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JAIPURI RAZAI

JAIPURI RAZAI
Like that of Hawa-mahal, Jantar-Mantar and
Amber the soft and light weight Jaipur razai have
their own uniqueness. The speciality of these
razai attracts many people and foreign tourists.
Cities like Bombay, madras and south India which
experience little winters and European countries
where temperature even goes below zero degrees
prefer to have Jaipuri razai and people can’t move
away from its beauty. These razai’s have given so
much to Jaipur. National- International popular-
ity is the reason for employment of thousands of
people. The razai’s have made us feel proud of
our craft.
Due to such mass production business units the
real essence of Jaipur razai is becoming extinct.
They are losing their charm (like that of bagru
print) due to machine printing and other easy
ways which are involved in production. The day
by day growing new shops and units which make
false (nakli) Jaipuri razai’s are ruining the udhy-
og. Now it is becoming a business to earn money
by forgetting the actual rules of craft.
It began with two businessman
brothers’ Govind Narayan and These razai’s have their own special-
Narayan Lal. Their father Lakshmi ity. On white voile beautiful buttis
narayan besides keeping other were printed. Then this printed cloth
textile pieces use to keep a special piece was taken to a tailor who use
type of red cloth which was popular to make a khol.
amongst Jaipur Muslims, Mahawats,
Manihaar, Nilgar and Rangrez. This
red cloth was brought after dyeing it The best quality cotton was col-
from Rupangad. oured/ dyed in various colours and
The two narayan brothers have start- was cleaned with the help of tant.
ed their razai business in 1935. The The cotton then starts growing up
cloth was brought from bazaar and a like a flower and different kinds of
darzi use to make a khol. The cotton perfumes were sprayed. Now it is
was brought from a vyapari and then neatly filled inside the cover and
it was beaten with a pindara. Then tagaai starts. Tagaai was done with
the cotton was filled inside the khol. cotton thread and needle. It was
The level of cotton is same allover. done so that cotton should not slip
the process was tedious and some- or move. Tagaai was done in many
times used to take more than two designs such as local motifs, bel-
months. buttas, circular, straight and zigzag
The razai which were prepared lines. The cost of such razai’s used
under Lakshmi Narayan Mangilal to go upto Rs. 40-50 .Rich peo-
firm were the solution to this tedi- ple preferred to buy these luxuri-
ous and time consuming process. It ous razai’s which common people
was whole heartily welcomed in the couldn’t.
aristocrats’ of Jaipur.
Raw Materials
1. COTTON:

cotton is a natural fibre harvested


from cotton plant. The fiber is com-
posed of about 90 % cellulose and Three types of cotton which are filled
around 6% moisture. The rest con- inside are: Desi cotton, Egyptian cot-
sists of natural impurities. Cotton has ton, Semal cotton. Nowadays cotton
been cultivated for more than 5000 is being replaced by synthetic fibres
years. Each fiber is a single elongated such as polyfill. Polyfill is used be-
cell that is generally flat, twisted and cause it is much cheaper and strong
has a ribbon like structure. The fiber than natural cotton. It also provides
has a wide inner hollow. The outer soft feel. Pure cotton costs Rs. 120
surface of the fiber is covered with per kilogram and polyfill Rs. 30.
a protective wax like coating, giv-
ing the fiber an adhesive like quality
.The cotton which is filled inside is
first cleaned by the process of card-
ing. Earlier pure cotton was used.
It was then cleaned by hand with a
tool called pindian. When the raw
cotton is brought, it is always along
with a cotton seed, that keeps the
cotton bunch intact and quality of
cotton does not get deteriorated.
2. CLOTH FOR RAZAI COVER

earlier in traditional Jaipuri razai’s


cover was made of Mulmul fabric
which had 120 weft and 120 warp
in weaving. But slowly the threads
started getting decreased.Mulmul
started coming in 100x100 and
80x100 – 80x90. This Mulmul fab-
ric is lighter, shear jhina. This fab-
ric can’t bear more than 2 winters
and costs Rs. 7-8 per metre. Due to
changing times and requirement of
people the traditional soft Mulmul is
being replaced by a number of other
fabrics. Shaneil, makhmal and velvet
are also in demand. Velvet is a wo-
ven fabric in which cut threads are
very evenly distributed. Velvet can
be made from silk as well as cotton.
Shaneil is a shiny, lustrous fabric
having a soft feel and thicker than
Mulmul. Shaneil has two types low
quality and fine shaneil. Low quality
shaneil has a bad odour. It also has
many defects. Pure shaneil is costly
so people prefer it less.
3. THREAD FOR TAGAAI:
4. CLOTH FOR MAGZI:
mostly cotton thread is used for tagai.
Threads are usually in form of gol git- magzi is the outer border of Jaipuri
tas. It comes as Rs. 150 per kg. Main- razai.
ly tagai was done in white coloured
thread but nowadays almost every
colour thread is being used.pechak ka
dhaga is also used for tagai. It is 120
number thread without starch. Tagai
is done in two stages. In stage one,
kachcha or mota kaam is done to sta-
ble the cotton and achieve same level
of cotton everywhere. After this in
second stage, pakka kaam is done. It is
done in accordance to the design and
motifs. Earlier when the razais were
made for Jaipuri rajgharanas the de-
signs were very intricate. It used to
take a lot of time. Mostly saat khane,
paan ke patte, gol design are done.
Tagai is done mainly by women
workers
PINDIAN:
PREPARATION OF TANT
It is a wooden tool which is used for
spreading cotton over cover. It has The procedure to prepare tant is
a wire attached to it which is con- highly difficult and time consum-
tinuously beaten by a small drum ing. It is made from bakre ki aant(
like tool. This tool acts as a hammer goat intestine). Firstly goat intestines
and is called damroo. The process of are brought and are cleaned prop-
cleaning cotton by pindian is very erly. Now it is kept in aakde ke dodh
tedious and laborious. Only one for seven to eight days. After that its
double razai gets properly filled by pakaai is done. Now a wire is made
pindian. from it by cleaning it again. Ten to
twelve reshe of this wire are joined
TANT: together and twisted. This procedure
iis repeated continuously for eight to
It is a wire which is attached to ten days.
wooden pindian and beaten by a
damroo for cleaning of cotton.
SIZES IN JAIPURI RAZAI

BABY QUILT:

It is usually made for small children


with beautiful bagru and sanganeri
prints. It is approximately one by
one meter.

SMALL RAZAI:

It is little smaller than medium razai.

MEDIUM RAZAAI:

It is of 7 feet by 7 feet. Mostly peo-


ple prefer buying this as it is con-
venient for one person to use.

DOUBLE RAZAAI:

It is of 108 by 108 inches


VELVET QUILTS OR RAJAI SILK QUILTS OR RAZAI

Velvet quilts are luxurious, sensu- Such luxurious quilts are perfect
ous and ultra soft. The material is gifts for weddings and anniversaries.
lightweight, so it brings comfort- These are special-occasion delights
able warmth to the fortunate person that will remind the recipients of
whose bed is adorned with a velvet you for years and years. Handmade
quilt. Over the centuries, velvet has quilts are already distinguished by
embellished the finery of royals and their artistry, and a silk quilt just
is still valued for its unrivalled tex- adds to the beauty. Silk razai or quilt
ture. Used for chilly winters, it is the looks appealing because of its shine
warmest quilt due to usage of high and new look. Finely combed natu-
quality velvet and finely combed ral cotton is filled inside. Made in
natural cotton which is filled inside.
Natural cotton processed in a very
special way to make it light, warm
and fluffy is stuffed inside. They
are made in almost every stand-
ard size like 220x270 cm(double),
150x220(single), 200x250cm (me-
dium). Nowadays they are made in
almost every colour like black, ma-
roon, brown and other dark colours.
COTTON QUILTS:

Cotton Quilts are made of hand block


printed cotton voile fabric, filled
with finely combed superior qual-
ity natural cotton. These are avail-
able in bright, contemporary and
traditional Rajasthani motif prints
to fill cheer into dull winters. These
good looking, fluffy, hand-made In-
dian Rajai or quilts are a Specialty of
Jaipur. In these razai tagai is done
with hand in many attractive pat-
terns.
Carding the Cotton Fill carding, a dense cotton ball becomes
light and fluffy. To make a Jaipuri
Rajasthan encompasses the Aravalli razai, a worker starts with a kilo-
Mountain Range and the Thar (Great gram (approximately 2.2 pounds) of
Indian) Desert. This makes the cli- cotton. After carding approximately
mate cold, especially at night. The 100 grams (or 3.5 ounces) of cotton
people of that region traditionally remain. Makers of these quilts are
have been nomads. Traders, shep- careful to draw out as much dross,
herds and others spent days on the and to separate as many of the cot-
road in caravans. They needed a cover ton fibers, as possible. Light, fluffy
to keep them warm at night without cotton fill makes these quilts warm.
a lot of bulk or weight to carry with
them during the day. Over time, local
quilt makers developed techniques
which created a quilt that was light-
weight, compact, warm and durable,
all at once The material of choice for
a Jaipuri razai is cotton. The cotton
fill of a Jaipuri razai is finely carded
to remove all the dross. A carder is a
paddle covered on one side with fine
teeth. The worker places a ball of cot-
ton on one carder and combs through
it with another carder. Carding sepa-
rates the cotton fibers, allowing the
worker to draw out all of the dross,
or waste material. In the process of
Filling the Shell
TAGAI -
Once the cotton is completely carded,
the artisans go on to make the quilt. Once the fill is carefully layered on
The shell of the comforter can be vel- the shell, the quilt is stitched togeth-
vet or silk, but the most common fab- er and quilted. In modern times, the
ric is cotton. Often, the cotton will be stitching around the sides is usually
decorated in the traditional Indian art done by machine in order to increase
of block print before the quilt is put the durability of the quilt. However,
together. Layering the cotton fill on even these days, the quilting on the
the shell is an important step in mak- quilt panels themselves is typically
ing these quilts. The cotton has to done by a hand-held needle. This
be distributed evenly throughout the stitching on the interior of the quilt
quilt in order to maintain its comfort surface helps to hold the fill in place
and warmth. and adds to the beauty of the quilt.
Versatile and Durable

Jaipuri razai’s may be handmade


and lightweight, but they are hardly
flimsy. In fact, they are quite durable.
Of course, they would need to be,
considering their origins on caravan
routes. And they can fill many needs
in your house. Undoubtedly, they are
great as a quilt for your bed. They are
also a cosy choice as a throw for TV
time or reading. Since they are com-
pact, you will have no trouble folding
them away in a guest room closet for
use when company comes. And they
are a great choice for dorm rooms
that have to be unpacked every spring
and recreated every fall.
If necessity is the mother of inven-
tion, it was the necessity of keeping
warm in a rugged climate while on
the go that caused artisans to invent,
and then refine, the Jaipuri razai.
They are functional, durable and
expertly made. And they're gor-
geous. Jaipuri razai are lightweight,
compact, warm as toast and soft as a
cloud.
Kadar Bux
Gulam Rasool
GULAM RASOOL

Gulam rasool a 55 years old businessman and re-


tailer having his own karkhana and shop of razai
making in ghangori bazaar , toop khane ka rasta. He
has a machine for cleaning cotton in his shop itself.
He has many workers working under him. He spe-
cializes in jaipuri razai. He also makes mattresses’ ,
pillows and cushions. He also has a sister who is lit-
tle mentally unstable; named Madina. She is sweet
and also acts as a caretaker of the shop, though she
doesn’t know the art of quilt at all. Gulam rasools
wife teaches the workers in the shop the process of
tagai and silai.
Santosh Saini
SANTOSH SAINI

Santosh is a 30 years old tagai wali who works at


gulam rasool shop. She is married and have a ten
year old son named lokesh. Her husband is halwai
and does not stay with her. She stays with her son.
Her son comes at five in the evening after school
gets over and sits with her. He also shows interest in
her work and also knows little about lehariya. Her
elder sister is in shastri nagar.
Santosh’s mom used to sell vegetables outside gu-
lam rasool house. Santosh used to sit outside gulam
rasool’s shop when she was around 10 years and
gulam’s wife taught her the work of razai making
and tagai.
Now she do tagai in gaddas , small gaddas which are
used as a chauki in shops. She also do silai of pillows
and cushions. But in season of razai her main work
is to do tagai. She do tagai in different designs like in
saat khane, gol design, straight, square and in shape
of paan ke paate. She gets Rs. 1800 per month and
6 holidys in a month. She likes her work and comes
at 12 noon at the shop and work till 10 pm at night.
She is a strong will powered women who is manag-
ing everything at her own without any help from
her husband’s side.
SHEIKH MOHAMMAD ABDUL

He is a young man of age 25 years and was born in


Hyderabad. He is married and have two sons. His
wife and son lives with his family in Hyderabad. he
is working since ten years in the field of razai mak-
ing. He works whole day in gulam rasool’s shop and
lives in the shop itself.he used to do the same work
in Hyderabad. He eats food from outside. He loves
Jaipur and its culture. In holidays and during festi-
vals he go to Hyderabad to meet his family. He takes
gifts and other traditional things from here for his
wife and children.
He do pindai, bharai, tagai of gaddas, razai and silai
of pillows. He do cleaning of cotton by machine and
then fills it inside the khol. He starts his work in the
morning and continues till 10 pm at night. He takes
care of the whole shop. He gets Rs. 4500 per month
as his wages. He saves the money and takes it home
whenever he goes Hyderabad.
JAITOON

She is a sixty years old woman who is married. She


was born in village khare bawari in Jaipur. She do
work of pindai and tagai in gulam rasool’s shop.
She have five sisters who are married and settled
in Jaipur. She also have one brother who is work-
ing. Her husband is a painter and she has two kids.
One son is a ricksaw owner. She is a old women so
works little slowly as compared to other workers in
the shop