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‫ﻋﻤﺎرة اﻻﺳﺘﺒﺼﺎر‪ :‬اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة اﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺣﻮل أﺛﺮ اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻت اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ واﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺪﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة واﺳﺘﺒﺼﺎر اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﻌﻤﺮاﻧﻲ‬


‫ﺳﻌﻮد ﺻﺎدق ﺣﺴﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪ .‬ﺏ‪ ،407 .‬ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻁﻭﻡ – ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﻠﺨــﺺ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺒﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺘﻀﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻋﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻷﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺒﻌﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺘﺕ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺜﺕ ﻜﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺭﻀﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺠﺫﻭﺭ ﻭﺨﻠﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻼ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﻤﺴﺘﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺘﻭﺜﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﺩ ﻜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻷﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪ABSTRACT‬‬
‫‪This paper introduces what is known as ‘Visionary Architecture’ through a‬‬
‫‪precise historical background, the paper also shows the impact of major socio-‬‬
‫‪economic changes on the evolution of new trends and styles in architecture. The study‬‬
‫‪compares between three of the main architectural movements, namely: Neo-‬‬
‫‪classicism that followed the French Revolution, Expressionism which came after‬‬
‫‪World War I and Constructivism which emerged as a result of the Russian‬‬
‫‪Revolution. The comparison show the origins, backgrounds, themes, and pioneers of‬‬
‫‪each movement. The study concluded the important and beneficial role of the‬‬
‫‪documentation of the unbuilt architecture in the study of the architectural history for‬‬
‫‪academicians and professionals, to highlight the way for the future of architecture and‬‬
‫‪urbanism.‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣــﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ ﻜﻡ ﻫﺎﺌل ﻤﻥ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﻤﺩﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻫﺎ ﻟﺴﺒﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻵﺨﺭ‪ ،‬ﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﺘﺭﺍﺜ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺘﺒﺭﹰﺍ ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪-‬ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻜﻐﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ‪ -‬ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺒﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﻫﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﺫ ﻤﺎﺩﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺭﺅﻯ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺒﺘﻜﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺒﺩﻋﻭﻥ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻤﺼﻤﻤﻭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻫﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻟﻨﺼﺏ ﺘﺫﻜﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺘﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺃﻏﺭﺍﻀﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﺒﺄﻜﻤﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺒﻠﻭﺭ ﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺤﺩﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ]‪. [1‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺫﻜﺭ ﺒﻭﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﺤﺩ ﺭﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﻋﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻜﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﺭﺅﻴﺎ ﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﺸﻜﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﹰﺎ ﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺩﻋﻡ ﻗﻭﻟﻪ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺒﺄﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻻ ﺤﺼﺭ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﻟﻭﻜﻭﺭﺒﻭﺯﻴﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻭﺩﻭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﺫ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺘﺨﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻲ ]‪ . [ 2‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺒﹰﺎ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻜﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻅﻠﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻕ‬
‫ﻜﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪-‬ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬
‫ﻭﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺄﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺒﻌﻘﺩ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻭﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺎ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻬﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻬﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺸﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺴﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻨﺘﻬﺠﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺤﺜﻨﺎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻹﺒﺭﺍﺯ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ƒ ﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ƒ ﻨﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻭﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ƒ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺸﺘﻬﺭﺕ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ƒ ﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺒﺭﺯ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﺴﺎﻫﻤﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ل ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺒﺼﻭﺭ ﻭﻤﺨﻁﻁﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﺒﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺠﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﺘﺒﻌﻨﺎ ﻋﺭﺽ ﻜ ٍ‬

‫ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺣﻮل ﻋﻤﺎرة اﻻﺳﺘﺒﺼﺎر‪:‬‬


‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﺸﻭﺍﻫﺩ ﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺤﺩﻫﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻟﻑ‪-‬ﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﻭﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺨﻴﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻌﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻓﻬﻭ‬
‫ﻤﺨﻁﻁﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻼﺭ ﺩﻱ ﻫﻭﻨﻴﻜﻭﺭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻨﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﺸﺘﻬﺭ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪1225‬ﻡ ﻭ‪1250‬ﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻼﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻘﺎﺭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺩﻱ ﻫﻭﻨﻴﻜﻭﺭﺕ ﺒﺄﻋﻤﺎل ﻨﻅﻴﺭﻩ ﺍﻹﻴﻁﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﺭﺩﻭ ﺩﺍ ﻓﻴﻨﺸﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ]‪ . [ 3‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل‬
‫ﺩﻱ ﻫﻭﻨﻴﻜﻭﺭﺕ ﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺤﻔﻅ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﺴﻭﻤﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل ﻟﻭﺤﺎﺕ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺠﻤﻌﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺘﻐﻠﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺏ ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺤﺎﺕ ﻤﻭﻀﺤﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺯﺨﺎﺭﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺩﺍﺨﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻀﻤﺕ ﻤﺨﻁﻁﺎﺘﻪ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﻨﺩﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺩﻱ ﻫﻭﻨﻴﻜﻭﺭﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻭﺍﺌل ﺭﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺮاﺣﻞ اﻷوﻟﻰ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻤﺜﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻴﻁﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻓﹰﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻻﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺠﻌﻠﺕ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬
‫ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﻓﻴﻼﺭﻴﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﻠﻬﻡ ﺃﺸﻜﺎﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻁﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻴﻁ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻷﺩﻴﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﺤﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﺸﺘﻬﺭ ﺒﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻪ ﻷﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﻪ ﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻻﺩﻴﻭ ﻤﻨﻅﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺃﺴﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﻤﺠﻠﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺸﺎﺭﺤﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﻋﺒﻘﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻁﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﺭﺩﻭ ﺩﺍﻓﻨﺸﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻜﺘﺏ ﻋﺩﺓ ﻜﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﻓﻨﺸﻲ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺘﺠﺭﻴﺏ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻏﻠﺒﺕ ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺴﺎﺌﺩﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻴﻁﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻅﻬﺭ ﺩﺍﻓﻨﺸﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﺎﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻻ ﻟﻤﻌﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﻜﺘﺏ ﺩﺍﻓﻨﺸﻲ‬
‫ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺒﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﻠﻭ ﹰ‬
‫ﺸﺎﺭﺤﹰﺎ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ ﻤﺜل ﻓﺼل ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ]‪. [ 4‬‬
‫ﺘﻼ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻜﺎﻤﺘﺩﺍﺩ ﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻭﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﺫ ﻤﻁﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻼﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﺎﻫﻤﺕ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺭ ﺩﻴﻔﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺠﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻟﻭﺩﻭ ﻭﺒﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻤﺜﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻼﺩﻱ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪة‪:‬‬
‫ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺒﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻜﺎﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺸﺘﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺒﺎﻜﺴﺘﻭﻥ ﺒﻘﺼﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺴﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻭﻏﺎﺭﺩﺍﺱ ﺒﻤﺒﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻱ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻌﺩ ﻫﻴﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻫﻭﺭﻭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﺩﺃ ﻫﻭﺭﻭ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1833‬ﻡ ﻭﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺩﺍﺭ ﺃﻭﺒﺭﺍ ﻤﺴﺘﻠﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻭﺴﻁﻬﺎ ﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﺼﻭل ﻗﻭﻁﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺼﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ ﻜﺎﻟﻘﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﻭﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻌﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻜﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺃﺸﻬﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻤﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﺎل ﺴﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﻭﺒﻴﻜﺎﺴﻭ ﺒﻔﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻭﺃﻓﺭﻴﻘﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺜﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﻬﺎﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺴﺘﻴﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺠﻴﺎﺘﻭﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻴﻁﺎﻟﻴﺎ ]‪. [ 5‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻴﻭﻨﺦ ﺒﺄﻟﻤﺎﻨﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺩﺃﺕ‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﻜﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻌﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻴﺩ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻨﺩﻨﺴﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻲ ﻭﺒﻭل ﻜﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﻱ ﻭﻓﺎﻴﻨﻨﺠﺭ ﻭﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻨﻴﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺭﺘﺒﻁﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻫﺎﻭﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻤﺘﺩﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻤل ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺭﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻴﻘﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺤﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺘﻠﺞ ﻓﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻭﻤ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻭﺹ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺸﺘﻬﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻴﺭﻴﻙ ﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ ﻭﻤﻴﺱ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺩﻴﺭﻭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻥ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺃﻴﻀ ﹰﺎ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺘﺸﻕ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﻭﻟﻨﺩﺍ ﻭﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻤﺘﺩﺕ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻤﻲ ‪1917‬ﻡ ﻭ‪1931‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺃﺴﺱ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻓﻴﻠﺴﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎل ﻤﻭﻨﺩﺭﻴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﺍ ﻨﺠﺩ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﺎل‬
‫ﻓﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻴﺴﺒﺭﺝ ﻭﻤﺎﺭﺕ ﺸﺘﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺄﺜﺭﻭﺍ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻨﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺩﺍﺨل ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺘل ﺭﺃﺴﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻤﺒﺘﻌﺩﻴﻥ ﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ]‪. [ 6‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺒﺭﻤﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻗﻁﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺴﻴﺎ ﻭﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻨﺩﻟﻌﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺴﻴﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺄﺜﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺒﺭﻤﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ ﺒﺄﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻤﻭﻨﺩﺭﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻠﺔ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺩﺃ ﺭﺴﺎﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺒﺭﻤﺎﺘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺜﻭﺭﺘﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﺴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﺒﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻁﻐﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻨﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻲ ﻤﺎﻟﻔﺘﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺎﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﻓﻘﻁ ] ‪ . [ 7‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﺭﻭﺍﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺭﻭﺴﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺘﺎﺘﻼﻥ ﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﺯﻭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺫﻜﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻸﻤﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﻔﺫ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺴﻨﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺴﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺯﻴﺴﻜﻲ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ ]‪. [8‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ اﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة‪:‬‬
‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻤﺘﺩﺍﺩﹰﺍ ﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﻨﺭﻯ ‪ -‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻀﺩ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻭﻙ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴ ﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﻨﺴﺎ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺇﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺸﻜﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﻱ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ‬
‫ﺤﻁﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﻜﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺭﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺘﺤﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻭﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺼﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ‪ .‬ﻭﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﻭﻟﻭﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺭ ﺩﻴﻔﻴﺩ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺭﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﻋﺸﺭ‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻭﺤﺎﺘﻪ ﺨﻠﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺒﺔ ﺒﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺠﺎﻥ ﺠﺎﻙ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺴﻭ ﻭﻨﺯﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻨﺯﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺘﻤﻴﺯﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺒﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻭﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻟﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﺤﻠﺯﻭﻥ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻗﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬
‫ﺘﺘﺸﻜل ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﻹﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺒﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﺕ ﻭﺃﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺫﻜﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻭﺍﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺒﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺠﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﻭﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺒﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﻑ ﻭﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬
‫ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻤﺕ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﻫﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺼل ﺜﻭﺭﻱ ﻭﻨﺎﻗﺩ ﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻪ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺩﺘﻪ ﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﻲ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﺤﺴﺏ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺃﻴﻀ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻟﻭﺩﻭ ﻭﺒﻭﻟﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺩ ﻜﻠﻭﺩ‪-‬ﻨﻴﻜﻭﻻﺱ ﻟﻭﺩﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﻤﺎﻨﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻬﺭ ﻤﺎﺭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻻ ﻟﻔﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺭ ﺜﻡ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﹰﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﻪ ﺒﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﻙ‪،‬‬
‫ﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1736‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺭﺱ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﹰ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻏﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﺒﺎﻻﺩﻴﻭ‪ .‬ﺼﻤﻡ ﻟﻭﺩﻭ ﻋﺩﺩﹰﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻨﻪ ﻤﻔﺘﺸ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻋﻤﺎل ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1771‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﻗﺒﻭﻟﻪ ﻋﻀﻭﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﻨﺴﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1773‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﻨﻰ ﻟﻭﺩﻭ‬
‫ﻋﺩﺩﹰﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﺘﺏ ﻭﻤﺼﻨﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺍﻵﺨﺫﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺒﻔﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻠﻴﻔﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1778‬ﻡ ﺒﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻤﺩﺍﺨل ﺒﺎﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻋﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺸﺭ ﻤﺨﻁﻁﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ‪1767‬ﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪1789‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻟﻭﺩﻭ ﺘﺘﺨﻁﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺼﻭﺩﺓ ﻟﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻁﻌﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻗﻭﺴﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﺭ ﻭﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻜﺭﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺴﺠﻨﹰﺎ ﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﺍﻻﻨﻁﺒﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻨﺤﻭ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻋﺘﺎﺩ ﻟﻭﺩﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻤﺒﺎﻨﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻹﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺤﺴﺎﺱ ﺒﺄﺸﻜﺎل‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻤﺯﺩﻭﺠﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺝ ﺤﻭﻟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﻋﻤل ﺒﺭﻨﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﻅﻼ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺫﻜﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺒﺎﻨﻴﻪ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻴﺘﻴﻥ‪-‬ﻟﻭﻴﺱ ﺒﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻭﻟﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺎﺭﻴﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺒﺭﺍﻴﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1728‬ﻡ ﻭﺩﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺃﺠﺒﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﺍ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻋﺎﺵ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺎﺭﻴﺱ ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺨﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ‪1763‬ﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪1780‬ﻡ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺘﺭﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻨﻪ ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1778‬ﻡ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺘﺭﻙ ﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1780‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﺘﺄﺜﺭﺕ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺒﻭﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ‪-‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺱ ﻟﻭﺩﻭ‪-‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺒﺎﻨﻴﻪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻨﻁﺒﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﻤﺯﻴﺔ ﻜﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺫﺓ ﻟﻠﻀﻭﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﺀﺘﻪ ﻟﻴﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻤﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻤﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻁﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻟﻘﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻠﺯﻭﻥ ] ‪) . [ 9‬ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ‪ (3 –1‬ﺘﻭﻀﺢ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬
‫ﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﻟﻭﺩﻭ ﻭﺒﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(1‬ﺒﻭﺍﺒﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻭﺭﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻭﺩﻭ‬


‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(2‬ﻨﺼﺏ ﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁﻲ ﻟﺒﻭﻟﻴﻪ‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(3‬ﺒﺭﺝ ﺤﻠﺯﻭﻨﻲ ﻟﺒﻭﻟﻴﻪ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة‪:‬‬


‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1910‬ﻡ ﺒﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻴﻭﻨﺦ ﺒﺄﻟﻤﺎﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﻜﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻨﺎﻨﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻌﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﻴﻥ ﻜﺄﻤﺜﺎل‬
‫ﻜﺎﻨﺩﻨﺴﻜﻲ ﻭﺒﻭل ﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﻓﺎﻴﻨﻨﺠﺭ ﻭﻤﺎﺭﻙ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻜﺴﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﺒﻨﺕ ﺒﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻔﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺭﺕ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺭﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻴﻘﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺤﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺤﺴﺎﺱ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺎﺕ‪:‬ﺃﺴﺴﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺫﻟﻙ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻟﻠﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻨﺒﻌﺕ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻭﻁﻠﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻤﻤﻴﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺴﻁ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1918‬ﻡ ﻭﺠﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻭﻥ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺘﻭﻜل ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺇﺒﻌﺎﺩﻫﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺠﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﺴﺎﻨﺤﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻨﺯﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻭﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺒﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺒﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﻴل ﻟﻠﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻹﻴﻀﺎﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﻭﺵ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻠﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻴﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺒﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻴﺩﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺫﻫﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺠﺔ ﻋﻘﻼﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬ ‫] ‪[10‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺩﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻫﻭ ﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻌﺯﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺩﻭﻟﻑ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫ﺘﻤﺜﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫]‪[11‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﻱ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻜل ﺫﻱ ﺍﻷﻟﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺍﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﻤﺜﺎل ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﻴﻨﺴﺘﺭﻟﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺭﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺒﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻌﺭﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‪ ،‬ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﻤﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﻭﻥ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻜﻜﺎﺌﻥ‬
‫ﺤﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﻨﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻨﺯﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻜﻼ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺘﻴﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺠﻨﺤﺘﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻭﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺤﺎﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ] ‪. [12‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ‪1910‬ﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪1932‬ﻡ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺩﻋﻰ ﺒﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﺴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﻘﻭﺱ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻤﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫]‪[13‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺯﺨﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻋﺩﺍ ﺍﻷﺤﺠﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺫﻜﺭ ﺩﻭﺒﻠﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺜﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻭﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺯﻤﻼﺌﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺴﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﺒﺭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭﺡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻭﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﻭﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﺘﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻜﺎﻨﺩﻨﺴﻜﻲ ﻓﻴﻠﺴﻭﻓﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻫﻭ ﻭﻓﺭﺍﻨﺯ ﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﺒﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭ "ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺱ‬
‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺩﻱ ] ‪ . [14‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﻜﺎﻨﺩﻨﺴﻜﻲ ﺘﻤﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ" ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﺇﻨﺠﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ "ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ" ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺼﺎﺭﺕ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺘﺠﺭﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﺒﺤﺘﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﻭﺴﻴﺎ ﻭﻟﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺭ ﺍﻴﺭﻴﻙ ﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1887‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺒﺩﺃ ﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1914‬ﻡ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺠﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﻤﺸﻬﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻗﺭﺍﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ ﺒﺴﺎﺒﻘﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻤﺜﺎل ﺒﻴﺭﻨﺯ ﻭﻓﺎﻥ ﺩﻱ ﻓﻴﻠﺩ ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ ﻋﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺨﻁﻁﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﺘﺴﻤﺕ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺼﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻭﻻﺫ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺘﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1929‬ﻡ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﻫﻤﺎ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻗﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻓﻴﺕ ﺒﻤﻭﺴﻜﻭ ]‪ . [15‬ﻭﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﻱ ﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻫﻴﺭﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻨﺴﺘﺭﻟﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺨﻁﺎ ﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺒﺎﺭﺯﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻋﺎﻤل ﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻥ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻪ ﻟﻠﻜﺘل ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻤﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺩﺭﺱ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻨﺴﺘﺭﻟﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻤﻴﻭﻨﺦ ﺒﺄﻟﻤﺎﻨﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤﺴﺘﻅﻬﺭﹰﺍ ﻨﺸﻭﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﹰﺎ ﺇﻴﺎﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺒﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺩﻋﺎﻩ ﺒـ "ﺃﺼل ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻁﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﺴﻡ "ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ" ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺸﺎﺭﻟﺯ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻴﻥ ﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ "ﻓﻲ ﺃﺼل ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ" ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺒﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻫﺎﻨﺴﻥ ﺸﺎﺭﻭﻥ )‪1893‬ﻡ‪-‬‬
‫‪1972‬ﻡ( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﻭﺤﻰ ﺃﺸﻜﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﺭﻯ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻔﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺼﻤﻤﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺒﺩﻭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻗﻁ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺸﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﻜﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺘﻨﺒﺽ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ] ‪. [16‬‬
‫)ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ‪ (8 – 4‬ﺘﻭﻀﺢ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻴﺭﻴﻙ ﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(4‬ﻤﺩﺨل ﻷﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ )ﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ(‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(5‬ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻗﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﺯﺩﻭﺠﺔ )ﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ(‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(6‬ﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﻷﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭﺡ )ﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ(‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(7‬ﻤﺼﻨﻊ ﻟﻠﺒﺼﺭﻴﺎﺕ‪-‬ﻤﺴﻘﻁ ﻭﻤﻨﻅﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ )ﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ(‬


‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(8‬ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ )ﻤﻨﺩﻟﺴﻭﻥ(‬

‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ اﻟﺒﻨﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة‪:‬‬


‫ﻻ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻨﺯﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺭﻯ ﺫﻟﻙ‬
‫ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺘﺒﻌﻭﺍ ﺤﻠﻭ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺸﺂﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺒﺘﺩﻋﻭﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺤل ﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺤﺩﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺴﻴﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1917‬ﻡ ﻭ‪1930‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻨﻔﻭﺫ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻓﻴﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻨﺘﺸﺭﺕ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻤﻤﺎﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺃﻨﺤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺴﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻴﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻡ ﻭﺃﺸﻜﺎﻟﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻨﺯﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺠﻠﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻲ ﻓﺤﺴﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﻨﺩﺭ ﻓﺴﻨﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﺤﺘﺔ ﺨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ] ‪ . [17‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺭﺍﺤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺴﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬
‫ﻤﻬﺘﻤﺔ‪-‬ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ‪-‬ﺒﺎﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭﺍﺕ "ﺍﻟﻔﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺭ"‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺸﺎﻉ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻥ ‪-‬ﺒل ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺠﻤﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻨﺯﻋﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺍﺯﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺼﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﺼﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻼﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺯﻴﻨﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺴﻤﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺩﻋﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻨﺘﺠﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺭﺤﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﻕ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﻭﺍﻷﺒﺭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺴﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻷﻜﺸﺎﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﺼﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻴﻀﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺘﺎﺘﻼﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺯﻴﺴﻜﻲ ﻭﻟﻴﻭﺩﻴﻨﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﻨﺩﺭ ﻓﺴﻨﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻅﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻓﻴﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺸﺎﺭﻜﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺎﻟﻔﺘﺵ ﺒﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺘﻪ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻼﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻲ ﻭﻜﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺁﻜﺘﻤﺎﻥ ] ‪ . [17‬ﺍﺸﺘﻬﺭﺕ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺯﻴﺴﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﺭﺍﻓﹰﺎ ﺒﺈﻨﺠﺎﺯﺍﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺃﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺨﻁﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺯﻴﺴﻜﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﻟﻴﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﻱ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﹰﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻐﻴﺭ ﺃﺸﻜﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻨﺘﺎﺝ" ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻹﻴﻀﺎﺤﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺯﻴﺴﻜﻲ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩﻩ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‪:‬‬
‫)ﺃ( ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ ﻫﻴﺎﻜل ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺘﻜﺘﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺏ( ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺯﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺝ( ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻴﻘﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺜﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﻘﻭل ﺍﻹﺨﻭﺓ ﻓﺴﻨﻥ‪" :‬ﺇﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﺴﺘﺸﻌﺭ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺤﻴﻥ ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﻜل ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻭﻜل ﺯﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻤﻴﺭ"‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻜﺘﻭﺒﺭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺨﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬
‫"ﻓﺴﻨﻥ" ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﺩﺃﻭﺍ ﺒﺩﺨﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ‬
‫ﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻟﻴﻭﻨﻴﺩ ﺒﺨﻠﻔﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﺒﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻁﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﻨﺩﺭ ﺒﻤﻭﻫﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻅﻴﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺨﻭﺓ ﻓﺴﻨﻥ ﻴﺸﻜﻠﻭﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴﺔ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻗﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺒﺄﻥ "ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻓﻴﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻥ‬
‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻬﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻕ ﻟﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺭﺠﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ"‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻜﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺨﻭﺓ ﻓﺴﻨﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﻅﺭﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻜﻌﻘﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﺠﺭﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺒل‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻷﺤﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻜﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻜﺎﻤل ﻟﻠﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺫﻜﺭ ﻓﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻓﺴﻨﻥ ﺃﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻡ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻫﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻴﺘﺸﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﹰﺎ ] ‪. [17‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺘﺎﺘﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﹰﺎ ﻓﺤﺴﺏ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻓﻨﺎﻨﹰﺎ ﻴﺸﻬﺩ ﻟﻪ ﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺫﻜﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻸﻤﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺤﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻜﺸﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺭﺍﺒﻁ ﹰﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻤﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﻫﺭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﻻﺫ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺤﻭﻱ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺘﺩﻭﺭ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻴﻠﻔﻬﺎ ﺤﻠﺯﻭﻥ ﻀﺨﻡ‪) .‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ‪ (9‬ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﻤﺨﻁﻁﹰﺎ ﺭﺴﻤﻪ ﻓﻼﺩﻴﻤﻴﺭ ﺘﺎﺘﻼﻥ ﻟﺒﺭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺤﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‪ ،‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ واﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎت‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﺭﻀﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻓﺫﻟﻜﺔ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺘﻀﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻘﺩ ﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺭﺨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل ﻜﺘﺏ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﻓﺎﺘﺭ ﺩﻭﻨﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻁﻁﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻤ ﹼﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺠﻭﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻟﻁﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺸﻭﺍﻫﺩ ﺘﺩل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﻭﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﻤﻤﺎﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺤﻀﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﺤﺩﻴﺜﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺘﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﻬﺩ ﺒﺫﻟﻙ‪،‬‬
‫ﻤﺜل ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻱ ﺤﺴﻥ ﻓﺘﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻭﺤﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺨﻁﻁﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻓﻜﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻜﺘﺒﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(9‬ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺫﻜﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻸﻤﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺘﺎﺘﻼﻥ‬

‫ﹸﺘﻌﻨﻰ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﺒﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﻁﻁﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ )ﻤﺎ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻴﻴﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺅﻯ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﻭﺘﻼﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺘل ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﺯﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺌﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ ﻜﻜل‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻭ ﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻤﺜل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘﺒﺔ ﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺤﺎﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺇﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻋﺭﺽ‬
‫ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺘﺕ ﺇﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻜﺘﻭﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺭﺃﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﺜﺭ‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻋﺭﻀﻨﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل ﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﻭﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻴﺔ‪-‬ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭ‪ -‬ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺜﻴﻕ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺎﺕ ﻗﺩﻴﻤ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺤﺩﻴﺜﹰﺎ ﻜﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺼﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺘﺭﺍﺜﹰﺎ ﻤﻜﺘﻭﺒ ﹰﺎ ﻭﻤﺸﺎﻫﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﹰﺎ ﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻤـﺮاﺟـــــﻊ‪:‬‬
‫‪1- Summerson, John, (1964). The Classical Language of Architecture,‬‬
‫‪Methuen and Co. Ltd., London, U.K.‬‬
‫‪2- Ann Arbor, M.I, (1984). De Montclos, Perowoe, Etinne-Louis Boulleé,‬‬
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Visionary Architecture, University of Michigan, U.S.A.
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House, U.S.A, date unknown (Reference by Malcolmson: Lectures on
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City of Tomorrow, The MIT. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
5- Holt, Rinehart and Winston, (1960). Le Corbusier, Towards as New
Architecture, New York, N.Y., U.S.A, (Translated from French by
Fredrick Etchells).
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Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York, N.Y, U.S.A.
7- Malevich, The Non-objective World, USSR, date unknown (Reference by
Malcolmson, Lectures on Vissionary Architecture, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. (1984).
8- Translated from Russian by Eric Dluhosch (1984). El Lissitzky, Russia; An
Architecture for World Revolution, The MIT. Press, Cambridge,
Massachusetts, U.S.A.
9- Malcolmson, Reginlald, (1974). Visionary Projects for Buildings and
Cities, Garamond/Pridemark Press, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A,
(Circulated by International Exhibitions Foundation).
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Frankfurt and Berlin.
11- Finsterlin, Hermann, (1922). Die Gensesis der weltarchitektur die
Deszendez der Dome als Stilspiel, in Frublicht, issue 3, Spring,
Germany.
12- Madesn, S. Tschudi, (1967). Art Nouveau, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, N.Y., U.S.A.
13- Daubler, Theodor, (1957). Der neue Standpunkt, Dresden, Germany.
14- Steiner, Rudolf, (1958). Der Baugedanke des Goetheanum, Stuttgart,
Germany.
15- Whittick, Arnold, (1965). Eric Mendelsohn, London, U.K.
16- J.A. Underwood and Edith Kustner (1973). Peinnt, Wolfgang,
Expressionist Architecture, Thames and Hudston London, Great Britain,
(Translated from German Die Architektur Des Expressionismus.
17- Kautmann, E, (1957). Three Revolutionary Architects, Harvard
University Press, Mass, U.S.A.