not limit unwanted radiation and no cross talk between fibers exists.
These fibers make an ideal transmission medium when EMI (Electro Magnetic Immunity) is

Non conductivity:
Optical fibers are non-conductive and are not effective by strong electromagnetic
interference such as lighting. These are usable in explosive environment.

Small diameters and less weight:

Even multi fiber optical cables have a small diameter and are light weight, and flexible
optical fiber cables permit effective utilization of speech and can also be applicable to long
distance use are easier to handle and install than conventional cables.


Fiber optic is a highly source transmission medium. It does not radiate energy that can be
received by a nearby antenna, and it is extremely difficult to tap a fiber and virtually
impossible to make the tap undetected.


Fibre is a dielectric and does not carry electricity. It presents no sparks or fire hazards. It
does not cause explosions, which occur due to faulty copper cable.




The trunk or toll network is used for carrying telephone traffic between major
conurbations. Hence there is generally a requirement for the use of transmission systems
which have a high capacity in order to minimize costs per circuit. The transmission
distance for trunk systems can very enormously from under 20 km to over 300 km, and
occasionally to as much as 1000 km. Therefore transmission systems which exhibit low
attenuation and hence give a maximum distance of unrepeatered operation are the most
economically viable. In this context optical fiber systems with their increased bandwidth
and repeater spacing offer a distinct advantage.

The junction or interoffice network usually consists of routes within major conurbations
over distances of typically 5 to 20 km. However, the distribution of distances between
switching centers (telephone exchanges ) or offices in the junction network of large urban
areas varies considerably for various countries.

In these applications, although economics are important, there are usually other, possibly
overriding, considerations such as size, weight, deployability, survivability (in both
conventional and nuclear attack and security. The special attributes of optical fiber
communication system therefore often lend themselves to military use.

One of the most promising areas of milita5ry application for optical fiber communication
is within military mobiles such as aircraft, ships and tanks. The small size and weight of
optical fibers provide and attractive solution to space problems in these mobiles which
are increasingly equipped with sophisticated electronics. Also the wideband nature of
optical fiber transmission will allow the multiplexing of a number of signals on to a
common bus.

Furthermore, the immunity of optical transmission to electromagnetic

interference (EMI) in the often noisy environment of military mobiles is a tremendous
advantage. This also applies to the immunity of optical fiber to lighting and
electromagnetic pulses (EMP) especially within avionics. The electrical isolation, and
therefore safety, aspect of optical fiber communication also proves invaluable in these
applications, allowing routing through both fuel tanks and magazines.

The other major area for the application of optical fiber communication in the military
sphere includes both short and long distance communication links. Short distance optical
fiber systems may be utilized to connect closely spaced items of electronics equipment in
such areas as operations rooms and computer installations. A large number of this system
have already been installed in military installations in the united kingdom. These operate
over distances from several centimeters to a few hundred meters at transmission rates
between 50 bauds and 4.8 kbits-1. In addition a small number of 7 MHz video links
operating over distances of up to 10 m are in operation. There is also a requirement for
long distance communication between military installations which could benefit from the
use of optical fibers. In both these advantages may be gained in terms of bandwidth,
security and immunity to electrical interference and earth loop problems over
conventional copper systems.

The introduction of optical fiber communication systems into the public network has
stimulated investigation and application of these transmission techniques by public utility
organizations which provide their own communication facilities over moderately long
distances. For example these transmission techniques may be utilized on the railways and
along pipe and electrical power lines.
In these applications, although high capacity transmission is not usually required, optical
fibers may provide a relatively low cost solution, also giving enhanced protection in harsh
environment, especially in relation to EMI and EMP. Experimental optical fiber
communication systems have been investigated within a number of organizations in Europe,
North America and Japan. For instance, British Rail has successfully demonstrated a 2
Mbits-1 system suspended between the electrical power line gantries over a 6 km route in
Also, the major electric power companies have shown a great deal of interest with regard
to the incorporation of optical fibers within the metallic earth of overhead electric power
lines. fibers are now the standard.


Optical point to point cable link between telephone substations.


Multimode fiber is commonly used as the "backbone" to carry signals between the hubs of
LAN's from where copper coaxial cable takes the data to the desktop. Fiber links to the
desktop, however, are also common.

As mentioned before domestic cable TV networks use optical fiber because of its very low
power consumption.


Closed circuit television security systems use optical fiber because of its inherent security, as
well as the other advantages mentioned above.


The fiber optics has become a preferred medium due to its some important features like:

• The bandwidth of the fiber and light beam is extremely wide. It is possible to handle
signals which turn on and off at gigabit per second rates (1 gigabit, gbit =1000
• The fiber itself is very thin and not expensive. The thinness means that it is easy to
handle, and many fibers can be put in the trenches or narrow conduits.

• The light signa-l is absolutely immune to electrical noise from any sources. Even if
there are sources of electrical noise directly touching the cable, the electric fields of
the noise source cannot affect the light beam in the fiber.

• The signal in the cable is secure from unauthorized listeners. It is relatively hard to
tap into the cable without being noticed, and the entire light signal is confined within
the fiber. No light escapes to the outside where someone else could see it.

• Since there is no electricity or electrical energy in the fiber, it can be run in hazardous
atmospheres where the danger of explosion from spark may exist. Also, the fiber
itself is immune to many types of poisonous gases, chemicals, and water.


1. Optical fibers may be produced with good stable transmission characteristics in long
lengths at a minimum cost and with maximum reproducibility.
2. A range of optical fiber types with regard to size, refractive indices and index
profiles, operating wavelengths, materials etc. be available in order to fulfill many
different system applications.

3. The fibers may be converted into practical cables which can be handled in a similar
manner to conventional electrical transmission cables without problems associated
with the degradation of their characteristics or damage.

4. The fibers and fiber cables may be terminated and connected together without
excessive practical difficulties and in ways which limit the effect of this process on
the fiber transmission characteristics to keep them within acceptable operating levels.

It is important that these jointing techniques may be

applied with ease in the field location where cable connection takes place.


The use of fibers for optical communication does have some drawbacks in practice.
Hence to provide a balance picture these disadvantages must be considered. They are

• The fragility of the bare fibers;

• The small size of fibers and cables which creates some difficulties with splicing and
forming connectors;

• Some problems involved with forming low loss T- couplers;

• Some doubts in relations to the long term reliability of optical fibers in the presence
of moisture;

• An independent electrical power feed is required for any electronic repeaters;

• New equipment and field practice are required;

• Testing procedures tend to be more complex.

21. Conclusions:-
We are currently in the middle of a rapid increase in the demand for data bandwidth across
the Earth. For most applications optical fibers are the primary solution to this problem. They
have potentially a very high bandwidth, with many of the bandwidth limitations now being at
the transceivers rather than being an intrinsic property of the fiber allowing easy upgrading of
systems without relaying cable.

This is creating a surge in the deployment of fiber both in

backbones of networks and in topologically horizontal cabling, which inturn is supporting
and propelling the industry into further research. With the adoption of new techniques such
as DWDM, soliton transmission, and ultimately the purely optical network, we have a
medium that will satisfy our communication needs for the foreseeable future.

22. Bibliography:-
• Optical Fibers And Sources For Communications

---Adams and Henning,

• Principles Of Modern Optical Systems

--- Andonovic and Uttamchandani

• An Introduction to Optical Waveguides

---Adams, M. J.