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Pr. Lect. Dr.

Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

&U LOHLVWRULFHúL³SURIH LLDQWHULRUL´

,Q%LEOLDHEUDLFFHOHFLQFLFU LDOHOXL0RLVHQXPLWH7RUD /HJHD VXQWXUPDWHGHRJUXSGH


FU LFHSRDUWQXPHOHGHSURIH LLDQWHULRUL$FHDVWJUXSFXSULQGHFU LOH,RVXD-XGHFWRUL
úL6DPXHOúL5HJL'XSJUXSDSURIH LORUDQWHULRULvQ%LEOLDHEUDLFXUPHD]SURIH LL
SRVWHULRULDGLF,V,HU,H]úLFHLSURIH LPLFL
6HSWXDJLQWDWUDGXFHUHDJUHDFD9WHEUDLFDRUGRQDWFU LOHDOWIHOGXS3HQWDWHXK DGLFFHOH
 FU L DOH OXL 0RLVH  XUPHD] JUXSD FU LORU LVWRULFH $FHVWHD VXQW DFHOHDúL FX SURIH LL
DQWHULRUL OD FDUH VH PDL DGDXJ FDUWHD 5XW FU LOH (]UD úL 1HHPLD (VWLU úL FU LOH  úL 
&URQLFL &U LOH DGXJDWH ILJXUHD] vQ %LEOLD HEUDLF vQ JUXSD VFULHULORU DOWXUL GH 3VDOPL
Proverbe úLFHOHODOWH2DOWGHRVHELUHvQWUH%LEOLD(EUDLFúL/;;HVWHFvQ/;;FU LOHúL
6DPVXQWQXPLWHúL5SHFkQGFU LOH5GLQWH[WXOHEUDLFVXQW5vQ/;;%LVHULFD
FUHúWLQ FDUH D XWLOL]DW ODvQFHSXW/;;DSUHOXDWúLGLYL]LXQHDFU LORUGHDLFLDVWIHOFU LOH
,RVXD-XG5XW6DP5(]UD1HHP(VW&URQSRDUWQXPHOHGHFU LLVWRULFH
'HQXPLUHD GH FU L LVWRULFH SURYLQH GH OD FRQ LQXWXO DFHVWRUD (OH UHODWHD]LVWRULDSRSRUXOXL
,VUDHOGHODLQWUDUHDvQ&DQDDQSkQODH[LODSRLUHYHQLUHDGLQH[LOúLUHVWDXUDUHDQD LRQDOvQ
HSRFDSHUVDQ
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WHPHL,QDFHVWHFU LDSDUSHUVRQDMHFDUHVXQWSURIH L6DPXHO*DG1DWDQ,OLHúL(OLVHL,VDLD
FDVDPLQWLPGRDUSHFHLPDLFXQRVFX L'LQFHOHGHFDSLWROHDOHFU LORUúL5HJL vQ
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DGLFDSURDSHMXPWDWH7UDGL LDLXGDLFFRQVHPQDWvQ7DOPXGúLvQVFULHULOHOXL,RVLI)ODYLX
VRFRWHúWHFDFHVWHFU LDXIRVWVFULVHGHSURIH LFDUWHD,RVXDDIRVWVFULVGH,RVXDPDLSX LQ
moartea sa; cartea JudDIRVWVFULVGH6DPXHOWRWGH6DPXHODXIRVWVFULVHúLFU LOH6DP
5HJ LDUGXSPRDUWHDVDHOHDXIRVWFRQWLQXDWHGHSURIH LL1DWDQúL*DG
$VW]L WUDGL LD LXGDLF FX SULYLUH OD DXWRULL DFHVWRU FU L QX PDL HVWH VXV LQXW SH ED]D
argumneteloUGHRUGLQLQWHUQGHRUGLQOLWHUDUúLOLQJYLVWLF,QVQXWUHEXLHVWUDJHPFRQFOX]LD
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WUDGL LLORU LVUDHOLWH $YHP PUWXULD FU LORU &URQLFL FDUH DILUP F DX XWLOL]DW FD L]YRDUH úL
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LVWRULHL,VUDHOXOXL'HVSUHUROXOSURIH LORUvQFU LOHLVWRULFHXUPHD]VPDLGLVFXWP

7HRULLFXSULYLUHODDXWRULLFU LORU,RV-2Reg

$P Y]XW F WUDGL LD LXGDLF SXQHD vQ VHDPD OXL ,RVXD úL SURIH LORU 6DPXHO 1DWDQ úL *DG
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FXPDPDUWDWPDLVXV
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QHFXQRVFX LGDUFRQWHPSRUDQLVDXFDUHDXWULWODSX LQWLPSGHHYHQLPHQWHOHPHQ LRQDWHvQ
ele.
7HRULDPRGHUQFXSULYLUHODDSDUL LDFU LORU,RV-5GDWHD]GLQDQLLC(DDILUPFWRDWH
DFHVWH FU L DX DSUXW FD R H[WLQV RSHU D XQXL UHGDFWRU FDUH D YUXW V VFULH R LVWRULH D
,VUDHOXOXLGHODLQWUDUHDvQ DUSkQODSLHUGHUHD ULLúLGXFHUHDvQH[LO$FHDVWOXFUDUHDIRVW

1
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

SURIXQGLQVSLUDWGHSULQFLSLLOHúLOHJLOHH[SXVHvQFDUWHD'HXWHURQRP'HDLFLúLGHQXPLUHDGH
LVWRULD GHXWHURQRPLVWLF FDUH VH G DFHVWHL RSHUH UHVSHFWLY GH GHXWHURQRPLVW FDUH VH G
rHGDFWRUXOXLHL8QLLDXWRULDILUPFDFHVWUHGDFWRUQXDIRVWXQVROLWDUFLHODDSDU LQXWXQHL
PLúFULVDXXQRUFHUFXUL,VWRULDGHXWHURQRPLVWLDUILSURGXVXOQXXQXLVLQJXUUHGDFWRUFLD
PDLPXOWRUUHGDFWRULQXPL LGHXWHURQRPLúWL(LYRUEHVFDVWIHO de cercuri deuteronomistice, de
R PLúFDUH GHXWHURQRPLVWLF VDX R úFRDO GHXWHURQRPLVWLF vQ HOHJkQG SULQ HD SH WR L DFHLD
FDUHDXDGHUDWúLSDUWLFLSDWODDFHVWFXUHQWGHLGHL$SDUL LDDFHVWXLIHQRPHQHVWHVLWXDWvQFX
SX LQWLPSvQDLQWHGHH[LOXOXLEDELORQLDQvQVUHGDFWDUHDLVWRULHLGHXWHURQRPLVWLFHDDYXWORF
vQ WLPSXO H[LOXOXL 'HVLJXU RSHUD QX D IRVW SURGXVXO LPDJLQD LHL FL OD UHGDFWDUHD HL
GHXWHURQRPLúWLL V-au folosit de izvoare mai vechi, unele dintre ele contemporane cu
evenimentele pe care leUHODWHD]
2SHUD UH]XOWDW QX HVWH R LVWRULH vQvQ HOHVXOPRGHUQDOFXYkQWXOXLFLPDLGHJUDERYL]LXQH
WHRORJLFDVXSUDLVWRULHL(VWHRLVWRULHWRORJLFVDXRWHRORJLHDLVWRULHLOXL,VUDHOGHODLQWUDUHD
vQ DU SkQ vQ H[LO (D VH GHRVHEHúWH GH LVWRULRJUDILD PRGHUQ ILLQGF DILUP F vQ VSDWHOH
HYHQLPHQWHORU LVWRULFH VW 'XPQH]HX FDUH GLULMHD] FXUVXO LVWRULHL $OWIHO PRGXO GH D OXFUD
HVWHDOLVWRULFXOXLVHXWLOL]HD]L]YRDUHúLGHFHOHPDLPXOWHRULHOHVXQWPHQ LRQDWH6HIDFH
OHJWXUD vQWUH FDX] úL HIHFWH VH HPLW MXGHF L GH YDORDUH VH IDF DSUHFLHUL DOH DFWLYLW LL
FRQGXFWRULORUSROLWLFLVHLQWHUSUHWHD]HYHQLPHQWHOHGLQSHUVSHFWLYDFHUFHWWRUXOXLVLWXDWODR
DQXPLWGLVWDQ GHHYHQLPHQWH

2
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Cartea Iosua

&DUWHDHVWHQXPLWGXSQXPHOHSHUVRDQHLFDUHMRDFUROXOSULQFLSDOvQLVWRULDFXSULQVvQHD
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conduce pe EvreivQ DUDVIkQWGXSPRDUWHDOXL6XE,RVXDHYUHLLDXFXFHULW DUDúLHDDIRVW
vPSU LWvQWUHFHOHVHPLQ LL

&XSULQVXOFU LL
&DUWHD,RVXDVHSRDWHvPSU LLvQGRXSU L
Cap. 1-11
'XS XQ FDSLWRO LQWURGXFWLY FDUH IDFH OHJWXUD FX VIkUúLWXO FU LL 'euteronom, Iosua trimite
LVFRDGH SHVWH ,RUGDQ vQ RUDúXO ,HULKRQ $FHúWLD VXQW DGSRVWL L úL VDOYD L GH R IHPHLH
GHVIUkQDWSHQXPH5DKDE,VFRDGHOHVHvQWRUFFXLQIRUPD LLGHVSUH,HULKRQSULPDFHWDWHGH
FXFHULW ,VUDHOL LL WUHF vQ FKLS PLUDFXORV ,RUGDQXO OD IHO FXP WUHFXVHU RGLQLRDU HYUHLL SULQ
PDUHD URúLH ,RVXD SRUXQFHúWH FD WR L LVUDHOL LL FDUH V-DX QVFXW GXS LHúLUHD GLQ (JLSW V ILH
FLUFXPFLúL$SRLVHVUEWRUHVFVHVUEWRUHVFSHQWUXSULPDRDUSDúWLOHvQ DUDIJGXLW0DL
întâi este cuceriWvQPRGPLUDFXORV,HULKRQXOvQFDGUXOXQXLFHUHPRQLDOFXUH]RQDQ HOLWXUJLFH
3RSXOD LDRUDúXOXLHVWHPFHOULWSRWULYLWLQGLFD LLORUOXLLRVXD'RDU5DKDEvPSUHXQFXFDVD
HL HVWH FUX DW HD HVWH XQD GLQ VWUEXQLFLOH 0kQWXLWRUXOXL- Mt 1,5). Cucerirea RUDúXOXL $L
HúXHD] ILLQGF $FDQ FRQWUDUGLVSR]L LHLGLYLQHSVWUHD]RSDUWHGLQRELHFWHOHGLQ,HULKRQ
'H DELD GXS SHGHSVLUHD OXL $FDQ FHWDWHD $L SRDWH IL FXFHULW /RFXLWRULL *KLEHHL VFDS
GDWRULW YLFOHúXJXOXL ORU GDU VXQW IFX L VFODYL OD FRUWXO VI 2 FRDOL LH GH UHJL HVWH vQYLQV
HYUHLLILLQGDMXWD LGH'XPQH]HXSULQRSULUHDVRDUHOXLSHFHUFDVOLVHSUHOXQJHDVFWLPSXO
GHOXSW
Capitolele 12-UHODWHD]vPSU LUHD ULLFXFHULWHvQWUHFHOHGRXVSUH]HFHVHPLQ LLPDLSX LQ
cea a lui Levi.,QILQDOXOFU LLVHPLQ LLOHGHODHVWGH,RUGDQFDUHDMXWDVHUODFXFHULUHDSU LL
GLQYHVWXO,RUGDQXOXLVXQWWULPLVHvQDSRLV-úLLDvQSULPLUHWHULWRULLOH&DSLWROXOFXSULQGH
testamentul lui Iosua, o recapitulare a celor întâmplate, cu îndemnul dHDLXELSH'RPQXOúLGH
a împlini legea lui Moise.
&DSLWROXO  HVWH HFRXO FDS  GLQ 'W úL SUH]LQW UHvQFKHLHUHD OHJPkQWXOXL vQ 6LFKHP
FLWHúWH &DUWHDVHvQFKHLHFXPRDUWHDOXL,RVXD

7LPSXOFRPSXQHULLFU LLúLLQWHQ LDFU LL

Cu privire la timpXOFRPSXQHULLFU LLVXQWGHPHQ LRQDWGRXRSLQLL$XWRULLFODVLFLVRFRWHVF


F DFHDVW FDUWH D IRVW VFULV FkQGYD vQWUH HSRFD OXL ,RVXD úL SHULRDGD UHJDOLW LL GDU QX PDL
WkU]LXGHGRPQLDOXL'DYLGFFLvQVHVSXQHF5DKDEHVWHvQFvQYLD 
Al LDXWRULREVHUYFH[LVWPHQ LXQLFDUHQXSXWHDXVSURYLQGHFkWGLQSHULRDGDFHORUGRX
UHJDWHGHFLGXSPRDUWHDOXL6RORPRQ,QVHYRUEHúWHGHPXQ LLOXL,XGDúLPXQ LLOXL
,VUDHODGLFVHIRORVHúWHGHQXPLUHDFHORUGRXUHJDWH,QVHPHQ LRQHD]FDVD'RPQXOXL
DGLFDWHPSOXOGLQ,HUXVDOLP
'H DFHHD PDMRULWDWHD DXWRULORU PRGHUQL VRFRWHVF F DFHDVW FDUWH D IRVW UHGDFWDW vQ H[LO HD
IFkQG SDUWH GLQ DúD QXPLWD LVW GWU 5HGDFWRUXO D DYXW OD GLVSR]L LH VXUVH PDL YHFKL XQHOH
dintre ele chiaU GLQ HSRFD MXGHFWRULORU DOWHOH GLQ HSRFD UHJDOLW LL $úD VH H[SOLF GDWHOH
cronologice contradictorii din carte (vezi mai sus).
,QWHQ LD UHGDFWRUXOXL LVW GWU D IRVW GH D DUWD F DUD IJGXLW GH 'XPQH]HX SDWULDUKLORU vQ
3HQWDWHXKHVWHGDWDFXPLVUDHOL LORU&DUWHD,RVXDWUHEXLHFLWLWFDXQHSLORJDO3HQWDWHXKXOXL
vQ FDUH VH vPSOLQHúWH IJGXLQ D SULPLULL ULL 3H GH DOW SDUWH FDUWHD WUHEXLH FLWLW FD XQ

3
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

SURORJ OD FU LOH UHJLORU XQGH VH UHODWHD] SLHUGHUHD ULL DUD SH FDUH 'XPQH]HX D GDW-o,
Israel a pierdut-RILLQGFQXDvPSOLQLWOHJHD'RPQXOXL

DUDúLGUHSWXOGLYLQDVXSUDHL"

3RWULYLW FU LL ,RVXD DUD D IRVW QX DWkW UH]XOWDWXO FXFHULULL PLOLWDUH D LVUDHOL LORU FkW GDUXO OXL
'XPQH]HX 'XPQH]HX D GDW DUD $FHVW OXFUX VH YHGH FKLDU úL vQ UHODWULOH GHVSUH FXFHULUHD
XQRUFHW L,QFD]XOFHW LL,HULKRQ I PDLvQWkL'RPQXOvLVSXQHOXL,RVXDÄ,DW(XYRL
GD vQ PkLQLOH WDOH ,HULKRQXO´ 3RSRUXO QX SXQH PkQD SH DUP FL LQH VOXMEH RILFLD] R
OLWXUJKLH LDU 'RPQXO OH G FHWDWHD vQ PkQ 6DX vQ OXSWD vPSRWULYD XQHL DOLDQ H DPRULWH
GHVFULVHvQFDSI'RPQXOVSXQHÄQXWHWHPHFL-am dat în mâinile tale”; apoi nu mor
DWk LGXúPDQLXFLúLGHVDELHFk LSLHUVXESORDLDGHSLHWUHODQVDWGH'RPQXOGLQFHU'RPQXO
RSUHúWHVRDUHOHSHFHUSHQWUXFDLVUDHOL LVILQDOL]H]HYLFWRULD
3RUQLQGGHODPRGXOPLQXQDWvQFDUHHYUHLLDXSULPLW DUDV-DFUHDWFRQYLQJHUHDFH[LVWXQ
GUHSWDOHYUHLORUDVXSUDDFHVWHL ULXQGUHSWSULPLWGHOD'XPQH]HXSHQWUXYHFLH$FHDVWLGHH
a constituit un idHDOVXSUHPPDLDOHVGXSFGHUHD,HUXVDOLPXOXLúLULVLSLUHDHYUHLORUvQOXPH
GXS DQXO  G+ 6SUH VIkUúLWXO VHFROXOXL  úL OD vQFHSXWXO VHFROXOXL  LGHHD UHYHQLULL
HYUHLORU vQ 3DOHVWLQD HVWH VXV LQXW GH PLúFDUHD 6LRQLVW 5HIDFHUHD ,VUDHOXOXL LVWRULF este un
LPSHUDWLYPDMRU6LRQLúWLLLQYRFDXvQVSULMLQXOUHYHQGLFULLORUGUHSWXOGLYLQDVXSUD ULL DUDD
IRVW SURPLV GH 'XPQH]HX SDWULDUKLORU úL DSRL GDW HYUHLORU vQ WLPSXO OXL ,RVXD 'HFL OL VH
FXYLQHORU,GHDOXOVLRQLúWLORUV-a realizat prin înfiLQ DUHDVWDWXOXL,VUDHOvQ,QFRQIOLFWXO
FDUHDL]EXFQLWvQFXUkQGúLFDUHGXUHD]SkQvQ]LXDGHD]LHYUHLLLQYRFGUHSWXOGLYLQDVXSUD
ULL DGXF %LEOLD SH PDVD WUDWDWLYHORU SRORWLFH 3DOHVWLQLHQLL OD UkQGXO ORU LQYRF GUHSWXO
primului venit. SSXQHLFVXQWvQUHDOLWDWHVWUPRúLLFDQDDQL LORUúL DUDDIRVWDORULDUHYUHLL
le-DXUSLW DUD
$PEHOHSR]L LLVXQWQHWHPHLQLFH&HDDSDOHVWLQLHQLORUHVWHRVSHFXOD LH&HDDHYUHLORUHVWHR
LQWHUSUHWDUHXQLODWHUDODFU LL,RVXD,QWU-DGHYUFDUWHD,RVXDVSXQHF'XPQH]HXDGDW DUD
GDUFDUWHD5HJLDUDWFXP'XPQH]HXDOXDW DUD'DF,VUDHODUILDVFXOWDWOHJHDúLQXDUIL
SUVLW SH 'RPQXO DUD DU IL UPDV D ORU 'H YUHPH FH QX DX IFXW-R 'RPQXO vQVXúL L-a
SHGHSVLW úL DVXSUD ORU V-DX DEWXW EOHVWHPHOH VFULVH vQ OHJH DUD D GDW- Domnul; Israel a
pierdut-o.

9LROHQ vQQXPHOHUHOLJLHL"

6XQWVFHQHGLQFDUWHD,RVXDFDUHúRFKHD]SHFLWLWRUXOPRGHUQ(YUHLLGLVWUXJGLQWHPHOLLXQHOH
FHW L FXFHULWH úL RPRDU WRW FH HVWH YLX vQ HOH GH OD RP SkQ OD DQLPDOH 6XQW PFHOUL L OD
JUPDG EUED L úL IHPHL WLQHUL EWUkQL úL FRSLL ,DU FHHD FH vQILRDU HVWH F PFHOXULOH VH
petrec la porunca lui Dumnezeu!
Asemenea pasaje l-DXIFXWSH0DUFLRQVDILUPHF'XPQH]HXO9HFKLXOXL7HVWDPHQWHVWHXQ
dumnezeu al urii, care nu are nimic comun cu Dumnezeul NT, Dumnezeul iubirii. Asemenea
pasaje i-DXIFXWSHQD LRQDO-VRFLDOLúWLVDILUPHF%LEOLDHYUHLORUSURSDJXUDúLH[WHUPLQDUHD
FHORUGHDOWHQHDPXULúLFH[WHUPLQDUHDHYUHLORUDUILRUHDF LHGHDXWo-DSUDUH
9RFLOHFULWLFHODDGUHVD%LVHULFLLúLDFUHúWLQLVPXOXLGLQXOWLPLLGHDQLLQYRFQXvQXOWLPXO
rând „caracterul profund violent, inuman al Bibliei”1 plecând de la Vechiul Testament, care ar
RIHUL ÄFKLSXO XQXL 'XPQH]HX LQWROHUDQW´ FDUH RUGRQ PFHOULUHD GH VXJDUL FRSLL IHPHL úL
EUED L2

1
F. Buggle, Denn sie wissen nicht, was sie glauben. Oder warum man redlicherweise nicht mehr Christ sein
kann. Eine Streitschrift, Hamburg 1992.
2
G. Lüdemann, Das Unheilige in der Heiligen Schrift. Die andere Seite der Bibel, Stuttgart 1996.

4
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

&kWHYDFRQVLGHUD LLVHLPSXQFXSULYLUHODVFHQHOHYLROHQWHGHVFULVHvQFDUWHD,RVXD
-HOHDSDU LQXQHLHSRFLvQFDUHYLROHQ DHUDODRUGLQHD]LOHL,VUDHOL LLQXDXIRVWQLFLGHFXPÄFHL
UL´ LDU FHOHODOWH SRSRDUH ÄFHL EXQL´ &DQDDQL L V-DU IL FRPSRUWDW OD IHO vQ DFHHDúL VLWXD LH
(JLSWHQLL EDELORQLHQLL úL PDL DOHV DVLULHQLL vL VXSXQHDX SH FHL vQYLQúL vQWUHJXOXL DUVHQDO DO
FUX]LPLLSHFDUHXQRPúL-OSRDWHvQFKLSXL6FHQHFDUHDVW]LQLV-DXSVWUDWvQEDVoreliefuri ne
DUDWvQYLQJWRULFDUH]GUREHVFFDSHWHOHFHORUvQYLQúLVXESLFLRDUHOHVWUSXQJRFKLLOHDUDW
GHPRQVWUDWLY FDSHWHOH WLDWH HWF ([LVW R GLIHUHQ  FXOWXUDO vQWUH OXPHD GH D]L úL FHD GH
DWXQFLvQWUHFHHDFHRPXOvQ HOHJHDDWXQFLSULQYRLDGLYLQúLFHHDFHvQ HOHJHDVW]L
-GLIHUHQ vQWUHFXOWXULH[LVWúLDVW]L&HLFDUHDX]EXUDWvQWXUQXULOHGLQ1<DXVSXVFDX
vQGHSOLQLWRPLVLXQHGLYLQ7HURULúWLLVLQXFLJDúLVHDXWRQXPHVFPDUWLUL(LXFLGvQQXPHOHOXL
$OODK'XSPRDUWHVXQWFRQYLQúLFDMXQJvQUDLXQGHvLDúWHDSWSOFHULOXPHúWLSHFDUHDLFL
nu le au.
- FDUWH ,RVXD D DSUXW vQ IRUP ILQDO vQ H[LO DGLF vQWU-XQ PRPHQW GH PD[LP VOELFLXQH
SROLWLF úL QD LRQDO DHYUHLORU,QSR]L LDGHXPLOLUH,VUDHOvúLGRUHúWHSHGHSVHFrunte pentru
YUúPDúL SH FDUH vQV QX OH SRDWH vPSOLQL 'HVFULHUHD FXFHULULL &DQDDQXOXL VH IDFH VXE
LPSUHVLD LVWRULHL UHFHQWH DYkQG vQ PHPRULH YLROHQ HOH DVLULHQLORU úL EDELORQLHQLORU
Evenimente petrecute cu sute de ani înainte sunt descrise cu imaginile obsedante ale istoriei
recente.

5
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

&DUWHD-XGHFWRUL

1XPHOHFRPSXQHUHDúLFXSULQVXOFU LL.

1XPHOHFU LLSURYLQHGHODDFHLEUED LFDUHGXSPRDUWHDOXL,RVXDúLSkQODLQVWDXUDUHD


UHJDOLW LL DX FRQGXV VHPLQ LLOH OXL ,VUDHO vQ SHULRDGH GH UHVWULúWH $FHúWLD VXQW QXPL L
MXGHFWRULLDUSHULRDGDORUSHULRDGDMXGHFWRULORU(LVXQWvQQXPUGHúLSHULRDGDvQFDUH
HLDFWLYHD]HVWHFXDSUR[LPD LHvQWUHDQLLúLv+$FWLYLWDWHDORUQXDIRVWFRQWLQX
FLvQWUHUXSWGHSHULRDGHGHSDFHúLOLQLúWH8QLLMXGHFWRULDXDFWLYDWvQSDUDOHOúLDFWLYLWDWHD
lor s-DGHVIúXUDWQXPDLvQFDGUXOXQRUDGLQWUHVHPLQ LL

 0DL HYLGHQW GHFkW vQ FDUWHD ,RVXD VH SRDWH REVHUYD F DFHDVW FDUWH HVWH FRPSXV GLQ
L]YRDUH GH SURYHQLHQ  GLIHULW úL GH H[WHQsiuni diferite. Unele dintre le sunt dezvoltate,
prezentând istoria unui personaj de-DOXQJXODGRXVDXWUHLFDSLWROH$OWHOHVHUHVWUkQJODXQ
singur verset. Aceste izvoare au fost preluate în cadrul istoriei deuteronomistice.
([LVW R VFKHP WHRORJLF FDUH VH UHSHW vQ FDUWH úL FDUH DSDU LQH UHGDFWRUXOXL LVUDHOL LL
SUVHVFSH'RPQXODWXQFLPkQLD'RPQXOVHDSULQGHvPSRWULYDORUúLWULPLWHQHDPXULVWULQH
DVXSUDORU$MXQúLvQSULPHMGLHLVUDHOL LLVWULJFWUH'RPQXO$WXQFL'XPQH]HXOHULGLFXQ
judHFWRU GLQ SRSRU FDUH V-L L]EYHDVF GH SULPHMGLD VWULQ 8UPHD] R SHULRDG GH SDFH
GXSFDUHHYUHLLXLWLDUGH'RPQXOúLHWDSHOHGHVFULVHPDLVXVVHUHSHW/LPEDMXOIRORVLWDLFL
FDúLvQDOWHSDVDMHGLQFDSLWROXO - úL -16) este deuteronomistic. Expresiile pe care
OHvQWkOQLPVXQWvQWkOQLWHDWkWvQFDUWHD'HXWFkWúLvQFHOHODOWHFU LDOH'WU+PDLDOHVvQ5
$VHPHQHD H[SUHVLL VXQW ILLL OXL ,VUDHO DX IFXW FHHD FH H UX vQ RFKLL 'RPQXOXL   DX
SUVLW SH 'RPQXO úL DX VOXMLW EDDOLORU úL DVWDUWHORU   DX PHUV GXS DO L GXPQH]HL
 ILLOXL,VUDHODXVWULJDWFWUH'RPQXO  $FHVWHH[SUHVLLFRUHVSXQGYL]LXQLLWHRORJLFH
GWU FRQIRUP FUHLD SFDWXO DQWUHQHD] GXS VLQH SHGHDSVD LDU SRFLQ D DGXFH LHUWDUHD
SFDWHORUúLL]EYLUHDGHSULPHMGLLWULPLVGH'RPQXO
$GDRVXULOHLVWRULFHGLQILQDOXOFU LLSURYLQGLQSHULRDGDUHJDOLW LLSHVHPQHGLQWU-RSHULRDG
vQ FDUH LQVWLWX LD DFHDVWD HUD vQF SULYLW IDYRUDELO FHHD FH V-a întâplat doar la începutul
UHJDOLW LL

3. CarWHD DUH R LQWURGXFHUH XUPDW GH LVWRULD ILHFUXL MXGHFWRU ,Q vQFKHLHUHD FU LL VH DIO
GRX DGDRVXUL LVWRULFH ,Q LQWURGXFHUH VH UHODWHD] SH VFXUW FXFHULUHD ULL FX VXFFHVHOH úL
LQVXFFHVHOH UHSXUWDWH GH LVUDHOL L $VWIHO VH HQXPHU R VHULH GH RUDúH Se care evreii nu le-au
putut cuceri sub Iosua (1,17-  3ULQWUH HOH RUDúHOH GH FkPSLH XQGH ORFXLDX ILOLVWHQLL FDUH
aveau care de fier. Deasemenea Ierusalimul, locuit de iebusei, care va fi cucerit de abia de
David.
$FHDVW VWDUH GH OXFUXUL HVWH H[SOLFDW vQWU-XQ SURORJ WHRORJLF DOFU LLvQFDSLWROXO-23.
'HúL 'XPQH]HX SURPLVHVH HYUHLORU WRDW DUD IJGXLQ D QX V-a realizat din motive bine
vQWHPHLDWH&FLGDFvQYUHPHDOXL,RVXDSRSRUXODVOXMLW'RPQXOXLGXSPRDUWHDVDLVUDHOL LL
DX SUVLW SH GRPQXO úL DX PHUV GXS DO L 'XPQH]HL 'H DFHHD 'XPQH]HX D PRGLILFDW
IJGXLQ DLQL LDOúLQXOH-DGDWWRDW DUD$FHVWHQHDPXULUPDVHvQ DUILOLVWHQLúLFDQDDQL L
YRUGXFHU]ERDLHvPSRWULYDHYUHLORUúLvLYRUVXSXQH$MXQúLvQSULPHMGLHLVUDHOL LLVWULJFWUH
Domnul, cerându-úL LHUWDUH $WXQFL 'XPQH]HX OH ULGLF XQ MXGHFWRU GLQ SRSRU FDUH V-i
L]EYHDVF GH SULPHMGLD VWULQ 8UPHD] R SHULRDG GH SDFH GXS FDUH HYUHLL XLW LDU GH
'RPQXOúLHWDSHOHGHVFULVHPDLVXVVHUHSHW
'XSDFHVWSURORJXUPHD]LVWRULLOHSURUSLX]LVHDOHMXGHFWRULORU8QLLVXQWQXPL LMXGHFWRUL
DO LL L]EYLWRUL   7UHEXLH V vQ HOHJHP F LHL HUDX SH GH-o parte figuri harismatice
FXSULQúL GH 'XKXO 'RPQXOXL   RDPHQL DOHúL GH 'RPQXO vQ VLWXD LL GH DPHQLQ DUH

6
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

PLOLWDU3HGHDOWSDUWHDFWLYLWDWHDORUQXHVWHXQDOHJLVODWLY$MXGHFDvQFD]XOORUWUHEXLH
vQ HOHVvQWU-XQVHQVPDLODUJGHDJXYHUQDDFRQGXFHDúDFXPHVWHIRORVLWWHUPHQXOMXGHFWRU
úLvQWH[WHOHGHOD0DUL
Despre unii dintre ei avem doar noWL HGHFkWHYDYHUVHWH$VWIHOGHVSUHùDPJDUQLVHYRUEHúWH
într-XQ VLQJXU YHUVHW 'HVSUH DO LL VH UHODWHD] FDSLWROH vQWUHJL 3ULPXO MXGHFWRU HVWH 2WQLHO
FDUHDSDUHvQFRQWH[WXOXQHLLQYD]LLDDUDPL LORU$RG (KXG L]EYHúWHSHLVUDHOL LGHRFRDOL LH
D PRDEL LORU DPRQL LORU úL DPDOHFL LORU 3ULQWU-R LVFXVLW VWUDWHJLH HO vO XFLGH SH UHJHOH
PRDEL LORU(JORQ$OWMXGHFWRUDIRVW%DUDFvQGUXPDWGHRSURRURFL 'HERUDFDUHYDL]EYL
VHPLQ LLOHGLQQRUGXO ULL6SULMLQLWGH'HERUD%DUDFYDvQYLQJH trupele canaanite ale regelui
,DELQ FRQGXVH GH JHQHUDOXOXL 6LVHUD OD UkXO &KLúRQ  6LVHUD YD IL XFLV GH R IHPHLH ,DHO ,Q
FDSLWROXOHSUH]HQWDWFkQWDUHD'HERUHLVRFRWLWXQXOGLQFHOHPDLYHFKLWH[WHDOH97
In capitolele 6-HVWHUHODWDWDFWLYLtatea lui Ghedeon, cel care vai fi supranumit Ierubaal ( a
VH MXGHFD D VH VIGL  SHQWUX F GLVWUXVHVH DOWDUXO OXL %DDO GLQ ORFDOLWDWHD VD 0DGLDQL LL úL
DPDOHFL LL FDUH LQYDGDVHU YDOHD ,]UHHO VH PFHOUHVF vQWUH HL GDWRULW VWUDWDJHPHLRULJLQDOHD
lui GKHGHRQ FX FHL  GH OXSWWRUL DL VL IFOLL DSULQVH QRDSWHD WUkPEL H úL RDOH VSDUWH 
'XSYLFWRULHSRSRUXOvLSURSXQHOXL*KHGHRQVGHYLQUHJHGDUHOUHIX]'LQDXUXOSULPLW
FD UVSODW *KHGHRQ IDFH XQ HIRG XQ RELHFW FXOWLF FDUH PDL WkU]LX D Gevenit prilej de
GHFGHUHUHOLJLRDVvQ,VUDHO
5HODWDUHD GHVSUH $ELPHOHF DUH SX LQ OHJWXU FX IDSWHOH MXGHFWRULORU DQWHULRUL (D GHVFULH
PDLGHJUDERvQFHUFDUHHúXDWGHLQVWDXUDUHDUHJDOLW LLvQ,VUDHO'XSPRDUWHDOXL*KHGHRQ
ILXOVXL$ELPHOHFvLFkúWLJSHORFXLWRULL6LFKHPXOXLGHSDUWHDVDúLVHSURFODPUHJH3HQWUX
DvQOWXUDRULFHSRVLELOFRQFXUHQ HOvúLXFLGHIUD LL6FDSGRDU,RWDPFDUHSULQWU-RIDEXO
GHVFKLGHRFKLLVLFKHPL LORUGHVSUHIUGHOHJHDODFDUHV-au asociat. In cele din uUPVHQDúWH
XQ U]ERL vQWUH ORFXLWRULL ]RQHL LDU $ELPHOHF HVWH UQLW PRUWDO vQ WLPSXO XQXL DVHGLX GH R
IHPHLH'XSSUH]HQWDUHDVXFFLQWDIDSWHORUOXL7RODúL,DLUXUPHD]GLQQRXRUHODWDUHPDL
OXQJGHVSUHMXGHFWRUXO,HIWD ,HIWDH $FHVWDHVWHILXl unei prostituate din Galaad, alungat de
IUD LLVLUHVSLQVGHFRPXQLWDWHGDWRULWRULJLQLLVDOH$OXQJDWHOVHDVRFLD]FXRDPHQLIU
FSWkLIRUPkQGREDQGGHWkOKDUL,QVFkQGDPRQL LLQYOHVFvQ DUEkWUkQLL*DODDGXOXL
persoane respectabile DSHOHD] OD VHUYLFLLOH FHOXL SH FDUH vO GHQLJUDVHU úL DOXQJDVHU
SURPL vQGX-L F vO YRU DFFHSWD GUHSW FRQGXFWRU úL GXS FH GXúPDQXO YD IL vQYLQV ,HIWD IDFH
vQV R IJGXLQ  vQ ID D 'RPQXOXL úL GHUXODUHD XOWHULRDU D HYHQLPHQWHORU DPLQWHúWH GH
motivulEDODGHLPHúWHUXO0DQROH(OSURPLWHFGDFYDvQYLQJHYDDGXFHMHUWI'RPQXOXLSH
FHOFDUHYDLHúLSULPXOGLQFDVDVD

31. Când mã voi întoarce biruitor de la Amoni LRULFLQHYDLHúLGLQSRU LOHFDVHLPHOHvQ


vQWkPSLQDUHDPHDYDILDILHURVLW'RPQXOXLúi-l voi aduce ardere de tot".
$SRLDYHQLW,HIWDHOD$PRQL LVmVHEDWmFXHLúLL-a dat Domnul în mâinile lui.
ùLL-a bãtut cumplit de la Aroer pânã spre Minit în douãzeci de cetã LúLSkQã la Abel-
&KHUDPLPúLDXIRVWXPLOL L$PRQL LLvQID DILilor lui Israel.
'XSmDFHHDDYHQLW,HIWDHvQODFDVDVDúLLDWmILLFDVDL-DLHúLWvQvQWkPSLQDUHFXWLPSDQH
úLMRFXULDFHDVWDHUDVLQJXUXOOXLFRSLOFmFLHOQXPDLDYHDQLFLEmLH LQLFLIHWH
ùLFkQGDYm]XW-RHOúL-DVIkúLDWKDLQDúLD]LV: "Ah, fiica mea! Tu m-DLUmSXVúLHúWL
dintre cei ce-mi tulburã biruin D(XPL-DPGHVFKLVJXUDSHQWUXWLQHvQDLQWHD'RPQXOXLúL
nu mã voi putea lepãda!"
36. Iar ea a zis cãtre el: "Tatãl meu, dacã tu L-ai deschis gura pentru mine înaintea
Domnului, fã FXPLQHFHHDFHDURVWLWJXUDWDGHYUHPHFH'RPQXODVmYkUúLWSULQWLQH
rãzbunarea împotriva Amoni LORUYUmMPDúLLWmL
$SRLD]LVLDUmúLFmWUHWDWmOVmX,DUWmQXPDLFHVm-mi faci: Lasã-mã douã luni, sã mã
GXFVmPmVXLSHPXQWHúLVm-mi plâng fecioria cu prietenele mele!"
7
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

38. Atunci el a zis: "Du-WHùLDOmVDW-RGRXmOXQLùLV-DGXVFXSULHWHQHOHVDOHúLúL-a


SOkQVIHFLRULDvQPXQ L
39. Apoi dupã trecerea celor douã luni ea s-DvQWRUVODWDWmOVmXúLDFHVWDDImFXWFXHDFXP
ImJmGXLVHúLHa n-a cunoscut bãrbat.
ùLV-a fãcut obicei în Israel, ca în fiecare an fiicele lui Israel sã meargã sã plângã pe
fata lui Ieftae Galaaditeanul patru zile pe an.

8QDOWPRPHQWGLQLVWRULDOXL,HIWDQHUHOHYH[LVWHQ DGLDOHFWHORUDGLIHUHQ HORUGHSURQXQ DUH


DOLPELLvQWUHGLIHULWHVHPLQ LL,QXUPDXQXLFRQIOLFWvQWUH*DODDGúLHIUDLPL L,HIWDvLvQYLQJH
SHHIUDLPL LúLvLXUPUHúWH3HFHLFDUHvLEQXLHDILHIUDLPL LvLVXSXQHXQXLWHVWGHOLPE
ùLDXOXDW*DODDGLWHQLLYDGXO,RUGDQXOXLGHOD(IUDLPL LúLFkQGYUHXQXOGLQ(IUDLPL L
zicea: "Îngãduie-PLVmWUHFDWXQFLRDPHQLLGLQ*DODDGvLUmVSXQGHDX1XFXPYDHúWL
Efraimit?" Acela rãspundea: "Nu!"
(LvQVmvL]LFHDX=LùLEEROHWHOvQVm]LFHD6LEEROHWFmQXSXWHD]LFHDOWIHO$tunci
HLvOOXDXúL-OMXQJKLDXDFRORODYDGXO,RUGDQXOXLùLDXFm]XWvQYUHPHDDFHHDGLQ(IUDLPL L
SDWUX]HFLúLGRXmGHPLL
'XS R VFXUW WUHFHUH vQ UHYLVW D MXGHFWRULORU ,E DQ (ORQ úL $EGRQ XUPHD] LVWRULD OXL
6DPVRQ SURYHUELDO SHQWUX IRU D VD GDWRUDW SRGRDEHL FDSLODUH GDU úL SHQWUX VOELFLXQHD VD
SHQWUXVH[XOIUXPRVFDUHvLYDDWUDJHúLVIkUúLWXO

,QDGDRVXULOHLVWRULFHVHUHODWHD]GRXFD]XULGRXH[HPSOHGHGHFGHUHPRUDOúLQHOHJLXLUH
LGRODWULD VHPLQ LHL OXL 'DQ úL QHOHJLXLUHD ORFXLWRULORU GLQ *KLEHHD $FHVWH VLWXD LL DX IRVW
IDYRUL]DWHGHIDSWXOFvQYUHPHDDFHHDQXH[LVWDXQUHJHvQ,VUDHOúLILHFDUHIFHDFHLVHSUHD
FHGUHSWVDXFHHDFHvLSOFHD

Din carte:
2EVHUYUL LVWRULFR-FULWLFH D  GLYLQLW L SJkQH GLQ FDUWHD -XG E) efodul lui Ghedeon; c)
jertfirea fiicei lui Iefta.

8
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

CU LOH6DPXHO

1XPHOHFU LORU

&U LOH6DXIRUPDWvQYHFKLPHRVLQJXUFDUWHÌPSU LUHDvQGRXFU LDSDUHGHDELDvQ


/;;FDUHRIHUGHDOWIHOúLXQWH[WPDLVFXUWDOFU LL3RWULYLW/;;QXPHOHFU LORUHVWH
5HJL,PSU LUHDvQFU LDIRVWSUHOXDWúLGH9XOJDWD'LQVHFvPSU LUHDvQGRXFU LD
IRVWSUHOXDWúLGHHGL LLOHELEOLHLHEUDLFH'DUvQWLPSXOOXL,RVLI)ODYLXDFHVWHFU LIRUPDXR
VLQJXUFDUWHFDGHDOWIHOúLFU LOH5&URQ(]UDúL1HHPLD
1XPHOHGHFU LOHOXL6DPXHOSURYLQHGHODIDSWXOFSRWULYLWWUDGL LHLUDELQLFHDXWRUXOFU LORU
D IRVW 6DPXHO LDU GXS PRDUWHD OXL SURIH LL 1DWDQ úL *DG DX FRQWLQXDW VFULHUHD ,XGDLVPXO
interpreta astfel nota din 1Cron 29,29- SRWULYLW FUHLD DFHúWL SURIH L DX DYXW R DFWLYLWDWH
OLWHUDU
6IkUúLWXOFU LL6HVWHRDUHFXPIRU DWvQWUXFkWHOvQWUHUXSHILUXOQDUD LXQLLGHVSUHVXFFHVLXQHD
ODWURQXOOXL'DYLGFDUHVHFRQWLQXvQ5FDSLWROHOHúL

&XSULQVXOFU LORU

&DUWH 6 vQFHSH FX UHODWDUHD QDúWHULL OXL 6DPXHO 3ULQ LL OXL (OFDQD úL $QD QX DYHDX FRSLL
$QDVHURDJVWUXLWRUúLMXUODFRUWXOVIkQWFDUHVHDIODvQùLORFGDFYDGDXQFRSLOvOYD
vQFKLQD'RPQXOXL6HQDúWH6DPXHOLDU$QDvOGXFHODcortul sfânt spre a-OGUXL'RPQXOXL
DSRL vQDO  R IUXPRDV FkQWDUH FDUH YD VHUYL GUHSW PRGHO PDL WkU]LX SHQWUX FkQWDUHD 6ILQWHL
Fecioare (Lc 1,46-  6DPXHO FUHúWH OD FRUWXO VIkQW OkQJ DUKLHUHXO (OL )LLL OXL (OL vQV QX
XUPHD] FLOH WDWOXL ORU úL SHUYHUWHVF VOXMLUHD SUHR HDVF ,Q DFHVWH FRQGL LL 6DPXHO HVWH
FKHPDWVILHXUPDúXODUKLHUHXOXL(OL,QFRQWLQXDUHVXQWGHVFULVHOXSWHOHLVUDHOL LORUvPSRWULYD
filistenilor. Intr-XQD GLQ OXSWH HYUHLL VXQW vQYLQúL úL XPLOL L FFL ILOLVWHQLL FDSWXUHD] úL
FKLYRWXO ,QV RGDW FH 6DPXHO DMXQJH SURIHW úL MXGHFWRU vQ ,VUDHO 'RPQXO vL YD DMXWD SH
LVUDHOL LV-LvQYLQJSHILOLVWHQL
&kQG6DPXHODvPEWUkQLWQLFLILLLOXLQXVHULGLFODvQO LPHDWDWOXL3RSRUXOvLFHUHGHDFHHD
lui Samuel un rege, mai aOHVFDPHQLQ DUHDILOLVWHQLORUQXvQFHWDVH,QFLXGDQHPXO XPLULLOXL
6DPXHOFDUHYHGHvQFHUHUHDSRSRUXOXLROH]DUHDWHRFUD LHL'RPQXOvOvQGUXPVXQJUHJH
SH 6DXO 6DPXHO VH UHWUDJH IFkQGX-L ORF OXL 6DXO OD FRQGXFHUHD SRSRUXOXL 2GDW FX HO
înceWHD] YUHPHD MXGHFWRULORU úL vQFHSH UHJDOLWDWHD vQ ,VUDHO 6DXO UHSXUWHD] YLFWRULL
vPSRWULYD ILOLVWHQLORU ,QV VXFFHVHOH OXL PLOLWDUH VXQW XPEULWH GH GRX IDSWH &X RFD]LD XQHL
OXSWH 6DXO QHUEGWRU QX PDL DúWHDSW SH 6DPXHO úL DGXFH HO MHUWIH 'RPQXOXL 'XS DOW
OXSW 6DXO FUX  YLD D GXúPDQXOXL úL SVWUHD] SDUWHD PDL EXQ GLQ SUDG GHúL WUHEXLD V
QLPLFHDVFDWkWSHYUúPDúLFkWúLOXFUXULOHORU6DPXHOLQWHUYLQHúLvLSURIH HúWHFYDSLHUGH
tronul în favoarea lui David.
Samuel îl unge rege pe tkQUXO 'DYLG 6DXO SUVLW GH 'RPQXO GHYLQH GHSUHVLY 3HQWUX D
FRPEDWH VWULOH OXL GH PHODQFROLH HVWH DGXV OD FXUWH 'DYLG FD V-L FkQWH OD KDUS (O DMXQJH
VFXWLHUXOUHJHOXL)DLPDOXL'DYLGFUHúWHGXSFHvOvQYLJHSHXULDúXO*ROLDW2GDWFXIDLPDOXL
'DYLGVSRUHúWHvQVúLXUDOXL6DXOvPSRWULYDOXL5HJHOHGHFLGHV-l omoare pe David. Dar fiul
OXL 6DXO ,RQDWDQ vO SUHYLQH SH 'DYLG V IXJ 6DXO vO XUPUHúWH vQ SXVWLXO ,XGHHL XQGH VH
UHIXJLDVH 'DYLG ,Q GRX UkQGXUL 'DYLG vL FUX  YLD D OXL 6DXO ,Q FHOH GLQ XUP 'DYLG VH
UHIXJLD]ODILOLVWHQLXQGHVHvQUROHD]FDPHUFHQDU'HFOLQXOUHJHOXLHVWHLQHYLWDELO(OSLHUH
vPSUHXQFX,RQDWDQvQWU-ROXSWvPSRWULYDILOLVWHQLORU
'XS PRDUWHD OXL 6DXO 'DYLG HVWH SURFODPDW UHJH vQ +HEURQ GH FWUH VHPLQ LD lui Iuda.
&HOHODWHVHPLQ LLvODOHJSHILXOOXL6DXO,úERúHW'DYLGvOvQYLQJHúLHVWHSURFODPDWUHJHúLGH
FHOHODWHVHPLQ LL(OFXFHUHúWH,HUXVDOLPXOGHODLHEXVL LúLVWDELOHúWHFDSLWDODUHJDWXOXLDLFL
(O DGXFH vQ ,HUXVDOLP FKLYRWXO VLPEROXO XQLW LL UHOLJLRDVH D SRSRUXOXL 'DYLG GRUHúWH V

9
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

FRQVWUXLDVF WHPSOXO vQV SURIHWXO 1DWDQ vL VSXQH F GRDU XUPDúXO VX YD UHDOL]D DFHDVW
OXFUDUH ,Q VFKLPE OXL 'DYLG 'RPQXO vL IJGXLHúWH SULQ SURIHWXO 1DWDQ F GLQDVWLD VD YD IL
YHúQLFRSURIH LHPHVLDQLFvPSOLQLWvQ+ULVWRV
,QFHSkQG FX FDSLWROXO  GLQ FDUWHD 6 VH UHODWHD] VXFFHVLXQHD OD WURQXO OXL 'DYLG 'DYLG
SFWXLHúWHFX%DWúHEDúLvOXFLGHSH8ULHVR XODFHVWHLD&RSLOXOFDUHVHQDúWHvQXUPDDFHVWHL
UHOD LL PRDUH 'XPQH]HX vL GUXLHúWH DOW ILX SH 6RORPRQ vQV YUVDUHD GH VkQJH vQ FDVD OXL
'DYLGFRQWLQX8QDGLQILLFHOHOXL'DYLG7DPDUDHVWHYLRODWúLUHSXGLDWGHIUDWHOHHLYLWUHJ
$PQRQ )UDWHOH EXQ DO 7DPDUHL $EHVDORP vO XFLGH SH $PQRQ FX SULOHMXO XQXL RVS 
$EHVDORPVHUHYROWDSRLvPSRWULYDOXL'DYLGúLUHYROWDLDSURSRU LLvQFkW'DYLGHVWHQHYRLW
VIXJGLQ,HUXVDOLP,QFHOHGLQXUP'DYLGUHYLQHLDU$EHVDORPHVWHXFLV1DUD LXQHDVH
vQWUHUXSH DLFL SHQWUX D IDFH ORF XQRU DGDRVXUL 8OWLPXO UHODWHD] SHGHDSVD GLYLQ vQ XUPD
recenVPkQWXOXLOXL'DYLG3XVvQID DJUHúHOLLVDOH'DYLGWUHEXHLVDOHDJVLQJXUSHGHDSVD
DQLIRDPHWHvQ DUWUHLOXQLVILHXUPULWGHGXúPDQLVDXWUHL]LOHGHFLXPvQSRSRU'DYLG
DOHJHFLXPD3ODJDVHRSUHúWHvQ,HUXVDOLPSH DULQDLHEXVHXOXL$UDYQD'DYLGFXPSUGHOD
DFHVWDORFXOúLDLFLYDILFRQVWUXLWWHPSOXOGHFWUH6RORPRQ

3ODQXOúLDXWRUXOFU LORU-2 Samuel

&U LOHSRWILvPSU LWHvQWUHLXQLW LOLWHUDUHPDLPDULLVWRULDOXL6DPXHOúLDOXL6DXO (1S 1,1-


15,35); A doua parte relaWHD]ascensiunea lui David (1S 16,1—6 XUPDWGHFDSLWROHOH-
FDUHUHODWHD]DGXFHUHDFKLYRWXOXLvQ,HUXVDOLPúLSURIH LDOXL1DWDQUHIHULWRUODFRQVWUXLUHD
WHPSOXOXL úL GLQDVWLD GDYLGLF  $ WUHLD SDUWH UHODWHD] succesiunea la tronul lui David. Ea
vQFHSH vQ FDSLWROXO  DO FU LL 6 úL VH vQFKHLH vQ 5  )LUXO QDUD LXQLL HVWH vQWUHUXSW GH
suplimentele din 2S 21-24.
$P VSXV F vQ LXGDLVPXO DQWLF DXWRUXO FU LORU HUD VRFRWLW 6DPXHO LDU 1DWDQ úL *DG DU IL
FRPSOHWDW VFULHUHD VD $VW]L PDMRULWDWHD DXWRULORU VRFRWHVF F DFHVWH FU L DX IFXW SDUWHGLQ
RSHUD GH GLPHQVLXQL DPSOH QXPLW LVWRULD GWU UHGDFWDW vQ VDX vQ H[LOXO EDELORQLDQ VDX vQ
SUHDMPDOXL,QVSU LOHSHFDUHUHGDFWRUXOOH-a unit sunt mai vechi. Este uimitoare exactitatea
descrierii eveniPHQWHORU úL SHUVRQDMHORU PDL DOHV vQ LVWRULD VXFFHVLXQLL OD WURQXO OXL 'DYLG
$VWIHO UHYROWD OXL $EHVDORP SDWUH D IL GHVFULV GH XQ PDUWRU DO HYHQLPHQWHORU 5HDOLVPXO FX
care sunt descrise personajele este un indiciu despre contemporanitatea autorului cu
HYHQLPHQWHOH&HOHWUHLSU LLVWRULDOXL6DPXHOúL6DXODVFHQVLXQHDOXL'DYLGODWURQSUHFXP
úL VXFFHVLXQHD OD WURQXO OXL 'DYLG DX SXWXW IL VFULVH DVWIHO GH DXWRUL FDUH DX IRVW PDUWRUL VDX
contemporani cu aceste evenimente. Redactorul deuteronomist a fRUPDW GLQ HOH R VLQJXU
VFULHUH LQWHUYHQLQG SH DORFXUL vQ QDUD LXQH 0kQD UHGDFWRUXOXL GWU SRDWH IL UHFXQRVFXW vQ
FDSLWROHOHúLGLQ6FFLUHJDOLWDWHDHVWHDLFLFULWLFDWFDúLFXPGHODEXQvQFHSXWHDD
IRVW FRQWUDU YRLQ HL GLYLQH 3U LOH PDL YHFKL VXQW vQV IDYRUDELOH UHJDOLW LL VRFRWLQG F
regele a fost ales de Domnul 1S 10,24).

0LHVWULDOLWHUDUDFU LORU6

&U LOH  6 UHSUH]LQW R FXOPH D DUWHL QDUD LXQLL ELEOLFH )UXPXVH HD OLWHUDU D FU LORU
Samuel a încântat nu numai pe teRORJL &RSLL ILLQG DVFXOWDP FX IDVFLQD LH OXSWD OXL 'DYLG
vPSRWULYD OXL *ROLDW SDUDEROD OXL 1DWDQ VDX GHVFULHUHD SODVWLF D PRU LL OXL $EHVDORP
'LYHUVH HSLVRDGH DX IRVW LPRUWDOL]DWH vQ DUW VDX OLWHUDWXU &U LOH  6 VH EXFXU GH PDUH
DWHQ LHGLQSDrtea unor critici literari care vin din afara teologiei.

10
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Istoria succesiunii la tronul lui David (2S 9-20. 1R 1- HVWHVRFRWLWFHDPDLUHXúLWQDUD LXQH
din VT. Autorul ei ne introduce atât de profund în lumea pe care o descrie, încât avem acces
la cele PDL LQWLPH PRPHQWH úL vQWkPSOUL OD IUPkQWULOH úL HPR LLOH LQWHULRDUH DOH
personajelor, la gândurile lor care nu întotdeauna coincid cu cuvintele lor. Nu în ultimul rând
IDVFLQD LDOHFWXULLVHGDWRUHD]DPELYDOHQ HLFDUHSHUVLVWvQMXUXOSHUVRQDMHORUDIDSWHORUúLD
UDSRUWULLORUODYRLDGLYLQ

/HFWXUSHQWUXH[HPSOLILFDUH 2S 12, 15-25


2S 13,1-22
2S 19,1-9

'XPQH]HXúLLVWRULDXPDQ

,QFHPVXUOXFUHD]'XPQH]HXvQIDSWHOHRDPHQLORU",VWRULDGHVFULVvQFU LOH6DPXHOHVWH
o istorieIRDUWHSURIDQ'XPQH]HXHVWHDPLQWLWUDULDUILUXOHSLFHVWUEWXWGHOXSWHSHQWUX
SXWHUHvQVR LWHGHYLROHQ úLFULP6XQWIDSWHFDUHJUHXSRWILSXVHvQOHJWXUFX'XPQH]HX
ùL WRWXúL UH]XOWDWXO DFHVWRU HYHQLPHQWH vQFXUFDWH úL REVFXUH HVWH YRLW de Dumnezeu, spune
autorul biblic. Domnul l-DDOHVSH'DYLGFDVDMXQJUHJHvQORFXOOXL6DXO6RORPRQQXHVWH
XUPDúXO OHJDO OD WURQXO OXL 'DYLG ùL WRWXúL vQ XUPD XQHL LVWRULL SOLQH GH OXSWH úL FULPH HO
DMXQJHSHWURQILLQGF'RPQXOvOLXEHúWH,QPLMORFXOLVWRULHLRDPHQLORUVHUHDOL]HD]SODQXULOH
OXL'XPQH]HX,VWRULDVHGHUXOHD]DSDUHQWIUQLFLRLQWHUYHQ LHGLYLQH[WUDRUGLQDU8QIDSW
XPDQHVWHFDX]DXQXLúLUGHDOWHHYHQLPHQWH7RWXOVHSHWUHFHFDRvQOQ XLUHILUHDVFGHFDX]H
úLHIHFWH2DPHQLLGLQDFHVWHLVWRULLQXVXQWPDULRQHWHDOHOXLGXPQH]HX(LDOHJFHHDFHIDFúL
IDSWHOHORUVXQWFXPSOLWHvQQLFLXQFD]SOFXWHOXL'XPQH]HX'DUUH]XOWDWHOHQXVXQWvQDIDUD
planului divin.
$WkWOXFUDUHDRDPHQLORUFkWúLOXFUDUHDOXL'XPQH]HXVXQWUHDOH'DUQXPDLFHDXPDQSRDWH
UHODWDW 1XPDL FHHD FH IDF úL FHHD FH vQGXU RDPHQLL QXPDL OXSWHOH ORU VXFFHVHOH úL
vQIUkQJHULOH ORU SRW IL UHODWDWH & 'XPQH]HX OXFUHD] vQ LVWRULH IDSWXO F HO vúL UHDOL]HD]
YRLQ DSULQIDSWHOHúLVXIHULQ HOHRDPHQLORUHVWHDGHYUDWúLWUHEXLHVRFUHGHP'DUWRFPDL
DXWRUXOXLFDUHFUHGHvQ'XPQH]HXvLYLQHJUHXVYRUEHDVFGHVSUH'XPQH]HXFkQGH[SXQH
faptele oamenilor.
3ULYLWUHWURVSHFWLYLVWRULDVHVXSXQHYRLQ HLGLYLQH2PXODUHOLEHUWDWHDGHDGHFLGHúLIDFHúL
QXvQWRWGHDXQDUH]XOWDWHOHVXQWSOFXWHOXL'XPQH]HX1LPLFGLQFHHDFHVHvQWvPSOvQVQX
HVWH vQ DIDUD DWRWúWLLQ HL GLYLQH 'DU SH FkW GH LPSOLFDW D IRVW 'XPQH]HX vQ DFHVWH LVWRULL SH
DWkWGHGHSDUWHUPkQHGHHOHvQDOWGLPHQVLXQHGHFkWFHDDYRLQ HLúLIDSWHORURDPHQLORU

11
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

&U LOH5HJL

1XPHOHFU LORU

$FHVWH FU L FXSULQG R SHULRDG OXQJ GLQ LVWRULD ,VUDHOXOXL FDUH vQFHSH FX XOWLPHOH ]LOH DOH
UHJHOXL'DYLGúLVIkUúHúWHFXH[LOXOEDELORQLDQ,QWRDWDFHDVWSHULRDGIRUPDGHJXYHUQDre a
HYUHLORU D IRVW UHJDOLWDWHD 'H DLFL úL QXPHOH FU LORU (OH UHODWHD] LVWRULD SULQ SUH]HQWDUHD
regilor care s-DXVXFIHGDWODWURQvQ,VUDHODSRLvQFHOHGRXUHJDWH
,Q YHFKLPH DFHVWH  FU L IRUPDX R VLQJXU FDUWH IDSW FH SRDWH IL FRQVWDWDW vQ PDQuscrisele
YHFKL HEUDLFH,PSU LUHDFU LLvQGRXDSDUHSHQWUXSULPDRDUvQ/;;'LQVHFROXO;YLHD
HVWHSUHOXDWúLGHFWUHELEOLLOHHEUDLFH

&XSULQVXOFU LORU

&DUWHD 5 vQFHSH SULQ UHODWDUHD VIkUúLWXOXL GRPQLHL OXL 'DYLG $MXQV EWUkQ úL QHSXWLQFLos,
WURQXO OXL 'DYLG HVWH UHYHQGLFDW GH ILXO VX $GRQLD 3URIHWXO 1DWDQ úL %DWúHED UHXúHVF V
FRQWUDFDUH]HFRPSORWXOOXL$GRQLDúLVLPSXQSH6RORPRQFDPRúWHQLWRUDOOXL'DYLG$MXQV
rege prin voia Domnului, Solomon îi cere într-XQ YLV OXL 'XPQH]HX V-i GUXLDVF
vQ HOHSFLXQH SHQWUX D SXWHD V JXYHUQH]H 1RXO UHJH vúL GRYHGHúWH vQ HOHSFLXQHD FX SULOHMXO
MXGHF LL GLQWUH FHOH GRX IHPHL ,Q FRQWLQXDUH 6RORPRQ HVWH SUHRFXSDW V FRQVWUXLDVF
WHPSOXO 'RPQXOXL 0HúWHULL úL OHPQXO SURYLQ GH OD +LUDP UHJHOH )HQLFLHL /kQJ WHPSOX
6RORPRQ vúL FRQVWUXLHúWH úL SDODWXO UHJDO 8UPHD] DSRL FRQVDFUDUHD WHPSOXOXL FX IUXPRDVD
UXJFLXQH URVWLW GH 6RORPRQ FX DFHVW SULOHM vQ FDS %RJ LD úL vQ HOHSFLXQHD OXL 6RORPRQ
HVWHOXGDWGHUHJLQDGLQ6DED,QVúLVRORPRQFDGHvQSFDWÌúLLDPXOWHIHPHLVWULQHFDUH
vODEDWODFUHGLQ DvQDO LGXPQH]HL6RORPRQDMXQJHVVOXMHDVF$VWDUWHL]HL DVLGRQLHQLORUúL
OXL 0LOFRP ]HXO DPRQL LORU (O ]LGHúWH ORFXUL vQDOWH SHQWUX DO L GXPQH]HL vQ DIDUD
Ierusalimului. Ca urmare a DFHVWXLSFDWUHJDWXOOXL6RORPRQYDILGLYL]DWGXSPRDUWHDVD
,QFHSkQG FX FDS  DO FU LL VH UHODWHD]W LVWRULD VFKLVPHL úL D FHORU GRX UHJDWH )LXO OXL
VRORPRQ 5RERDP VH IDFH XUkW GH VXSXúL SULQ ELUXULOH JUHOH SH FDUH OH SXQH 8Q DQXPLW
Ieroboam,GLQVHPLQ LDOXL(IUDLPVHULGLFvPSRWULYDOXL5RERDPúL]HFHGLQWUHVHPLQ LLvL
XUPHD] 'RDU GRX VHPLQ LL UPkQ ILGHOH OXL 5RERDP 6FKLVPD SROLWLF GXFH ODIRUPDUHDD
GRXUHJDWHvQQRUG,VUDHO VHPLQ LL LDUvQVXG,XGD VHPLQ LL 6FKLVPDSROLWLFHGXEODW
GH XQD UHOLJLRDV 3HQWUX D vPSLHGLFD SH VXSXúLL VL GH D PHUJH OD WHPSOXO GLQ ,HUXVDOLP
,HURERDP]LGHúWHXQWHPSOXOD%HWHOvQVXGXOúLXQXOvQ'DQvQQRUGXOUHJDWXOXLVX$LFLHO
LQWURGXFH FXOWXO YL HOXOXL GH DXU SUHWLQ]kQG F DFHVWD D IRVW FXOWXO VWUYHFKL DO LVUDHOL LORU OD
LHúLUHDGLQ(JLSW(OFRQVWUXLHúWHDSRLORFXULvQDOWHXQGHLQYHVWHúWHSUHR LGXSEXQXOVXSODF
&DUWHD5GHVULHvQFRQWLQXDUHLVWRULDFHORUGRXUHJDWHSUH]HQWkQGDOWHUQDWLYUHJLLGLQ,VUDHO
úL UHJLL GLQ ,XGD ,VWRULD UHJDWXOXL GH QRUG HVWH VWUEWXW GH X]XUSUL GH WURQ úL VFKLPEUL
YLROHQWH GH GLQDVWLL 8QXO GLQWUH HL =LPUL QX D DSXFDW V ILH UHJH GHFkW úDSWH ]LOH ,Q PRG
GLIHULW DX VWDW OXFUXULOH vQ UHJDWXO ,XGD XQGH UHJLL DX IRVW WR L GLQ GLQDVWLD GDYLGLF $XWRUXO
DSUHFLD] GRPQLD ILHFUXL UHJH SULQ SULVPD SROLWLFLL VDOH UHOLJLRDVH 7R L UHJLL OXL ,VUDHO VXQW
FRQGDPQD LSHQWUXFDXXUPDWSFDWXOOXL,HURERDPDGLFFXOWXOYL HOXOXLGHDXUúLFXOWXOOD
locurile înalte. Incepând cu Omri, capitala regatului de Nord va fi Samaria. Fiul lui Omri este
$KDE $FHVWD vO vQWUHFH vQ IUGHOHJL SH,HURERDP(OLDvQFVWRULHSH,]DEHODILLFDUHJHOXL
(WEDDO DO 6LGRQXOXL 'DWRULW DFHVWH DOLDQ H $KDE LQWURGXFH vQ ,VUDHO FXOWXO OXL %DDO
dumnezeul Izabelei, întrecându-O DVWIHO vQ IUGHOHJL UHOLJLRDVH SH vQWHPHLHWRUXO UHJDWXOXL GH
nord, Ieroboam.
)LLQGFFUHGLQ DvQ'RPQXOHDPHQLQ DWVGLVSDUGXPQH]HXvOWULPLWHSHSURIHWXO,OLHFDUH
vQID DOXL$KDEDQXQ RVHFHWFDSHGHDVSSHQWUXIUGHOHJHDUHJHOXL

12
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Urmea] DOWH PRPHQWH GLQ YLD D SURIHWXOXL ,OLH vQ WLPSXO VHFHWHL DVFXQGHUHD OD &KHULW úL
KUQLUHD SULQ FRUEL PLQXQLOH IFXWHODRYGXYGLQ6DUHSWD,QDFHODúLWLPSODSDODW,]DEHOD
SULJRQHúWHFUHGLQ DLDKYLVWúLXFLGHSHSURIH LL'RPQXOXL'XSWUHLDQL'umnezu îl trimite
SH ,OLH SHQWUX D SXQH FDSW VHFHWHL 3URIHWXO FHUH UHJHOXL $KDE R FRQIUXQWDUH vQWUH HO FD
UHSUH]HQWDQW DO OXL ,DKYH úL SURIH LL OXL %DDO 3H PXQWHOH &DUPHO 'RPQXO DUDW F HVWH
DGHYUDWXO'XPQH]HXWULPL kQGIRFGLQFHUFDUHDUGHMHUWIDOXL,OLH3URIH LLOXL%DDOVXQWXFLúL
GH ,OLH $KDE SDUH F DFFHSW UH]XOWDWXO FRQIUXQWULL ,Q vQFKHLHUH 'XPQH]HX WULPLWH SORDLD
DWkWGHPXOWDúWHSWDW
'DU ,]DEHOD FDXW V VH U]EXQH úL ,OLH WUHEXLH V IXJ 'H]DPJLW HO SOHDF VSUH PXQWHOH
Horeb, XQGH'XPQH]HXLVHDUDWvQJODVXOWFHULLúLvOvQGHDPQVXQJúLSH(OLVHLFDXUPDú
DOVXúLSH,HKXUHJH$FHVWDYDSXQHFDSWGLQDVWLHLOXL2PULúLYDGHVILLQ DFXOWXOOXL%DDO
6XQW SUH]HQWDWH DOWH GRX FD]XUL vQ FDUH ,OLH LQWHUYLQH vQ ID D UHJHOXi. El intervine cu ocazia
XQHLIUGHOHJLVRFLDOH XFLGHUHDOXL1DERW DQXQ kQGVIkUúLWXOOXL$KDE5HJHOHSLHUHvQXUPD
XQHLOXSWHvPSRWULYDVLULHQLORUúLHVWHXUPDWODWURQGHILXOVX2KR]LD
Aici începe cartea 2R. Regele Ohozia fiind bolnav, trimite VROLOD(FURQSHQWUXFD%DDOV-i
SUH]LFVRDUWD,QWHUYLQHGLQQRX,OLHFDUHvLDQXQ VIkUúLWXO
$FWLYLWDWHDSURIHWXOXL,OLHVHvQFKHLHDVWIHOúLHOHVWHUSLWODFHUvQWUX-un car de foc. Din car,
,OLH DUXQF KDLQD VD OXL HOLVHL VHPQ F DFHVWD vL YD IL PRúWHQLWRU 6XQW UHODWDWH DSRL IDSWHOH
SURIHWXOXL HOLVHL LQWHUYHQ LD VD vQ VSULMLQXO UHJHOXL ,RUDP SUHFXP úL PLQXQLOH SH FDUH HO OH
vQISWXLHúWH
8OWLPXO UHJH DO ,VUDHOXOXL D IRVW 2VHD (O UHIX] V SOWHDVF WULEXW DVLULHQLORU úL UHJHOH
Salmanasar porQHúWHvPSRWULYD6DPDULHL'XSXQDVHGLXGHWUHLDQL6DPDULDHVWHFXFHULWGH
UHJHOH 6DUJRQ vQ DQXO  /RFXLWRULL UHJDWXOXL VXQW GHSRUWD L úL vQ ORFXO ORU VXQW DGXúL
FRORQLúWLFDUHVHDPHVWHFFXSRSXOD LDUPDV8UPDúLLDFHVWRUDVXQWVDPDULQHQLL
InFRQWLQXDUHVHSUH]LQWLVWRULDUHJDWXOXL,XGDvQFHSkQGFXUHJHOH,H]HFKLD$FHVWDLDRVHULH
GHPVXULSHQWUXFRPEDWHUHDLGRODWULHLúLUHYLJRUDUHDFUHGLQ HLLDKYLVWH'LVWUXJHLGROLDOWDUH
VFRDWHúDUSHOHGHDUDPGLQWHPSOX2UGRQVUEWRULUHD3DúWLORUFHIXVHVHQHJOLMDWGHLXGHLúL
vL SULPHúWH OD VUEWRULUH úL SH UHIXJLD LL GLQ UHJDWXO GH 1RUG (O FRQVWUXLHúWH XQ FDQDO GH
DGXF LXQH D DSHL vQ ,HUXVDOLP 6H DQJDMHD] vQWU-R FRDOL LH vPSRWULYD DVLULHQLORU $VLULHQLL
DVHGLD] vQ ]LOHOH OXL ,HUXVDOLPXO ,Q XUPD UXJFLXQLL UHJHOXL úLDLQWHUYHQ LHLSURIHWXOXL,VDLD
'RPQXOvQGHSUWHD]SULPHMGLDDVLULDQ
)LXO OXL ,H]HFKLD 0DQDVH HVWH R vQFXQXQDUH D YLFLLORU úL IUGHOHJLORU UHOLJLRDVH R ILJXU
RGLRDVDLVWRULHLUHJDWXOXLGH65-18. Nepotul lui, ,RVLDHVWHH[DFWFRQWUDULXOVXFHO
PDLFUHGLQFLRVGLQWUHWR LUHJLL 5 
,QWLPSXOUHJHOXL,RLDFKLQvQDQXO1DEXFRGRQRVRUDVHGLD],HUXVDOLPXO5HJHOHVHSUHG
úLHVWHOXDWFDRVWDWHF$OWXULGHHOHVWHGHSRUWDWRPDUHSDUWHGLQORFXLWRULL ULLvQGHRVHEL
QRELOLPHD PHVHULDúLL úL RVWDúLL (VWH DúH]DW DOW UHJH 6HGHFKLD $FHVWD VH UVFRDO vPSRWULYD
EDELORQLHQLORU $VWIHO vQ  1DEXFRGRQRVRU DVHGLD] GLQ QRX ,HUXVDOLPXO vO FXFHUHúWH
2UDúXOúLWHPSOXOVXQWGLVWUXVHúLDUVH2ELHFWHOHSUH LRDVHGLQ7HPSOXVXQWGXVHvQ%DELORQ
8UPHD] R D GRXD GHSRUWDUH D SRSXOD LHL vQ %DELORQ &DUWHD VH vQFKHLH FX QRWD GHVSUH
UHLQWUDUHDvQJUD LLDUHJHOXL,RLDFKLQFDUHHVWHSULPLWODPDVDUHJHOXLEDELORQLDQ

$XWRUXOFU LORU5HJL

Istoria regilRU SUH]HQWDW vQ DFHVWH FU L VH H[WLQGH SH R SHULRDG GH DSURDSH  DQL (VWH
ILUHVF F DXWRUXO FU LORU QX D SXWXW ILPDUWRUODWRDWHHYHQLPHQWHOHGHVFULVHFLFHOPXOWODR
SDUWHGLQHOH3HQWUXDHYRFDRLVWRULHDWkWGHvQGHOXQJDWDXWRUXOIRORVHúWHizvoare.

13
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

3H XQHOH GLQ HOH OH QXPHúWH GLUHFW $VWIHO HO WULPLWH OD ÄFDUWHD IDSWHORU OXL 6RORPRQ´ SH FHL
FDUH YRU V úWLH PDL PXOWH GHVSUH vQ HOHSWXO UHJH 5   $XWRUXO D XWLOL]DW GRFXPHQWH
RILFLDOHDWXQFLFkQGvQúLUIXQF LRQDULLGHODFXUWHDOXL6ROomon. Alte izvoare utilizate au fost
DQDOHOHUHJDOH$GHVHDGXSFHSUH]LQWXQUHJHGLQUHJDWXOGH1RUGDXWRUXOIDFHWULPLWHUHOD
„cronica regilor lui Israel” (1R 14,19), respectiv la „cronica regilor lui Iuda” pentru regii din
regatul de Sud (1R 14,29). Cu alte cuvinte, autorul a extras din aceste cronici o parte din
LQIRUPD LLLDUFHORUFDUHGRUHVFVúWLHPDLPXOWOHLQGLFDFHVWHL]YRDUH
,Q JHQHUDO DXWRUXO LD GLQ DFHVWH VXUVH GRDU FHHD FH SUH]LQW LQWHUHV GLQ SHUVSHFWLYD VD
îndeosebi conduita reliJLRDVDUHJLORU,VWRULDRFRQVWUXLHúWHFXDMXWRUXOXQHLVFKHPHSHFDUHR
DSOLFILHFUXLUHJH$QXOvQFHSXWXOXLGRPQLHLSHQWUXXQUHJHGLQ5HJDWXOGH1HVWHGDWSULQ
FRPSDUD LH FX GRPQLD UHJHOXL GLQ UHJDWXO GH 6XG úL LQYHUV VH PHQ LRQHD] DSRL GXUDWD
doPQLHLúLQXPHOHPDPHLUHJHOXLXUPHD]DSUHFLHUHDGRPQLHLGLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHUHOLJLRVOD
VIkUúLW VH LQGLF HYHQWXDO vPSUHMXUULOH PRU LL úL VH WULPLWH OD FURQLFL SHQWUX LQIRUPD LL
VXSOLPHQWDUHGHVSUHYLD DUHJHOXLUHVSHFWLY([-8.
3HOkQJL]YRDUHOHDPLQWLWHPDLVXVH[LVWL]YRDUHSHFDUHDXWRUXOQXOHPHQ LRQHD]$VWIHO
VXQW QDUD LXQLOH GHVSUH SURIH L PDL DOHV FHOH GHVSUH ,OLH úL (OLVHL 6H SRDWH FRQVWDWD XúRU
GLIHUHQ D GLQWUH VWLOXO YLX DO DFHVWRUD úL VWLOXO VFKHPDWLF VWHUHRWLS DO LVWRULHL UHgilor. Aceste
QDUD LXQL vúL DX RULJLQHD vQ PHGLLOH SUHIHWLFH GLQ UHJDWXO GH 1RUG 8FHQLFLL SURIH LORUQXPL L
ILLL SURIH LORU DX FXOHV FXYLQWH IDSWH úL PLQXQL VYkUúLWH GH SULQ LL ORU GXKRYQLFHúWL ,OLH úL
(OLVHL )HQRPHQXO SRDWH IL DVHPQDW FX DSDUL LD DSRIWHJPHORU SULQ LORU GHúHUWXOXL vQ
FUHúWLQLVPXOSULPHORUVHFROH6-DXIRUPDWDVWIHOFLFOXULGHLVWRULLGHVSUH,OLHúLGHVSUH(OLVHL
$FHVWHDDXIRVWLQWURGXVHGHDXWRUXOFU LORU5HJLvQFDGUXOLVWRULHLGHVSUHUHJLLvQWLPSXO
FURUDHLDXDFWLYDW.
&X SULYLUH OD DXWRUXO FU LORU VH SDUH F HO D WULW vQ H[LOXO EDELORQLDQ ,Q 5 -30 el
GHVFULH SHVHPQH XQ HYHQLPHQW OD FDUH D IRVW FRQWHPSRUDQ UHLQWUDUHD vQ JUD LL D UHJHOXL
GHSRUWDW ,RLDFKLQ (O HVWH FHO FDUH D UHGDFWDW LVWRULD GHXWHURQRPLVWLF DGLF FU LOH ,RV-2R.
(VWH GRDU XQD GLQ LSRWH]HOH FDUH DILUPD DúDGDU  VLQJXU DXWRU VDXUHGDFWRUDOFU LORU2DOW
LSRWH] FRQVLGHU F RSHUD H UH]XOWDWXO PXQFLL D PDL PXO L UHGDFWRUL  VDX  ILHFDUH
continuând munca celui anterior).

5HJDOLWDWHDúLprofetismul

&U LOH5HJLORUVXQWFHOHPDLFULWLFHODDGUHVDUHJDOLW LLGLQWUHFU LOHLVWRULFH7HRORJLDFU LL


HVWH FHD GHXWHURQRPLVWLF 3HQWUX UHGDFWRUXO VDX UHGDFWRULL  GHXWHURQRPLVW UHJDOLWDWHD HVWH
YLQRYDW GH FDWDVWURID QD LRQDO GH H[LOXO DVLULDQ úL DSRL GH FHO EDELORQLDQ GH GLVSDUL LD
UHJDWXOXLvQILLQ DWGH'DYLG1XSROLWLFDUHJLORUHVWHFRQGDPQDWFLDWLWXGLQGHDORUUHOLJLRDV
7R LUHJLLDWkWFHLGLQ1RUGFkWúLFHLGLQ6XGVXQWHYDOXD LSHFULWHULLUHOLJLRDVH,QPVXUDvQ
care politiFD ORU UHOLJLRDV D FRUHVSXQV FX SUHVFULS LLOH GLQ OHJHD OXL 0RLVH VDX FX FRQGXLWD
UHOLJLRDVDOXL'DYLGHLVXQWDSUHFLD L'DUGLQWRWDOLWDWHDUHJLORUGRDUGRLSULPHVFXQYHUGLFW
SR]LWLY,H]HFKLDúL,RVLDDPELLGLQUHJDWXOGHVXG'HDX]LPYHUGLFWXOÄHODIFXWFHHDFH
HVWH UX vQ RFKLL 'RPQXOXL´ &HLODO L V-DX vQGHSUWDW GH OHJHD 'RPQXOXL ILH SULQ LGRODWULH
FXOWXO YL HOXOXL GH DXU LQWURGXV GH ,HURERDP vQ 1RUG OD %HWHO  ILH SULQ vQFKLQDUHD OD
GXPQH]HLVWULQLILHSULQvQILLQ DUHDGHDOWDUHvQDIDUD,HUXVDOLPXOXLFFLVLQJXUXOORFOHJLWLP
GHFXOWGXSOHJHH7HPSOXO&XOPLOHQHJDWLYHGLQDFHVWSXQFWGHYHGHUHVXQWUHJLL,HURERDP
$KDEúL0DQDVH 6 3FDWHOHDGXQDWHDOHUHJLORUDXGXVODURELH&RPHQWDULXOIFXWGHDXWRU
în 2R 17,7-23 repreziQW R VLQWH] LVWRULF úL R UHIOHF LH WHRORJLF DVXSUD LVWRULHL FHORU GRX
regate.
2SXVXOUHJDOLW LL–LQVWLWX LDFDUHDGXVSH,VUDHOvQSFDWvOUHSUH]LQWSURIH LL3RWULYLWOHJLL
GHXWHURQRPLFH UHIHULWRDUH OD UHJL 'HXW  úX  PRQDUKLL DYHDX vQtâi de toate

14
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

UHVSRQVDELOLW LID GHSRSRUÌQUHDOLWDWHSURIH LLVXQWFHLFDUHDXDF LRQDWFDDGHYUD LUHJLDL


OXL ,VUDHO FFL SVWUkQG FDOHD FUHGLQ HL DGHYUDWH úL vQGHPQkQG OD DVFXOWDUHD OXL 'XPQH]HX
3ULQHL'XPQH]HXDGDWRúDQVOXL,VUDHO'DFDUILDVFXOWDWGHSURIH LVRDUWDSRSRUXOXLDUIL
fost alta.

/HFWXU5-23

15
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

&U LOHSURIHWLFH

Profetismul în general

'HILQL LDSURIHWLVPXOXL6HQVXOFXYkQWXOXLÄSURIHW´7HUPLQRORJLDIRORVLWvQ97

(YDQJKHOLLOH QH PHQ LRQHD] F FRQWHPSRUDQLL Mântuitorului îl credeau a fi un profet.


,QY WXUDGHFUHGLQ RUWRGR[PUWXULVHúWHF,LVXV+ULVWRVDvQGHSOLQLWúLVOXMLUHDGHSURIHW
DOWXULGHFHDGHvPSUDWúLGHSUHRW5H]XOWGHDLFLFSURIHWLVPXOVDXVOXMLUHDSURIHWLFVXQW
chestiuni importanWH SHQWUX XQ FUHúWLQ 'DU FH HVWH SURUSLX]LV SURIHWLVPXO VDX FH HVWH XQ
profet?
Prin profetism vQ HOHJHP XQ IHQRPHQ UHOLJLRV FDUDFWHULVWLF SRSRUXOXL ,VUDHO FDUH vQFHSH
DSUR[LPDWLYvQSHULRDGDMXGHFWRUXOXL6DPXHOúLVHvQFKHLHGXSH[LO,QDFFHS LXQHDPRGHUQ
D FXYkQWXOXL SURIHW vQVHDPQ FODUY]WRU DGLF R SHUVRDQ FDUH YHGH úL SUH]LFH YLLWRUXO
$FHDVWVHPQLILFD LHHVWHvQVRvQJXVWDUHDVHQVXOXLLQL LDOSHFDUHvOUHGGRDUSDU LDO(DVH
SRWULYHúWH GRDU SHQWUX FXYkQWXO prooroc, care vine din limba JUHDF SUR-oraw, a vedea în
viitor.

Cuvântul profet HVWH GH RULJLQH JUHDF prophetes). El apare în LXX ca echivalentul
cuvântului ebraic nabi’,QHEUDLFQDELHVWHXQXOGLQWUHWHUPHQLLIRORVL LSHQWUXSURIHW1XHVWH
singurul, cum vom vedea, dar este cHOPDLIUHFYHQW1DELDUHXQVHQVSDVLYúLXQXODFWLY
a) FHOFUXLDLVHYRUEHúWHFDUHDXGHRYRFHOXQWULF
b) FHOFDUHYHVWHúWH

Deci nabi-profetul-HVWHFHOFDUHYHVWHúWHFHHDFH'XPQH]HXL-DVSXV3URIHWXOFHOFDUHYHVWHúWH
cuvântul lui Dumnezeu. Acest senVDOFXYkQWXOXLSURIHWUH]XOWúLGLQ([-2, unde Domnul
îi spune lui Moise:

 
,DW (XIDFGLQWLQHXQGXPQH]HXSHQWUX)DUDRQLDU$DURQIUDWHOHW Xv LYDILSURIHW

  
7XGDUYHLJU LOXL$DURQWRDWHFkWHv LYRLSRUXQFLLDU$DURQIUDWHOHW XYDVSXQHOXL)DUDRQFDV ODVH

  
SHILLLOXL,VUDHOV LDV GLQS PkQWXOOXL 0 -A-F=Dumnezeu-Nabi-Israel)

3URIHWXO HVWH DúDGDU YRUELWRUXO OXL 'XPQH]HX FDUH YHVWHúWH SRSRUXOXL FHHD FH L-a spus
'XPQ]HX 3URIHWXO HVWH QX DWkW SUH]LFWRU DO YLLWRUXOXL FkW PDL ales vestitor al voiei lui
Dumnezeu.

,QVQDELQXHVWHVLQJXUXOFXYkQWGLQ97IRORVLWSHQWUXSURIH L,QWkOQLPúLDOWHFXYLQWH

1) UR¶HKúLKR]HK Y]WRUúLSULYLWRU 3ULQDFHúWLWHUPHQLVHDUDWFSHUVRDQHOHvQFDX]


OL VH GHVFRSHUHD YRLD GLYLQ SULQ LPDJLQL SULQ YL]LXQL %DODDP HVWH QXPLW Y]WRU
(Num 24,17- LDW vO YG GDU vQF QXHvO]UHVFGDUQXGHDSURDSHRVWHDUVDUHGLQ
,DFREXQWRLDJVHULGLFGLQ,VUDHO 
2) Omul lui Dumnezeu e folosit pentru persoane înzestrate cu puteri de a vindeca (Elisei
2R 5; Ilie 1R 17,17)

Diversitatea fenomenului profetic

16
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

'HúLWHUPHQLLVXQWOLPLWD LIHQRPHQXOODFDUHVHUHIHUHVWHPXOWPDLFRPSOH[,QSULPXOUkQG
H[LVW SURIH L FDUH VFULX SURIH L VFULLWRUL  úL SURIH L FDUH QX DX VFULV SURIH L RUDWRUL  $SRL
cuvântul profet-QDELHIRORVLWSHQWUXEUED LGDUúLSHQWUXIHPHL0LULDP'HERUD+XOGD $X
H[LVWDW úL IHPHL-SURIHWHVH $SRL SURIHWXO $PRV SULPXO SURIHW VFULLWRU UHIX] V ILH DSHODW
nabi-SURIHW $P 'HFLFXYkQWXODUHXQHRULúLFRQWD LHQHJDWLYvQ VT.
7RDWH DFHVWH REVHUYD LL QH LQGLF FRPSOH[LWDWHD IHQRPHQXOXL GHVHPQDW SULQ FXYkQWXO
profetism.
,Q FRQWLQXDUH YRP SUH]HQWD FkWHYD WLSXUL GH SURIH L FkWHYD FDWHJRULL GH DVHPHQHD SHUVRDQH
FDUHDSDUvQLVWRULD,VUDHOXOXLúLVXQWDPLQWL LvQFU LOH97

IQSULPXOUkQGGLVWLQJHPvQWUHGRXFDWHJRULLPDULSURIH LVFULLWRULúLFU LSURIHWLFHUHVSHFWLY


SURIH LFDUHQXDXVFULV,QFDGUXODFHVWRUDGLQXUP97DPLQWHúWH

a) 3URIH LFDUHWULHVFvQFRPXQLW L6XQWQXPL LILLLSURIH LORUúLvLvQWkOQLPvQUHODWrile


GHVSUHSURIHWXO,OLHúLPDLDOHV(OLVHL 5 7ULHVFvQFRPXQLW LXQLLVXQWFVWRUL L
vúL DVLJXU WUDLXO SULQ PXQF FD DJULFXOWRULVDXSVWRUL8QHRULFDGvQH[WD]SURYRFDW
VDXQHSURYRFDWúLSURIH HVF 6DP
b) 3URIH LLFXOWLFL, din jurul teSPSOHORU6XQWSURIH LGHFDULHU)XQF LDORUSULQFLSDOHUD
GHPLMORFLWRULúLHUDXVROLFLWD LvQVLWXD LLFRWLGLHQHERDOEXQVWDUHHWF)XQF LRQHD]
DOWXUL GH SUHR L GH DFHHD VXQW DPLQWL L DGHVHD vPSUHXQ vQ VHQV FULWLF 0L  ,HU
2,26)
c) 3URIH Li de curte 6XQW LQVWLWX LRQDOL VWDX vQ VOXMED UHJHOXL úL UROXO ORU H GH D VSULMLQL
SROLWLFD DFHVWXLD IJGXLQG ELQHOH EXQVWDUHD úL RSULQG QHQRURFLUHD 6XQW VROLFLWD L
vQDQWH GH vQFHSHUHD XQXL U]ERL OD vQVFXQDUHD QRXOXL UHJH OD QXQWD OXL OD QDúWHrea
PRúWHQLWRUXOXL UHJDO HWF 0DULL SURIH L FD GH H[HPSOX ,HUHPLD YD LQWUD vQ FRQIOLFW
deschis cu ei, acuzându-LFQXYHVWHVFYRLD'RPQXOXLFLYRLDRPXOXL(LVXQWGHIDSW
DúDQXPL LLSURIH LPLQFLQRúL 5-OHFWXU $PRVUHIX]VILHLGHQWLILFDWFX ei (Am
7,14).
d) 3URIH LL OLEHUL $FHúWLD VXQW FHL PDL LPSRUWDQ L GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH UHOLJLRV (L VXQW
SURIH LL DXWHQWLFL 6XQW YRFD L DGLF QX VH IDF HL VLQJXUL SURIH L FL 'XPQH]HX vL
FKHDP OH G VDUFLQD GH D YRUEL vQ QXPHOH 6X 'H DFHHD HL YRUEHVF GRar când le
YRUEHúWH 'XPQH]HX &kQG 'RPQXO QX OH YRUEHúWH HL WDF 'H DFHHD HL QX IDF SDUWH
dintr-RDQXPLWFODVVRFLDO$PRVHUDSVWRUFkQGHFKHPDWGH'XPQH]HX,VDLDIDFH
SDUWH GLQ FHUFXULOH QRELOH VDSLHQ LDOH GLQ ,HUXVDOLP ,HUHPLD HVWH ILX GH SUHRW FD úL
,H]HFKLHO (L DSDU DWXQFL FkQG VXQW WULPLúL GH 'XPQH]HX vQGHRVHEL DFROR XQGH
LQVWLWX LLOH VWDWXOXL PRUDYXULOH úL FUHGLQ D VXQW SHUYHUWLWH 'H DFHLD HL VXQW FHL PDL
DGHVHD FULWLFL DL LQVWLWX LLORU RILFLDOH &KLDU úL ,VDLD DSURSLDW DO FXU LL GLQ ,Hrusalim,
FRQVLOLHUDOPDLPXOWRUUHJLFULWLFYHKHPHQWFHHDFHVHSHWUHFHDLFL3HQWUXDWLWXGLQHD
ORURS]L LRQDOVXQWEDWMRFRUL LPDUJLQDOL]D LúLSHUVHFXWD L9LD DORUHVWHXQPDUWLULX
SRWULYLWWUDGL LHLLXGDLFHPXO LGLQWUHHLDXPXULWFDPDUWLUL,JQRUD LvQWLPSXOYLH LLHL
DXIRVWDFFHSWD LSRVWPRUWHPvQHSRFDH[LOXOXLFkQGLVWRULDDFRQILUPDWPHVDMXOORU
$FXP vQFHSH FXOHJHUHD FXYLQWHORU ORU WUDQVPLVH GH XFHQLFL úL DVWIHO DSDU FU LOH
profetice canonice.

9RFD LDSURIH LORUúLLPSHUDWLYXO misiunii profetice

0UH LD VOXMLULL SURIHWLFH VH REVHUY FKLDU GH OD vQFHSXWXO HL GLQ FOLSD YRFD LHL SURIH LORU
3URIH LLVXQWFKHPD LGH'XPQH]HXúLPRPHQWXODFHVWDHVWHXQXOVXEOLPVIkQWúLFXWUHPXUWRU
SHQWUXRP3URIH LLDXVLP LWDXDX]LWWDLQLFvocea lui Dumnezeu, Care i-a chemat la slujire.
0RPHQWXOYRFD LHLO-i s-DLPSULPDWDGkQFvQFRQúWLLQ úLOH-DUPDVSXUXUHDYLXvQPHPRULH

17
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

$YHP vQ FU LOH SURIHWLFH  GHVFULHUL GH YRFD LL FHOHEUH FHD D OXL ,VDLD FDS DOXL,HUHPLD
FDS úLDOXL,ezechiel (cap.1-3).

Is 6:

 
 ÌQ DQXO PRU LL UHJHOXL 2]LD DP Y ]XW SH 'RPQXO VWkQG SH XQ VFDXQ vQDOW úL P UH  úL SRDOHOH KDLQHORU /XL

umpleau templul.
  
 6HUDILPL VW WHDX vQDLQWHD /XL ILHFDUH DYkQG FkWH úDVH DULSL FX GRX  vúL DFRSHUHDX IH HOH FX GRX  SLFLRDUHOH


LDUFXGRX ]EXUDX

 
 ùL VWULJDX XQXO F WUH DOWXO ]LFkQG 6IkQW VIkQW VIkQW HVWH 'RPQXO 6DYDRW SOLQ HVWH WRW S PkQWXO GH VODYD

Lui!"

'LQSULFLQDDFHVWRUVWULJ WHSRU LOHVH]JXGXLDXGLQ k kQHOHORULDUWHPSOXOV -a umplut de fum.

 ùL DP ]LV 9DL PLH F  VXQW SLHUGXW 6XQW RP FX EX]H VSXUFDWH úL ORFXLHVF vQ PLMORFXO XQXL SRSRU FX EX]H

-
QHFXUDWHùLSH'RPQXO6DYDRW/ DPY ]XWFXRFKLLPHL 

$WXQFLXQXOGLQWUHVHUDILPLD]EXUDWVSUHPLQHDYkQGvQPkQDVDXQF UEXQHSHFDUHvOOXDVHFXFOHúWHOHGHSH

jertfelnic.
ùLO-DDSURSLDWGHJXUDPHDúLD]LV,DWV-DDWLQVGHEX]HOHWDOHúLYDúWHUJHWRDWHSFDWHOHWDOHúLIUGHOHJLOH

WDOHOHYDFXU  L

 ùL DP DX]LW JODVXO 'RPQXOXL FDUH ]LFHD 3H FLQH vO YRL WULPLWH úL FLQH YD PHUJHSHQWUX1RL"ùLDPU VSXQV 
,DW -PWULPLWH-PSHPLQH
- -  
 ùL (O D ]LV 'X WH úL VSXQH SRSRUXOXL DFHVWXLD &X DX]XO YH L DX]L úL QX YH L vQ HOHJH úL XLWkQGX Y  Y  YH L

XLWDGDUQXYH LYHGHD

 -
& V DvQYkUWRúDWLQLPDSRSRUXOXLDFHVWXLDúLFXXUHFKLOHVDOHJUHXDDX]LWúLRFKLLV LL  -a închis, ca nu cumva
      
V YDG FXRFKLLúLFXXUHFKLOHV DXG úLFXLQLPDV vQ HOHDJ úLV VHvQWRDUF OD0LQHúLV  -l vindec".
 ùL DP ]LV 3kQ FkQG 'RDPQH $WXQFL (O PL-D UVSXQV 3kQ FkQG FHW LOH YRU IL SXVWLLWH úL YRU UPkQH

IUORFXLWRULúLFDVHOHIURDPHQLúLSPkQWXOSXVWLX

3kQFkQG'RPQXOYDL]JRQLSHRDPHQLúLSXVWLLUHDYDILPDUHvQPLMORFXODFHVWHL UL

 ùL GDF YD UPkQH vQF XQXO GLQ ]HFH úL DFHOD YD IL KU]LW IRFXOXL FD úL WHUHELQWXO úL VWHMDUXO DOH FURU

WUXQFKLXULVXQWWUkQWLWHODSPkQW'LQEXWXFXOUPDVYDOVWULRPOGL VIkQW

Ier 1:

4. Fost-DFXYkQWXO'RPQXOXLFWUHPLQHúLPL-a zis:
 - -
 ÌQDLQWH GH D WH IL ] PLVOLW vQ SkQWHFH WH DP FXQRVFXW úL vQDLQWH GH D LHúL GLQ SkQWHFH WH DP VILQ LW úL WH -am
rânduit prooroc pentru popoare".
 
,DUHXDPU VSXQV2'RDPQH'XPQH]HXOHHXQXúWLXV YRUEHVFSHQWUXF VXQWvQF WkQ U   
 -    
 'RPQXO vQV  PL D ]LV 6  QX ]LFL 6XQW vQF  WkQ U F FL ODFk LWHYRLWULPLWHODWR LYHLPHUJHúLWRWFH - LYRL
porunci vei spune.

(OH QH DUDW FODU F VOXMLUHD SURIHWLF SHQWUX HL QX D IRVW R PHVHULH R SURIHVLH FD vQ FD]XO
DOWRUD $GHYUDWD VOXMLUH SURIHWLF QX HVWH FXWDW GH SURIHW FL SURIHWXO VH WHPH H]LW V R
DFFHSWH )LLQGF H FRQúWLHQW F H RP LPSHUIHFW úL SFWRV QHYUHGQLF GH DFHVW PDUH GDU
dumnezeiesc.
'HDVHPHQHD VH REVHUY GLQ FHOH WUHL PUWXULL DOH YRFD LHL F SURIHWXO VH VXSXQH GHFL]LHL OXL
'XPQH]HXILLQGDWkWGHFRSOHúLWGHLPSHUDWLYXOPLVLXQLLSULPLWHvQFkWQLFLPFDUQXVHPDL
SRDWH RSXQH 'H DFHDVW PLVLXQH QX SRDWH V IXJ GH VOXMLUHD SURIHWLF QX SRDWH V VH
eschiveze.
Am 3,8: 'DFOHXOPXJHúWHFLQHQXVHYDvQVSLPkQWDúLGDF'RPQXOJULHúWHFLQHQXYDSURIH L
„Confesiunile lui Ieremia” 20,7f.: Doamne, Tu m-DL DSULQV úL LDW VXQW vQIOFUDW 7X HúWL PDL WDUH GHFkW
PLQHúLDLELUXLWLDUHXvQWRDWH]LOHOHVXQWEDWMRFRULWúLILHFDUHvúLEDWHMRFGHPLQH

 
& GHFkQGYRUEHVFVFR kQGVWULJ WHvPSRWULYDVLOQLFLHLúLURVWLQGSXVWLLUHD cuvântul Domnului s-DSUHIFXWvQ

RFDU SHQWUXPLQHúLvQEDWMRFXU ]LOQLF   
9. De aceea mi-DP]LV1XYRLPDLSRPHQLGH(OúLQXYRLPDLJULvQQXPHOH/XL'DULDWHUDvQLQLPDPHD
 -OvQIUkQH]úLQ-am putut.
FHYDFDXQIHOGHIRFDSULQVvQFKLVvQRDVHOHPHOHúLHXP VLOHDPV

18
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

5HYHOD LDúLIRUPDPHVDMXOXLSURIHWLF

Cel mai frecvent, profetul aude în interior vocea lui Dumnezeu, cuvintele tainice pe care
'RPQXO L OH GHVFRSHU $FHVWH FXYLQWH HO OH URVWHúWH vQ ID D GHVWLQDWDULORU vQFHSkQG FX R
foUPXOLQWURGXFWLY
Fost-DFXYkQWXO'RPQXOXLFWUHPLQH: sau $úDDVSXV VSXQH 'RPQXO:
)RUPXOD DúD D VSXV [ HUD IRORVLW vQ DQWLFKLWDWH GH VROLL FDUH WUDQVPLWHDX R VROLH RILFLDO
3URIHWXOVHFRQFHSHDVWIHOSHVLQHvQVXúLFDVROXOOXL'XPQH]HX
Un miMORFPDLSX LQRELúQXLWDOFRPXQLFULLYRLHLGLYLQHHUDYL]LXQHD5DUVHDPLQWHúWHYLVXO
3ULPLQG UHYHOD LD SURIHWXO QX HVWH GRDU XQ LQVWUXPHQW UHFHSWLY SXU SDVLY )LHFDUH SURIHW vúL
DUH LQGLYLGXDOLWDWHD VD FDUH FRQOXFUHD] FX DF LXQHD GLYLQ ,QWU-un fHO VXQ FXYkQWXO
Domnului în gura lui Isaia, altfel în a lui Ieremia, de ex. Sau Mi 2,1-3 se vede conlucrarea
vQWUHFRQVWDWDUHDRPXOXLúLVHQWLQ D'RPQXOXL
 
9DLGHFHLFHFXJHW JkQGXULVLOQLFHVWkQGvQDúWHUQXWXULOHORUúLGHFHLFHV YkUúHVFI U GHOHJ  ea la lumina zilei
 
GHvQGDW FHDIO SULOHM

  
 /H SODF DULQLOH SHQWUX DFHHD OH úL U SHVF FDVHOH GH DFHHD OH úL LDX &DOF  VLOQLF GUHSWXULOH VW SkQXOXL úL DOH

FDVHLOXLDOHRPXOXLúLDOHPRúWHQLULLOXL

 
 3HQWUX DFHDVWD DúD ]LFH 'RPQXO  ,DW  F  (X SXQ OD FDOH SHQWUX QHDPXO DFHVWD R QHQRURFLUH GH FDUH QX YH L

   
3URIH LL vúL WUDQVPLWHDX VROLD GLYLQ SULQ FXYkQWUL 8QHRULFXYLQWHOHORUHUDXvQVR LWHGHDFWH
SXWHDV Y IHUL LJUXPD]XOYRVWUXúLQXYH LPDLF OFDPkQGULF FLYUHPXULOHVXQWUHOH

simbolice

1XPUXOúLGHRVHELUHDSURIH LORU

6I 6FULSWXU QH-D SVWUDW XQ QXPU UHODWLY PLF GH SURIH L FDUH DX DFWLYDW vQ ,VUDHO 'HVLJXU
SURIH LLDXIRVWPDLQXPHURúL1XSXWHPVWDELOLFXH[DFWLWDWHQXPUXOORU7DOPXGXOYRUEHúWH
GH  GH SURIH L úL  SURIHtese (Seder Olam 21). Intr-XQ VHQV PDL ODUJVXQWQXPL LSURIH LúL
0RLVHVDX$DURQEDFKLDU$YUDDP,VDFúL,DFRY'DUSURIHWLVPXOLVUDHOLWSURUSLX]LVDúDFXP
VSXQHDPvQFXUVXODQWHULRUvQFHSHvQYUHPHDOXL6DPXHOúLvQFHWHD]vQYUHPHDSRVWH[LOLFFX
Maleahi.
'H RELFHL SURIH LL VXQW vPSU L L vQ SURIH L FDUH QX ú-LDX VFULV FXYkQWULOH QXPL L úL SURIH L
RUDWRUL VDX YHFKL úL SURIH L VFULLWRUL VDX QRL 'LQWUH SULPLL DPLQWLP SH 6DPXHO SH *DG úL
1DWDQ SURIH L OD FXUWHD OXL 'DYLG VDX SHSURIH LLFDUHDSDUvQFU LOH5HJL,OLHúL(OLVHL
0LKHD 3URIH LL QRL VXQW FHL  PDUL OD HYUHL GRDU   úL FHL  PLFL ,Q FU LOH FDUH OH SRDUW
QXPHOH DIOP úL SURIH LL PHVLDQLFH'HRVHELUHD ÄPDUL PLFL´QXHVWHFDOLWDWLYFLFDQWLWDWLY
'DUvQXQHOHFD]XULúLFDOLWDWLY'HH[HPSOX,VDLDHVWHSHQWUXFUHúWLQLPDUHvQDPEHOHVHQVXUL

&U LOHSURIHWLFHúLVWLOXOORU

3URIH LLDXIRVWvQSULPXOUkQGYRUELWRULúLQXVFULLWRUL(LvúLvQFHSGHPXOWHRULFXYkQWULOHFX
ÄDVFXOWD L´(LQXVSXQÄFLWL L´&H-i dreptIRDUWHUDU'XPQH]HXDGDWSRUXQFH[SUHVVILH
VFULVHFXYkQWULOHSURIHWLFH([HPSOHDYHPvQ,V,HU'DUFU LOHSURIHWLFHQXV-
DXVFULVGHRGDWFLvQPRGFRQWLQXXIUDJPHQWFXIUDJPHQW(OHVXQWURGXOXQXLSURFHVFDUHVH
extinde adesHD SH ]HFL GH DQL 7UDQVPLVLD FXYLQWHORU SURIHWLFH R GDWRUP FHO PDL DGHVHD
ucenicilor lor, care s-DX VWUGXLW V OH SVWUH]H SHQWUX JHQHUD LLOH XUPWRDUH &XYLQWHOH
SURIH LORU HUDX FXYLQWHOH 'RPQXOXL úL GH DFHHD HOH UPkQ YDODELOH úL SHQWUX JHQHUD LLORU
XUPWRDUH HOH VXQW DFWXDOH úL vQ DOWH VLWXD LLVDXFRQWH[WHLVWRULFHGHFkWFHOHvQFDUHDXIRVW
URVWLWH $FHDVWD D IRVW FUHGLQ D FHORU FDUH DX FXOHV úL DX WUDQVPLV PDL GHSDUWH FXYLQWHOH
SURIH LORU 'LQ XQLUHD úL SUHOXFUDUHD FXYkQWULORU V-DX QVFXW FU ile profetice, care sunt de

19
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

DFHHD RSHUH UHGDF LRQDOH &HOH PDL PXOWH DSDU vQ H[LO úL GXS H[LO FkQG FXYLQWHOH SURIH LORU
sunt confirmate de cursul istoriei.
6WLOXOFU LORUSURIHWLFHVHDSURSLHGHSRH]LDHEUDLF,QWkOQLPúLODSURIH LDFHDWHKQLFOLWHUDU
QXPLWSDUDOHOLVPXOPHPEUHORU2LGHHHVWHH[SULPDWvQWU-XQYHUVILLQGUHOXDWvQXUPWRUXO
vers, cu alte cuvinte.
De multe ori cuvintele profetice nu sunt clare, mai ales acolo unde este vorba de vestirea
YLLWRUXOXL $FHVWHD VXQW vQ HOHVH GHSOLQ GRDU RGDW FX vPSOLQLUHD ORU 'H H[HPSOX SURIH LLOH
mesianice n-DXIRVWvQ HOHVHGHFkWGXS&LQFL]HFLPHFkQGDSRVWROLLúLHYDQJKHOLúWLLOHYGFX
DO L RFKL ILLQG LOXPLQD L GH 'XKXO 6IkQW $ VH YHGHD FD]XO IDPHQXOXL HWLRSLDQ FXP YRL
vQ HOHJH GH QX-mi va e[SOLFD FLQHYD $FHO FLQHYD HVWH vQV DSRVWROXO )LOLS 3H GH DOW SDUWH
QHFODULWDWHD FXYLQWHORU VH SRDWH GDWRUD úL VXEOLPLW LL FXSULQVXOXL FFL HOH YRUEHVF GHVSUH
tainele divine, care nu pot fi redate decât greu prin cuvinte.
8QHRUL SURIH LL YRUEHVF GHVSUH OXFUXUL GLQ YLLWRU FD úL FkQGHOHV-ar fi petrecut deja, folosind
WLPSXOWUHFXW SHUIHFWXOSURIHWLF 3URIH LLOHYGFDvPSOLQLWHFDDSDU LQkQGWUHFXWXOXL

Profetismul în afara Israelului

&KLDU %LEOLD QH VSXQH F DX H[LVWDW SURIH L úL OD SRSRDUHOH din jurul Israelului. Balaam din
Num 22-SURYHQHDGLQ LQXWXULOHGLQHVWXO,RUGDQXOXL,QWLPSXOUHJDOLW LL,OLHvQIUXQW
GHSURIH LDLOXL%DDO(SRVLELOFDRSDUWHGLQHLVILIRVWLVUHDOL LGDUHIRDUWHSRVLELOVILIRVW
DGXúL GH ,]DEHOD GLQ RUDúXO HL GH EDúWLQ 7LU ,Q YUHPHD OXL 6DPXHO SURIHWLVPXO HVWH XQ
fenomen nou, cvasi-VWULQSHQWUXLVUDHOL L2DUHúL6DXOHVWHvQWUHILLLSURIH LORU
'DUúLGRFXPHQWHDUKHRORJLFHH[WUDELEOLFHYRUEHVFGHVSUHSURIHWLVPvQDIDUD,VUDHOXOXL$VWIHO
o iQVFULS LH vQ 7HOO 'HU $OOD PHQ LRQHD] SH Y]WRUXO %DODDP GH FDUH YRUEHúWH úL %LEOLD
Scrisori descoperite la MariUHODWHD]UHYHOD LLIFXWHXQRUEUED LVDXIHPHLvQQXPHOHXQHL
GLYLQLW LSHFDUHDFHúWLDOHWUDQVPLWUHJHOXL([LVWGRXWLSXULGHPHVaje: unele care vestesc
ELQHOH UHJHOXL IDSWXO F ]HLL VH SUHRFXS GH VRDUWD OXL úL vO VSULMLQ $OWH SURIH LL FULWLF
GHOVDUHDFXOWLFODWHPSOX$VHPQWRDUHSURIH LLORUGHOD0DULVXQWúLSURIH LLOHQHRDVLULHQH
din sec 7. î.H.
Comparând profetismul isrDHOLWúLFHOGLQMXUVHFRQVWDWXUPWRDUHOH
-DVHPQULOH SULYHVF PDL PXOW IHQRPHQXO úL QX FRQ LQXWXO $VHPQULOH VXQW PDUL FX
SURIHWLVPXOGHFXUWHFXSURIH LLGHFDULHUGLQ97FDUHvQ%LEOLHVXQWGHRELFHLFULWLFD L
-QX H[LVW SURIH L FULWLFL DVHPHQHD PDULORU SURIH L GLQ ,VUDHO FDUH DERUGHD] SUREOHPH GH
PRUDOVRFLDO6LQJXUDFULWLFHFHDFXOWLFúLWUHEXLHSXVSHVHDPDLQWHUHVHORUFHUFXULORUGH
OD WHPSOX 'HVWLQDWDU DO PHVDMHORU SURIHWLFH HVWH GH RELFHL UHJHOH VDX VWDWXO úL QX VH FXQRVF
confOLFWH vQWUH SURIH L úL UHJL FD vQ ,VUDHO 1LFLRGDW FXYkQWXO SURIHWLF QX SULYHúWH SRSRUXO
vQWUHJ,QLPDPDULORUSURIH LGLQ97HVWHIUPkQWDWGHVRDUWDSRSRUXOXL,VUDHO
-GHúL DX IRVW DGXQDWH úL DUKLYDWH SURIH LLOH GLQ 9HFKLXO 2ULHQW RGDW URVWLWH QX au mai
LQWHUHVDW SH QLPHQL $X UPDV SLHWUH vQ ELEOLRWHFLOH UHJDOH SHVWH FDUH V-D DúWHUQXW SUDIXO úL
uitarea, bucurându-VH GH DFHHDúL VRDUW D PDULORU SXWHUL DOH DQWLFKLW LL 'HVFRSHULUHD ORU VH
GDWRUHD] GRDU DUKHRORJLHL PRGHUQH ,Q VFKLPE SURIH LLOH vQ ,VUDHO DX IRVW DGXQDWH VFULVH úL
WUDQVPLVHGLQJHQHUD LHvQJHQHUD LHúLSULQ6I6FULSWXUDXDMXQVSkQvQ]LOHOHQRDVWUH&HL
care le-DXGDWPDLGHSDUWHDXWULWFXFRQYLQJHUHDFFXYkQWXOOXL'XPQH]HXHVWHPHUHXYLX
FDFWXDOLWDWHDOXLQXvQFHWHD]YUHRGDW

,QVHPQWDWHDFU LORUSURIHWLFH

3HQWUXFUHúWLQLvQVHPQWDWHDFU LORUSURIHWLFHHVWHGHQHWJGXLW(VWHVXILFLHQWVREVHUYP
F FHOH PDL PXOWH FLWDWH GLQ 97 vQ 17 VXQW WH[WH SURIHWLFH PDL FRQFUHW SDVDMH GLQ ,VDLD

20
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

&U LOH SURIHWLFH UHSUH]LQW XQ SURJUHV vQ GHVFRSHULUHD OXL 'XPQH]HX vQ 5HYHOD LH ID  GH
FU LOHLVWRULFH(OHQHWUDQVPLWDGHYUXULSURIXQGHGHVSUH'XPQH]HXúLGHVSUHLPSOLFDUHDVD
vQLVWRULHQHDUDWFVRDUWDSRSRUXOXL,VUDHOúLDRPHQLULLQX,-DIRVWLQGLIHUHQW0DMRULWDtea
FU LORU SURIHWLFH YRUEHVF PDL vQWkL GH MXGHFDW GDU QX VH RSUHVF DLFL FL IJGXLHVF YUHPXUL
DOHLHUWULLúLvPSFULLDOHPkQWXLULL'LQWUHWH[WHOHPHVLDQLFHDOH97FHOHPDLPXOWHOHDIOP
ODSURIH L(LIJGXLHVFPkQWXLUHDvQ+ULVWRV3URIH LLQu vorbesc doar de mântuirea propriului
ORUSRSRUFLGHXQLYHUVDOLVPXOPkQWXLULL'XPQH]HXDSUHJWLWPkQWXLUHDSHQWUXWR LRDPHQLL
,QVHPQWDWHDFU LORUSURIHWLFHUH]XOWúLGLQIDSWXOFHOHDXDMXQVSkQODQRLGHúLGDWHD]GH
peste 2000 ani. CuvântulXQXLSURIHWDIRVWURVWLWRVLQJXUGDWvQWU-RFOLSDLVWRULHLXPDQH
unor oameni dintr-un loc precis. Dar cei care le-au auzit le-DXWUDQVPLVJHQHUD LLORUXUPWRDUH
FDUH SRDWH WULDX vQ DOWH ORFXUL vQ DOW FRQWH[W FRQIUXQWkQGX-se cu alte probleme. Aceasta
ILLQGFFXYLQWHOHSURIHWLFHDXIRVWVRFRWLWHFXYLQWHOHOXL'XPQH]HX,DUFXYkQWXOOXL'XPQH]HX
HVWHYLXGLQHOVHSRWDGSDúLJHQHUD LLOHXUPWRDUHILLQGFHOQXVHVIkUúHúWHYUHRGDW

21
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Cartea Isaia

 
&HOHWUHLS U LDOHF U LL,VDLDúLSUREOHPDDXWRUXOXLF U LL 

$O WXULGH3VDOPLFDUWHD,VDLDHVWHFDUWHDGLQ97FHOPDLGHVFLWDW GHDXWRULLF U LORU17&DUWHD  


 
,VDLD FXSULQGH  GH FDSLWROH 7UDGL LD LXGDLF  úL FHD FUHúWLQ  DWULEXLD vQWUHDJD FDUWH SURIHWXOXL

 
,VDLD FDUH D WU LW vQ VHF v + SHULRDG  vQ FDUH vQWUHJXO 2ULHQW DVLVW  OD DSDUL LD úL JORULD 
imperiului asirian.
   
$FHDVW  RSLQLH FODVLF  D IRVW SXV  VXE VHPQXO vQWUHE ULL GH OD vQFHSXWXO VHFROXOXL  $VW ]L 

PDMRULWDWHDFHUFHW WRULORUELEOLFLVXQWGHDFRUGF DFHDVW FDUWHQXHVWHRSHUD  unui singur autor, ci

PDL GHJUDE R FROHF LH GH  FU L SURIHWLFH 'H DLFL úL GHQXPLULOH GH 3URWR-Isaia (1-39), Deutero-

Isaia (40- úL7ULWR-Isaia (56- FDUHVHIRORVHVFSHQWUXDFHOHWUHLSU LDOHFU LL


Principalul argument împotriva unui autor uQLFHVWHIDSWXOFFHOHSU LVHUHIHUODHSRFLLVWRULFH
GLIHULWH FH VH H[WLQG SH R SHULRDG GH SHVWH GRX VHFROH ,Q SULPD SDUWH -  QH DIOP vQ SOLQ

   
HSRF  DVLULDQ  vQ D GRXD SDUWH QX PDL VH SRPHQHúWH QLPLF GH DVLULHQL DVLVW P OD XOWLPD ID]  GH

JORULHDLPSHULXOXLEDELORQLDQúLODSULPHOHVHPQHDOHDSXVXOXLV X  - anume victoriile repurtate de


&LUXV UHJHOH PH]LORU úL SHUúLORU ,Q ILQH XOWLPD SDUWH D FU LL VH UHIHU OD UHDOLW L GLQ SHULRDGD

reîntoarcerii evreilor din exil în Iudeea.


Cartea IsaiD HVWH DúDGDU R ELEOLRWHF SURIHWLF IRUPDW GH-D OXQJXO D SHVWH GRX VHFROH 8QLWDWHD
 
FDUH VH SRDWH WRWXúL REVHUYD VH GDWRUHD]  XQRU LGHL UHSUH]HQW UL úL YRFDEXOH FH UHYLQ vQ vQWUHJ

 
FXSULQVXOvQFHORUGHFDSLWROHFHHDFHDI FXWFDHDV ILHFRQVLGHUDW RVLQJXU FDUWHFDQRQLF    

SXV VXEQXPHOHSURIHWXOXL,VDLD

9LD DSURIHWXOXL,VDLD

  
,QV úLIDSWXOF S U LGLQHSRFLGLIHULWHDXIRVWSXVHVXEDXWRULWDWHDOXL,VDLDHVWHXQLQGLFLXGHVSUH

LPSRUWDQ DGHFDUHDFHVWSURIHWV -a bucurat în istoria evreilRU,VDLDDIRVWRSHUVRQDOLWDWHPDUFDQW


DYUHPXULORUVDOH(ODDFWLYDWFDSURIHWvQUHJDWXOGH6XG,XGDúLDFWLYLWDWHDVDV-DGHVIúXUDWVXE


UHJL 2]LD ,RWDP $KD] úL ,H]HFKLD $ IRVW FKHPDW V  ILH SURIHW DO 'RPQXOXL OD R YkUVW  UHODWLY 

WkQ U  vQ M urul anului 740 î.H., iar activitatea sa s-D GHVIúXUDW SH R SHULRDG GH DSUR[LPDWLY 
    
DQL /LPEDMXO V X HOHYDW QH DUDW  F  D IRVW XQ RP FX DOHDV  SUHJ WLUH I FkQG SDUWH GLQ FHUFXULOH 

VDSLHQ LDOH GLQ ,HUXVDOLP LDU WH[WXO ELEOLF QH VSXQH F  D IRVW FRQVLOLHU DO UHJLORU DPLQWL L 'DU

  
YLJRDUHD VD SURIHWLF  QX VH GDWRUHD]  SUHJ WLULL VDOH FL YRFD LHL H[WUDRUGLQDUH úL PLVLXQLL SULPLWH

GHOD'XPQH]HXSHFDUHHOvQVXúLRGHVFULHvQFDS1XPDLIRU DSHFDUH'XPQH]HXL -a dat-o l-a


   
I FXW V  QX FkQWH vQ VWUXQ  UHJLORU V  VWLJPDWL]H]H DEX]XULOH FHORU SXWHUQLFL V  FULWLFH 
oportunismul politic.
,VDLD D WULW vQWU-R SHULRDG vQ FDUH PDUHD SXWHUH DVLULDQ D DMXQV OD FXOPHD VD vQWLQ]kQGX-úL

GRPLQD LD SHVWH ULOH GLQ YHVW SkQ OD KRWDUHOH (JLSWXOXL ,Q ID D XQHL Dsemenea puteri, singura


úDQV  D VWDWHORU PLFL HVWH FRDOL LD $VWIHO UHJDWXO $UDP úL UHJDWXO GH 1RUG ,VUDHO VH FRDOL]HD]  
   
vPSRWULYDDVLULHQLORUúLFDXW V DWUDJ QRLDOLD LI FkQGDSHOODUHJDWXOGHVXG5HJHOH$KD]UHIX]  
 
ú  VH LPSOLFH úL FD UHSUHVDOLL FHOH GRX  UHJDWH QRUGLFH SRUQHVF U ]ERL vPSRWULYD ,XGHL $FHVW 
 
U ]ERL D U PDV FXQRVFXW VXE GHQXPLUHD GH U ]ERLXO VLUR  -efraimit. Regele Ahaz este cuprins de
 
IULF  vQV  SURIHWXO ,VDLD LQWHUYLQH úL DQXQ  UHJHOXL F vQ FXUkQG FHL GRL UHJL FDUH HUDX SH FDOH V

DWDFH ,HUXVDOLPXO YRU SLHUL ,QV  $KD] QX FUHGH vQ FXYkQWXO SURIHWXOXL úL FHUH DMXWRUXO DVLULDQ

Regele asirian Tiglat-3LOHVHUvúLvQFHSHFDPSDQLDGHFXFHULUHDUHJDWHORUPHGLWHUDQHHQHvQWUHFDUH


 
úL$UDPúL,VUDHO,QV JHVWXOOXL$KD]vOWUDQVIRUP vQYDVDODODVLULHQLORU,VDLDFRQGDPQ SROLWLFD
OXL$KD]úLOLSVDOXLGHFUHGLQ 3URIHWXOYDUHVSLQJHRULFHDOLDQ SROLWLFúLYDSURSRYGXLPHUHX
VXSXQHUHDúLvQFUHGHUHDH[FOXVLYDMXWRUXOOXLvQ'XPQH]HX

8UPDúXO OXL $KD] ,H]HFKLD D IRVW XQLL GLn regii care s-DX VWUGXLW V UHYLJRUH]H FUHGLQ D vQ

'RPQXO 3H SURIHW vO VWLPHD] úL vO VRFRWHúWH FRQVLOLHUXO VX 'DU úL ,H]HFKLD FUHGH vQ VROX LD

DOLDQ HORU SROLWLFH 6SUH GHRVHELUH GH WDWO VX HO FDXW VSULMLQ vQ (JLSW YHúQLFD SXWHUH ULYDO D

mesopoWDPLHQLORU vQ 2ULHQWXO $SURSLDW ,Q DQXO  DVLULHQLL LQYDGHD] ,XGD úL DVHGLD]

22
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

  
,HUXVDOLPXO&kQGWRWXOS UHDSLHUGXW,VDLDYHVWHúWHF DUPDWDDVLULDQ VHYDUHWUDJHFHHDFHV DúL -
vQWkPSODW $LFL VH VIvUúHVF GDWHOH ELRJUDILFH GHVSUH ,VDLD RIHULWH GH F artea ce-L SRDUW QXPHOH
  
3RWULYLW XQHL WUDGL LL LXGDLFH ,VDLD DU IL VXIHULW PRDUWH GH PDUWLU ILLQG W LDW FX ILHU VWU XO GLQ

ordinul regelui Manase (690).

Isaia 1-3UH]HQWDUHJHQHUDODVWUXFXWULLúLFXSULQVXOXL3URIH LLPHVLDQLFH

 -
3ULPD SDUWH D F U LL ,VDLD FXSULQGH SURIH LL vPSRWULYD ,XGHL úL D ,HUXVDOLPXOXL    SURIH LL

împotriva unor state vecine (13-  DOWH SURIH LL vPSRWULYD OXL ,VUDHO úL ,XGD -   SU L
apocaliptice (24-27; 34- úLXQDGDRVLVWRULFvQSUR] -39), aproape identic cu textul din 2R
18,13- ,Q FDSLWROXO  HVWH GHVFULV YRFD LD SURIHWXOXL ,VDLD WH[W SH FDUH O-am citit în
SUHOHJHUHDDQWHULRDU  
3URIH LLOH vPSRWULYD ,XGHL úLD ,HUXVDOLPXOXL VXQW URVWLWH OD vQFHSXWXO FDULHUHL SURIHWLFH D OXL ,VDLD

Ele sunt o stLJPDWL]DUHDYLFLLORUúLDEX]XULORUVRFLDOHDOHSWXULLFRQGXFWRDUHGLQ 


DU &RUXS LD

   
FULPD GHF GHUHD PRUDO  vO IDFH SH ,VDLD V  FRPSDUH FODVD FRQGXF WRDUH FX 6RGRPD úL JRPRUD

  -
3URIHWXO FRQGDPQ  XQ FXOW GLVRFLDW GH GUHSWDWH VRFLDO     DQXQ kQG MXGHFDWD úL SHGHDSVD

GLYLQ 

'DU ,VDLD FD úL FHLODO L SURIH L PDUL YHVWHúWH úL PkQWXLUHD GXS  MXGHFDWD 'RPQXOXL ,VDLD HVWH

SURIHWXOPHVLDQLFSULQH[FHOHQ (OSURIH 
HúWHF vQFLXGDSHGHSVHLGLYLQHXQUHVWGLQ,VUDHOYDIL

mântuit (10,20-  úL GLQ Dcest rest Dumnezeu va ridica un popor cu care va încheia un nou
 
OHJ PkQW,QWkOQLPvQSULPHOHFDSLWROHDOHF U LLPDLPXOWHSURIH LLPHVLDQLFH

-2,1-5-XQLYHUVDOLWDWHDPkQWXLULLSDFHDPHVLDQLF úLFRQWH[WXOJHR-politic mondial actual)


-7,14
-8,23-9,6
-11,1-9 SDUDGLVXO UHJVLW LGHH UHvQWkOQLW vQ OLWHUDWXUD DVFHWLF FUHúWLQ (IUHP 93DXOL 6LPHRQ
Stâlpnicul, Maria Egipteanca)


&DSLWROXOFXSULQGXQúLUGHFXYkQW ULvPSRWULYDSROLWLFLLHJLSWRILOHDOXL,H]HFKLD3HQWUXSURIHW

încrederea în ajutoruO RPHQHVF DúWHSWDW GH OD HJLSWHQL HFKLYDOHD] FX SUVLUHD 'RPQXOXL úL QX
poate salva (31,1-3  3HQWUX ,VDLD SULPD SRUXQF ([   VH DSOLF úL SH WUkP SROLWLF-de aici
RSR]L LD RP-dumnezeu/ trup-VSLULW 2PXO IU 'XPQH]HX RPXO DXWRQRP QX HVWH GHFkW trup

pieritor.

6ILQ HQLDOXL'XPQH]HX UHIHULULOD6IkQWXOOXL,VUDHOWULVDJKLRQXOúLVODYDOXL'XPQH]HX

 
&XYkQWXO VIkQW vQVHDPQ  vQ VHQVXO V X RULJLQDU FHYD VFRV GLQ X]XO SURIDQ FHYD DSDUWH GLIHULW GH

OXPHD SURIDQ 'H  RUL HVWH 'XPQH]HX QXPLW Ä6fântul lui Israel” în capitolele 1-39. El mai

apare de 8 ori în capitole 40-DOHFU LLúLvQDIDUGHFDUWHD,VDLDWLWOXODSDUHGRDUGHRUL(VWH


DúDGDUXQWHUPHQVSHFLILFOXL,VDLD3HQWUX,VDLD'XPQH]HXHVWH6IkQWSULQH[FHOHQ FHOFXWRWXO
difeULW GH OXPH LQFRPSDUDELO WUDQVFHQGHQW 6ILQ HQLD 6D R ODXG úL R FkQW KHUXYLPLL 6IkQW 

6IkQW6IkQW'RPQXO6DYDRWSOLQHVWHS PkQWXOGHVODYD6D6ODYDOXL'XPQH]HXFRSOHúHúWHWRDW  
FUHD LD VODYD 
JUHXWDWHD P UH LD  'DU DFHVW 'XPQH]HX VIkQW HVWH V fântul lui Israel, Cel care s-a
  
OHJDW GH SRSRUXO V X úL FDUH DúWHDSW  XQ U VSXQV GLQ SDUWHD RPXOXL 3HQWUX RP VILQ HQLD OXL

'XPQH]HX SUHVXSXQH FUHGLQ  QH]GUXQFLQDW GH QX YH L FUHGH QX YH L UH]LVWD (7,9-QX YH L DYHD
WHPHL DFHHDúL UGFLQ IRORVLW vQtr-XQ MRF GH FXYLQWH  6ILQ HQLD OXL 'XPQH]HX SUHVXSXQH úL R

YLD  vQ GUHSWDWH XQ FXOW QHGLVRFLDWGHFRQGXLWDPRUDO$FHDVWVILQ HQLDOXL'XPQH]HXúLVODYD

Sa, trebuie recunoscute de toate popoarele, de întreaga omenire.

23
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Isaia 40-55 (Deuteroisaia)

1. &RQWH[WXOvQFDUHDFWLYHD]SURIHWXO.

  - 
&ULWLFD PRGHUQ  D F U LL ,VDLD DWULEXLH FDSLWROHOH   XQXL SURIHW DO F UXL QXPH U PkQH 

QHFXQRVFXW(ODWU LWvQSHULRDGDH[LOXOXLúLDDFWLYDWSULQWUHLXGHLLDIOD LvQ%DELORQ Din datele pe

FDUH QL OH RIHU  WH[WXO D DVLVWDW OD SULPHOH VHPQH DOH GHFOLQXOXL LPSHULXOXL EDELORQLDQ úL DQXPH

DVFHQVLXQHD úL SULPHOH VXFFHVH PLOLWDUH UHSXUWDWH GH &LUXV UHJHOH SHUúLORU $FHVWH HYHQLPHQWH DX

avut loc în jurul anului 550 î.H. Activitatea sa s-a încheiat înainte de 538 î.H., anul decretului lui
 
FLUXV SULQ FDUH LXGHLORU OL VH vQJ GXLH vQWRDUFHUHD vQ DUD ORU F FL QX VH IDFH UHIHULUH OD DFHVW


HYHQLPHQW3UREDELOSURIHWXOQXDPDLWU LWDFHVWHYHQLPHQWF FLDOWIHOO  -ar fi amintit.
 
'DU QX QXPDL HSRFD LVWRULF  GLIHU  GH FHD a capitolelor 1- 'HVWLQDWDULL SURSRYGXLULL
SURIHWXOXLVXQWúLHLGLIHUL L(VWHYRUEDGHHYUHLFDUHDXWUHFXWSULQGUDPDGLQv+DXDVLVWDWOD

SUEXúLUHD SROLWLFR-QD LRQDO DX VXSRUWDW XPLOLQ D H[RGXOXL (VWH OHVQH GH vQ HOHV F vQ UkQGXO

acestor oameni s-a petrecut o PXWD LH UHOLJLRDV &RQFHS LD SUHH[LOLF D HYUHLORU FD GH DOWIHO D
  
WXWXURUORFXLWRULORU9HFKLXOXL2ULHQWHUDF U ]ERLXOHVWHRLQVWLWX LHVDFU ,QU ]ERLVXQWLPSOLFDWH 
GLYLQLW    
LOH QD LXQLORU EHOLJHUDQWH 'DF  XQ SRSRU vQYLQJH vQVHDPQ  F  GXPQH]HXO OXL D IRVW PDL

puternic. Poporul învins a avut un dumnezeu mai slab. Israel s-DVRFRWLWvQXUPDvQIUkQJHULLSUVLW



GH 'RPQXO 'XPQH]HXO V X ,Q ORFXO RSWLPLVPXOXL UHOLJLRV GLQ SHULRDGD SUHH[LOLF  DSDUH 
 
GH]Q GHMGHD vQGRLDOD úL VFHSWLFLVPXO &H URVW PDL DUH V  FUH]L vQWU -un dumnezeu care a fost mai
slab, care te-D SUVLW" 3H VFXUW R SDUWH GLQ HYUHLL GLQ H[LO WULVF R VWDUH GH DSRVWD]LH DSURDSH GH
FHDDRPXOXLPRGHUQSHQWUXFDUHGXPQH]HXDRERVLWGDFQXDPXULW2DOWSDUWHDGRSW religia

  
vQYLQJ WRUXOXL 'LQ PRPHQW FH EDELORQLHQLL DX vQYLQV vQVHDPQ  F  0DUGXN H PDL SXWHUQLF F  HO 
este dumnezeu.
$GRSWDUHD UHOLJLHL EDELORQLHQH HVWH IDFLOLWDW úL GH úRFXO FXOWXUDO pe care l-DX WULW H[LOD LL

când au ajunds în Babilon, una din minunLOH OXPLL DQWLFH &H HVWH ,HUXVDOLPXO GHFkW XQ RUúHO
 
SURYLQFLDO SH OkQJ  P UH LD %DELORQXOXL FH HVWH WHPSOXO GLQ ,HUXVDOLP SH OkQJ  WHPSOXO OXL 

0DUGXN [[ P  FH VXQW SRU LOH 6LRQXOXL SH OkQJ  SRDUWD OXL ,úWDU GH SHVWH  P


vQ O LPHFXPLQXQDWHOHFKLSXULFRORUDWHHPDLODWHGHWDXULOHLúLGUDJRQLFXVWUDGDGHSURFHVLXQH

 
ODUJ GHP"ùRFXOFXOWXULLEDELORQLHQHDI FXWFDRSDUWHDHYUHLORUV -úLXLWHUHSHGHRULJLQHDúL
UHOLJLDGLQGRULQ DGHLQWHJUDUH

2. Mesajul profetului
este adaptat coQWH[WXOXLQRXúLPXWD LLORUVXIHULWHGHHYUHLLGLQH[LO
-VSHUDQ  SHQWUX GH]QGMGXL L SUHJWLUHD QRXOXL H[RGXO  -21; iertarea 40,1-2;
 
Ä5 VFXPS U WRUXOOXL,VUDHO´DULSLFDDOHYXOWXULORUI

-apel la Dumnezeu Creatorul 40,12-31


-afirmareD H[LVWHQ HL XQLFH D OXL 'XPQH]HX PRQRWHLVP  -XGHFDW I =HLL SRSRDUHORU

VXQWLGROL6DWLU I

-Cirus, instrumentul lui Dumnezeu, unsul 44,28-45,7

3. Problema lui Ebed- Iahve.


-colectiv: Israel 44,1
-SHUVRDQ   -6; 50,10; 52,13-  ,GHQWLWDWHD VD H PLVWHULRDV GH DLFL
GLIHULWHOH LGHQWLILFUL GH-D OXQJXO LVWRULHL &LUXV SURIHWXO vQVXúL PHVLD vQ LXGDLVPXO


SUHFUHúWLQ SHUVRQLILFDUH D OXL ,VUDHO  1LFL XQD QX VH SRWULYHúWH vQV  vQ vQWUHJLPH ILLQGF  
sunt amestecate imagini ale UHJHOXL PHVLDQLF FX FHOH DOH XQHL VOXJL XPLOLWH S WLPLWRDUH 

&UHúWLQLL vO UHFXQRVF SH +ULVWRV FHO S WLPLWRU úL ELUXLWRU vQ SHUVRDQD HQLJPDWLFHL VOXJL GLQ

cap.53.

4. 3URIH LLPHVLDQLFH
40,3; 49,1-6; 53

24
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Isaia 56-66 (Tritoisaia)

  
$P PHQ LRQDW GHMD IDSWXO F  WUDGL LD LXGDLF  úL FUHúWLQ  DWULEXLD vQWUHDJD FDUWH SURIHWXOXL ,VDLD

L SURIHWLFH XQLWH vQWU-R VLQJXU FDUWH


&ULWLFD PRGHUQ GLVWLQJH WUHL SU L DOH FU LL VDX WUHL FU

Referitor la capitolele 56-66, opiniile clasice moderne sunt:


-HOH DSDU LQ WRW SURIHWXOXL Ä'HXWHURLVDLD´ vQWRUV GLQ H[LO vPSUHXQ FX FRQD LRQDOLL VL
confruntându-VH FX SUREOHPHOH vQWkOQLWH vQ DUD 6IkQW 6XV LQWRULL DFHVWHL WH]H DX vQ YHGHUH
vQGHRVHELDVHPQULOHFDUHH[LVWvQWUHFDSLWROHOH-úL-66.

-HOH DSDU LQ DOWXL SURIHW QXPLW úL 7ULWR-LVDLD  FDUH DFWLYHD] vQ DUD 6IkQW vQ SULPHOH GRX
GHFHQLL GXS vQWRDUFHUHD HYUHLORU GLQ H[LO FFD -  &HL FDUH DILUP DFHDVW WH] LQVLVW

asupra deosebirilor dintre cap. 40-úL-66.

Contextul în care sunt rostite discursurile profetice din 56-66.


2GDW  FX HGLFWXO OXL &LUXV R SDUWH GLQWUH HYUHL VH vQWRUF vQ 3DOHVWLQD (YHQLPHQWHOH QH VXQW

GHVFULVH vQ FDUWHD (VUD úL 1HHPLD 3ULPXO JkQG DO HYUHLORU HVWH GH D UHIDFH WHPSOXOvQV SLHGLFLOH 
 
vQIUXQWDWH vL IDF V  VH PXO XPHDVF  SHQWUX vQFHSXW GRDUFXFRQVWUXLUHDXQXLDOWDU7UHSWDWUHYLQvQ

3OHVWLQD DOWH JUXSXUL GH H[LOD L VXE FRQGXFHUHD DUKLHUHXOXL ,RVXD úL D SULQ XOXL =RUREDEHO GLQ

  
GLQDVWLD GDYLGLF  ,Q MXUXO ORU FRPXQLWDWHD vQFHSH V  VH UHVWDXUH]H vQV  HD QX HVWH R FRP unitate

RPRJHQ FLFXSULQGHWUHLFDWHJRULLVRFLDOHúLUHOLJLRDVH

-LXGHLL UHYHQL L GLQ H[LO (L VXQW vQ FHD PDL PDUH SDUWH GLQ VHPLQ LD OXL ,XGD DSRL GLQ FHD D OXL
9HQLDPLQ úL 6LPHRQ &X VLJXUDQ  F DX WULW R GH]DPJLUH DIOkQG DUD SH DORFXUL SXVWLLW sau

 
ORFXLW GHVWU LQL

-HYUHLLUPDúLvQ   
DU 2SDUWHGLQHLDXU PDVILGHOLUHOLJLHLLDKYLVWHDO LLvQV DXSUHOXDWHOHPHQWH

 
LGRODWUHúLWU LVHFXQVLQFUHWLVPUHOLJLRV3UDFWLFHLDXSUHOXDWS PkQWXULOHFHORUH[LOD LúLQXY GFX 
ochi buni reîntoarcerHDDFHVWRUDSUHWHQ LLOHGHUHVWLWXLUHDYHFKLLORUSURSULHW L([LVWvQ3DOHVWLQD
  
RVFKLVP UHOLJLRDV úLVRFLDO vQDFHODúLWLPS

-VWULQLLFDUHWULHVFvQ  -
DU (LV DXVWDELOLWvQ,XGHHDvQWLPSXOH[LOXOXLVDXDXYHQLWvPSUHXQ FX 

H[LOD LLDLFLùLDFHúWLDVXQWVWU LQLGHUHOLJLDLVUDHOLW  
  - 
,QILQHDUPDLWUHEXLDPLQWL LúLHYUHLLFDUHDXU PDVvQH[LOILLQGF úL DXI FXWRVLWXD LHPDWHULDO  
 
EXLQ úLQXYRUV UHQXQ HODHDSHQWUXXQYLLWRULQFHUWvQ,XGHHD

Mesajul profetului

Capitolele 56-66 sH DGUHVHD] WXWRU FHORU PHQ LRQD L PDL VXV úL SUREOHPHORU LYLWH vQ ,XGHHD úL vQ
  
,HUXVDOLP ,QWHQ LD SURIHWXOXL HVWH GH D YHGHD R FRPXQLWDWH UHI FXW  úL XQLWDU  I U  GHVELQ UL úL  
lupte interne.
-HO FDXW V-L vQFXUDMH]H SH FHL UHYHQL LGLQH[LOGH]DPJL LGHVLWXD LDDIODW,HUXVDOLPXOGLVWUXV
 WHQVLXQLOH FX VDPDULWHQLL úL FX HYUHLL UPDúL vQ DU
WHPSOXO OD IHO FRQGL LL JUHOH GH YLD

   
'XPQH]HX U PkQH FUHGLQFLRV I J GXLQ HORU VDOH GHVSUH PkQWXLUHD ORU VSXQH HO 'DF  PkQWXLUHD

întârzie, e din cauza pFDWHORU -  'XPQH]HX YD GUXL vQV JORULH SRSRUXOXL VX úL YD IDFH
din Ierusalim, din Sion, centrul lumii, locul de pelerinaj pentru toate neamurile. (60,14f.)
-HOFRQGDPQLGRODWULDFXOWXOQHOHJLWLPúLSUDFWLFLVWULQHGH/HJH -4 66,3):
-ura úLGHVELQDUHDvQWUHIUD LLLXGHLH[SORDWDUHDYLROHQ DQHGUHSWDWHD 
-HO DILUP XQLYHUVDOLWDWHD PkQWXLULL IDSWXO F 'XPQH]HX vQ DFFHSW úL SH VWULQL úL FKLDU vúL YD
DOHJH SUHR L GLQWUH FHL GH DOW QHDP -11; 56,3-7; 66,21). Mesajul profetului nu este numai

pentru fiii lui Israel, ci pentru fiii lui Adam (56,2).

'HVSUHSRVWXOFHODGHY UDW  

 
$FHVWH FXYLQWH VXQW URVWLWH FD XQ U VSXQV FHORU FDUH FUHG F  'XPQH]HX QX LQH FRQW GH SRVWXO ORU

(vv.2-  $FHDVWD VH vQWkPSO vQV GLQ FDX]D SFDWHORU Oor, expuse în vv. 3- $GHYUDWXO SRVW QX
25
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

 
VH UH]XP  OD DWLWXGLQL H[WHULRDUH (O SUHVXSXQH vQ SULPXO UkQG D QX IDFH U X D UHQXQ D OD


QHGUHSWDWH D IDFH ELQHOH DSURDSHOXL $ VH REVHUYD DVHP QDUHD vQWUH DFHVW FDSLWRO úL 0W I


FULWHULLOHGXS FDUHYDMXGHFD+ULVWRVVXQWDFHOHDúL


3URIH LDPHVLDQLF GLQ -2 (Lc 4,18-19)

26
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Cartea Ieremia

$XWRUXOFRPSXQHUHDúLWH[WXOF U LL 


,Q PDUH SDUWH GLVFXUVXULOH SURIHWLFH GLQ DFHDVW  FDUWH VXQW DWULEXLWH SURIHWXOXL ,HUHPLD FDUH OH -a
rostit în regatul Iuda înGHFHQLLOHSUHPHUJWRDUHH[LOXOXLúLDSRLvQSHULRDGDH[LOXOXLEDELORQLDQ'H
DOWIHO vQ FDS  DO FU LL QLVHVSXQHF,HUHPLDDFXOHVRVHULHGHFXYkQWULDOHVDOHúLOH-a dictat

  
XFHQLFXOXL V X %DUXK )LLQGF  SULPD HGL LH D DFHVWHL FROHF LL D IRVW GLVWUXV  GH UHJHOH ,RLDFKLP

Ieremia i-D GLFWDW vQF R GDW FXYkQWULOH OXL %DUXK DGXJkQG úL DOWH FXYkQWUL vQ SOXV ID  GH
SULPD HGL LH $VWIHO F úL %DUXK D DYXW XQ URO LPSRUWDQWvQSURFHVXOGHFRPSXQHUHDODFHVWHLFU L

profetice (36,32).
Alte pasaje dinFDUWHVXQWUHODWULFXFDUDFWHUELRJUDILFGHVSUH,HUHPLDVFULVHvQSUR]vQWU-un stil

DSURSLDW GH FHO GHXWHURQRPLVWLF 6H SUHVXSXQH F  vQ H[LO UHGDFWRULL GHXWHURQRPLVWLFL DX DG XJDW 

SDVDMHOHELRJUDILFHGkQGF U LLRIRUP ILQDO   

  
7H[WXOF U LLvQ%LEOLDHEUDLF GLIHU GHVWXOGHPXOWGHFHOGLQ/;;$VWIHO/;;RIHU XQWH[WPDL 
VFXUWFXGHFXYLQWHID GHWH[WXOHEUDLF$SRLSURIH LLOHvPSRWULYDSRSRDUHORUVWULQHVHDIO
vQ WH[WXO HEUDLF OD VIkUúLWXO FU LL SH FkQG vQ FHO JUHFHVF HOH DSDU OD PLMORFXO FU LL $YHP DVWIHO

GRX ÄUHFHQ]LXQL´ DOH FU LL ,HUHPLD &DUHVILHH[SOLFD LDDFHVWRUGLIHUHQ HvQWUHWH[WXOHEUDLFúL

FHO JUHFHVF DO FU LL ,HUHPLD")LLQGYRUEDGHGLIHUHQ HGHPDULSURSRU LLVXQWH[FOXVHJUHúHOLOHGH

copiere sau de traducere cD VLQJXU FDX] D GHRVHELULORU &HD PDL DFFHSWDW LSRWH] vQWUH
FHUFHWWRUL HVWH F FHOH GRX UHFHQ]LXQL VXQW LQGLFLXO F DX FLUFXODW vQ SHULRDGD SRVWH[LOLF FHO

SX LQ GRX YHUVLXQL DOH WH[WXOXL vQ OLPED HEUDLF 7UDGXFWRULL /;; DX DYXW OD vQGHPkQ XQD GLn

DFHVWH YHUVLXQL GLIHULW GH FHD SH FDUH DX IRORVLW-R PDL WkU]LX PDVRUH LL 3HQWUX H[HJH] DPEHOH

UHFHQ]LXQLVXQWLPSRUWDQWHúLvQLQWHUSUHWDUHVH LQHFRQWDWkWGHWH[WXOHEUDLFFkWúLGHFHOJUHFHVF

9LD DúLDFWLYLWDWHDSURIHWXOXL

Ieremia s-D QVFXt într-R IDPLOLH SUHR HDVF GLQ $QDWRW R ORFDOLWDWH GLQ DSURSLHUHD ,HUXVDOLPXOXL
  - 
vQMXUXODQXOXLv+)LLQGvQF WkQ U'XPQH]HXO DFKHPDWV ILHSURIHW,HUHPLDV -a eschivat,
LQYRFkQG F HVWH SUHD WkQU SHQWUX R DVHPHQHD PLVLXQH SHQWUX D YRUEL DOWora în public. Potrivit

 
OHJLL PR]DLFH XQ E UEDW SXWHDYRUELvQSXEOLFGXS GHDQL,HUHPLDDYHDSHVHPQHvQMXUGH


DQL vQ PRPHQWXO YRFD LHL $FWLYLWDWHD VD VH H[WLQGH SH R SHULRDG  GH SHVWH  DQL 3URIHWXO D WU LW 
 
FHOHGRX FXFHULULDOH,HUXVDOLPXOXLGHF WUH1DEXFRGRQRVRUúLH[LODUHDXQHLS U LGLQSRSRU úL 

 v+  3X LQ GXS  DQXO  HO D IRVW OXDW vPSRWULYD YRLQ HL VDOH GH XQ JUXS GH HYUHL FDUH V -au
UHIXJLDW vQ (JLSW $LFL VH SLHUG XUPHOH VDOH 3RWULYLW WUDGL LHL HO D PXULW XFLV FX SLHWUH de

FRPSDWULR LLV LvQ(JLSW

In perioada sa de activitate distingem trei perioade:


'HODYRFD LDVD DSUR[ SkQ vQDQXOv+U'LQSXQFWGHYHGHUHSROLWLF,XGDFXQRDúWHR

   
SHULRDG GHOLQLúWHILLQGF LPSHULXODVLULDQVHDIO vQGHF GHUH3 entru regele Iosia a fost un prilej
bun de a-úL OUJL JUDQL HOH VWDWXOXL SULQ RFXSDUHD GH WHULWRULL FDUH RGDW DX DSDU LQXW LXGHLORU vQ

WLPSXOOXL6RORPRQùLSHSODQUHOLJLRDV,RVLDvQWUHSULQGHRUHIRUP SULQFDUHUHYLJRUHD] FUHGLQ D 

LDKYLVW vQUHJDW

  
2UL vQ FLXGD vQIORULULL WU LWH GH UHJDWXO ,XGD WRFPDL vQ DFHDVW  SHULRDG  ,HUHPLD SULPHúWH GH OD


'XPQH]HX VDUFLQD GH D SURSRY GXL VIkUúLWXO VWDWXOXL 8Q GXúPDQ GLQ QRUG D F UXL DUPDW  HVWH  

LQYLQFLELO  H WULPLV GH 'XPQH]HX vPSRWULYD SRSRUXOXL LXGHX V pune Ieremia (cap. 4-6). Poporul
     
WUHELHV VHF LDVF V VHvQWRDUF OD'XPQH]HXSkQ QXHSUHDWkU]LX0HVDMXOV XHVWHWRWDOOLSVLW 
GHFRQFUHWH HúLDSDUHFDUXSWGHUHDOLWDWHSHQWUXORFXLWRULLGLQ,HUXVDOLP,QSOXV,HUHPLDFRQWHVW  
  
R WUDGL LH UHOLJLRDV GHODUJDFFHSWSRWULYLWF UHLD'RPQXOQXYDO VD,HUXVDOLPXOV FDG ILLQGF    

27
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97


vQ 6LRQ vQ 7HPSOX HVWH ORFXLQ D 6D LQGHVWUXFWLELO    3ULQFLSDOLL VXV LQ WRUL DL DFHVWHL 

WUDGL LL FDUH H FRQVHPQDW  vQ %LEOLH vQ PDL PXO L SVDOPL VXQW SUHR LL úL SURIH LL GH OD 7HPSOX

   
DVWIHO F  ,HUHPLD LQWU  vQ FRQIOLFW GHVFKLV FX DFHúWLD 9RFHD VROLWDU  PHVDMXO V X GH QHDFFHSWDW


SHQWUX ORFXLWRULL GLQ ,XGD IDF FD SURIHWXO V  ILH QHVRFRWLW EDWMRFRULW GH VRFLHWDWH HYLWDW FKLDU GH

familia sa.

2. De la anul 605    
SkQ  vQ  v+ 'XS  F GHUHD LPSHULXOXL DVLULDQ EDELORQLHQLL GHYLQ VW SkQLvQ

2ULHQW 7UXSHOH HJLSWHQLORU VXQW vQYLQVH GH 1DEXFRGRQRVRU OD .DUNHPLú vQ DQXO  ,QFHSH

SHULRDGD GH JORULH D LPSHULXOXL EDELORQLDQ ,Q UHJDWXO ,XGD HVWH R SHULRDG  WXOEXUH  existând o
 -
SDUWLG  SUR (JLSW DOWD FDUH VXV LQH VXSXQHUHD vQ ID D EDELORQLHQLORU ,Q DFHVWH YUHPXUL WXOEXUL VH

SHWUHF FHOH UHODWDWH vQ FDS  ,HUHPLD SULPHúWH SRUXQFD 'RPQXOXL GH D DGXQD WRDWH FXYkQW ULOH 
sale într-o carte. Profetul i-R G OXL %DUXK LDU DFHVWD R FLWHúWH OD 7HPSOX )LLQG YRUED GH SURIH LL
 

FDUHDQXQ DXF GHUHDLPLQHQW DVWDWXOXLVHLVF PDUHWXOEXUDUHvQ,HUXVDOLP5HJHOH,RLDFKLPFHUH

     
V LVHFLWHDVF úLOXLFDUWHD'XS OHFWXU UHJHOHDUXQF VILG WRUVXOXOSURIHWLFSHIRF(OVHDIOD în
partida pro-HJLSWHDQúLQXYRLDVVHODVHLQWLPLGDWGHSURIH LLOHOXL,HUHPLD3URIHWXOGLFWHD]vQV
vQFRGDWFXYkQWULOHVDOHúL%DUXKOHVWUkQJHvQWU-XQQRXVXODGXJkQGúLDOWHFXYkQWUL

&XYLQWHOH OXL ,HUHPLD VH DGHYHUHVF 'XS R SULP LQFXUVLXQH PLOLWDU ,RLDFKLP DMXQJH V

SOWHDVF WULEXW EDELORQLHQLORU 'DU vQ FXUkQG ,RLDFKLP UHIX] V PDL SOWHDVF WULEXW úL vQ DQXO

1DEXFRGRQRVRUSXVWLHúWH DUD2SDUWHGLQSRSRUvQGHRVHELFODVDFRQGXFWRDUHHVWHGHSRUWDW

în Babilon.
   
&KLDUGDF DUDW F H[LOXODIRVWRSHGHDSV DOXL'XPQH]HX,HUHPLDvLvQFXUDMHD] SHFHLU PDúL  
 
vQ DU FDGHDOWIHOúLSHFHLDIOD LvQ%DELORQF URUDOHWULPLWHRVFULVRDUH FDS (OI J GXLHúWH  

F 'XPQH]HXYDvQFKHLDFXRU P úL   XQQRXOHJPkQW -34), scris în inimile oamenilor.

 8OWLPD SDUWH D DFWLYLW  


LL OXL ,HUHPLD vQFHSH GXS  GLVWUXJHUHD ,HUXVDOLPXOXL vQ  &ODVD

 
FRQGXF WRDUHPHVHULDúLLRúWHQLLVXQWGHSRUWD LvQ%DELORQ,QWUHFHLU PDúLvQ DU H[LVW RSDUWLG    

FDUHPDLVSHU vQDMXWRUXO(JLSWXOXL$FHúWLDvOYRUOXDFXHLúLSHSURIHWúLYRUIXJLvQ(JLSWXQGH

YRU vQWHPHLD FRPXQLW  L LXGDLFH &kWHYD SURIH LL DOH OXL ,HUHPLD VXQW URVWLWH DLFL 3RWULYLW XQHL

WUDGL LLLXGDLFHvQ(JLSWHODIRVWXFLVGHFRPSDWULR LLV L 

Lecturi:
- cap. 1-2, 
R VLQWH]  D SURIHWLVPXOXL FODVLF SULQFLSDOHOH WHPH VXQW DERUGDWH úL GH SURIH LL

FODVLFL DSRVWD]LD OXL ,VUDHO UHOD LD <+:+ – ,VUDHO FD UHOD LH FRQMXJDO XQGH DSRVWD]LD
 
vQVHDPQ GHVIUkQDUHWU GDUH ,PDJLQLúLOLPEDM

- cap. 18-IRUPDDOHDV YL]LXQLDFte simbolice).


,HUHPLDúLVLQJXU WDWHDRPXOXLOXL'XPQH]HX

 
3HQWUXPLVLXQHDVD,HUHPLDDIRVWEDWMRFRULWSHUVHFXWDWXUkWGHDLV LS U VLW3URIHWXOVHSOkQJH

 -    
F  PLVLXQHD OXL 'XPQH]HX O D I FXW V  ILH HYLWDW GH WR L V  DMXQJ  VLQJXU ,HUHPLD QX VH

cVWRUHúWHQXPDLDUHYLD GHIDPLOLHVDXYLD VRFLDO,HUHPLDVXIHUILLQGFHOQXGRUHúWHVVH


L]ROH]HGHOXPHGHDLVLILLQGFQXYUHDFDDFHúWLDVSLDU6XIHUILLQGFHOWUHEXLHVDQXQ HXQ

FXYkQW SH FDUH QX úL-O GRUHúWH GDU SH FDUH WUHEXLH V vO DQXQ H ILLQGF YLQH GH OD 'XPQH]HX

3ULQWUH SURIH LL HO QH-D GHVFULV vQ FXYLQWH ]JXGXLWRDUH GUDPD VD VLQJXUWDWHD RPXOXL FDUH úL-a

vQFKLQDW YLD D OXL 'XPQH]HX QHSXWLQ D GH D VH vPSRWULYL OXL 'XPQH]HXGDUúLQHSXWLQ DGHDWUL

IU FXYkQWXO 'RPQXOXL $FHVWH WH[WH DX IRVW GHQXPLWH GH H[HJH L ÄFRQIHVLXQLOH OXL ,HUHPLD´

(11,18-23; 12,1-6; 15,10.15-20; 17,14-18; 18,18-23; 20,7-13.14-18).

/HFWXU : 23,9; 20,7-9; 15,16


6FULVRDUHDOXL,HUHPLDF WUHH[LOD LLGLQ%DELORQ (cap.29: OHFWXU)
28
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Ea a fosWWULPLVSULPLORUH[LOD LvQDQXO3ULQPHVDMXOHLSULQvQGHPQXULOHGHDVHDFRPRGDvQ

PLMORFXO DOWRU QHDPXUL GH D VH UXJD SHQWUX DFHLD ILLQGF  GH ELQHOH ORU GHSLQGH ELQHOH SURSULHL

FRPXQLW  LDFHVWWH[WDFRQVWLWXLWRÄ0DJQD&KDUWD´DLXGDLVPXOXLGLQWRDWHWLPSXULOHRVLQWH] D 


SULQFLSLLORU GH YLD  SHQWUX WR   
L HYUHLL FDUH WU LHVF SULQWUH VWU LQL vQ GLDVSRUD GH DWXQFL úL SkQ  vQ

zilele noastre.

3URIH LLPHVLDQLFH

31,15, cf. Mt 2,17 – uciderea pruncilor


31,31 cf. Evr 8,10; 10,16 –1RXO/HJPânt, înscris în inimi.

29
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Cartea Iezechiel

9LD DúLDFWLYLWDWHDúLPHVDMXOSURIHWXOXL,H]HFKLHO

  
1XPHOH SURIHWXOXL vQVHPQ  vQ HEUDLF  Ä'XPQH]HX vQW UHúWH´ FHHD FH SRWULYLW GLFWRQXOXL ODWLQ

„nomen est omen”,3 s-D úL UHDOL]DW vQ FD]XOOXL,H]HFKLHODIRVWFKHPDWSURIHWGHFWUH'XPQH]HX


pentru a-L vQWUL SH HYUHLL DIOD L vQ H[LO 0LVLXQHD VD SURIHWLF vQFHSH vQ DQXO DO -OHD GXS SULPD
 
GHSRUWDUH D HYUHLORU vQ %DELORQ   úL VH GHVI úRDU  vQ H[FOXVLYLWDWH vQ H[LO FLUFD  GH DQL 2

     
WUDGL LH LXGDLF  PHQ LRQDW  úL GH XQLL 6I 3 ULQ L DILUP  F  HO D IRVW XFLV vQ %DELORQ GH F WUH XQ


MXGHF WRUDOSRSRUXOXLLXGHXSHFDUHvOPXVWUDVHGLQSULFLQDLGRODWULHL

Iezechiel s-D DIODW vQWUH HYUHLL GHSRUWD L vQ  vQ 0HVRSRWDPLD $LFL SUHRWXO ,H]HFKLHO GHYLQH úL

SURIHWvQXUPDYL]LXQLLVODYHLOXL'XPQH]HX(DHVWHUHODWDW vQSULPXOFDSLWRODOF U LL 

/HFWXU ,H] -3.
 -  
,QXUPDDFHVWHLYL]LXQL,H]HFKLHOHVWHFKHPDWV ILHSURIHWSULQWU XQDFWVLPEROLF'RPQXOvLG V 

vQJKLWXQVXOSHFDUHVXQWvQVFULVHFXYLQWele Sale, cuvinte ce trebuie rostite de profet poporului.

 
,H]HFKLHO WUHEXLH V  FRQGDPQH S FDWHOH FDUH VH SHWUHF vQ SRSRUXO H[LODW GDU PDL DOHV vQ ,XGD vQ

 
FLXGD IDSWXOXL F  HO VH DIO  vQ %DELORQLD )LLQG SXUWDW GH 'XKXO 6IkQW vQ ,HUXVDOLP ,H]HFKLHO DUH

vL]LXQHDFHORUSHWUHFXWHDLFL,Q,XGDVHSHWUHFFULPHVHYDUVVkQJH HWF 
DUD H FXSULQV GH LGRODWULH     FKLDU úL vQ 7HPSOX VH DIO LGROL FDS  
3FDWHOH 6RGRPHL -50), ale Tirului (28,2.5.17) úL DOH (JLSWXOXL    VXQW DFXP

SUDFWLFDWH GH ,HUXVDOLP &D úL 2VHD ,H]HFKLHO VRFRWHúWH SFDWXO ,HUXVDOLPXOXL FD ILLQG FRQJHQLWDO

Ierusalim s-D QVFXW GLQ WDW DPRULW úL PDP KLWLW  4 DGLF GLQ SJkQL LGRODWUL 5RELD vQ
(JLSWDIFXWDSRLFDLQLPDOXL,VUDHOVILHPHUHXDSOHFDWVSUHLGRODWULH,H]HFKLHODUHRYL]LXQHvQ

FDUH L VH DUDW F VODYD 'RPQXOXL SUVHúWH ,HUXVDOLPXO -  XQ VHPQ DO VIkUúLWXOXL

LQHYLWDELO 6ODYD OXL 'XPQH]HX FDUH vQVR LVH SRSRUXO OD LHúLUHD GLQ (JLSW , pogorându-se în cortul
 
VIkQW úL PDL WkU]LX vQ WHPSOXO GLQ ,HUXVDOLP VH GHS UWHD]  DFXP GH DFHVW ORF -XGHFDWD OXL


'XPQH]HX úL SHGHDSVD SHQWUX SRSRU DGLF  GLVWUXJHUHD ,HUXVDOLPXOXL úL URELD VXQW YHVWLWH GH

profet.

 
& GHUHD,HUXVDOLPXOXLDPDUFDWRFRWLWXU vQDFWLYLWDWHDOXL,H]HFKLHO9HVWHDFDWDVWURIHLGLQD

SURGXV R VFKLPEDUH vQ DWLWXGLQHD H[LOD LORU ID GHSURIHW'DFSkQDWXQFLvOLJQRUDXDFXPV-au


    gerii
FRQYLQV F  HO D DYXW GUHSWDWH ,H]HFKLHO VXIHU  DO WXUL GH FRPSDWULR LL V L GLQ SULFLQD GLVWUX

,HUXVDOLPXOXL úL D 7HPSOXOXL 'H DFXP vQDLQWH FXYLQWHOH GH MXGHFDW úL PXVWUDUH YRU IL GRDU OD

DGUHVDDOWRUQHDPXUL,QFRQWLQXDUHHOvLYDURVWLGRDUFXYLQWHGHPkQJkLHUHSHQWUXLXGHLvQWULQGX-

OHVSHUDQ DvQL]EYLUHDGLQH[LOúLvQWRDUFHUHDvQ DUDORU'XPQH]HXvLYDDOXQJDSHSVWRULLFHLUL

DLSRSRUXOXL FRQGXFWRULLSROLWLFLúLVSLULWXDOL úLVHYDIDFH(OvQVXúLSVWRUXOFHOEXQ -31). In

DFHVW FRQWH[W HVWH URVWLW úL SURIH LD GHVSUHRDVHOHXVFDWHSHFDUH'XKXOOXL'XPQH]HXOHYDvQYLD

(37,1- 9LD DSRSRUXOXLYDILXQDQRX - /DVIkUúLWXOYUHPLLGXSFHYDvQYLQJHWR L


GXúPDQLLFXOPLQkQGFX*RJGLQ0DJRJ FDS ,VUDHOYDWULvQSDFHvQWU-un Ierusalim Nou, cu

XQ7HPSOXUHFOGLWvQFDUHVODYD'RPQXOXLVHYDUHvQWRDUFHúLvQFDUH'RPQXOYDORFXLSHYHFLvQ

mijlocul poporului.
 
3UDFWLF VIkUúLWXO F U LL DPHVWHF  LPDJLQL DOH XQXL YLLWRU DSURSLDW FX LPDJLQL DOH VIkUúLWXOXL

-   
WLPSXOXL 6SHUDQ D H[LOD LORU vQWU R ,XGHHD UHVWDXUDW  VH GL]ROY  SDUF  vQ WDEORXO PDL ODUJ DO

evenimHQWHORU HVKDWRORJLFH 'H DFHHD FUHúWLQLL DX Y]XW vQ SURIH LHL RDVHORU XVFDWH FDS   R
SURIH LHGHVSUHvQYLHUHDPRU LORU(DVHFLWHúWHODXWUHQLDGLQVkPEWDPDUHvQDLQWHDvQYLHULL

9L]LXQHDGHVSUHQRXO,HUXVDOLPúLQRXO7HPSOX

3
 
Ä1XPHOHHVWHXQVHPQ´7HPDUFKHD] WRDW YLD Dv LGHILQHúWHH[LVWHQ D
4

$OX]LHODSHULRDGDSUHLVUDHOLWLF DRUDúXOXL,QDLQWHGHDILFXFHULWGH'DYLGHUDXQRUDúLHEXVLWRULLHEXVHLLOD

ora reasSHFWLYDVLPLOD LFXFDQDDQHLL DPRUL LL DYHDXRULJLQLHKLWLW

30
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

 
/DIHOúLYL]LXQHDGHVSUH1RXO,HUXVDOLPDPHVWHF LPDJLQLDOHXQHLUHVWDXU ULQD LRQDOHDSURSLDWH

-
FX HYHQLPHQWH FH LQ GH HVKDWRQ &DS   VXQW VLPEROLFH úL FXSULQG R GHVFULHUH SRHWLF  D 
YLLWRDUHL vPS U  LL PHVLDQLFH 1RXO WHPSOX FRQVWUXLW SH XQ PXQWH vQDOW GHVFULV vQ L magini
  
VWU OXFLWRDUHFDúLQRXOFXOWLQVWDXUDWS PkQWXOFHOQRXDG SDWGHXQL]YRUPLQXQDWFDUHLHVHGLQ

 
7HPSOX úL vPS U LW vQ PRG HJDO vQWUH FHOH  VHPLQ LL DOH OXL ,VUDHO úL vQWUH VWU LQL WRDWH DFHVWHD

VXQWVLPEROXULSURIHWLFHDOHvPS U  LHLPHVLDQLFHXQLYHUVDOHúLYHúQLFH(OHQXWUHEXLHLQWHUSUHWDWH


LVWRULFFDRSUHYHVWLUHDUHVWDELOLULLUHJDWXOXLLXGDLFGXS H[LOFLDOHJRULF'HDOWIHO$SRFDOLSVD6I

Ioan preia aceste imagini în descrierea Ierusalimului ceresc, sau ale miresei Mirelui (Apoc 21,10).

(Y,RDQIRORVHúWHLPDJLQHD3 VWRUXOXLFHOEXQ (]FI,QI 

O proorocie despre pururea fecioaria Maicii Domnului (44,1-2)

Apoi m-DGXVEUEDWXODFHODvQDSRLODSRDUWDFHDGLQDIDUDWHPSOXOXLVSUHUVULWúLDFHDVWDHUD
vQFKLV  
ùL mi-D]LV'RPQXOÄ3RDUWDDFHDVWDYDILvQFKLVQXVHYDGHVFKLGHúLQLFLXQRPQXYDLQWUDSH

HDF FL'RPQXO'XPQH]HXOOXL,VUDHODLQWUDWSHHD'HDFHHDYDILvQFKLV ´ 

3HQWUX FUHúWLQL LQWHUSUHWDUHD WH[WXOXL HVWH VLPEROLF FXP DP Y]XW F WUHEXLH LQterpretate în

ansamblu cap. 40- 7H[WXO DILUP F 0DLFD 'RPQXOXL D IRVW )HFLRDU úL D UPDV )HFLRDU
pururea.

31
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Cartea Daniel

1XPHOHúLWH[WXOFU LL

'DQLHO vQVHDPQ vQ HEUDLF Ä'XPQH]HX MXGHF³ VDX Ä'XPQH]HX HVWH MXGHFWRUXO PHX³
&DUWHD HVWH QXPLW GXS SHUVRQDMXO SULQFLSDO DO FHORU  FDSLWROH SURIHWXO 'DQLHO FDUH úL-a
GHVIúXUDW DFWLYLWDWHD vQ H[LOXOXL EDELORQLDQ úL DSRL vQ SHULRDGD SHUVDQ ,Q FDQRQXO %LEOLHL
HEUDLFH FDUWHD XUPHD] GXS FDUWHD (VWLU IFkQG SDUWH GLQ FDWHJRULD VFULHULORU NHWXEîm).
$FHVW IDSW HVWH XQ LQGLFLX GHVSUH DSDUL LD WkU]LH SRVWH[LOL[ D FU LL ,Q /;; FDUWHD HVWH
DúH]DWGXS,H]HFKLHOvQWUHFU LOHSURIHWLFH
&DUWHDFXSULQGHFDSLWROHVFULVHvQHEUDLFúLDUDPDLF FDS- 3ULPDSDUWHDFU LL FDS
1-6) are caUDFWHU LVWRULF ILLQG IRUPDW GLQ QDUD LXQL FDUH SUH]LQW HYHQLPHQWH GLQ YLD D
profetului Daniel. In cea de a 2-a parte sunt prezentate viziuni despre viitor ale profetului
Daniel, aceste texte având caracter apocaliptic.5
&DUWHD QX SUH]LQW HYHQLPHQWHOH vntr-R VXFFHVLXQH FURQRORJLF GH XQGH UH]XOW F LQWHUHVXO
autorului nu este în primul rând istoric. 'HH[UHJHOH'DULXVHPHQ LRQDWvQDLQWHGH&LUXV
,QOLPEDJUHDFH[LVWYHUVLXQLDOHWH[WXOXLFU LL'DQLHOFHDD/;;úLFHDDOXL7KHRGRWLRQ
Ambele VH GLVWLQJ GH YHUVLXQHD GLQ %LEOLD HEUDLF SULQ FkWHYD DGDRVXUL $VWIH vQ FDS  vQ
QDUD LXQHDGHVSUHFHLWLQHULvQFXSURWXOFXIRFvQWH[WHOHJU6XQWLQWHUFDODWHUXJFLXQHDOXL
$]DULDúLFkQWDUHDFHORUWLQHUL$OWHDGDRVXULID GHWH[WXOHEUDLFsunt istoria Susanei, istoria
OXL %HO úL D EDODXUXOXL 7RDWH DFHVWH DGDRVXUL ID  GH WH[WXO HEUDLF VXQW DúH]DWH vQ %LEOLLOH
URPkQHúWLvQWUHFU LOHQHFDQRQLFH$OWIHOWH[WXOJUDOOXL7KHRGRWLRQHPDLDSURSLDWGHWH[WXO
HEUDLFúLPDLELQHSVWUDWGHFkWFel al LXX, care e mai corupt.

7LPSXOVFULHULLFU LL

&XSULYLUHODWLPSXOVFULHULLPDMRULWDWHDDXWRULORUPRGHUQLVRFRWHVFFDFHDVWFDUWHDDSUXWvQ
SHULRDGDVHOHXFLGVDXvQFHDDPDFDEHLORUDúDGDUvQVHF,,v+UGHúLXQHOHSU LSRWILPDL
vechL $UJXPHQWXO SULQFLSDO DO GDWULL HVWH IDSWXO F vQ FDS úL  VH GHVFULX FX H[DFWLWDWH
HYHQLPHQWHGLQDFHDVWSHULRDGFKLDUGDFHOHSHUVRQDMHOHLVWRULFHQXILJXUHD]FXQXPHOH :
SURIDQDUHD WHPSOXOXL GH FWUH $QWLRK ,9 (SLIDQHV vQ  v+U SHUVHFX ia sa împotriva
LXGDLVPXOXLUHYROWDPDFDEHLORUúLFXU LUHDWHPSOXOXLGLQDQXOv+U'HDOWIHOúLUHODWULOH
GHVSUH 'DQLHO vQ %DELORQ VXQW DOX]LL OD HYHQLPHQWH VDX VWUL GH IDSW GLQ VHF ,, : cultul
vPSUDWXOXL  LGRODWULD  SUHVLXQHDEDELORQLHQilor asupra tinerilor evrei pentru a-úLOHSGD
UHOLJLDúLSUHVFULS LLOH/HJLL - VXQWRWULPLWHUHODSHUVHFX LDOXL$QWLRK,9 FI0DF-7) ;
VWUXLQ D OXL 'DQLHO úL D FHORU  WLQHUL vQ FUHGLQ D VWUPRúHDVF vQ FLXGD SHUVHFX LLORU úL FX
riscul martiULXOXLVXQWUHIHULULODSULJRDQDUHOLJLRDVVHOHXFLGúLUH]LVWHQ DLXGDLFFHDFRQGXV
la revolta macabeilor.
$SRLúLIDSWXOFvQFDQRQXOLXGDLFDFHDVWFDUWHQXIDFHSDUWHGLQFDWHJRULDFU LORUSURIHWLFH
(nebîîm), ci din cea a scrierilor (ketubîm), iQGLFDSDUL LDHLWkU]LH

5

 *HQXO DSRFDOLSWLF HVWH XQ JHQ DO OLWHUDWXULL ELEOLFH FHD PDLFXQRVFXW ILLQG$SRFDOLSVD6IIoan din NT. Genul
vúL DUH RULJLQLOH vQ LXGDLVPXO SRVWH[LOLF &XP VH SRDWH GHGXFH úL GLQ GHQXPL re, „apocalipsa“ (gr. Descoperire,
 -
UHYHOD LH  SUH]LQW  vQWU XQ OLPEDM FRGLILFDW FULSWLF HYHQLPHQWHOH GH OD VIkUúLWXO YHDFXULORU FDUH VXQW DVFXQVH

RPXOXL GH UkQG (OH VXQW GHVFRSHULWH SULQ YL]LXQL LQWHUSUHWDWH GH LQWHUPHGLDUL vQJHUL  GRDU FHORU vQ HOHS i, care
DVWIHOSULPHVFRLPDJLQHGHDQVDPEOXDVXSUDLVWRULHLúLDSODQXOXLOXL'XPQH]HXFXSULYLUHODSRSRUXOV X LXGHX 
  
vQ 97 FUHúWLQ vQ 17  2 DOW  FDUDFWHULVWLF  D JHQXOXL DSRFDOLSWLF HVWH OXSWD IRU HORU U XOXL vPSRWULYD OXL


'XPQH]HX&DUHODVIkUúLWXOYHDFXOXLOHYDSXQHFDS WúLYDLQDXJXUDvPS U   
LD6DPHVLDQLF YHúQLF 

32
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

&XUSLQVXOSULPHLSU L -6).

'DQLHOVHWUJHDGLQWU-RIDPLOLHQRELOúLV-DQXPUDWSULQWUHHYUHLLGXúLvQH[LOvQ%DELORQLDGH
FWUH 1DEXFRGRQRVRU ÌPSUHXQ FX DO L  WLQHUL HO HVWH FUHVFXW OD FXUWH úL HGXFDW SHQWUX D
devenivQDOWGHPQLWDUEDELORQLDQ&XWRDWHDFHVWHD'DQLHOúLFRORHJLLVLUPkQILGHOLFUHGLQ HL
VWUPRúHúWLvQ'XPQH]HXúLREVHUYFXVWULFWH HOHJHDPR]DLF FDS 'DWRULWvQ HOHSFLXQLL
FX FDUH HVWH vQ]HVWUDW GH GXPQH]HX 'DQLHO SRDWH V LQWHUSUHWH]H YLVXULOH úL YL]LXQLOH
vPSUD LORU $VWIHO HO WkOFXLHúWH YLVXO OXL 1DEXFRGRQRVRU GHVSUH VWDWXLD GLQ DXU DUJLQW ILHU
DUDP úL SPkQW GLVWUXV GH R SLDWU DUXQFDW GH PkQ QHRPHQHDVF VLPERO DO LPSHULLORU
FDUHYRUVIkUúLúLYRUILXUPDWHGHvPSU LDPHVLDQLF FDS 3HQWUXIDSWXOFQXYRUVVH
vQFKLQH VWDWXLL LGRODWUH FHL WUHL WLQHUL VXQW DUXQFD L vQ FXSWRUXO FX IRF GDU UPkQ QHDWLQúL GH
IRFSULQJULMDOXL'XPQH]HX FDS 'DQLHOWkOFXLHúWHYLVXOOXL1DEXFRGRQRVRUGHVSUHSRPXO
XULDú FDUH HVWH WLDW FDUH SUH]LFH QHEXQLD WHPSRUDU D UHJHOXL FDS  (O LQWHUSUHWD] DSRL
LQVFULS LDPLVWHULRDVGHSH]LGODRVS XOOXL%HOúD DUSULQFDUHVHSUH]LFHVIkUúLWXOLPSHULXOXL
EDELORQLDQ úL FXFHULUHD OXL GH PH]L úL SHUúL PHQH PHQH WHNHO XIDUVLQ FDS   ,Q XUPa
uneltirilor de la curte, Daniel este aruncat în graopa cu lei din porunca regelui Darius Medul,
VXEDFX]DFUHIX]VFXOWXOvPSUDWXOXL'XPQH]HXvOS]HúWHvQFKLSPLUDFXORV FDS

Teme teologice din cap. 1-6

8QLFLWDWHD úL XQLYHUVDOLWDWHD OXL 'XPQHzeul. Comun capitolelor 1- HVWH IDSWXO F HOH VH
vQFKHLHFXRGR[RORJLHYHQLWGLQSDUWHDUHSUH]HQWDQ LORUSJkQW LL,QXUPDYLVHORUWkOFXLWH
GH 'DQLHO VDX PLQXQLORU SULQ FDUH HO úL FROHJLL OXL VXQW L]EYL L GH PRDUWH WR L UHJLL SJkQL
UHFXQRVF úL SURFODP XQLFLWDWHD DWRWSXWHUQLFLD OXL 'XPQH]HX úL FDUDFWHUXO XQLYHUVDO DO
VWSkQLULL 6DOH 'XPQH]HXO HYUHLORU HVWH VLQJXUXO 'XPQH]HXFDUHJXYHUQHD]LVWRULD  ;
2,28-29 ; 6,27-28).

&UHGLQ DvQ'XPQH]HXvQRULFHvPSUHMXUULvQYUHPHGHSHUVHFX LLúLSLOGGHHYODYLH. Un


PHVDMVWUXLWRUDOFU LLHVWHvQGHPQXOGHDVWUXLvQFUHGLQ FKLDUFXULVFXOPDUWLULXOXL&DUWHD
RIHU SLOGH GH FUHGLQ  YLH úL QH]GUXQFLQDW vQ 'XPQH]HX GH REVHUYDUH D SUHVFULS LLORU
UHOLJLRDVH GH UXJFLXQH úL SUDFWLF D SRVWXOXL Din aceste motive, cartea Daniel nu a fost
DSUHFLDWGRDUvQLXGDLVPFLHDDMXFDWXQUROvQVHPQDWvQHYODYLDFUHúWLQLORUSkQvQ]LXDGH
azi. Biserica a preluat din ea texte ca formulare liturgice în cultul ortodox : 3,25-45 úi 9,4-19
sunt modele de rugFLXQL GH SHQLWHQ  FkQWDUHD FHORU  WLQHUL FD PRGHO GH FkQWDUH
ELVHULFHDVF6HPDLGHVSULQGHLGHHDFUXJFLXQHDHVWHRSUDFWLFUHOLJLRDVELQHVWDELOLWFX
WLPSXULúLFKLDUFXRSR]L LHDWUXSXOXLIL[DWHLQGLIHUHQWGHORFXOvQFDUHVHDIOFUHGLQFLRsul
 3RVWXOOXL'DQLHOúLDOFHORUWLQHULHVWHRIHULWFDPRGHOvQVFULHULOHSULQ LORU%LVHULFLL
6SLULWXDOLWDWHDDFHVWHLFU LDLQIOXHQ DWDúDGDUVSLULWXDOLWDWHDRUWRGR[
&XULQVXOSU LLD-a (7-12)

Cele patru viziuni ale lui Daniel sunt tâlcXLWH GH vQJHUL úL UHSUH]LQW GHVFRSHULUL GHVSUH
vQIUkQJHUHD LPSHULLORU FDUH VXEMXJ SRSRUXO LXGHX úL LQVWDXUDUHD vPSU LHL PHVLDQLFH OD
VIkUúLWXOWLPSXOXL
,Q SULPD YL]LXQH 'DQLHO YHGH  ILDUH FDUH LHV GLQ PDUH úL vQ FHO GLQ XUP VXQW VXSXVH úL
judecate GH&HOYHFKLGH]LOHGH&HO3UHDvQDOW,PSU LDYHúQLFHVWHGDW)LXOXL2PXOXLFDUH
YDYHQLSHQRULLFHUXOXL&DúLvQFDSLWROXO YLVXOFXVWDWXLDGLQPHWDOHGLIHULWH FHOHILDUH
VLPEROL]HD]  LPSHULL FDUH YRU SLHUL EDELORQLDQ PHG úL SHUVDQ DO lui Alexandru, al
SWRORPHLORUúLVHOHXFL]LORU FDS 
$GRXDYL]LXQHHVWHFHDDEHUEHFXOXLFDUHHVWHvQYLQVGHXQ DSGLQDSXV'LQFRUQXO DSXOXL
FUHVF  FRDUQH GLQWUH FDUH XQXO OXSW FX vQFUkQFHQDUH vPSRWULYD OXL 'XPQH]HX %HUEHFXO
UHSUH]LQW LPSHULXO persan, învoins de Alexandru cel Mare. Cele 4 coarne sunt imperiile

33
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

IRUPDWHGXSPRDUWHDVD&RUQXOFDUHOXSWvPSRWULYDOXL'XPQH]HXHVWH$QWLRK,9(SLIDQHV
(cap.8).
8UPHD]YL]LXQHDFHORUGHVSWPkQLGHDQLWkOFXLWGHDUKDQJKHOXO*DYULLO9RUWUHFH 70
GHVSWPkQLGHDQLGHODSRUXQFDGHUH]LGLUHD,HUXVDOLPXOXLSkQODYHQLUHDOXL0HVLD(OYD
SLHUL IU V VH JVHDVF YUHR YLQ vQ (O LDU XQ SRSRU VWULQ YD GUkPD FHWDWHD úL WHPSOXO
0HVLDYDvQFKHLDXQOHJPkQWFXPXO LvQWU-RVSWPkQ FDS-27).
In capitolele 10-12 sunt prezentate viziuni despre succesiunea imperiilor persan, macedonian,
SWRORPHLORU úL VHOHXFL]LORU ,Q YUHPXULOH GLQ XUP VH YD VFXOD DUKDQJKHOXO 0LKDLO FDUH YD
LQWHUYHQLVSUHL]EYLUHDSRSRUXOXLGXSFDUHYDXUPDvQYLHUHDPRU LORU LUVSODWDFHORUGUHS L
FDUHYRUVWUOXFLFDVWHOHOHSHFHU'DQLHOHVWHvQGHPQDWVSHFHWOXLDVFFDUWHDGHVFRSHULULLV
LQDVFXQVHFXYLQWHOHSkQODVIkUúLWXOYUHPLL

Teme teologice din cap. 7-FRQFHS LDPHVLDQLFvQYLHUHDPRU LORUUHFHS LDFUHúWLQDFU LL

,PSRUWDQ DDSRFDOLSVHLOXL'DQLHO'LQSHUVSHFWLYFUHúWLQGHVFRSHULULOHGLQSDUWHDD-a a
FU LL UHSUH]LQW XQ SURJUHV vQ UHYHOD LD GLYLQ úL HOH SUHJWHVF GHVFRSHULUHD GHSOLQ D OXL
Dumnezeu în Iisus Hristos. Sunt importante proIH LLOH PHVLDQLFH GHVSUH WLPSXO YHQLULL OXL
+ULVWRV VDX GHVSUH MHUWID 6D úL OHJPkQWXO FHO 1RX FDUH VH GLVWLQJ vQ DFHDVW SDUWH D FU LL
9L]LXQLOH YRUEHVF úL GHVSUH vPSU LD YHúQLF D )LXOXL 2PXOXL GHVSUH D -D 6D YHQLUH úL
GHVSUH vQYLHUHD PRU LORU 'H DOWIHO 'DQ  HVWH VLQJXUXO ORF QHFRQWURYHUVDW FDUH DILUP
vQYLHUHDPRU LORUvQ97 vQFU LOHFDQRQLFH ,PDJLQLOHDSRFDOLVHLOXL'DQLHODXLQIOXHQ DWSH
DXWRULLQRXWHVWDPHQWDULúLPXOWHLPDJLQLúLH[SUHVLLGHDLFLVXQWUHOXDWHvQ$SRFDOLSVD6I,RDQ

34
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Osea

1XPHOHFU LL

Cartea profetului Osea face parte din cele 12 cU L QXPLWH ÄSURIH LL PLFL´ ,Q 9HFKLXO
7HVWDPHQWFHOHFU LIRUPHD]XQFRUSXVXQLWDUIDSWSHQWUXFDUHvQOLWHUDWXUDGHVSHFLDOLWDWH
HOHVXQWGHQXPLWHúLÄFDUWHDFHORUSURIH L´.
,Q DFHVW FRUSXV FDUWHD SURIHWXOXL 2VHD HVWH vQúLUDW SH SULPXO ORF 'HúL GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH
FURQRORJLFQXHVWHSULPXOGLQWUHSURIH LLVFULLWRUL2VHDHVWHSULQWUHSULPLLHOXUPkQGLPHGLDW
GXS$PRVúLILLQGFRQWHPSRUDQFX,VDLD
1XPHOH 2VHD vQVHDPQ vQ HEUDLF ÄPkQWXLUH´ ILLQG vQUXGLW HWLPRORJLF FX QXPHOH ,RVXD VDX
Iisus.

9LD DSURIHWXOXL

'LQ SULPXO YHUVHW DO FU LL DIOP F SURIHWXO D DFWLYDW VXE GRPQLD UHJHOXL ,HURERDP ,, -
 GLQUHJDWXOGH1RUG&KLDUGDFPDLVXQWDPLQWL LúLUHJLDLUHJDWului de Sud, sub care a
DFWLYDWúL,VDLD2VHDvOQXPHúWHSHUHJHOHOXL,VUDHOÄUHJHOHQRVWUX´  GHXQGHUH]XOWF
activitatea lui s-DGHVIúXUDWvQDFHVWUHJDW(OQLFLQXDPLQWHúWHYUHRGDWFHWDWHD,HUXVDOLPvQ
VFKLPEYRUEHúWHDGHVHDGHFHW LOHQordice.
1XVHPHQ LRQHD]FGHUHDUHJDWXOXLGHQRUGVXEURELDDVLULDQ v+ VHPQF2VHDQXD
PDL WULW DFHVW HYHQLPHQW 3HVHPQH F V-D QVFXW vQ UHJDWXO GH 1RUG SH OD vQFHSXWXO VHF 
v+úL-DvQFHSXWDFWLYLWDWHDSURIHWLFvQMXUXODQXOXLúLúL-a încheiat-o în jurul anului 730.
9LD DVDSULYDWDIRVWPDUFDWGHPLVLXQHDSURIHWLFvQPRGWUDJLF'XPQH]HXvLVSXQHVLD
vQ FVWRULH R IHPHLH GHVIUkQDW 'UDPD GLQ YLD D SULYDW HVWH WUDQVSXV SH SODQ UHOLJLRV
&VWRULD OXL 2VHD HVWH XQ DFW VLPEROLF vQ FDUH VH DUDW OHJWXUD LQILGHO D SRSRUXOXL FX
'XPQ]HXOVX

6LWXD LDLVWRULFR-SROLWLFvQFDUHDFWLYHD]SURIHWXO

2VHD D WULW vQWU-R SHULRDG SROLWLF PDUFDW GH LQVWDELOLWDWH 'XS OXQJD GRPQLH D OXL
Ieroboam II, succesiunea la tron se va IDFHGRDUSULQX]XUSDUHúLFULP)LXOOXL,HURERDP,,
HVWHXFLVGXSOXQL8]XUSDWRUXODUHDFHHDúLVRDUWGXSQXPDLROXQGHGRPQLH8QDOWUHJH
3HFD HVWH DVDVLQDW GXS  DQL 8OWLPXO UHJH DO UHJDWXOXL GH 1RUG SRDUW DFHODúL QXPH FD úL
profetul- Osea,QWLPSXOGRPQLHLVDOHDVLHULHQLLDVHGLD]6DPDULDFDSLWDODUHJDWXOXL,Q
î.H. regatul de Nord este cucerit de asirieni.
3URIHWXO2VHDDSUH]LVVIkUúLWXOGLQDVWLHLOXL,HURERDP,,FDUHDGHFODQúDWODQ XOGHX]XUSULúL
FULPH FH YD GXFH OD FGHUHD UHJDWXOXL &KLDU GDF QX D WULW FXFHULUHD 6DPDULHL FXYkQWXO
'RPQXOXLURVWLWGHSURIHWHVWHRDVSUMXGHFDWDVLWXD LHLSROLWLFH

(LúL-au ales rege fãrã voin D0HDúL-DXSXVFmSHWHQLLImUmFD(XVmILúWLXW'LQDXUXO


úLGLQDUJLQWXOORUúL-au fmFXWLGROLFDHLVmVHSUmEXúHDVFm

Uzurpatorii nu sunt regi legitimi, sunt criminali.

6LWXD LDUHOLJLRV-PRUDOvQFDUHDFWLYHD]SURIHWXO

3ROLWLFDGLQUHJDWXOGHQRUGHVWHvQVR LWGHRGHJUDGDUHUHOLJLRVPRUDOFHvQFHSHFXSWXULOH
FRQGXFWRDUHúLFXSULQGHWRWSRSRUXO,QQXPHOH'RPQXOXL2VHDFRQGDPQFRUXS LDPRUDO
QHGUHSWDWHDVRFLDOúLGHIRUPDUHDFXOWXOXLUHOLJLRV

35
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

$VFXOWD LFXYkQWXO'RPQXOXLYRLFRSLLDLOXL,VUDHOFã Domnul stã la judecatã cu locuitorii pãmântului. Cã

nu mai este crHGLQ mQLFLLXELUHQLFLFXQRDúWHUHGH'XPQH]HXvQ DUã.


 7R L MXUm VWUkPE PLQW XFLG IXUm úL VXQW GHVIUkQD L VmYkUúHVF IDSWH VLOQLFH LDU VkQJHOH YmUVDW FXUJH SHVWH

sânge.
 3HQWUX DFHDVWD DUD H vQ PDUH MDOH LDU FHL FH R ORFXLHVF VXQW I ãrã vlagã, împreun FX ILDUHOH FkPSXOXL úL
 
S V ULOHFHUXOXLúLFXSHúWLLGLQPDUH

'DU UGFLQD QHGUHSW LL VRFLDOH úL D FRUXS LHL PRUDOH HVWH GHFGHUHD UHOLJLRDV 3RSRUXO D
SUVLWSH'RPQXO1XPDLH[LVWFXQRDúWHUHGH'XPQH]HXFKLDUGDFH[LVWFXOWFKLDUGDF
'XPQH]HXHVWHLQYRFDW6HSUDFWLFILHFXOWXOOXL%DDOILHXQFXOWFXWUVWXULOHEDDOLVWLFHDGXV
'RPQXOXL (VWH YRUED GH XQ FXOW DXWRPDWL]DW vQ VSDWHOH FUXLD VW FUHGLQ D F VSRULUHD
MHUWIHORULPSXQHOXL'XPQH]HXUHYUVDUHDEXQW LORUF'RPQXOSRDWHILREOLJDWVUVSXQG
DXWRPDWODMHUWIHOHDGXVH/XL2VHDFRQVLGHUDFHVWFXOWFDGHYLDWOLSVLWGHHVHQ DVDILLQGFvL
OLSVHúWHFXQRDúWHUHDOXL'XPQH]HX

Iubirea lui Dumnezeu

'LQ FLWDWHOH PHQ LRQDWH V-D SXWXW REVHUYD F XQXO GLQ FXYLQWHOH FKHLH DOH FU LL HVWH
ÄGHVIUkQDUH´'DU2VHDIRORVHúWHFXYkQWXOúLFXVHQVILJXUDW'HVIUkQDUHHVWHvQFKLQDUHDODDO L
GXPQH]HL SUVLUHD 'RPQXOXL 2VHD DVHDPQ UHOD LD GLQWUH SRSRU úL 'XPQH]HX FX UHOD LD
GLQWUHRVR LHLQILGHOúLVR XOVX'UDPDVR XOXLvQúHODWFDUHvúLLXEHúWHVR LDúLQXSRDWHV
UHQXQ H OD HD HVWH R LPDJLQH IRORVLW SHQWUX D DUWD LXELUHD WUGDW D OXL 'XPQH]HX SHQWUX
,VUDHO&LQHSRDWHVVLPWPDLELQHDFHDVWLXELUHWUGDWGHFkWvQVXúLSURIHWXO"
/D SRUXQFD 'RPQXOXL 2VHD VH FVWRUHúWH FX R IHPHLH GHVIUkQDW *RPHU FX FDUH DUH WUHL
FRSLL SH FDUH vL QXPHúWH VLPEROLF OR DPPL QX HVWH SRSRUXO PHX  OR UXFKDPD IU PLO 
(]UHHO 'XPQH]HXvOvPSUúWLHSHHO 
$WkWFVWRULDFkWúLQXPHOHFRSLLORUVXQWDFWHVLPEROLFHSULQHOHVXQWDUWDWHQHUHFXQRúWLQ DúL
LQILGHOLWDWHD OXL ,VUDHOID GHEXQWDWHDOXL'XPQH]HX3URIHWXODPLQWHúWHGHLXELUHDLQL LDO
SULQWHDVFDOXL'XPQH]HXSHQWUX,VUDHOSHFDUHO-DOXDWúLO-DvQY DWVPHDUJSUHFXPvúL
vQYD PDPDFRSLOXOVIDFSULPLLSDúi.

&kQG,VUDHOHUDFRSLO(XvOLXEHDPúLGLQ(JLSWDPFKHPDWSHILXO0HX

 &X FkW (X vL FKHPDP FX DWkW IXJHDX GH GLQDLQWHD 0HD úL MHUWIHDX EDDOLORU úL DGXFHDX WmPkLHUL FKLSXULORU

cioplite.
 ùL (X vQYm DP SH FHL GLQ (IUDLP V ã meargã în piciRDUH úL-L OXDP vQ EUD H GDU HL Q-DX vQ HOHV F (X YRLDP
V -i vindec.

 ÌL LQHDP vQ KDPXUL RPHQHúWL vQ OHJ WXULOH LXELULL $P IRVW SHQWUX HL FD XQXO FDUH OH ULGLF ã jugul de pe
JUXPDMLLORUúLPmSOHFDPFmWUHHLúL -i hrãneam.

Iubirea lui Dumnezeu îmbUDFDSRLIRUPDLXELULLFRQMXJDOHDLXELULLFXFDUHVR XOV-a legat de


VR LH'DUVR LDGHFDUH2VHDVHOHDJHVWHRIHPHLHGHVIUkQDW,QPRGVLPEROLFSURIHWXODUDW
FXP'XPQH]HXVHOHDJGH,VUDHOúLvOLXEHúWHFKLDUFkQGDFHVWDWULHúWHvQSFDW3URIetul Osea
WULHúWH vQ YLD D VD SULYDW GUDPD OXL 'XPQH]HX ,XELUHD DSULQV FXQRDúWH LQGLJQDUH UHJUHWH
GDUQXVHSRDWHVWLQJH2GDWLQWUDWvQLQLPDOXL'XPQH]HX,VUDHOQXPDLSRDWHILVFRVGLQHD
'RPQXO vúL LXEHúWH vQ PRG SDUDGR[DO SRSRUXO úL QX vQFHWHD] V-O LXEHDVF QLFL vQ WLPSXO

36
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

SUVLULL úL LQILGHOLW LL VDOH $WXQFL FkQG SHGHDSVD PHULWDW GH SRSRU SDUH LQHYLWDELO
'XPQH]HXODVWRWLXELULL6DOHXOWLPXOFXYkQW
11,5. Nu se vor mai duce în Egipt, ci Asiria le va fi rege, cãci n-au voit sã se întoarcã la
FUHGLQ ã.
6. Sabia sã pustiiascã cetã LOHOXLúLVã dãrâme întãriturile lui, din pricina punerii lor la cale!
7. Dar poporul Meu este hotãrât sã se despartã de Mine. Îl strig, dar el nici nu ridicã ochii
spre Mine.
11,8. O, cum te voi lãsa, Efraime! Cum te voi pãrãsi, Israele! Cum te voi trece cu vederea
FDRGLQLRDUmSH$GPDúLWHYRLIDFHFDHERLPXO,QLPDVH]YkUFROHúWHvQ0LQHPLOD0m
cuprinde!
9. Nu voi dezlãn XLLX LPHDPkQLHL0HOHúLQXYRLSUãpãdi din nou Efraimul; cãci
Dumnezeu sunt, úLQXRP(XVXQW6IkQWXOvQPLMORFXOWmXúLQXYRLYHQLVmWHSUmSmGHVF
,HUWDUHDHVWHGHHVHQ GLYLQ'XPQH]HXLDUWSHQWUXFHVWH'XPQH]HXúLQXRP

,QIOXHQ DFU LL

97 )LLQG SULQWUH SULPHOH FU L SURIHWLFH WHRORJLD SURIHWXOXL 2VHD D LQIOXHQ DW SH FHLODO L
SURIH L PDUL ,HUHPLD ,VDLD ,H]HFKLHO PDL DOHV SULQ FRQFHS LD GHVSUH OHJWXUD GLQWUH
'XPQH]HX úL SRSRU FD OHJWXU GH LXELUH FRQMXJDO ([SUHVLD DFHVWHL FRQFHS LL vúL JVHúWH
FXOPHDvQ&kQWDUHD&kQWULORU7HRORJLDFU LL2VHDHWHRORJLDLXbirii lui Dumnezeu. De aceea
LQIOXHQ D DVXSUD 17 D FU LL 2VHD H VHVL]DELO vQGHRVHEL vQ (Y GXS ,RDQ úL vQ HSLVWROHOH
LRDQHLFH$ILUPkQGF'XPQH]HXLDUWXQ,VUDHODIODWvQFvQSFDW2VHDDQWLFLSFXYLQWHOH6I
Ap. Pavel din Rom 5,6-8 despre iertarea dDWQRXSULQ+ULVWRV

&mFL+ULVWRVvQFmILLQGQRLQHSXWLQFLRúLODWLPSXOKRWmUkWDPXULWSHQWUXFHLQHFUHGLQFLRúL

&mFLFXJUHXYDPXULFLQHYDSHQWUXXQGUHSWGDUSHQWUXFHOEXQSRDWHVHKRWmUmúWHFLQHYDVmPRDUm

'DU'XPQH]HXÌúLDUDWmGUDJRVWHD/XLID ã de noi prin aceea cã, pentru noi, Hristos a murit când noi eram
vQFmSmFmWRúL

37
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Cartea Ioel

6WUXFXWUDFU LL

6WUXFWXUDFU LL,RHOQXVHGHRVHEHúWHvQOLQLLPDULGHFHDDRULFUHLGLQWUHFU LOHSURIHWLFH(D


GHEXWHD] SULQ DQXQ DUHD XQHL FDWDVWURIH Y]XWH FD SHGHDSV GLYLQ WULPLVDVXSUDSRSRUXOXL
GLQ ,XGD ,Q FRQVHFLQ  vQWUHJXO SRSRUXO HVWH FKHPDW OD SRVW SRFLQ  UXJFLXQH úL XPLOLQ 
WRWDO vQ VSHUDQ D F DFHDVW FDWDVWURI Ä]LXD 'RPQXOXL´ V QX vQVHPQH SLHLUHD WXWXURU ,Q
FRQVHFLQ 'RPQXODVFXOWUXJFLXQHDSRSRUXOXLúLMXGHFDWD6DYDILGRDUDVXSUDQHDPXULORU
'XS FH DFHVWHD VXQW MXGHFDWH FDUWHD VH vQFKHLH SULQ GHVFULHUHD PkQWXLULL úL D YUHPXULORU
mesianice ce vor veni pentru Israel.

3UREOHPDDXWRUXOXLúLDGDWHLVFULHULLFU LL

,QFLXGDXQHLVWUXFWXULÄFODVLFH´FDUWHD,RHOHVWHHQLJPDWLFGLQPDLPXOWHSULYLQ H
D  1DWXUD H[DFW D FDWDVWURIHL SH FDUH R YHVWHúWH SURIHWXO QX SRDWH IL GHVOXúLW FX FODULWDWH
'HVFULHUHDGLQFDSHVWHDXQHLLQYD]LLGHOFXVWHDúDFXPVXQWFXQRVFXWHvQ2ULHQWúLFDUH
GHYDVWHD]ODQXULOHGHFHUHDOHFDX]kQGIRDPHWHvQ DU'LPHQVLXQLOHDFHVWHLLQYD]LLSDUDIL
vQVLHúLWHGLQFRPXQVXSUDQDWXUDOHvQFDSLWROXO$LFLLQYD]LDHVWHSUH]HQWDWFDDSURSLHUHD
„zilei Domnului”. Ziua DoPQXOXLHVWH]LXDMXGHF LLFRQFHS LHDSRFDOLSWLFFHDSDUHúLvQDOWH
FU LSURIHWLFH(DHLQDXJXUDWGHLQYD]LDXQHLDUPDWHQXPHURDVHúLLQYLQFLELOHFDUHODIHOFD
úLvQGHVFULHUHDSURIHWXOXL,HUHPLDYLQHGLQ1RUGúLGLVWUXJHWRWFHvLLHVHvQFDOHNu este clar
GDFSURIHWXO,RHOVHUHIHUODRLQYD]LHUHDOGHOFXVWHY]XWPHWDIRULFFDRLQYD]LHDUPDW
VDXLQYHUVLQYD]LDDUPDWHLHVWHSUH]HQWDWIRORVLQGX-VHVLPEROXOXQHLLQYD]LLGHOFXVWH0DL
SUREDELOSDUHFSURIHWXOVHUHIHUvQFDSODRUHFHQWLQYD]LHGHOFXVWHFDUHDGHYDVWDW DUD
úL D PDUFDW SURIXQG SH ORFXLWRUL SHQWUX D DQXQ D vQ FDS DSURSLHUHD Ä]LOHL 'RPQXOXL´ D
MXGHF LL úL D FDWDFOLVPXOXL XQLYHUVDO -  $YkQG vQ YHGHUH F LQYD]LL GH OFXVWH VXQW
frecvente în Palestina QX VH SRDWH VWDELOL R GDW SHQWUX FHD GHVSUH FDUH YRUEHúWH SURIHWXO úL
LPSOLFLWRGDWSHQWUXVFULHUHDVD
E OLSVDXQRUGDWHLVWRULFHFRQFUHWHIDFVFULHUHDJUHXGHGDWDW3URIH LDHVWHDGUHVDWORFXLWRULORU
GLQ,XGDúLVHYRUEHúWHGHVSUH,HUXVDOLPúLVHPHQ LRQHD]WHPSOX,QVQXVHPHQ LRQHD]QLFL
XQ QXPH GH UHJH GLQ ,HUXVDOLP 'XúPDQLL QXPL L vQ FDS VXQW 7LU úL 6LGRQ DGLF ILOLVWHQLL
DSRL ,DYDQ DGLF ,RQLD SULQ XUPDUH *UHFLD  (JLSW (GRP (SRFD LVWRULF D FU LL VH SRDWH
H[WLQGHGHOD-XGHFWRULSkQvQSHULRDGDHOHQLVWLF3URIHWXOQXQHVSXQHFkQGúLVXEFHUHJLD
DFWLYDWFXPRIDFDOWHFU LSURIHWLFH(OVHSUH]LQWGRDUFDILXOOXL3HWXHOIUVPDLDILUPH
ceva despre sine.
F /LPEDHEUDLFDFU LLSUHFXPúLXQHOHGHVFULHULSDUDVHVitua în secolele VII-VI î. H. Dar
JHQXO DSRFDOLSWLF DSDUH vQ SHULRDGD SRVWH[LOLF $YkQG vQ YHGHUH GHVFULHUHD GLQ FDS  VH
SUHVXSXQHFVFULHUHDDDSUXWGXSH[LOXOEDELORQLDQ$XWRUXOIRORVHúWHWHPHúLLPDJLQLFDUH
DSDU úL OD DO L SURIH L VDX vQ DOWH FU L DOH 97 (OH SXWHDX IL XQ EXQ FRPXQ DO WUDGL LHL vQV
unele dintre referirile din cartea Ioel sunt aproape citate mot-a-PRW GLQ DOWH FU L FHHD FH
SUHVXSXQHFDXWRUXOOH-DDYXWODvQGHPkQùLDFHDVWDLQGLFVSUHRGDWDUHSRVWH[LOLFDFU LL
In coQFOX]LHDXWRUXOúLPRPHQWXODSDUL LHLFU LL,RHOUPkQJUHXGHSUHFL]DW

0HVDMXOFU LL=LXD'RPQXOXLSRFLQ D–FRQGL LHDPkQWXLULL5HYUVDUHD'XKXOXL6IkQW

38
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

$VRFLDW FX LQYD]LD GHYDVWDWSDUH D OFXVWHORU VDX D XQHL DUPDWH LQYLQFLELOH =LXD 'RPQXOui
HVWHvQYL]LXQHDOXL,RHORFDWDVWURIGHGLPHQVLXQLFRVPLFHXQFDWDFOLVPFDUHVFXWXUFUHD LD
din temelii (1,15-18; 2,1- 3HQWUXRPDFHDVW]LHVWH]LXDMXGHF LLOXL'XPQH]HX,QID DHL
RPXOXLQXvLUPkQHGHFkWSRFLQ D(OWUHEXLHVVHJROHDVFVVHVPHUHDVFWRWDOvQID DOXL
'XPQH]HXVVHFLDVFSURIXQG$FHDVWDHVWHFRQGL LDSHQWUXFD,XGDVVSHUHF'RPQXOYD
IDFHGLQ]LXDMXGHF LLR]LDPkQWXLULLDELQHFXYkQWULL3RFLQ DQXWUHEXLHVVHUH]XPHOD
JHVWXULSHQLWHQ LDOHH[WHULRDUHFLHDWUHEXLHVVFKLPEHRPXOvQSURIXQ]LPH -14).
'RPQXO VH YD PLORVWLYL GH SRSRU  úX  'RPQXO vúL YD UHYUVD 'XKXO 6X SHVWH WRW
SRSRUXOEUED LúLIHPHLWLQHULúLEWUkQLVWSkQLúLURELIUQLFLRGLIHUHQ LHUH3RSRUXOYD
deveni un pRSRU GH SURIH L VHPQ F 'RPQXO HVWH vQ PLMORFXO ORU úL QX PDL DX QHYRLH GH
LQWHUPHGLDUL$FXPvOYRUFXQRDúWHSH'XPQH]HX  3HFHLFDUHvOFKHDPSHQXPH
'RPQXOvLYDDOHJHYRUILPkQWXL L(3HUVSHFWLYDOXL,RHOHVWHvQFXQDQD LRQDOPkQWuirea,
UHYUVDUHD'XKXOXLHVWHGHVWLQDW6LRQXOXLSRSRUXOXL,VUDHO
Cartea Faptele Apostolilor (2,17-  QH SUH]LQW HYHQLPHQWXO 3RJRUkULL GXKXOXL 6IkQW SHVWH
DSRVWROL úL FRPXQLWDWHD GLQ ,HUXVDOLP ,Q SUHGLFD LQXW FX DFHVW SULOHM 3HWUX DUDW F FHOH
înWkPSODWH VXQW vPSOLQLUHD SURIH LHL OXL ,RHO GHVSUH UHYUVDUHD 'XKXOXL 6IkQW 5HYUVDUHHD
'XKXOXL vQWHPHLHUHD %LVHULFLL FUHúWLQH UHSUH]LQW PRPHQWXO GLQ FDUH 'RPQXO UPkQH GH-a
SXUXULvQPLMORFXOFUHúWLQLORULDUFHLFUHGLQFLRúLvOFXQRVFSH'XPQH]HXSULn Duhul Sfânt.
Dup decretul lui Constantin de la Mediolan, vor fi construite o serie de Biserici în Ierusalim,
SHORFXULFDUHDPLQWHDXGHHYHQLPHQWHGLQLVWRULDPkQWXLULL$H[LVWDWúLR%LVHULFD3RJRUkULL
'XKXOXL 6IkQW )LLQGF SURIH LD OXL ,RHO VSXQH F UHYUVDUHD 'XKXOXL YD DYHD ORF vQ PXQWHOH
6LRQ  ELVHULFDDIRVWFRQVWUXLWvQ6-9RUDúXOXLFDUHHUDGHQXPLW6LRQvQFGLQVHFG+
FXPQHFRQILUPúL,RVLI)ODYLX

39
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Cartea Iona

$XWRUXOúLGDWDVFULHULL.

,Q HEUDLF ,RQD vQVHDPQ SRUXPEHO 3RWULYLW FU LL ,RQD SURIHWXO HUD ILXO OXL $PLWDL 'DWH
GHVSUH XQ SURIHW SH QXPH ,RQD ILXO OXL $PLWDL DIOP vQ DOW FDUWH D 97 vQ 5  6H
DPLQWHúWH GH R SURIH LH D VD SRWULYLW FUHLD UHJHOH ,HURERDP ,, SULPD MXPWDWH D VHF   YD
UHIDFHJUDQL HOHUHJDWXOXLGHQRUG3HDFHDVWED]PDLPXO LH[HJH LDXDILUPDWFHVWHYRUED
GHXQDúLGHDFHHDúLSHUVRDQ'HFLFDUWHD,RDQDIRVWVFULVvQVHF
7RWXúLPDLPXOWHPRWLYHL-DXIFXWSDH[HJH LLPDLQRLVDILUPHFDFHDVWFDUWHDIRVWVFULV
în peULRDGD SRVWH[LOLF 0DL vQWkL OLPED úL VWLOXO FU LL $SRL SUREOHPDWL]DUHD PLVLXQLL
SURIHWLFH FHHD FH SUHVXSXQH R HSRF GH H[SHULHQ  vQGHOXQJDW D SURIHWLVPXOXL DúD FXP
vQWkOQLP GH H[HPSOX OD ,HUHPLD ,QV FULWHULXO FHO PDL LPSRUWDQW HVWH PHVDMXO XQLYHUsalist al
FU LLFDUHQXSXWHDILFRQFHSXWvQSHULRDGDSUHH[LOLFFkQGVSHUDQ HOHPHVLDQLFHHUDXOHJDWH
GHVWDWXOQD LRQDOGHGLQXLUHDGLQDVWLHLGDYLGLFH

&XSULQVXOFU LL

&DUWHD QX FXSULQGH GLVFXUVXUL SURIHWLFH (D UHODWHD] FXP ,RQD SULPHúWH FXYkQWul Domnului
GH D DFWLYD FD SURIHW vQ 1LQLYH úL IHOXO vQ FDUH D UHDF LRQDW HO 3ULPLQG FXYkQWXO 'RPQXOXL
,RQDvQORFV-OvPSOLQHDVFIDFHH[DFWRSXVXO1XQSOHDFVSUH1LQLYHFLVHvPEDUFvQ,DIID
spre a ajunge în Tarsis, loc identificat de obicei ca SSDQLD'RPQXOvQVSRUQHúWHRIXUWXQ
FDUH SXQH vQ SHULFRO YLD D vQWUHJXOXL HFKLSDM 0DULQDULL VH URDJ ILHFDUH FWUHGXPQH]HXOORU
9]kQG F ,RQD GRDUPH HL vO VFRDO úL vO vQWUHDE FLQH H $IO F HVWH HYUHX úL F IXJH GH
misiunea Domnului. Marinarii îQ HOHJGHFHV-DDEWXWIXUWXQDDVXSUDORUúL,RQDOHVSXQHV-l
DUXQFHvQPDUHSHQWUXDSRWROLIXULD'RPQXOXL,QPDUH,RQDHVWHvQJKL LWGHXQSHúWHXULDú
$IODWvQSkQWHFHOHFKLWXOXL,RQDVHURDJOXL'XPQH]HXvQO kQGXQSVDOP'XSWUHL]LOHúL
tUHLQRS LFKLWXOvODUXQFSHPDO

7HRORJLDFU LL
a) 2UHIOHF LHDVXSUDFRQGL LHLúLPLVLXQLLSURIHWLFH
b) Universalismul mântuirii

40
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

Cartea Zaharia

1XPHOHúLvPSU LUHDFU LL

I) Zah 1-8

II) Zah 9-14

41
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

&U LOHGLGDFWLFR-poetice

Cartea Psalmilor

Teme:
Chestiuni generale - Numele, notarea în LXX, tipuri de psalmi;
3VDOWLUHúL7RUD
3UHDPULUHDOXL'XPQH]HXFDVFRSDOYLH LL
Psalmii de blestem

3VDOWLUHúL7RUD,PSU LUHD3VDOWLULLúLVHPQLJILFD LDHLWHRORJLF

6WUXFWXUDO SVDOWLUHD H vPSU LW vQ FLQFL FU L vQ DQDORJLH FX FU LOH 3HQWDWHXKXOXL6,
fiecare dintre ele terminându-se cu o doxologie. 6FKHPDWLFvPSU LUHDVHSUH]LQWDVWIHO

Cartea I: (ps. 1–41), cu Doxologia: ”Binecuvântat este Domnul, Dumnezeul lui Israel
GLQYHDFúLSkQvQYHDF Amin. Amin.”
Cartea a II–a: (ps. 42–72), cu Doxologia: ”Binecuvântat este Domnul Dumnezeu,
'XPQH]HXO OXL ,VUDHO VLQJXUXO FDUH IDFH PLQXQL ùL ELQHFXYkQWDW HVWH QXPHOH VODYHL /XL vQ
YHDFúLvQYHDFXOYHDFXOXLùLVHYDXPSOHGHVODYD/XLWRWSPkQWXO$PLn. Amin.”
Cartea a III–a: (ps. 73–89), cu Doxologia: ”Binecuvântat este Domnul în veci. Amin.
Amin”.
Cartea a IV–a: (ps. 90–106), cu Doxologia: ”Binecuvântat este Domnul, Dumnezeul
OXL,VUDHOGLQYHDFúLSkQvQYHDFWRWSRSRUXOV]LF$PLQ$PLQ´
Cartea a V–a: (ps. 107– IU'R[RORJLH

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WUHEXLHFXWDWvQ
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”In quinque volumina Psalterium apud Hebraeos divisum est”7.
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dHQXPLUH D FU LL HVWH OD SULPD YHGHUH VXUSULQ]WRDUH vQWUXFkW FHL PDL PXO L SVDOPL VXQW
SOkQJHUL 'HVLJXU GHQXPLUHD GH FDUWHD ODXGHORU DUH XQ VHQV WHRORJLF 'HDOWIHO úL SVDOPLL GH
SOkQJHUHFKLDUGDFH[SULPWkQJXLUHDúLVWDUHDGHVLQJXUWDWHDFHOXLFHVHURDJVHvQFKHLH
GHRELFHLFXRGR[RORJLHGHFLFXRSUHDPULUHDOXL'XPQH]HX

6

3U3RSHVFX0 O HúWL op. cit. nr. 4 , Aprilie, 1924, p. 202.
7
Epistola a XXVI-DFWUH0DUFHOOLQP.L., XXII, 431.

42
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

3VDOPLL DILUP F 'RPQXO HVWH GHDVXSUD WXWXURU SXWHULORU OXPLL FDUH L-ar putea contesta
vPSU LD6D HOHVWHSUHDPULW([ úLFEXQWDWHDOXL'XPQH]HXQXDUHOLPLWHúLSRDWH
IL H[SHULDW GHDOXQJXO vQWUHJLL YLH L 3V   'H DFHHD RPXO HVWH FKHPDW V-O ODXGH úL V-l
SUHDPUHDVFSH'XPQH]HX
2 YLD  OLSVLW GH DFWXO SUHDPULULL úL OXGULL OXL 'XPQH]HX HVWH LPSRVLELO vQ FRQFHS LD
psalmilor. De zece ori citim în VHFKLXO 7HVWDPHQW SURSR]L LD Ä0RU LL QX ODXG SH
'XPQH]HX´$FHDVWSURSR]L LHQXHVWHvQSULPXOUkQGXQDGHVSUHPRU LFLHDvLSULYHúWHSH
FHLYLL(LWUHEXLHVvQ HOHDJXQGHVHDIOJUDQL DYLH LLDXWHQWLFH8QGHQXH[LVWODXGDFROR
SXWHUHD PRU LL SWUXQGH DGkQF vQ YLD D IL]LF $VWD ILLQGF VFRSXO YLH LL HVWH SUHDPULUHD OXL
Dumnezeu:

6-PLILHGUXLWYLD FDV7HSRWOXGDúLMXGHF LOH7DOHV-mi ajute (Ps 119,175)

1XYRLPXULFLYRLWULFDVVSXQIDSWHOH'RPQXOXL 3V

In acestH SURSR]L LL SUHDPULUHD DSDUH FD WUVWXUD IXQGDPHQWDO D YLH LL RPHQHúWL
3UHDPULUHD QX HVWH FHYD RFD]LRQDO vQ YLD D XPDQ FDUH SRDWH V VH PDQLIHVWH VDX SRDWH V
PDLúLOLSVHDVF3UHDPULUHDHVWHFRQGL LDIXQGDPHQWDODGHSOLQW LLYLH LL
De aceeaRPXOWUHEXLHVVHIHUHDVFvQGHRVHELGHXQDQXPLWSHULFRO

%LQHFXYLQWHD]VXIOHWHDOPHXSH'RPQXO
úLWRDWHFHOHGLQOXQWUXOPHXQXPHOHFHOVIkQWDO/XL
%LQHFXYLQWHD]VXIOHWHDOPHXSH'RPQXO
úLnu uitaWRDWHUVSOWLULOH/XL
3H&HOFHFXU HúWHWRDWHIUGHOHJLOHWDOH
SH&HOFHYLQGHFWRDWHEROLOHWDOH« 3V-3)

&kQGRPXOXLWvQPRGFXOSDELOV-L laude pe Dumnezeu, se auto-DPSXWHD]GHODYLD &FL


„a uita” ca opus lui „a-úL DPLQWL´ QX UHSUH]LQW GRDU XQ DFW LQWHOHFWXDO FL GHVHPQHD] o
RULHQWDUHvQYLD 8QH[HPSOXSRWULYLWGHVSUHDFHVWVHQVDOÄDGXFHULLDPLQWH´QHRIHU3V
úX

Adu- LDPLQWHGHvQGXUULOHúLPLOHOH7DOH'RDPQH
FGLQYHDFVXQWHOH
3FDWHOHWLQHUH LORUPHOHúLDOHQHúWLLQ HLPHOHQXOHSRPHQL
&LGXSPLOD7DSRPHQHúWH-P7XSHQWUXEXQWDWHD7D'RDPQH

'DF'XPQH]HXúL-DUDGXFHDPLQWHGHSFDWHOHWLQHUH LLDUSHGHSVLúLQLPHQLQ-DUVXSUDYLH XL


'DU FUHGLQFLRVXO QGMGXLHúWH F 'XPQH]HX vúL YD DPLQWL GH HO GXS EXQWDWHD /XL úL vL YD
LHUWDJUHúHOLOH

DaWRULW LPSRUWDQ HL SH FDUH LPQHOH R DFRUG ÄDGXFHULL DPLQWH´ UN]) a faptelor Domnului,
H[LVW vQ LPQRORJLD WkU]LH H[HPSOH FDUH OHDJ FKHPDUHD OD SUHDPULUH GH FKHPDUHD GH D-úL
aminti mereu de Dumnezeu. Începutul Ps 105 este un asemena exemplu:

/XGD LSH'RPQXOúLFKHPD LQXPHOH/XL


YHVWL LvQWUHQHDPXULOXFUXULOH/XL
&kQWD L-,úL-/OXGD LSH(O
VSXQH LWRDWHPLQXQLOH/XL
/XGD LQXPHOHFHOVIkQWDO/XL
YHVHOHDVF-VHLQLPDFHORUFHFDXWSH'RPQXO

43
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

&XWD LSH'RPQXOúLSXWHUHD/XL
FXWD LID D/XL pururea.
$GXFH L-YDPLQWHGHPLQXQLOH/XLSHFDUHOH-DIFXW
GHVHPQHOH/XLúLGHMXGHF LOHJXULL/XL
6HPLQ LDOXL$YUDDPUREXO/XL
fiii lui Iacob, alesul Lui.

3V  IDFH OHJWXUD vQWUH QHFHVLWDWHD FD SRSRDUHOH V FXQRDVF IDSWHOH 'RPQXOXL SULQ
PLMORFLUHD FXOWXOXL GLYLQ Y   FX UHIOHF LD DVXSUD Y   úL DPLQWLUHD Y   PLQXQLORU OXL
'XPQH]HX/RFXOUHIOHF LHLúLDODPLQWLULLQXHVWHDFDVFLvQFXOWXOGLYLQ Y &XOWXOGLYLQvL
vPSLHGLFSHSDUWLFLSDQ LVÄXLWH´

Ps de blestem

O SULFLQ GH QHvQ HOHJHUH FKLDU VPLQWHDO SHQWUX XQLL FUHúWLQL HVWH DGHVHD H[LVWHQ D DúD-
QXPL LORUSVDOPLGHEOHVWHPSVDOPLvQFDUHVHLQYRFU]EXQDUHDúLSHGHDSVDGLYLQvPSRWULYD
YUMPDúLORU %OHVWHPXO úL XUD VXQW SULQFLSLDO QHFUHúWLQH úL FRQWUDYLQ HVHQ HL vQY WXULL OXL
KULVWRV D LXELULL FKLDU úL SHQWUX YUMPDúL 1X HGHPLUDUHFDXH[LVWDWUHDF LLvQDQWLFKLWDWH
0DUFLRQ GDUúLvQHSRFDPRGHUQGHvQOWXUDUHDDFHVWRUSVDOPLGLQ3VDOWLUH
0XO LSVDOPLvLYL]HD]SHYUMPDúLLOXL,VUDHOFDUHDXLQYDGDWvQQHQXPUDWHUkQGXUL
DUD úL DX VYkUúLW PXOWH QHOHJLXLUL ÌPSRWULYD ORU VH FHUH U]EXQDUHD GXPQH]HLDVF SVDOPLL
73, 78, 79, 82).
,QDO LLYUMPDúXOWUHEXLHLGHQWLILFDWFXRSUHVRUXOXQXLLQGLYLGFDUHvOSHUVHFXWSkQ
ce acesta ajunge în starHGHVUFLHGLVSHUDUHERDOVDXFKLDUvQDSURSLHUHDPRU LL
,Q FHOH PDL PXOH FD]XUL ÄYUúPDúXO´QXVHPDLUHIHUODXQXOVDXPDLPXO LLQGLYL]L
SUHFLúLFLODRVXSUDFDWHJRULH'XúPDQLLGHVFULúLYDJvQOLQLLIRDUWHJHQHUDOHVXQWLSRVWD]LHUL
DOH IRU HORU PDOHILFH GHPRQLFH GLQ YLD D FROHFWLYLW LL ,Q FHOH PDL PXOWH FD]XUL YLFWLPD
GXúDPQXOXL QX PDL HVWH XQ LGLYLG FL FRPXQLWDWHD FXOWLF VDX UXJWRDUH VXIHU VXE DF LXQHD
YUúPDúXOXL'HDLFLúLFRQYHUVLXQHDVDXLGHQWLILFDUHDGXúPDQLORUFXGHPRQLLvQOLWHUDWXUDúL
VSLULWXDOLWDWHDFUHúWLQ
Ä&LUFXPVWDQ HDWHQXDQWH´-HLUHSUHGXFFRQFHS LDHSRFLLDRPXOXLLPSHUIHFW
-VXQWURVWL LGLQVWDUHDGHYLFWLPDFURUVLQJXUDMXWRUSRDWHVPDLILHGRDU'XPQH]HX
-GXúPDQLLVXQWXOWHULRUÄVSLULWXDOL]D L´ GHPRQLLvQFUHúWLQLVP

44
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

,RYúLSUREOHPDVXIHULQ HL

'UHSWXOvQVXIHULQ $WLWXGLQHDGUHDSWvQVXIHULQ .

D 1DUD LXQHD FDGUX SURORJ-epilog 1-2; 42,7-  YHGH vQ DFFHSWDUHD VXIHULQ HL GDW GH
'XPQH]HXSR]L LDFRUHFWDRPXOXLDIODWvQVXIHULQ 'LQgura lui iov nu oese nici un cuvânt
GHUHYROWVDXGHWkQJXLUH  (ODFFHSWVXIHULQ IUVvQWUHEHGHFHúLSHQWUXFHDGDW-o
'XPQH]HX   ,Q DGkQF QHIHULFLUH HO vO VOYHúWH SH 'RPQXO   ,QWHUSUHWDUHD úL
vQ HOHJHUHD WUDGL LRQDO LXGDLF úL FUHúWLQ D FU LL ,RY HVWH DWDúDW vQGHRVHEL GH QDUD LXQHD
FDGUXGH,RYFHOHYODYLRVúLUEGWRURIHULWFLWLWRUXOXLFDpersona imitabilis.

E 6HF LXQHDSRHWLF GLDORJXULOH SXQHvQGLVFX LHDFHDVWYL]LXQH'HODSOkQJHUHDOXL,RY  


SkQODDFX]Drea lui Dumnezeu (9,14- $SHOkQGODWUDGL LDVDSLHQ LDO(OLOID]vOvQGHDPQ
SH ,RY V SXQ FDSW SOkQJHULL VDOH - FRQI 3URY   (OLID] vL UHFRPDQG OXL ,RY
VROX LDSHFDUHRUHFRPDQGDVHSURORJXO,RYDUHUH LQHULvQDDFFHSWDSR]L LDUEGWorului (6,1-
 'LQSHUVSHFWLYDFXYkQWULLOXL'XPQH]HX úX vQFDUHVHVSXQHF,RYD
YRUELW PDL GUHSW GHFkW SULHWHQLL VL SDUH F SOkQJHUHD RPXOXL vQ VXIHULQ  HVWH R DWLWXGLQH
OHJLWLP

c) In cuvânturile lui Dumnezeu Iov este mustUDW SHQWUX F vQ SOkQJHUHD VD D DILUPDW F
SPkQWXOFUHD LDHXQKDRV - úLVHDIOvQPkQDXQXLUXIFWRU  3ULQDFHDVWD
HO vúL GHSúHúWH VIHUD FUHDWXUDO ,RY H vQWUHEDW UHWRULF GDF D OXDW YUHRGDW ORFXO &UHDWRUXOXL
VDXGDFDUSXWHDvQYUHRGDWVLVHVXEVWLWXLH - (VWHvQWUHEDWGDFDDVLVWDWODSULPXO
PRPHQW DO FUHD LHL FUHDWLR SULPD  VDX GDF FXQRDúWH OHJLOH HYROX LHL FUHD LHL FUHDWLR
FRQWLQXD  0XVWUDW úL LQVWUXLW GH 'XPQH]HX ,RY UHFXQRDúWH F D YRUELW IU PLQWH vQ
neFXQRDúWHUHGHVSUHOXFUXULFDUHVXQWSUHDPDULúLPLQXQDWHSHQWUXHO  ,QWkOQLUHDFX
'XPQH]HX  vOGXFHODSH,RYODDFFHSWDUHDvQWFHUHDVXIHULQ HL úX DWLWXGLQHFDUH
IXVHVHGHMDRIHULWGUHSWPRGHOvQSURORJXOFU LL

d) ChestiunHDDWLWXGLQLLGUHSWHvQVXIHULQ HVWHGLVFXWDWvQFDUWHD,RYQXQXPDLSHPDUJLQHD
SHUVRQDMXOXL SULQFLSDO FL úL vQ OHJWXU FX DWLWXGLQHD SULHWHQLORU VL (L VXQW UHSUH]HQWDQ LL
WHRORJLHL VDSLHQ LDOH WUDGL LRQDOH GH DOWIHO ODUJ DWHVWDW vQ FXSULQVXO FU LORU 9HFKLXOXL
7HVWDPHQW ,QV vQ FD]XO FRQFUHW ,RY HL HúXHD] GHDRUHFH vQY WXUD ORU GHVSUH 'XPQH]HX
UPkQH YRUELUH despre 'XPQH]HX vQ ORF V GHYLQ R YRUELUH cu 'XPQH]HX vQ FDUH HL V
GHSOkQJVvQWUHEHúLVVHURDJHvPSUHXQFX,RYVXIHULQGvPSUHXQFXHO7HRORJLDORUHVWH
H[SUHVLHDXQHLOLSVHGHFRPSWLPLUHXPDQ$VWIHOHLvQWXQHFGHIDSWFKLSXO$FHOXLDSH&DUH
SUHWLQGV-/DSHUHvQID DDFX]HORUOXL,RY

&DX]DúLURVWXOVXIHULQ HL

D vQSURORJXOvQSUR]SUREDELOSDUWHDFHDPDLYHFKHDFU LL IUVFHQHOH'XPQH]HX-Satan)


QX VH WHPDWL]HD] vQWUHEDUHD GH FH úL SHQWUX FH H[LVW VXIHULQ D XPDQ &HOH SDWUX QHFD]XUL
DEWXWH DVXSUD OXL ,RY IRORVHVF  vQV PHWDIRUH DOH MXGHF LL GLYLQH GH H[ ÄIRFXO OXL
'XPQH]HX´   FHHD FH VXJHUHD] IDSWXO F VXIHULQ D OXL ,RY H GDW GH 'XPQH]HX IDSW
PUWXULVLWGH,RYvQ

45
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

E 2UHIOHF LHDVXSUDSUREOHPHLFDX]HLúLDURVWXOXLVXIHULQ HLVHREVHUYvQFHOHVFHQHvQFHU


(Dumnezeu-6DWDQ  6H DILUP FHHD FH VSXQHD úL WUDGL LD VDSLHQ LDO PDL YHFKH Dumnezeu
vQJGXLHVXIHULQ D6XIHULQ DvQVQXSURYLQHGLUHFWGHOD'XPQH]HXQLFLQXHVWHGLQLQL LDWLYD
6D6DWDQDUHLQL LDWLYDúLHORúLSXQHvQDSOLFDUHFH-LGUHSWFXvQJGXLQ DOXL'XPQH]HXvQV
FX R FODU GHOLPLWDUH D GLPHQVLXQLORU VXIHULQ HL GLFWDW WRW GH (O 0RWLYXO SHQWUX FDUH
'XPQH]HXvQJGXLHVXIHULQ DOXL,RYHVWHSHQWUXDGHVILLQ DDFX]DOXL6DWDQFDUHVXV LQHDF
,RY HVWH FUHGLQFLRV GLQ LQWHUHV ILLQGF WUDJH IRORDVH GH SH XUPD HYODYLH VDOH $VWIHO SXWHP
VSXQH F vQ PRG SDUDGR[DO VXIHULQ D HVWH vQJGXLW GH 'XPQH]HX GH GUDJXO DILUPULL
GHPQLW LLXPDQH'XPQH]HXQXVHvQGLRHúWHGHFUHGLQ DGH]LQWHUHVDWDOXL,RYGLPSRWULY
El are încredere în Iov.

F  ,Q GLVFXUVXULOH SULHWHQLORU VH SRW FRQWXUD SDWUX UVSXQVXUL OD vQWUHEDUHD SULYLQG FDX]D úL
URVWXOVXIHULQ HL(OHUHSUH]LQWFRQFHS LDWUDGL LHLVDSLHQ LDOH

 VXIHULQ D HVWH R XUPDUH D SFDWXOXL 5RVWXO VXIHULQ HL HVWH FD SULQ HD RPXO V LVSúHDVF
SFDWXO 6XIHULQ D HVWH XQ DYHUWLVPHQW SHQWUX SFWRV SHQWUX D VH vQWRDUFH   $FHDVW
H[SOLFD LH D VXIHULQ HL VH vQFDGUHD] vQ FRQFHS LD GHVSUH SODW úL UVSODW FUHGLQFLRVXO H
UVSOWLWLDUUXIFWRUXOHVWHSHGHSVLWSHQWUXIDSWHOHVDOH -35; 18,5-21; 27,7-10.13-23;
36,5-  &RQFHS LD D IRVW XOWHULRU GH]YROWDW vQVHQVXOGHGXFerii din efect a cauzei: cel care
HVWHQHIHULFLWDSFWXLWvQWUHFXWUHVSHFWLYFHOIHULFLWDIRVWGUHSWvQID DOXL'XPQH]HX YH]L
Ioan 9,2).

6XIHULQ D LQHGHQDWXUDXPDQGHQDWXUDFUHDWXUDODRPXOXL -21; 5,7; 9,2; 15,14-16;


25,4-6).

3. SuIHULQ D H R IRUP GH SHGDJRJLH GLYLQ SULQ FDUH RPXO HVWH IHULW GH SLHU]DUH -18).
3UHFXPXQWDWvúLPXVWUFRSLOXOILLQGFvOLXEHúWH 3URY-12; 13,24; 23,12-14), tot astfel
VXIHULQ DHVWHXQVHPQDOLXELULLOXL'XPQH]HXúLDOJULMLL6DOHID GHRP$FHDVWFRQFHS LH
HVWHDILUPDWvQGHRVHELvQGLVFXUVXOOXL(OLKX  

6XIHULQ DHVWHRvQFHUFDUHDFUHGLQ HLVDXDFUHGLQFLRVXOXL$FHDVWFRQFHS LHvQWkOLQWGHMD


vQSURORJXOFU LLHVWHVXV LQXWúLGHSULHWHQL  

d) Nu trebuie vQV V WUHFHP FX YHGHUHD IDSWXO F GLVFXUVXULOH SULHWHQLORU VXQW vQ ILQDO
DSRVWURIDWHGH'XPQH]HX  FHHDFHSRDWHLPSOLFDúLFDXWRUXOSU LLSRHWLFHDFU LLQX
HVWH GH DFRUG FX FRQFHS LLOH GHVSUH FDX]D úL URVWXO VXIHULQ HL vQ FDX] &RQFHS LD GHVpre
VXIHULQ DDXWRUXOXLUH]XOWGLQFXYkQWULOHOXL'XPQH]HX -40,2; 40,6- &XYkQWULOH
OXLGXPQH]HXvLGHSODVHD]SULYLUHDOXL,RYGHODVLQHGHODVXIHULQ DVDODFUHD LDFDUHGHúL
VHVL]DELO UPkQH WRWXúL GH QHSWUXQV PLVWHULRDV SHQWUX RP $FHDVW FUHD LH HVWHH[SOLFDW
FD ILLQG RSHUD 'RPQXOXL &RQWUROXO FRQWLQXX SH FDUH 'XPQH]HX vO H[HUFLW DVXSUD OXPLL úL
DVXSUDHOHPHQWHORUGHKDRVGLHDQXSRDWHILLPLWDWUHSHWDWGHRP&UHD LDUPkQHLPSRVLELO
GHFXSULQVvQWRWDOLWDWHDHLGHFWUHRPHDHVWHPLQXQDWvQIULFRúWRDUHúLPUHD vQDFHODúL
timp.
$VWIHOFXYkQWULOHOXL'XPQH]HXvQGHSUWHD]SUREOHPDVXIHULQ HLGLQWU-un „antropocentrism”
vQVSUHXQÄFRVPRFHQWULVP´úLXQÄWHRFHQWULVP´&HHDFHSULHWHQLLQXDXUHXúLWvQFKLSGLUHFW
discurVXOOXL'XPQH]HXDUHXúLWLQGLUHFWSULQIDSWXOFvLvQI LúHD]FUHD LDFDSHRPHWDIRUD
VXIHULQ HLVDOH,QWUHEULOHúLSOkQJHULOHOXL,RYQXSULPHVFUVSXQVGHXQDOWHU H[WHULRUFL,RY
vúLDIOOLQLúWHDGHOD'XPQH]HX&DUHHVWHSUH]HQWvQPRGWDLQLFvQFUHD LHúL&DUHvLUVSXQGH
vQLQWHULRUXOVX  

46
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

&U LOHQHFDQRQLFH
*HQHUDOLW L

,Q/;;DSDUSHOkQJFHOHGHFU LGLQ%LEOLDHEUDLFXQQXPUGHFU LFHQXVHUHJVHVF


vQWH[WXOHEUDLF$FHVWHFU LVXQWQXPLWHúLFU LQHFDQRQLFHVau anaghinoscomena în Biserica
2UWRGR[ GHXWHURFDQRQLFH vQ %LVHULFD 5RPDQR-&DWROLF DSRFULIH vQ SURWHVWDQWLVP  9H]L
SUHOHJHUHDGHVSUHFDQRQXOFU LORU97
8QHOHGLQWUHHOHDXIRVWVFULVHGLUHFWvQJUHDFDOWHOHDXDYXWúLRYHUVLXQHHEUDLFFDUHvQV
QXDIRVWSUHOXDWvQFDQRQXOLXGDLFDOFU LORU97
,QDIDUGHFHOHFU LvQ/;;PDLDSDUúLDGDRVXULVDXVXSOLPHQWHODXQHOHFU LFDQRQLFH
$FHVWHDGDRVXULVXQWúLHOHQHFDQRQLFH

&HOHFU LQHFDQRQLFHVXQW
-(istorice) Tobit; Iudit; 3Ezr; 1,2úL0DF
-(profetice) Baruh; Epistola lui Ieremia
-(didactico-SRHWLFH ÌQ HOHSFLXQHDOXL6RORPRQ,LVXV6LUDK

$GDRVXULOHODFU LOHQHFDQRQLFHVXQW
-OD (VWHUD YLVXO OXL 0DUGRKHX GHFUHWXO OXL $UWD[HU[HV UXJFLXQHD OXL 0DUGRKHX ú D  OD
Daniel (cântDUHDFHORUWLQHULLVWRULD6XVDQHLLVWRULDLGROXOXL%HOúLEDODXUXOXL ODSVDOPL 3V
 OD&URQ UXJFLXQHDOXL0DQDVH OD,RY GHVSUHRULJLQHDOXL,RY 

$PLQWLP F QX H[LVW GHSOLQ FRQFRUGDQ  vQWUH FRQIHVLXQL FX SULYLUH OD WRDWH FU LOH
necanoQLFH'HH[HPSOXUXJFLXQHDOXL0DQDVHVRFRWLWDGDRVQHFDQRQLFvQ%LEOLDRUWRGR[
QXDSDUHFDGHXWHURFDQRQLFvQ%LEOLLOHFDWROLFH

,Q %LVHULFD 2UWRGR[ DFHVWH FU L VXQW VRFRWLWH QHFDQRQLFH DGLF QHLQVSLUDWH %LVHULFD QX vúL
IXQGDPHQWHD] DGHYUXULOH GH FUHGLQ  SH DILUPD LLOH FU LORU QHFDQRQLFH DOH 9HFKLXOXL
7HVWDPHQW %LVHULFD DGPLWH WRWXúL F HOH VXQW EXQH GH FLWLW SHQWUX ]LGLUHD VXIOHWHDVF D
FUHGLQFLRúLORU8 'H DOWIHO SU L GLQ FU LOH úL DGDRVXULOH QHFDQRQLFH VXQW IRORVLWH vQ UkQGXLDOD
slujbelRU FD OHFWXUL SDUHPLL GLQ ÌQ HOHSFLXQHD OXL 6RORPRQ úL %DUXK  VDX FkQWUL FkQWDUHD
FHORUWUHLWLQHUL VDXUXJFLXQL UXJFLXQHDOXL0DQDVH 

Tobit

'LQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH DO JHQXOXL OLWHUDU FDUWHD 7RELW HVWH DSURSLDW GH URPDQXO SRSXODU
cunoscut din liWHUDWXUDVDSLHQ LDODQWLF,VWRULDSHUVRQDMHORUHLHVWHvQDFHODúLWLPSRSLOGGH
ILGHOLWDWHID GH/HJHúLGHYLUWXWHVXIOHWHDVF$SUHFLHUHDGHFDUHV-DEXFXUDWFDUWHDUHLHVHúL
GLQIDSWXOFVHFXQRVFYHUVLXQLDOHHL
&DUHD UHODWHD] GHVSUH GRX Iamilii de iudei ajunse în exil în Ninive (Irak) respectiv în
(FEDWDQD ,UDQ  7RELW HVWH XQ HYUHX FUHGLQFLRV FDUH UHVSHFW /HJHD SkQ vQ FHOH PDL PLFL
GHWDOLLFKLDUúLvQQRLOHFRQGL LLDOHH[LOXOXLFkQGPXO LGLQWUHFRQD LRQDOLLVLDGRSWIHOXOGH
via  GLQ H[LO $MXQVvQJUD LLOHUHJLORUDVLULHQL7RELWYDSLHUGHVLWXD LDEXQWRFPDLGDWRULW
DWDúDPHQWXOXL VX ID  GH /HJH FDUH vO REOLJ V vQJURDSH SH HYUHLL XFLúL GH DVLULHQL ,URQLD

8
  
&KLDUúLvQWHRORJLDRUWRGR[ H[LVW RSLQLLGLIHULWHFXSULYLUHODDFHVWHF U L YH]LPDQXDOXOGH6WXGLXO97

p. 243).

47
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

VRDUWHLIDFHFDHOV-úLSLDUGúLYHGHUHDvQPRPHQWXOvQFDUHvQFLXGDUHVWULF LLORUvQJURSDXQ
evreu ucis.
6DUDHVWHVLQJXUDIDWDXQHLIDPLOLLHYODYLRDVH7UDJHGLDHLHVWHJHQHUDWGHIDSWXOFILHFDUH
vQFHUFDUHGHFVWRULHHúXHD]vQQRDSWHDQXQ LLGHPRQXO$VPRGHXvLXFLGHDSHPLULLVWRULH
ce s-a repetat de 7 ori la rând.
$IOD L vQ ORFXUL GLIHULWH 7RELW úL 6DUD VH URDJ ILHFDUH OXL 'XPQH]HX FD V-i vindece de
QHSXWLQ DORU'XPQH]HXDVFXOWFHOHUXJFLXQLúLWULPLWHSHvQJHUXO5DIDHO-FDUHvQVHDPQ
vQHEUDLFÄ'XPQH]HXYLQGHF´- pentru a-i vindeca pe cei doi.
)U V FXQRDVF SODQXO GLYLQ 7RELW vúL WULPLWH ILXO SH7RELHvQ0HGLDVUHFXSHUH]HQLúWH
EDQL vPSUXPXWD L XQXL FXQRVFXW ,QDLQWH GH SOHFDUH vL G OXL 7RELH VIDWXUL VDSLHQ LDOH
DUWkQGX-LSULQFLSLLOHGXSFDUHVVHJKLGH]HvQYLD 
Ingerul RafaHO LD vQI LúDUH XPDQ úL vO vQVR HúWH SH 7RELH FD WRYDUú GH GUXP $MXQúL vQ
(FEDWDQDvQJHUXO5DIDHOvOFRQYLQJHVRLDvQFVWRULHSH6DUDLQGLFkQGX-LFXPVDOXQJHSH
GHPRQXOFDUHSULFLQXLDPRDUWHDFHORUFHROXDXvQFVWRULH DU]kQGILFDWúLLQLPGHSHúWHúL
rugându-VHDPkQGRLvQQRDSWHDQXQ LL /DvQWRDUFHUH7RELHvQYD WGH5DIDHOvOYLQGHFSH
WDWOVX'XSDFHVWHDvQJHUXO5DIDHOVHGHVFRSHUÄ(XVXQWXQXOGLQFHLvQJHULFDUHVWDXvQ
ID DOXL'XPQH]HX´  $SRLGLVSDUHLDU7RELWPXO XPHúWHOXL'XPQH]HXúLGvQFRGDW
WLQHULORU VIDWXUL SHQWUX YLD  GXS FDUH PRDUH 'XS PRDUWHD DPELORU SULQ L 7RELH SOHDF
vPSUHXQFX6DUDOD(FEDWDQDXQGHUPkQHSkQODPRDUWH

'DWDVFULHULLúLVFRSXOFU LL

&DUWHD7RELWDIRVWVFULVGXSH[LOFHOPDLSUREDELOvQVHFv+(DQXDIRVWDFFHSWDWvQ
FDQRQXOLXGDLFILLQGFSUH]LQWPDLPXOWHHOHPHQWHQHYHURVLPLOHFXPDUILFRQFHS LDGHVSUH
vQJHUL úL GHVSUH GHPRQL 5DIDHO LQGXFH vQ HURDUH SH RDPHQL $VPRGHX IXJH GH PLURVXUL
QHSOFXWH VDXdate istorice îndoielnice.
'HúLvQFDGUDWvQLVWRULDDVLULDQFDUWHDHVWHRILF LXQHXQURPDQSRSXODUGHVWLQDWHYUHLORUGLQ
GLDVSRUD(DHVWHXQJKLGGHYLD SHQWUXFHLFDUHWULHVFGHSDUWHGH,HUXVDOLPvQFXUDMkQGX-LV
UPkQEXQLLXGHLúLvQDFHVWHFRQGL LLGXSPRGHOXOSURWDJRQLúWLORUSRYHVWLULL
&DUDFWHUXOVDSLHQ LDOUH]XOWGLQVIDWXULOHGDWHGH7RELWILXOXLVXSUHFXPúLGLQSUH]HQWDUHDSH
FDUH SRYHVWLWRUXO R IDFH OXL 7RELW 3H OkQJ DFHVWHD HVWH SH VFXUW UHODWDW   R
ELQHFXQRVFXWRSHUVDSLHQ LDOGLQ9HFKLXO2ULHQW–Ä,VWRULDVDXvQ HOHSFLXQHDOXL$KLFDU´ vQ
URPQHúWHvQ$1HJRL Gândirea asiro-EDELORQLDQvQWH[WH). In carte, Ahicar este prezentat
ca fiind un nepot de-al lui Tobit (1,22).
6FRSXOFU LLHVWHDúDGDUGHDRIHULHYUHLORUGLQGLDVSRUDXQPRGHOGHYLD YLUWXRDVGHSDUWH
GHDU&kQGSURIH LLOHVHYRUvPSOLQLH[LOXOYDVIkUúLúLWR LVHYRUvQWRDUFHDFDV7HPSOXOúL
,HUXVDOLPXO YRU IL UH]LGLWH úL DLFL YD IL FHQWUXO OXPLL ORFXO XQGH YRU YHQL SRSRDUHOH V VH
închine (13,10-18; 14,3- 3kQDWXQFLvQVILHFDUHLXGHXWUHEXLHVUPkQFUHGLQFLRV/HJLL
úLvQ HOHSFLXQLLSULPLWHGLQEWUkQL,QDFHVWVFRS7RELWúL7RELHVXQWWLSXULLGHDOHGHH[LOD L
'XS SLOGD OXL 7RELW ILHFDUH HYUHX WUHEXLH V ILH VROLGDU FX IUD LL VL H[LOD L LDU
vQPRUPkQWDUHDDMXWRUXOúLPLORVWHQLDVXQWGDWRULLGHFSWkL'XPQH]HXUVSOWHúWHIDSWHOHGH
PLORVWHQLH FKLDU GDF DFHVW OXFUX QX VH vQWkPSO QHPLMORFLW GXS VYkUúLUHD IDSWHL 2ULFH
HYUHXFUHGLQFLRVVHURDJ/DPRPHQWHGHUHVWULúWHUXJFLXQHDHVWHFHDPDLEXQVROX LHLDU
'XPQH]HXDVFXOWUXJFLXQHDGUHSWXOXL

Iudit

$F LXQHD FU LL VH SHWUHFH vQ YUHPHD UHJHOXL 1DEXFRGRQRVRU $FHVWD GXS FH D vQYLQV SH
$UID[DGUHJHOHPH]LORUWULPLWHSHJHQHUDOXO2ORIHUQVFXFHUHDVF ULOHGHODYHst de Eufrat.

48
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

$MXQV vQ 3DOHVWLQD 2ORIHUQ vQWkPSLQ UH]LVWHQ  vQWU-XQ PLF RUDú %HWXOLD D FUXL SR]L LH
VWUDWHJLF vPSLHGLF DFFHVXO LQDPLFLORU VSUH VXGXO ULL úL ,HUXVDOLP (O DVHGLD] FHWDWHD
DúWHSWkQGFDORFXLWRULLVLVFHGH]HGHIRDPHWHúLVHWH&kQGDFHúWLDVXQWSHSXQFWXOGHDVH
SUHGDLQWHUYLQHRYGXYFUHGLQFLRDV,XGLWFDUHVHKRWUHúWHVVDOYH]HVLQJXUFHWDWHDGHOD
FXFHULUH(DVHGXFHvQWDEUDGYHUVúLVHGXFHSULQIUXPXVH HDHLSH2ORIHUQ,XGLWSURILWGH
EH LDGHGXSRVS DOXL2ORIHUQúLvLWDLHFDSXO'LPLQHD DDVLULHQLLvúLDIOJHQHUDOXOPRUWúL
vQVSLPkQWD L R LDX OD IXJ ILLQG XUPUL L GH ORFXLWRULL RUDúXOXL ,XGLW HVWH VUEWRULW GH
vQWUHDJDFHWDWHúLDMXQJHYHVWLWvQWRDW DUD(DUHIX]QXPHURDVHOHFHUHULvQFVWRULHWULQG
vQFRQWLQXDUHvQYGXYLHSkQODPRDUWH

$XWRULWDWHDLVWRULFGDWDVFULHULLúLVFRSXOFU LL

,QFDUWHD,XGLWH[LVWQXPHURDVHLQH[DFWLW LLVWRULFHFHHDFHDIFXWFDHDVQXILHDFFHSWDW
în canonul iudaic al VT. Regele Nabucodonosor este regile asierienilor, când în realitate a fost
UHJHOH%DELORQXOXL$UPDWDOXLvQWkPSLQUH]LVWHQ DGLQSDUWHLXGHLORUSURDVSWvQWRUúLGLQH[LO
1XVHFXQRDúWHH[LVWHQ DFHW LL%HWXOLDvQ]RQD6DPDULHLúLDFkPSLHL,H]UHHHOXQGHVHSHWUHFH
DF LXQHD
DHLVJXU WUVWXULOH GH FDUDFWHU DOH DFHVWHLYGXYHFUHGLQFLRDVH-FUHGLQ FXU LHúLPDLDOHV
curaj- VXQW UHPDUFDELOH vQV PLMORDFHOH SULQ FDUH vúL UHDOL]HD] VFRSXO QX VXQW WRFPDL
„ortodoxe”.
,VWRULD FU LL ,XGLW HVWH ILFWLY FRQVWUXLW SH ED]D XQRU elemente istorice reale. Cartea a fost
VFULV vQ HEUDLF úL WUDGXV XOWHULRU vQ JUHDF 'DWD VFULHULL HVWH VLWXDW vQ VHF  vQ WLPSXO
GRPLQD LHL VHOHXFLGH vQ SUHDMPD UHYROWHL PDFDEHLORU 3HVHPQH F vQ ILJXUD RUJROLRDV D OXL
Nabucodonosor, care se pretiQGH XQLFXO GXPQH]HX vQ WRW SPkQWXO WUHEXLH Y]XW UHJHOH
$QWLRK (SLIDQHV ,9 $XWRUXODYUXWV-úLvQFXUDMH]HFRPSDWULR LLDVXSUL LúLSHUVHFXWD LVQX
FHGH]H V QX-úL ODVH /HJHD QHDPXO úL UHOLJLD úL V UH]LVWH vPSRWULYD DVXSULWRULORU VWULQL
SJkQL'XPQH]HXQXvúLYDSUVLSRSRUXOFLOHYDWULPLWHXQL]EYLWRUDúDFXPV-a întîmplat
PHUHX vQ LVWRULH ,XGLW HVWH XQ DVWIHO GH H[HPSOX GH PkQWXLUHWULPLVGH'XPQH]HX1XPHOH
,XGLWHVWHúLHOVLPEROLFHOvQVHDPQLXGHHHYUHLF3HUVRQDMXOIHPLQLQvQWUXFKLSHD]QD LXQHD
LXGHHDVXSULWFKHPDWODL]EYLUHSULQDMXWRUXOOXL'XPQH]HX
%LVHULFDFUHúWLQSUHOXkQGFDQRQXO6LQDJRJLLDVRFRWLWFDUWHDQHFDQRQLF FDWROLFLLRVRFRWHVF
GHXWHURFDQRQLF SURWHVWDQ LL DSRFULI  %LVHULFD 2UWRGR[ VUEWRUHúWH DPLQWirea „Iuditei,
celei drepte” în ziua de 7 septembrie.

&U LOH0DFDEHL

&KHVWLXQLJHQHUDOHGHVSUHFU LOH0DFDEHLORU

&HOHFU LDOH0DFDEHLORUQXDXIRVWDFFHSWDWHvQFDQRQXOFU LORU9HFKLXOXL7HVWDPHQW


în iudaism. Ele ne sunt cunoscute din Septuaginta (LXX) - WUDGXFHUHD JUHDF D 9HFKLXOXL
Testament. In unele dintre manuscrisele mai importante ale LXX (Codex Sinaiticus, sec. 4
G+&RGH[$OH[DQGULQXVVHFG+ vQWkOQLPúLRD-a carte a Macabeilor. Aceasta este un
discurs filosofic, având FDSXQFWGHSOHFDUHLGHHDVWRLFDGRPLQD LHLUD LXQLLDVXSUDSDWLPLORU
5D LXQHD HVWH SXV DLFL vQ VWUkQV OHJWXU FX SULQFLSLLOH OHJLL PR]DLFH 3ULQ H[HPSOH GLQ
LVWRULD ELEOLF vQGHRVHEL D PDUWLULXOXL FHORU  IUD L PDFDEHL VH DUDW F LXGHLL FDUH UHVSHFW
OHJHDvPSOLQHVFGHIDSWYLUWX LOHVWRLFH&DUWHDQXDIRVWDFFHSWDWQLFLvQLXGDLVPQLFLvQYUHR
ELVHULF FUHúWLQ FD úL FDQRQLF ILLQG VRFRWLW DSRFULI (D D IRVW WLSULW vQ SULPD HGL LH
LQWHJUDO D %LEOLHL vQ OLPED URPkQ   VXE WLWOXO Ä'HVSUH VLQJXU LLWRUXO JkQG´ ILLQG
DWULEXLWOXL,RVLI)ODYLX

49
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

3ULPDFDUWHD0DFDEHLORUDIRVWVFULVvQOLPEDHEUDLFvQVRULJLQDOXOV-a pierdut. Origen


VHF  G+  úWLD GH YHUVLXQHD HEUDLF úL DFHDVWD QX HUD vQF SLHUGXW vQ WLPSXO OXL ,HURQLP
(sec. 5 d.H.). Ne-D SDUYHQLW GRDU WUDGXFHUHD JUHDF D RSHUHL vQ /;; &HOHODOWH FU L DOH
0DFDEHLORU DX IRVW VFULVH GH OD EXQ vQFHSXW vQ OLPED JUHDF 'LQ JUHDF HOH DX IRVW WUDGXVH
vQF GLQ YHFKLPH vQ ODWLQ VLULDF DUPHDQ DOWXUL GH FHOHODWH FU L DOH /;; Cu privire la
GDWDFRPSXQHULLHDVHVLWXHD]XQGHYDvQMXUXODQXOXLv+SHQWUXúL0DFvQVHFv+
SHQWUX0DFUHVSHFWLYvQWUHVHFv+úLVHFG+SHQWUX0DF
6LWXD LDFDQRQLFFRQWURYHUVDWDFU LORU-0DFDEHLvQFUHúWLQLVPV-a reflectat oarecum
vQPDQXVFULVHOHYHFKLDOH/;;$VWIHOH[LVWPDQXVFULVHFDUHFXSULQGWRDWHFHOHFU LDOWHOH
OHFXSULQGGRDUSHSULPHOHDOWHOHFRQ LQGRDUúL0DFDEHLVDXúL0DFDEHLúLvQILQH
vQ XQHOH QX HVWH FXSULQV QLFL XQD GLQ DFHVWH FU L &RGH[ 9DWLFDQXV VHF  G+  $FHDVW
LQFRQVHFYHQ V-DFRQFUHWL]DWPDLWkU]LXvQPRGXOGLIHULWFXPDXIRVWúLFXPVXQWSULYLWHDVW]L
DFHVWHFU LvQRUWRGR[LHFDWROLFLVPúLSURWHVWDQWLVP
,Q %LVHULFD 2UWRGR[ FU LOH  0DFDEHL VXQW VRFRWLWH QHFDQRQLFH DGLF QHLQVSLUDWH
%LVHULFDOHFRQVLGHUvQVEXQHGHFLWLWSHQWUX]LGLUHDVXIOHWHDVFDFUHGLQFLRúLORUHGLILFDWRDUH
GLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHPRUDO3ULQ LL%LVHULFLLOH-DXIRORVLWúLOH-au apreciat mai ales pe primele
GRX,QHGL LLOH%LEOLHLGLQ%LVHULFD2UWRGR[5RPkQFU LOH0DFVXQWFXSULQVHGXS
FU LOHFDQRQLFH0DFHVWHVRFRWLWDSRFULI
Biserica Romano-&DWROLF OH-D GHFODUDW RILFLDO FDQRQLFH SH SULPHOH GRX vQ XUPD
sinodului tridentin (1545-1546). A 3-DFDUWHHVWHVRFRWLWDSRFULIvQ%LVHULFDURPDQR-FDWROLF
%LVHULFLOHSURWHVWDQWHOHFRQVLGHUSHWRDWHFU LDSRFULIH'HUHPDUFDWvQVFSkQúL/XWKHU
GHDOWIHOIRDUWHUHWLFHQWúLFULWLFvQFHHDFHSULYHúWHFDQRQLFLWDWHDXQRUDGLQWUHFU LOHFDQRQLFH
ale Bibliei, regreta faptul F  0DF QX úL-D JVLW ORFXO vQ FDQRQ 'RDUXQHOHGLQWUHELVHULFLOH
QHFDOFHGRQLHQHDXUH LQXWDFHVWHFU LvQFDQRQ

&XSULQVXOFU LORU

'XS R VFXUW HYRFDUH D FXFHULULORU OXL $OH[DQGUX FHO 0DUH  v+  Cartea 1 Mac
trece direct la prezentarea eveQLPHQWHORU GLQ LVWRULD LXGDLVPXOXL SDOHVWLQLDQ vQWUH  úL 
v+,XGHHDVHDIOVXEGRPLQD LHVHOHXFLG5HJHOH$QWLRK,9(SLIDQHVGRUHúWHVLPSXQFX
IRU D HOHQL]DUHD ,XGHHL 3ROLWLFD OXL $QWLRK,9GHGHQD LRQDOL]DUHúLGHHOHQL]DUHDFXOWXOXLúL
traGL LLORUUHOLJLRDVHLXGDLFHDUHFDUHDF LHUHYROWDSUHRWXOXL0DWDWLD)LXOVX,XGDVXSUDQXPLW
0DFDEHXO ÄFLRFDQXO´  UHFXFHUHúWH LQGHSHQGHQ D QD LRQDO úL SURFODP UHvQILLQ DUHD VWDWXO
QD LRQDO LXGHX  v+  8UPHD] DQL GH OXSWH vPSRWULYD WUXSHORU VHleucide, încheiate cu
L]EkQGDPDFDEHLORU$UHORFVILQ LUHD7HPSOXOXLGLQ,HUXVDOLPFDUHIXVHVHSURIDQDWGH$QWLRK
IV. Iuda moare ca un erou, în lupta împotriva unui inamic mai numeros.
6XFFHVRUXO VX HVWH IUDWHOH PDL PLF ,RQDWDQ - v+  $FHVWD úWLH V SURILWH GH
OXSWHOH SHQWUX SXWHUH vQ WDEUD VHOHXFLG 'XS PRDUWHDVDXUPHD]ODFRQGXFHUHDSRSRUXOXL
6LPRQ FDUH IRUWLILF ,XGHHD úL RE LQH UHFXQRDúWHUHD OLEHUW LL (O HVWH vQ DFHODúL WLPS
FRQGXFWRU SROLWLF HWQDUK  úL DUKLHUHX 8UPDúLL VL YRU vQWUXQL vQ SHUVRDQD ORU FHOH GRX
GHPQLW L'XSPRDUWHDOXL6LPRQXFLVGHJLQHUHOHVXXUPHD]ODFRQGXFHUHILXOVX,RDQ
Hircan. Cu acest eveniment se încheie cartea 1 Mac.

Cartea 2 Mac QX FRQWLQX LVWRULD SULPHL FU L FL SUH]LQW PDL GHWDOLDW HYHQLmente din
DFHDVW SHULRDG 5HODWDUHD vQFHSH FX SHULRDGD DQWHULRDU XUFULL OXL $QWLRK ,9 SH WURQ úL VH
vQFKHLHvQDLQWHGHPRDUWHDOXL,XGD0DFDEHXOGHFLSHULRDGDGHVFULVHPDLVFXUWGHFkWvQ
Mac.
6HLQVLVWPDLPXOWDVXSUDHYHQLPHQWHORUFDUHDXSUHFHGDWUVFRDODPDFDEHLORU- abuzurile
GLQYLD DSROLWLFúLUHOLJLRDVDYUHPLLSHUVHFX LDUHOLJLRDVDOXL$QWLRK,98QORFLPSRUWDQW
vQ QDUD LXQH vO RFXS PDUWLULXO VXIHULW vQ WLPSXO SHUVHFX LHL GH EWUkQXO (OHD]DU úL GH FHL 

50
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

WLQHUL vPSUHXQ FX PDPD ORU 6H UHODWHD] XQHOH GLQ YLFWRULLOH UHSXUWDWH GH ,XGD 0DFDEHXO
$XWRUXO D IRORVLW OXFUDUHD OXL ,DVRQ GLQ &LUHQH SH FDUH DúD FXP PUWXULVHúWH R SUH]LQW vQ
UH]XPDW UHSURGXFkQG SDVDMH ODUJL GDU LQWURGXFkQG úL PDWHULDOH LQGHSHQGHQWH VDX UHIOHF LL
proprii.

Cartea 3 MacQXDUHQLFLROHJWXUFXHYHQLPHQWHOHDPLQWLWHvQSULPHOHGRXFU L(D


UHODWHD] GHVSUH R SHUVHFX LH vPSRWULYD HYUHLORU GLQ (JLSW vQ VHF  v+ ,XGHLL VXQW DGXQD L
într-XQ KLSRGURP GLQ $OH[DQGULD SHQWUX D IL QLPLFL L vQV GLQ GLYHUVH motive pogromul
HúXHD]vQWUHLUkQGXUL5HJHOHUHDOL]HD]DWXQFLFLXGHLLVXQWRFURWL LGH'XPQH]HXúLUHQXQ 
ODSODQXOVX

9DORDUHDLVWRULFúLGRFWULQDUDFU LORU0DF

1 Mac ,PSRUWDQ D SULPHL FU L UH]XOW GLQ IDSWXO F HVWH SULQFLSDOXO L]vor istoric despre
VIkUúLWXOHSRFLLVHOHXFLGHúLGHVSUHSHULRDGDPDFDEHLORU9DORDUHDLVWRULFDFU LL0DFDIRVW
PHUHXDILUPDW$XWRUXOSDOHVWLQDQDFXQRVFXWELQHHYHQLPHQWHOHSHFDUHOHUHODWHD])HOXOGH
a prezenta istoria se apropie de de cel al oSHUHORUGHLVWRULHSURIDQ(OIRORVHúWHL]YRDUHFXP
ar fi scrisori sau documente oficiale, pe care le reproduce. De aceea cartea este unul din cele
PDL SUH LRDVH GRFXPHQWH GHVSUH LVWRULD SRSRUXOXL HYUHX vQ SHULRDGD LQWHUWHVWDPHQWDU ,Q
prezentarea epociL PDFDEHLORU ,RVLI )ODYLX UHFXUJH OD HD úL R IRORVHúWH FD L]YRU SULQFLSDO
(capitolele 1- SHQWUXOXFUDUHDVDÄ$QWLFKLW LLXGDLFH´

2 Mac. A 2-DFDUWHD0DFDEHLORUQXHFRPSXVFXDFHHLDúLRELHFWLYLWDWHFDFHDGLQWkL$LFL
SUHYDOHD]QRWDUHOLJLRDVúLLQWHQ LDDXWRUXOXLGHDRIHULRRSHUGH]LGLUHVXIOHWHDVFOXFUXFH
VH REVHUY GLQ GLVFXUVXO SH DORFXUL RUDWRULF úL GLQ UHIOHF LLOH VDOH SHUVRQDOH &DUWHD D  0DF
HVWH R OXFUDUH PDL WHRORJLF GHFkW SULPD 'DF vQ SULPD 'XPQH]HX QLFL QX HVWH QXPLW VH
fRORVHVFVXEVWLWXWHFXPDUILÄFHUXO´ DGRXDFDUWHLQVLVWDVXSUDSUH]HQ HLúLLQWHUYHQ LHLOXL
'XPQH]HXvQLVWRULHvQIDYRDUHDSRSRUXOXLVX
6XQWFkWHYDLGHLLQWHUHVDQWHvQFDUWHD0DFFDUHQXFRQWUDYLQGRFWULQHLFU LORUFDQRQLFH
ale Vechiului TestaPHQWúLDXFXQRVFXWRGH]YROWDUHXOWHULRDUvQJkQGLUHDWHRORJLFFUHúWLQ
(OHPHULWGHDFHHDVILHH[SXVHDLFLSHVFXUW

1. &UHD LD OXPLL úL FUHD LD YLH LL ,Q GLVFXUVXO HL PDPD WLQHULORU PDFDEHL DILUP F
Dumnezeu a creat lumea „nu din cele ce sunt” (LXX), respectiv „din cele ce nu sunt” (LXX,
UHFHQ]LDOXFLDQLF DGLFÄGLQQLPLF´ 9XOJDWDH[QLKLOR 
„Rogu-WHILXOHFDODFHUúLODSPkQWFXWkQGúLY]kQGWRDWHFHOHFHVXQWvQWU-vQVHOHV
FXQRúWLFGLQFHOHFHQ-au fost le-DIFXWSHHOH'XPQH]HXúLSHQHDPXORPHQHVFODIHOO-a
IFXW´ (7,28).
3ULQDILUPD LDF'XPQH]HXDDGXVOXFUXULOHODILLQ GLQQHILLQ FDUWHDFRQILUPGRFWULQD
ELEOLF D FUHD LHL SUH]HQWDW vQ )DF - úX FDUH GHúL QX YRUEHúWH OLWHUDO GH R creatio ex
nihilo, o presXSXQH ([LVW ÄOD vQFHSXW´ R SULP FUHD LH GLQ QLPLF D XQXL KDRV SULPRUGLDO D
PDWHULHLQHRUJDQL]DWHDSRLRVHFXQGFUHD LHLQDXJXUDWSULQÄVILHOXPLQ´- o organizare a
materiei primordiale.
3ULQ DFHDVWD FRQFHS LD 9HFKLXOXL 7HVWDPHQW GHVSUH FUHDUHD XQLYHUVXOXL VH GHRVHEHúWH GH
cea a lumii greco-URPDQH SHQWUX FDUH FUHD LD GLQ QLPLF UHSUH]LQW R DEVXUGLWDWH ORJLF ¶H[
nihilo nihil’ sau ’ex nihilo nil fit’).
,QVWUkQVOHJWXUFXFUHDUHDOXPLLGLQQLPLFHVWHSUH]HQWDWDSDUL LDYLH LLXPDQHSHQWUX
oPWDLQLFPLQXQHXQPLVWHUSHUSHWXX

51
Pr. Lect. Dr. Constantin Oancea 6FKL HGHSUHOHJHULGH97

1X úWLX FXP Y-D L ]PLVOLW vQ SkQWHFHOH PHX úL QX Y-DP GDW GXK úL YLD  úL vQFKLSXLUHD
ILHFUXLDQXHXDPvQWRFPLW-R&L=LGLWRUXOOXPLL&DUHD]LGLWSHRPGHODQDúWHUHDOXLY
YDGDFDXQPLORVWLYLDUúLGXKúLYLD GHYUHPHFHDFXPQXYHVWHPLOGHYRLLXELQG
legile Lui." (7,22-23)

2. 5XJFLXQHD SHQWUX PRU L úL PLMORFLUHD FHORU PRU L SHQWUX FHL YLL. In 2 Mac 12,42-45
DYHP VLQJXUXO ORF GLQ 9HFKLXO 7HVWDPHQW WRWXúL R FDUWH QHFDQRQLF  XQGH VH DILUP
eficaciWDWHDUXJFLXQLLSHQWUXFHLDGRUPL L'XSELUXLQ ,XGD0DFDEHXORUGRQFDWUXSXULOH
FHORU F]X L vQ OXSW V SULPHDVF RQRUXULOH FXYHQLWH úL V VH DGXF MHUWIH GH LHUWDUH SHQWUX
SFDWHOH ORU OD ,HUXVDOLP 'H UHPDUFDW F MXVWLILFDUHD UXJFLXQLL SHQWUX PRU L VH IDFH DLFL SH
ED]DFUHGLQ HLvQvQYLHUHDPRU LORU
&GHQ-DUILDYXWQGHMGHFYRUvQYLDFHLFDUHPDLvQDLQWHDXF]XWGHúHUWúLGHUkVOXFUX
DUILDVHUXJDSHQWUXFHLPRU L (12,44)
6HVSXQHWRWvQ0DFFGUHS LLGLQWUHPRU LVHURDJúLPLMORcesc pentru cei vii (15,12-
14), afirmându-VHDVWIHOLPSOLFLWúLFUHGLQ DvQYLD DGXSPRDUWH3HQWUXD-LvPEUEWDvQDLQWH
GHOXSW,XGDOHSRYHVWHúWHVROGD LORUVLXQYLVSHFDUHO-a avut.
,DU YHGHUHD YLVXOXL DVWIHO HUD F 2QLD FDUH IXVHVH DUKLHUHX om bun, blând, cucernic la
FKLS úL FX RELFHLXUL EXQH úL OD YRUE FXYLRV FDUH GLQ SUXQFLH V-a nevoit întru toate
OXFUXULOH IDSWHL EXQH FX PkLQLOH vQWLQVH VH UXJD SHQWUX WRDW DGXQDUHD (YUHLORU 'XS
aceasta s-DDUWDWXQEUEDWFXFUXQWH HúLFXVODYPLQXQDWúLSUHDFXYLRDVPULUHHUD
vPSUHMXUXOOXLùLDJULW2QLD]LFkQGFWUH,XGDÄ$FHVWDHVWHLXELWRUXOGHIUD LSURRURFXO
OXL'XPQH]HX,HUHPLDFDUHPXOWVHURDJSHQWUXSRSRUúLSHQWUXVIkQWDFHWDWH´ (15,12-
14)
6HREVHUYGHDVHPHQLFUHGLQ DvQvQYLHUHDPRU LORUFXWUXSXOúLvQYLD DYHúQLFFUHGLQ 
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