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Hyperion University

English Department

ENGLISH

First Year of Study


Continutul cursului de Limba Engleza

Semestrul: I / II
Numarul de ore: 14 seminare / 28 ore. (14 2 = 28)
Finalizarea: Colocviu la sfârsitul semestrului.

1.Obiectivul general: dezvoltarea abilitatilor lingvistice de exprimare corecta, fluenta, si la un nivel


mediu de cunostiinte, atât în scris cât si oral.

2.Scopul: dezvoltarea capacitatii de recunoastere, întelegere, comentare si exersare a constructiilor


lingvistice învatate, folosirea corecta a notiunilor de vocabular generale si specifice domeniului
economic.

3.Mijloace: manualul de curs practic, casete, caietul de curs practic, culegeri de exercitii
gramaticale si lexicale, scrisori comerciale si de afaceri.

4.Continutul cursului practic se bazeaza pe parcurgerea unor teme gramaticale si de vocabular în


diferite registre (formal si neformal, în scris si oral, fata în fata si la distanta).

5.Obiectivele: scopul cursului practic consta în deprinderea si exersarea a patru abilitati


comunicative dupa cum urmeaza:

a. Reading – la sfârsitul semestrului studentii vor putea citi cu usurinta un text în limba engleza
cu grad de dificultate medie, recunoscând constructii gramaticale de baza, vor formula
întrebari si vor da raspunsuri pe baza textului, vor identifica sinonime, antonime si omonime,
vor putea alcatui familii de cuvinte, vor putea explica formarea cuvintelor compuse si
derivate, sa ordoneze paragrafe si texte scurte, sa stabileasca titlurile unor texte.
b. Listening - la sfârsitul semestrului studentii vor putea întelege usor un monolog sau un dialog
în limba engleza si în acelasi timp vor reusi sa rezolve exercitiile corespunzatoare ( sa
completeze un tabel, sa bifeze anumite raspunsuri, sa dea raspunsuri în scris pe baza textului
înregistrat, sa retina câteva informatii din prezentarea înregistrata ).
c. Writing – la sfârsitul semestrului studentii vor fi în stare sa scrie compuneri de lungime medie
pe o tema data, sa descrie un loc sau o persoana, sa scrie scrisori standard formale si
neformale, sa completeze formulare.
d. Speaking – la sfârsitul semestrului studentii vor putea raspunde oral la întrebari, vor purta
conversati pe o tema data, vor face descrieri orale de locuri si persoane, vor putea discuta
conform rolurilor primite, îsi vor putea exprima parerile personale în legatura cu diverse teme
în discutie conform subiectelor propuse de manualul cursului practic.
UNIT 1
Objectives:
a. Students will be albe to recognize and use the present tenses, both simple and continuous.
b. Students will be able to read and speak on a given subject (level elementary).
c. Students will be able to write simple, informal lettes.

GRAMMAR

Present Tense

A. Present Tense Simple


Pattern
Affirmative: Subject + Verb (Short Infinitive/+ -s/-es for third person singular)
Interrogative: Do/Does + Subject + Verb (Short Infinitive)?
Negative: Subject + do/does + not +Verb (Short Infinitive).
Use
1. habitual actions: I go to work every day.
2. repeated actions: He often goes to the cinema.
3. general truths: The sun rises in the east.
4. istantaneous present: The goal-keeper misses the ball.
5. exclamations: Hee comes the train!
6. planned actions: We leave London at eight.
7. the date: Tomorrow is Friday.

B. Present Continuous
Pattern
Affirmative: Subject + am/is/are + Verb+ing.
Interrogative: Am/is/are + Subject + Verb+ing?
Negative: Subject + am/is/are + not + Verb+ing.
Use
1. an action in the moment of speaking: He is reading a book right now.
2. a progressive action which was not finished in the moment of speaking: He is doing his
work.
3. a repeated action in the moment of speaking: He is knocking at the door.
4. a temporary action: Tom is attending the Poly.
5. a planned action: We are leaving tomorrow.

Pactice: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct present tense (simple or continuous):
1. This book is about a man who (desert) his family and (go) to live on a Pacific island.
2. Why you (walk) so fast today? You usually (walk) quite slowly.
3. I (hurry) because I (meet) my mother at four o’clock and she (not like) to be kept waiting.
4. When the curtain (rise) we (see) a group of workers. They (picket) a factory gate.
5. He never (listen) to what you say. He always (think) about something else.
6. You (hear) the wind? It (blow) very strongly tonight.
7. You (see) my car keys? I (look) for them but I (not see) them.
8. In most countries a child (start) school at six and (stay) for about five ears in a primary
school. Then he (move) to a secondary school. At 18 he (take) an exam.
9. Where he (come) from? He (come) from Japan.
10. Mr. Brown often (go) to the theatre but his wife (not go) very often. He (like) all sorts of
plays but she (prefer) comedies.
READING AND LISTENING

Paola is an Italian student of English at a school in London. Read and listen to her letter to
David, her pen friend.

72 Newton Drive
London SW 6
3rd October

Dear David

How are you? I’m fine. I’m in London, at the International School of English. I’m in a class 3
with eight other students. They’re all from different countries- Spain, France, Japan,
Argentina, Switzerland, and Thailand. Our teacher’s name is Peter Briscall. He’s very nice.
He’s funny and he’s a very good teacher.

My new address is at the top of the letter. I’m with an English family, the Browns. Mrs.and
Mr. Brown have three children. Thomas is fourteen, Catherine is twelve, and Andrew is
seven. They are all very friendly, but it isn’t easy to understand them!

London is very big and very interesting. The weather is good - cold but sunny - and the parks
are beautiful! Hyde Park, Green Park, and St. James` Park are all in the centre. It isn’t easy to
use the Underground, but I understand it now. It’s very expensive!

English food is OK, but the coffee is horrible!

Write to me soon.

Love, Paola

P.S. Is my English OK?

Questions:
1. Who is Paola?
2. Where is she studying?
3. What is she studying?
4. What is the teacher’s name?
5. Where is she staying?
6. How old is Thomas? But Catherine?
7. Is English coffee OK?
Writing: Write a similar letter to one of your pen friends.

READING AND LISTENING The long-distance teacher

Mr. Frank Garret, 65, is a


Pre-reading task
schoolteacher. He is English, but he
lives in France, in the Normandy
village of Yerville. Mr. Garret lives in
1. Look at the map. Which two France, but he works in England.
countries are they? Write the
names of the capital cities on the Every Monday he leaves home at 2.30
map. in the morning and drives 101 miles
from his village to Boulogne, where he
leaves his car and catches the ferry to
2. Check the meaning of the Folkestone. Then he catches the train to
underlined words in your Maidstone in Kent and he arrives at
dictionary. Manor School at 8.25. He teaches
He leaves home. French from 9.00 in the morning to
She drives to work.
3.30 in the afternoon, and then leaves
He catches a train at 9.00. school. He arrives home at 9.30 in the
a ferry
evening. The journey there and back
She arrives at work at 8.30. takes twelve hours and costs only £ 16!
The journey takes twenty
minutes. Fortunately, Mr. Garret works in
It costs only ten pence. England only one day a week.
Fortunately
And what does he do on the other
days? He teaches English! He has a
Reading class of eighteen French students in
Yerville.
Read the text. Answer the three
questions. ' Yes, on Tuesday I’m tired,' he says,
'but I love my job in England and I
a. Where does Mr. Garret live?
love my home in France. I'm happy
b. What’s his job? man! '
c. Where does he work?
Vocabulary

Suffixes and prefixes

1. Identify the roots in the following derivatives:

Application, blockage, booklet, boredom, bravery, breakage, capitalism, consistency, consumption,


drunkard, employee, gangsterism, idealism, intricacy, importance, lemonade, mathematician,
naturalist, relevancy, scientist, spinster, strength, supremacy, Vietnamese.

2. Attach the appropriate suffixes to the following words:

a. advise, arm, boil, cigar, drop, free, hand, kitchen, mine, mouth, level, novel, percent,
person, short, spoon, train, wait, wave.
b. Suffixes: -age, -doom, -ee, -er, -ette, - ful, - let, - y.

3. Identify the noun forming prefixes in the following derivatives:

Anticlimax, arch-bishop, co-partner, dissatisfaction, ex-soldier, forefinger, inattention,


impossibility, midday, misprint, noncomformist, neo-realism, overstrain, post- meridian,
predominant, pro-rector, reaction, self-determination, semi-darkness, subtitle, superstructure,
undersecretary, vice-admiral.

4. Combine the suffixes with the words:

a. active 1. –acy
b. achieve 2. –ance
c. compose 3. –ation
d. deliver 4. –hood
e. fair 5. –ism
f. fellow 6. –ity
g. man 7. –ment
h. pagan 8. –ness
i. perform 9. –ship
j. supreme 10. –th
k. wide 11. –ure
12. –y
UNIT 2
Objectives:
a. Students will be able to recognize and use the past tenses, both simple and
continuous.
b. Students will be able to read a text and answer the questions.
c. Students will be able to form Wh-questions.

GRAMMAR
Past Tense

A. Past Tense Simple


Pattern
Affirmative: Subject + Veb (-ed, II)
Interrogative: Did + Subject + Verb (Short Infinitive)?
Negative: Subject + did + not + Verb (Short Infinitive).

Use
1. a past action: I went to the opera last night.
2. a repeated action in the past: I often visited him.

B. Past Tense Continuous


Pattern
Affirmative: Subject + Was/Were + Verb+ing.
Interrogative: Was/Were + Subject + Verb+ing?
Negative: Subject + Was/Were + not + Verb+ing.

Use
1. a progressive action in the past: I was walking at this time last week.
2. a progressive action interrupted by a momentary action: He came in when I was eating.
3. two progressive past actions: She was reading while I was sleeping.
4. an unfinished past action: He was reading a book last night.
5. a repeated action in the past: He was always coming late to the English classes.
6. a temporary action: He was living in Madrid when I met him.
7. a future action which was planned in the past, but was not fulfilled: We were leaving the
next day.

Practice: Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or Past Continuous:
1. He (sit) on the banch fishing when he (see) a man’s hat floating down the river. It (seem)
strangely familiar.
2. It (snow) heavily when he (wake) up. He (remember) the Jack (come) for lunch and (decide)
to go down to the station to meet him in case he (lose) his way in the snow.
3. When I (reach) the street I (realize) that I (not know) the number of Tom’s house. I (wonder)
what to do about it when Tom himself (tap) me on the shoulder.
4. I (pick) up the receiver and (dial) the number. To my surprise I (find) myself listening to an
extraordinary conversation. Two men (plan) to kidnap the Prime Minister.
5. While I (wonder) whether to buy the dress or not, someone else (come) and (buy) it.
6. She (promise) not to eport me to the police but ten minutes later I (see) her talking with a
policeman, and I am sure she (tell) him all about it.
7. As the goal-keeper (run) forward to seize the ball, a bottle (strike) him on the shoulder.
8. As it (rain) the children (play) in the sitting-room. Tom (try) to write a letter but the children
(keep) asking him questions.
Grammar
Practice

Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or Past Continuous:

1. He (sit) on the banch fishing when he (see) a man’s hat floating down the river. It (seem)
strangely familiar.
2. It (snow) heavily when he (wake) up. He (remember) that Jack (come) for lunch and (decide)
to go down to the station to meet him in case he (lose) his way in the snow.
3. When I (reach) the street I (realize) that I ( not know) the number of Tom’s house. I (wonder)
what to do about it when Tom himself (tap) me on the shoulder.
4. As the goal-keeper (run) forward to seize the ball, a bottle (stike) him on the shoulder.
5. I (look) through the clssroom window. A geometry lesson (go) on. The teacher (draw) diagrams
on the blackboard.
6. Most of the boys (listen) to the teacher but a few (whisper) to each other, and Tom (read) a
history book. Tom (hate) mathematics, he always (read) history during the mathematics
lessons.
7. She (promise) not to report me to the police but ten minutes later I (see) her talking with a
policeman and from the expression on his face I am sure she (tell) him all about it.
8. I (pick) up the receiver and (dial) a number. To my surprise I (find) myself listening to an
exxtraordinary conversation. Two men (plan) to kidnap the Prime Minister.
9. I (meet) Paul at the university. We both (be) in the same year. He (study) law, but he (not be)
very interested in it and (spend) most of his time practicing the flute.
10. My neighbour (look) in last night and (say) that he (leave) the district and (go) to Yorkshire, to
a new job. I (say) that I (be) very sorry that he (go) and (tell) him to write to me from Yorkshire
and tell me how he (get) on.
11. I (go) to Jck’s house but (not find) him in. His mother (say) that she (not know) what he (do)
but (think) he probably (play) football.
12. This used to be a station and all the London trains (stop) here. But two years ago they (close)
the station and (give) us a bus service instead.
13. Ann works in the branch where the big robbery (take) place. She actually (work) there at the
time of the raid?
14. When Ann (say) that she (come) to see me the next day, I (wonder) what flowers she would
bring. She always brings flowers.
15. While I (wonder) whether to buy the dress or not, someone else (come and (buy) it.
16. My dog (attack) the postman as he (put) the letters into the letter box. The man (thrust) a large
envelope into the dog’s mouth and of course he (tear) it. Unfortunatelly the letter (contain) my
diploma. I (patch) the diploma with Sellotape but it still looks a bit odd.
17. We (not get) much sleep last night because the people next door (have) a noisy party. I (ring)up
the landlord and (say) that his tenants (make) too much noise. He (point out) that it (be)
Saturday and that people often (have) parties on Saturdays nights. I (say) that the people in his
house always (have) parties.
18. How you (break) your leg?/ I (fall) off the ladder whe n I(put up) the curtains.The worst of it
(be) that it (be) just before the holidays and I (go) away.
19. So you (not go) away?/ No, of couse not. I (cancel) my bookings and (spend) the holiday
hobbling about at home.
20. As it (rain) the children (play) in the sitting-room. Tom was there too. He (try) to write a letter
but he (not get on) very well because the children (keep) asking him questions.
Charles Dickens (1812- 1870)
DICKENS THE MAN

Charles Dickens is one of the greatest Dickens had ten children, but he didn’t have
novelists in the English language. He wrote happy family life. He was successful in his
about the real world of Victorian England and work but not at home, and his wife left him.
many of his characters were not rich, He never stopped writing and travelling, and
middleclass ladies and gentlemen, but poor he died very suddenly in 1870.
and hungry people.

DICKENS THE CHILD


Writing

His family lived in London. His father was a 1. Write about your past. Use these ideas to
clerk in an office. It was a good job, but he help you.
always spent more money than he earned and
he was often in debt. There were eight Born Parents School Free time First job
children in the family, so life was hard. when? work? like? sports? what?
Charles went to school and his teachers where? live? not like? hobbies? when?
thought he was very clever. But suddenly, earn?
when he was only eleven, his father went to
prison for his debts and the family went, too. 2. Answer the questions.
Only Charles didn’t go to prison. He went to
work in a factory, where he washed bottles. a. How old was Dickens when he died?
He worked ten hours a day and earned six b. How many brothers and sisters did he
shillings (30p) a week. Every night, after have?
work, he walked four miles back to his room. c. Was he good at school?
Charles hated it and never forgot the d. Why did he leave school when he was
experience. He used it in many novels, eleven?
especially David Copperfield and Oliver e. Who was in prison?
Twist. f. What did Charles do in his first job?
g. What was his next job?
h. Was he happy at home?
DICKENS THE WRITER i. When did he stop writing?

When he was sixteen, he started works for a


newspaper. He visited law courts and the
Houses of Parliament. Soon he was one of the
Morning Chronicle’s best journalists. He also
wrote short stories for magazines. There were
funny descriptions of people that he met.
Dickens` characters were full of colour and
life- good people were very, very, very good
and bad people were horrible. His books
became popular in many countries and he
spent a lot of time abroad, in America, Italy,
and Switzerland.
INSIDE water, one for port, and one for liqueur.
During the first and second courses, the
Queen speaks to the person on her left and
Buckingham Palace then she speaks to the person on her right for
the rest of the meal. When the Queen finishes
THE PALACE her food, everybody finishes, and it is time for
the next course!
There are two addresses in London
Comprehension check
that the whole world knows. One is 10
Downing Street, where the Prime Minister
1. Are the sentences true (v) or false (x)?
lives. The other is Buckingham Palace. This
Correct the false sentences.
famous palace, first built in 1703, is in the
a. The Palace is more than two hundred
very centre of London.
years old.
It is two places, not one. It is a family
b. It is famous because it is the centre of
house, where children play and grow up. It is
London.
also the place where presidents, kings, and
c. The same person starts the Queen’s
politicians go to meet the Queen.
bath, prepares her clothes, and feeds the
Buckingham Palace is like a small
dogs.
town, with a police station, two post offices, a
d. The dogs sleep in the Queen’s bedroom.
hospital, a bar, two sports clubs, a disco, a
e. The Queen and the Prime Minister go
cinema, and a swimming pool. There are 600
out for a drink on Tuesday nights.
rooms and three miles of red carpet. Two men
work full/time to look after the 300 clocks.
2. Answer the questions.
About 700 people work in the Palace.
a. ‘Buckingham Palace is two places, not
THE QUEEN`S DAY one.’ How?
b. Why is it like a small town?
When the Queen gets up in the c. Are there a lot of clocks?
morning, seven people look after her. One d. How many dogs does the Queen have?
starts her bath, one prepares her clothes, and e. What newspaper does she read?
one feeds the Royal dogs. She has eight or f. What sort of music does the piper play?
nine dogs, and they sleep in their own g. Why do people have five glasses on the
bedroom near the Queen’s bedroom. Two table?
people bring her breakfast. She has coffee h. Who does the Queen speak to during a
from Harrods, toast, and eggs. Every day for meal?
fifteen minutes, a piper plays Scottish music i. What happens when the Queen finishes
outside her room and the Queen reads The her food?
Times.
Every Tuesday evening, she meets the 3. Check the meaning of new words in
Prime Minister. They talk about world news your dictionary or with your teacher.
and have a drink, perhaps a gin and tonic or a
whisky. inside (prep) to prepare (v)
the whole world own (adj)
AN INVITATION TO THE famous (adj) piper (n)
PALACE grow up (v) outside (prep)
like (prep) course(food) (n)
When the Queen invites a lot of everybody(pron) during (prep)
people for dinner, it takes three days to do the washing- up (v)
prepare the table and three days to do the
washing- up. Everybody has five glasses: one
for red wine, one for white wine, one for
Biographies
Read the biography of William Shakespeare.

Shakespeare, William, 1564 – 1616,


English dramatist and poet, considered the greatest of all playwrights; b.Stratford-upon-Avon.
He was the son of a glove maker and leather craftsman, and attended the local grammar school.
In 1582 he married Anne Hathway, and his first child, a daughter, was born within six months.
Two years later they had twins. Little else of his life is known before 1594, when he appeared in
London as an actor and a playwright with a growing reputation. In 1594 he joined a group of
actors known as the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, which became the King’s Men under the
patronage of James I. In 1599 he bought the Globe Theatre. He retired to Stratford- upon-Avon
in 1613. He wrote at least thirty-seven plays: history plays, comedies and tragedies. Their
appeal lies in his human vision, which recognises the complexity of moral questions, and in the
richness of his language.

Ask and answer questions about Shakespeare.


- When……?
- Where…...?
- What…….?
- Did he…...?
- Who……..?
- How many….?
- What sort of……..?

Read the biography of Jeffrey Archer.

Archer, Jeffrey, was born in 1940, and was educated at Wellington School and Oxford University.
In 1969 he became a Member of Parliament when he won a by-election. At 29, he was the
youngest member of the Ho use of Commons. He resigned from Parliament in 1974 because he had
debts of over $ 427,000, following the collapse of a Canadian company in which he had invested.
In the same year he wrote his first novel, “Not a Penny More, Not a Penny Less”, which was
based on his business experiences. He has been writing ever since, and all six of his novels have
been best sellers. They have been translated into over fifteen languages. His most successful novel,
“Kane and Abel”, has sold more than four million copie s world-wide, and has been made into a
television series.
After the success of his books, he decided to return to politics. From September 1985 to October
1986 he was Deputy Chairman of the Conservative Party. He married his wife in 1966, and they
live with their two children in Cambridge and London.

Ask and answer questions about jeffrey Archer.


- When………?
- Where……...?
- What……….?
- Why……….?
- How many……….?
- How long………..?
- Have any……..films………
UNIT 3

Objectives:
a. Students will be able to make a difference between the simple and the progressive aspect.
b. Students will be able to recreate a text from pieces.
c. Students will be able to comment about the stories presented in the texts and to express their own
experiences.

GRAMMAR

Verbs not normally used in the continuous aspect

a. Verbs of non-durative activity: score, shoot, slam, kick, etc.


Eg. He bangs the door.

b. Verbs of universal truth or general characteristic:


Eg. Fish swim.

c. Verbs of inert perception: see, hear, smell, feel, sound, taste.


Eg. The flower smells nice.
Attention: These verbs can be used in the continuous aspect if they show a conscious usage of the
senses:
1. by using synonymic pairs: I hear music. / I am listening to the music.
2. by using them with a diffeent meaning: I am seeing him tonight.
3. by usin the transitively (as actions): The cake tastes good. / I am tasting the cake.

d. Verbs of cognition: believe, know, think, imagine, mean, mind, remember, forget,
recollect, recall, suppose, suspect, guess, presuppose, realize, understand. Some of them can be used
in the continuous aspect if they are used as verbs of activity.
Eg. I think you are right. / I am thinking of my future.

e. Verbs of feelings: like, love, care for, adore, hate, dislike, detest, regret, pefer,
wish. Eg. I detest lazy people.

f. Verbs of relation: apply to, be, belong to, concern, consist of, contain, cost, depend
on, deserve, include, involve, lack, matte, need, owe, own, possess, have, require, resemble, seem.
Eg. This book belongs to him.
Attention: BE and HAVE can be used in the continuous aspect when they do not express the state or
the possession.
Eg. He is kind. / Why is he being so kind today?
He has a new car. / We are having an interesting conversation.
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Reading
Now read the article.
Reading and speaking 1. Write down the correct question for
each paragraph.
Pre-reading task a. How are people and animals
Work in pairs. different?
1. Write down the names of as many b. How many people are there?
animals as you can. What can they do c. What can people choose to do?
that people can’t? d. What is the biggest difference
Example: Birds can fly. between people and animals?
2. What can people do that animals 2. Check your lists of what people and
can’t? animals can and can’t do. What ideas
Example: We can write poetry. did you have that are not in the
3. Look up the following words in your article?
bilingual dictionary and write down 3. How do people communicate?
the translation. 4. Why is writing a special kind of
jungle (n) species (n) communication?
numerous (adj) powerful (adj)
to record (v) e.g. sense (n) What do you think?
information in a book to choose (v) 1. Do animals have a sense of past and
joke (n) to look after (v) future?
to destroy (v) 2. How do animals communicate?
3. In what ways are we looking after the
world, and in what ways are we
destroying it?

writes symphonies, elects presidents, or goes


to the moon.
Hello people of the World!
There is one thing above all that
makes people and animals different. People
love to talk-talk-talk. We are the great
They are five billion people in the communicators! And we can communicate so
world and they live in all different corners of many things in so many ways- with our faces,
it. They live on the snow and ice of the Poles our hands, our bodies, and our voices. Most
and in the tropical jungles on the equator. important of all, we can record what we say
They have climbed the highest mountains and and think in writing, so that we can
walked on the sea bed. Some of them have communicate through time. We have a sense
even left the earth and visited the moon. of past and future, not just present.
The human species is the most We are the only species that can
numerous and the most powerful of all the change the world, and we are the only species
animals on earth. How did this happen? In that can choose either to look after our wood
many ways, animals can do things better than or to destroy it.
we can. Dogs can smell and hear better than
we can. Cats can see in the dark. Birds can fly
thousands of miles away and return to the
same place every year. But we are different.
No other animal build cathedrals, plays
football, tells jokes, gets married, has prisons,
READING AND SPEAKING Comprehension check

Pre-reading a. How old is he?


b. Does he go to school?
What do teenagers like doing in your country? c. Where was he born?
Think of three things and tell the others in the d. Where does he live with?
class. e. Who does he live with?
f. What does his father do?
g. How was he different when he was
Reading
very young?
h. What does he do in the evening?
Divide into two groups. i. Can his father speak English?
j. Does he have any friends?
Group A Read about Ivan Mirsky. k. What does he do in his free time?
Group B Read about Jaya Rajah.
Check your answers with your group.
Answer the questions.

Ivan Mirsky is thirteen and he is the number 13 chess player in the world.
He was born in Russia but now lives in America with his father, Vadim. They live in a one-
room flat in Brooklyn. Ivan doesn’t go to school and his father doesn’t have a job. They practice
chess problems all day, every day, morning, afternoon, and evening.
Ivan was different from a very young age: he could ride a bike when he was eighteen
months old and read before he was two. He could play cards at three and the piano at four. When he
was twelve, he was the under-20 chess champion of Russia.
His father can’t speak English and can’t play chess, either! Ivan translates for him. Vadim
says, ‘I know that I can’t play chess, but I can still help Ivan. He and I don’t have any friends- we
don’t want any friends. Other teenagers are boring! We don’t like playing sports or watching TV.
We live for chess!’

TWO TEENAGE GENIUSES

Jaya Rajah is fourteen, but he doesn’t go to school. He studies medicine at New York
University in a class of twenty-year-olds. Jaya was born in Madras in India but now lives in a house
in New York with his mother, father, and brother. They can all speak English fluently. His father is
a doctor.
Jaya was different from a very young age. He could count before he could say ‘Mummy’ or
‘Daddy’. He could answer questions on calculus when he was five and do algebra when he was
eight.
Now he studies from 8.15 to 4.00 every day at the university. Then he studies at home with
his father from 6.30 to 10.00 every evening.
Jaya doesn’t have any friends. He never goes out in the evenings, but he sometimes watches
TV. He says, ‘I live for one thing- I want to be a doctor before I am seventeen. Other children of my
age are boring. They can’t understand me.’
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

Reading
Arranging jumbled texts e.
James likes the extra money, but he
Here are three stories about people who have does have one complaint. ‘I’m getting fat. I
started their own businesses, but the stories can’t help eating the teacakes!’
have been mixed up.
First read the paragraphs quickly and decide f.
which paragraphs go with which story. At first they found it very difficult to
Then put them in the right order. get known. ‘Nothing seemed to work- leaflets
and adverts in the paper brought nobody.’
James McClarty: Then slowly the customers trickled in.
1 2 3 4 5
g.
Jeremy Taylor: Since then they have grown and
1 2 3 grown. ‘We use up to 20 riders and we buy
ourselves a new bike every year. We’ve
John Glover: learned a lot about management, and we’re
1 2 3 4 now pretty confident about the future.’

a. h.
James McClarty, 16, runs a part-time But his organization is far from old-
bakery delivery service. Every Friday evening fashioned. He has bought a computer, which
he goes round his local village selling his he uses to work out orders, costs and profit.
wares-bread, rolls and teacakes, which he He has had the business for nine months.
buys wholesale from a bakery.
i.
b. He was given good advice by his bank
Jeremy Taylor has had his market manager. ‘Start small, consolidate and expand
garden for 18 months now, growing fruit and gradually. There’s been an increased demand
vegetables for local consumption. He is most for really fresh vegetables, and my produce is
proud of his early potatoes and juicy picked, packed and sold within 24 hours.’
raspberries. He thought starting a business
would be complicated, but in fact he found it j.
was quite straightforward. A clever observation by John Glover
gave him and two of his friends the idea for
c. their small business. ‘We’d all had jobs but
He had the excellent idea of giving out we were made redundant. I had seen a lot of
free hot cross buns before Easter, and as a motorcycle couriers in London, so I thought I
result he got bumper orders for the Easter would try and get a job with one locally.’
weekend. ‘I’ve already expanded to include
the next village, but I’ve employed a friend to k.
do the delivering.’ ‘I’ve always loved gardening, and the
thought of making a living out of a hobby is
d. wonderful.’
But there weren’t any. ‘I still had £100
and my bike. I’m lousy at mathematics, but l.
my girlfriend Lynn was good at accounts, so ‘There hasn’t been a baker in the
we set up with another friend, Paul, as a third village since the big supermarkets opened in
partner.’ town 10 years ago. People like the service and
especially the old- fashioned bread
UNIT 4
Objectives:
a. Students will be able to identify and use adverbs and adjectives in their degrees of
comparison.
b. Students will be able to make a person description.
Reading and speaking
You are going to read a magazine article about one of Britain’s most famous shop-Marks &
Spencer.
Pre-reading task
Work in pairs and use dictionaries if necessary.
The following people, places, and things are in the article. What connection do you think they have
with Marks & Spencer? They appear here in the same order as in the text.
- Princess Diana
- £10 million
- a Polish immigrant
- shoelaces
- Spain
- Paris and Newcastle
- Jumpers
- chiropodists
Now read the article quickly and discuss the list again.

MARKS & SPENCER world - in America, Canada, Spain, France,


Belgium, and Hungary.
Britain’s favourite store
What are the best sellers?
Marks & Spencer (or M&S) is
Britain’s favourite store. Tourists love it too. Surprisingly, tastes in food and clothes
It attracts a great variety of customers, from are international. What sells well in Paris sells
housewives to millionaires. Princess Diana, just as well in Newcastle. Their best-selling
Dustin Hoffman, and the British Prime clothes are:
Minister are just a few of its famous • For women: jumpers, bras, and knickers
customers. (M&S is famous for its knickers!).
Last year it made a profit of £529 • For men: shirts, socks, pyjamas, dressing
million, which is more than £10 million a gowns, and suits.
week. • For children: underwear and socks.

How did it all begin? Best-sellers in food include: fresh


chickens, bread, vegetables, and sandwiches.
It all started 105 years ago, when a Chicken Kiev is internationally the most
young Polish immigrant, Michael Marks, had popular convenience food.
a stall in Leeds market. He didn’t have many
things to sell: some cotton, a little wool, lots Why is M&S so successful?
of buttons, and few shoelaces. Above his stall
he put the now famous notice: The store bases its most important key
to its success is its happy, well- trained staff.
DON`T ASK HOW MUCH- IT`S A PENNY. Conditions of work are excellent. There are
company doctors, dentists, hairdressers, and
Ten years later, he met Tom Spencer even chiropodists to look after the staff, and
and together they started Penny Stalls in all the staff can have lunch for under 40p!
many towns in the north of England. Today
there are 564 branches of M&S all over the
GRAMMAR

The adjective and the adverb

Adjective Adjectives have the same form fo singular and plural. They do not change for male or
female. Most adjectives are used in front of the nouns.
Some adjectives describe similar qualities (hot, cold): hot-warm-boiling, cool-cold-
freezing.
Comparative adjectives with one syllable are formed by adding –e r to the adjective.
Eg. Long – Longer, Big – Bigger, Dry – Drier
Superlative adjectives are formed by adding –est to the adjective.
Eg. Long – Longest, Big – Biggest, Dry – Driest
Comparative adjectives with two or more syllables are formed with more, and the
superlative of these adjectives is fomed with the most.
Eg. Modern – more Modern – the most Modern
Interesting – more Interesting – the most Interesting
Irregular adjectives:
Good – better – the best
Bad – worse – the worst
Far – farther/further – the farthest/the furthest
Little – less – the least
Much/many –more – the most
Old – elder – the eldest

Adverbs Adverbs describe actions. Most adverbs are formed from adjectives adding –ly (slow –
slowly). Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives (fast), but some adverbs have the same
form as the adjective and a different meanig for the adverb meaning (a hard question/ to work hard)
Most adverbs have comparative and superlative forms in –er and –est (early, far, fast,
hard, late). Comparatives are used to compare two separate things; superlatives compare oe thing I
the group with all the other things in that group.
Eg. Maru is a better player than Monica. / She is the best player in the team.

Intensifiers
When we make comparisons the adjective is often strengthened with an intensifier: This house is
much/a lot/far bigger than that one.
We can also use intensifiers with more/less: The Italian film was much more interesting./ That film
was far less frightening tha this one.

Practice: Choose the correct word:


1. The fish was so tasty as/as tasty as the meat.
2. This book is the most interesting/the more interesting.
3. The temple is the eldest/oldest in Europe.
4. That dress is a lot longer than/that the other one.
5. Nothing is worse/worst than being stuck in a traffic jam.
6. The test was not as had as/hard as I thought.
7. Today I feel more bad/worse than I did yesterday.
8. Our journey took longer than/the longest we expected.
9. Could you work more quietly/ quietly please?
10. This skyscraper is one of the taller/tallest building in our city.
2. Check in your dictionary that you
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT understand the following words:
extravagant (adj) shy (adj)
wealth (n)/ wealthy (adj) reserved (adj)
Reading and speaking
to share (v) e.g. a reserved
person
You are going to read a newspaper article
chandelier (n) outgoing (adj)
about the Sultan of Brunei. He is the richest
despite (prep) e.g. an outgoing
man in the world.
person
Reading for information
Pre-reading task
Now read the article quite quickly. As you
1. Have you heard of the country of Brunei?
read, check if you were right about where
Do you know where it is?
Brunei is. Decide what you think is the most
Is it in the Middle East/ East Asia/ West
extravagant way the Sultan spends his money.
Africa?
Discuss your ideas in pairs.

THE RICHEST MAN IN THE WORLD

A year ago the Sultan of Brunei gave a birthday party for his eleven- year-old daughter. It
was in the ballroom of Claridges Hotel, in Mayfair, London. It cost £100,000, but for the Sultan this
is not a great amount of money. He is so rich that he can buy whatever he wants.
A few years ago he built the biggest palace in the world. It has 1,788 rooms, 5 swimming
pools, 257 toilets, 44 staircases and 18 lifts. The dining room can seat 4,000 people. There are 564
chandeliers with 51,490 light bulbs. A servant is employed full time to change bulbs- about 200 a
day. The total cost of the palace was $400 million. The Sultan invited his friends to see it but they
didn’t like it- they said it looked more like a multi-storey car park than a palace. What could the
Sultan do? You guessed- he built another one!
Brunei is one of the smallest but richest countries in the world. Its wealth comes from oil
and gas. Most people think that Brunei is in the Middle East but it isn’t. It’s in East Asia, on the
north coast of the island of Borneo. It sells the oil and gas to Japan, and earns $2 billion a year- that
is $229,000 every hour- from it. And the beauty is that there are so few people to share all this
money. The population of Brunei is only 230,000. The Sultan and his brothers are the government.
Despite all this money and power the Sultan is a very shy man. He is 42 years old but still
looks like a schoolboy. He says very little at international meetings. When he was nineteen he
married his cousin, Princess Saleha, who was then sweet, pretty, and only sixteen. Time passed and
she became more and more reserved. In 1980 the Sultan met an air hostess called Mariam Bell, who
is half Bruneian, a quarter Japanese, and a quarter English. She is much more outgoing in her
manner than most Bruneian girls, and the Sultan fell in love with her. He married her, too, and now
has two wives and two families all living happily together in the new palace. The Sultan’s total
wealth is more than $25 billion. He owns hotels all round the world: the Dorchester in London, the
Beverley Hills Hotel in Los Angeles and the Hyatt Hotel in Singapore. He has a fleet of private
planes, including an airbus. One of his London houses has the biggest garden in the city, except for
Buckingham Palace. With all this, is he a happy man? Nobody asks him that.
UNIT 5
Objectives:
a. Students will be able to recognize and use the future tense.
b. Students will become familiar with the other ways of expressing the future.
c. Students will be able to make predictions, and imagine how their lives will be in the
following centuries.
GRAMMAR

Future
A. Future Simple
Pattern
Affirmative: Subject + will/shall + Verb (short infinitive)
Interrogative: Will/Shall + Subject + Verb (short infinitive)?
Negative: Subject + will/shall + not + Verb (short infinitive).
Use
1. an action in a future moment: He will come back tomorrow.
2. a spontaneous intention: I will open the window.
3. a premeditated action: I will sell that book no matter what you are saying.
4. the refusal: I will not go there.
5. an invitation: Will you come in, please?
6. a request: Will you help me?
7. a request for an opinion: Shall I buy this dress?
Other ways of expressing the future:
1. Be about to + Verb (short infinitive) = an immediate future: We are about to leave.
2. Be to + Verb (short infinitive) = an arrangement (I am to move house soon) and an order
(You are to return before nightfall)
3. Be going to + Verb (short infinitive) = a future action very close to the moment of speaking:
(You are going to see a film); a future action that will take place because of a present
intention (We are going to spend our holiday in the mountains); and a future action that will
take place as a result of a present cause (It’s going to rain).

B. Future Continuous
Pattern
Affirmative: Subject + will/shall + be + Verb+ing.
Interrogative: Will/Shall + Subject + be + Verb+ing?
Negative: Subject + will/shall + not + be + Verb+ing.
Use
1. a future continuous action: I shall be walking at two o’clock tomorrow.
2. a future continuous action interrupted by a momentary action: When he comes, I will be
sleeping.
3. two future continuous actions: He will be reading while I shall be watching TV.
4. a future unfinished action: She will be having her piano lesson when you come.

Practice: Rewrite each sentence so that it contains will or going to.


1. I plan to study engineering in France.
2. I predict a score of 3 – 0.
3. We have an appointment at the doctor’s, so we can not come.
4. Martin’s wife is pregnant again.
5. Sarah does not plan to get married yet.
6. There is a posibility of snow tomorrow.
LIFE IN THE 21 st CENTURY

PRESENTATION

Where will people live in the Twenty-fist century?


Read the next text about JAPAN.

Living in the skies

Louise Hidalgo considers life in the 21st century, with two-kilometre high
buildings, and Japanese cities that touch the sky.

Imagine a building one third of the height of Mount Everest, built by robots,
and containing a whole city. Imagine you can walk out of your front door in a T-shirt
and shorts on a cold winter day and take a lift down 500 floors to school. Imagine
you can see the sea a mile below you. Imagine you can never open a window.
Imagine…
Well, if Japanese architects find enough money for their project, in the 21st
century you will be able to live in a building like that.
Ohbayashi Gumi has designed a two-kilometre high building, Aeropolis, which
will stand in the middle of Tokyo Bay. Over 300,000 people will live in it. It will be
500 floors high, and in special lifts it will take just 15 minutes to get from top to
bottom. Restaurants, offices, flats, cinemas, schools, hospitals, and post offices will
all be just a few lift stops away. According to the architects, Aeropolis will be the
first city of the sky. When we get to the end of this century, Tokyo will have a
population o over 15 million people, said design manager Mr. Shuzimo. There is not
enough land in Japan. We are going to start doing tests to find the best place to build
it. I hope people will like living on the 500th floor. Will not people want to have trees
and flowers around them? We are going to have green floors, where children can play
and office workers can eat their lunch-break sandwiches. What about the fires? If
there is a fire, it will be put out by robots. I hope we will get the money we need to
build. As soon as we do, we will start. This will be the most exciting building in the
world.
What do you think?
1.Would you like to live in Aeropolis?
2. Mr. Shuzimo expresses two future intentions and to hopes. Find them in the text.
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT: READING AND SPEAKING
ENGLISH FOOD
What do you think influences a coutry’s food?
Have you ever tried English food?

READING FOR GIST: Read this magazine article about English food.

I am always both amused and annoyed when I hear foreign people criticize
English food. `It’s unimaginative, ` they say. `It’s boring, it’s tasteless, it’s chips with
everything and totally overcooked vegetables. ` ` It’s unambitious, ` say the French,
`all you do is roasts with jam. ` (We eat apple sauce with pork.) That’s the bit they
find really shocking, but then the French are easily shocked by things that aren’t
French. When I ask these visitors where they have experienced English cooking, I am
astonished by their reply. `In Wimpy Bars and McDonald’s Hamburger restaurants, `
they often say. I have won my case. Their conclusions are inexcusable.
I have a theory about English cooking, and I was interested to read that several
famous cookery writers agree with me. My theory is this. Our basic ingredients, when
fresh, are so full of flavour that we haven’t had to invent sauces and complex recipes
to disguise their natural taste. What can compare with fresh peas or new potatoes just
boiled (not over boiled) and served with butter? Why drown spring lamb in wine or
cream or yoghurt and spices, when with just one or two herbs it is absolutely
delicious?
It is interesting to speculate what part factors such as geography and climate
play in the creation of a country’s food. We complain about our wet and changeable
weather, but it is the rain which gives us our rich soil and green grass. `Abroad, ` says
Jane Grigson, `poor soils meant more searching for food, more discovery, more
invention, whereas our ancestors sat down to plenty without having to take trouble. `
If you ask foreigners to name some typically English dishes, they will probably
say `Fish and chips` and then stop. It is disappointing, but true, that there is no
tradition in England of eating in restaurants, because our food doesn’t lend itself to
such preparation. English cooking is found in the home, where it is possible to time
the dishes to perfection. So it is difficult to find a good English restaurant with
reasonable prices.
It is for these reasons that we haven’t exported our dishes, but we have
imported a surprising number from all over the world. In most cities in Britain you’ll
find Indian, Chinese, French and Italian restaurants. In London you’ll also find
Indonesian, Lebanese, Iranian, German, Spanish, Mexican, Greek …Cynics will say
that this is because we have no `cuisine` ourselves, but, well, you know what I think.

COMPREHENSION CHECK
1. What is the author’s main point of view?
2. Why does not he agree with foreigh people’s criticism of English food?
3. What is the comparison that Jane Grigson makes?
4. Why are thee few English restaurants?
5. What kind of person wrote this article? What makes you think so?
6. Who do you think Jane Grigson is?
7. Do you agree with this article?
Vocabulary

Nouns

1. Form the plural of the following nouns:

a. baby, brush, echo, fox, fly, girl, hat, hero, joy, knife, lily, motto, peach, photo, rose,
solo, toy.
b. Brother, child, cow, die, foot, goose, man, mouse, ox, tooth, woman, stop, pot,
paragraph, month, roof, chief, belief, grief, council, piano, idea, bath, bus, box.

2. Give the singular of the following nouns: allies, alligators, brethren, corgoes, children, cuffs,
cups, casinos, concertos, gates, geese, guitars, loaves, meadows, mice, mosquitos, negroes,
rushes, shelves, studios, teeth, fathers- in- low, passers-by, men- friends.

3. Give collective nouns for the following word groups: a multitude of soldiers, a collection of
ships, a group of animals, the soldiers and officers on a ship, members who appreciate a
competition, members who run an enterprise, members who run a country, political groups,
people listening to a concert, students always working together.

4. Use the nouns in brackets in the singular or plural according to the meaning:

a. She longs for the bracing (air) of her mountain village. She is too intelligent to put
on (air)
b. What is the (good) of staying so late? The order (good) have not been delivered yet.
c. So much (sand) makes driving difficult, I suppose the wind had blown it from the
(sand).
d. Look at this manuscript, the (writing) shows an extremely delicate nature. Yes, and
the author’s (writing) show the same thing too.
e. The demonstration was a fine (spectacle). “Where have you put my (spectacle)”?
f. “Shal I put the (content)at the beginning or the end of the book?” I appreciate the
substantial (content) of your paper.
g. As soon as you get through the (custom) you’ll find yourself in a country with the
original and interesting (custom).
h. She is full of (grace). She has never been in her (grace).
i. The (pain) in his leg hindered his progress. She took great (pain) in doing this job.
UNIT 6
Objectives:
a. Students will be able to identify and use the Present Perfect Tense
b. Students will be able to ask and answer question to each other about a person’s life.
c. Students will write about someone they admire.

GRAMMAR
Present Perfect
A. Present Pefect Simple
Pattern
Affirmative: Subject + have/has + Verb (past participle: -ed, III)
Interrogative: Have/Has + Subject + Verb (past participle: -ed, III)?
Negative: Subject + have/has + not + Verb (past paticiple: -ed, III)
Use
1. an event in the past but without a definite time: Tom has broken his leg.
2. a state or repeated action lasting until the present, and still happening: He has lived here for
ten years.
3. to explain a present situation: I have hurt my foot.
4. to describe experiences in the past: I have visited Italy.
5. to describe how many things are completed so far with no exact time mentioned: I have read
a hundred pages of this book.

B. Present Perfect Cotinuous


Pattern
Interrogative: Have/Has + Subject + been + Verb+ing?
Affirmative: Subject + have/has + been + Verb+ing.
Negative: Subject + have/has + not + been + Verb+ing.

Use
1. past events connected to the present: I hae been waiting here all morning.
2. to emphasize the length of the action: I have been writing the entire afternoon.
3. to emphasize that the action is recent: My hands are dirty because I have been repairing my
car.
4. to emphasize the action is temporary: I have been staying in a hotel for the past month.
5. repeated actions: I have been phoning her for days, but she is never at home.

Contrasts:
1. Present Perfect Simple and Preset Perfect Continuous: the simple aspect shows that the
action is finished, but the progressive aspect emphasize that the action is still going on: I
have written five letters./I have been writing letters all day.
2. Present Perfect and Present Tense: Present Tense describe habits or states in the present, and
Present Perfect describes the time until the present: I live in London./I have lived thee for
ten years.
3. Pesent Perfect and Past Tense: Past Tense describes a definite event in the past, and Present
Perfect shows an indefinite event, according to the speaker’s point of view: I arrived here in
September two years ago./ I have left my umbrella on the bus this morning.

Adverbs:
1. since: the length of the period of time: We have been studying English since January.
2. for: the beginning of the period of time: I have been waiting here for half an hour.
PRESENT PERFECT 23. The police (not find) the murderer
1. We (walk) for three hours. yet, but the dead man’s brother (be) in
Simple or Continuous the station all day. The police say that
2. That boy (eat) seven ice-creams. he (help) them with their enquiries.
3. We (walk) ten kilometres. 24. They (pull) down most of the houses
4. He ( not stop) eating since he arrived. in this street, but they (not touch) the
5. The driver (drink). I think someone old shop at the corner yet.
else ought to drive. 25. I (wait) for the prices of the house to
6. I (pull) up 100 dandelions. come down before buying a house, but
7. I (pull) up dandelions all day. I think I (wait) too long.
8. What you (do)?/We (pick) apples. 26. Peter (be) a junoir clerk for three
9. I (sleep) on every bed in this house years. Lately he (look) for a better
and I don’t like any of them. post but so far he (not find) anything.
10. He (sleep) since ten o’clock.It’s time 27. We (mend) sheets all morning butwe
he woke up. only (do) three, and now the sewing
11. What a lovely smell!/Mary (make) machine (break) down so we’ll be
jam. even slower with the next one.
12. The students (work) very well this 28. Ann (fail) her driving test three times
term. because she’s so bad at reversing. But
13. I only (hear) from him twice since he she (practise) reversing for the last
went away. week and I think she (get) a bit better
14. I (work) for him for ten years and he at it.
never once (say) “Hello”. 29. Why you (not bring) me the letters for
15. He (teach) hundreds of students but he signature? You (not type) them yet?
never (meet) such a hopeless class. 30. The police (not find) the murderer yet,
16. Why you (be) so long in the but the dead man’s brother (be) in the
garage?/The tyres were flat, I (pump) station all day. The police say that he
them. (help) them with their enquiries.
17. I (look) for mushrooms but I (not find) 31. They (pull) down most of the houses
any. in this street, but they (not touch) the
18. It (rain) for two hours and the ground old shop t the corner yet.
is too wet to play on, so the match (be) 32. Tom is convinced that there is gold in
postponed. these hills but we (search) for six
19. He (hope) for a rise in a salary for six months and (not see) any sign of it.
months but he (not dare) to ask for it 33. I (wait) for the prices of the house to
yet. come down before buying a house, but
20. Mr.Smith, you (whisper) to the I think I (wait) too long and the prices
student on your right for the last five are beginning
minutes. You (help) him with his
exam paperor he (help) you?
21. Why you (make) such a horrible
noise?/
I (lose) my key and I try to wake my
wife by throwing stones at the
window.
You (throw) stones at the wrong
window. You live next door.
22. Ann (fail) her driving test for three
times because she’s so bad at
reversing. But she (practice) reversing
for the last week and I think she (get)
a bit better at it.
Paragraph 1
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT a. to use badly or unproductively (e.g. time/ money)
b. a profession or occupation
Reading Paragraph 2
c. a person who is the `property` of someone else and
Pre -reading who has to work for them
1. You are going to read an article about Paul Paragraph 3
d. a lucky opportunity that leads to success
Newman, the Hollywood film star. What do they
tell you about Paul? e. the state of being a star
2. Work in groups. On a separate piece of paper, add Paragraph 6
f. more of something (e.g. a drug) than is safe
to the charts.
g. using something in a wrong way
What I know about Questions I’d like to ask
Paragraph 7
Paul Newman about Paul Newman
h. a person’s understanding of what is right and
He’s made a lot of Has he ever won an Oscar?
wrong
films. How old is he?
i. an organization that helps people who need help
3. Compare your information and questions as a
j. to do something again and again
class.
Writing
Reading Write about a living film star, or a musician (or group)
Reading the article, and try to find the answers to your that you admire. Write about their background, their
questions. successes, and why you like them.

Comprehension check Vocabulary


1. Which of your questions were answered? There are many words in Englis h with the
2. What interested you most about Paul Newman? same pronunciation but a different spelling and
What did you learn that you didn’t know before? meaning.
3. Here are summaries of the seven paragraphs of the Example:
article. Match them to the correct paragraph. /hi?/ here- Come here!
a. ______ Some of his films. hear- I can’t hear you!
b. ______ His rise to stardom.
c. ______ The end of one marriage, the beginning of 1. For each of the following words, find a word in the
another. text about Paul Newman with the same pronunciation
d. ______ His early life. but a different spelling.
e. ______ The highs and lows of his later life. waist ___________ knew _____________
f. ______ His first professional work. roll ____________ our ______________
g. ______ Newman the person, not the movie star. too ____________ sun _____________
4. Here are the answers to some questions from brake ________________
paragraph 1-3. What are the questions? 2. Think of the homophone fir these words.
a. In 1925. there _________ ate __________
b. After graduating. red ___________ sea __________
c. While they were acting together. been ___________ check ___________
d. In 1949. sail _________ fair __________
e. Three. by ____________ week ____________
f. He was thirty. I __________ right ____________
g. A Greek slave. 3. Write the words in exercises 1 and 2 on the correct
h. No, he didn’t (enjoy making the film). line according to the vowel sound.
i. About Graziano’s childhood. a. /?/ _______
Write some questions based on paragraph 4-7. Ask c. /et/ _______
the rest of the class your questions. c. /u:/ two
d. /i:/ ________
Vocabulary e. /e/ __________
1. There are two other words that mean a film in the f. /e?/ __________
text. Find them. Which one is mainly American g. /at/ __________
English? h. /au?/ _________
2. Match a word in the text to the following i. / ?u/ __________
definitions.
PAUL NEWMAN- actor, director, racing driver

1. Paul Newman, actor, director, and racing driver, was born so good-looking
that people said it was a shame to waste such beauty on a bay. He was born in
Cleveland, Ohio, in 1925, and did some acting in high school and college, but never
seriously considered making it his future career. However, after graduating, he
immediately started working in the theatre. He met his first wife, Jackie Witte, while
they were acting together, and they got married in 1949. They had three children, a
boy and two girls.
2. He found work in the theatre and on several TV shows in New York. When
he was thirty, he went to Los Angeles and made his first film. It was what Newman
called an `uncomfortable` start in the movies, in the role of a Greek slave. The
experience was so bad that he went back to the theatre, and didn’t accept another film
role for two years.
3. The film he chose was his big break. He played the boxer, Rocky Graziano,
in the film Someone up There Likes Me. Newman is a method actor who believes in
living the part before beginning the film. He spent days- from morning till night- with
Graziano. He studied the fighter’s speech and watched him box, and they endlessly
about Graziano’s childhood. The picture brought Newman stardom overnight.
4. He was living in Los Angeles away from his family when he met Joanne
Woodward, an actress who he had first met in New York. They worked together in
The Long Hot Summer. His wife, Jackie, and Paul recognized that their marriage
wasn’t working, and got divorced. Newman and Miss Woodward were married in
Las Vegas in 1958.
5. Newman went on to make films such as Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, The Hustler,
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, The Sting and Towering Inferno. He has made
over forty-five films, and has won many awards, but he has never won an Oscar.
6. His marriage to Woodward is one of the longest and strongest in Hollywood.
They have three daughters, and they have co-starred in six films. Ever since the film
Winning, Newman has been passionately interested in car racing, and in 1979 he
came second in the twenty-four hour Le Mans race. But the end of the 1970s was not
all good news for him. In 1978 his only son, Scott, died of a drug overdose, and as a
result Newman created the Scott Newman Foundation to inform young people on
drug abuse.
7. He has a strong social conscience, and has supported causes such as the anti-
nuclear movement, the environment, and driver education. All the money from
`Newman’s Own` salad dressing, popcorn, and spaghetti sauce, now a multi-million
dollar business, goes to charity. He is more than just a movie star. `I would like to be
remembered as a man who has tried to help people to communicate with each other`,
says Newman, `and who has tried to do something good with his life. You have to
keep trying. That’s the most important thing`.
Reading and Vocabulay
The boy who fell down stairs, drank
antiseptic, chopped off a finger and then
plunged into an empty swimming pool…
Allen is a little disaster
ACCIDENT PRONE Allen Davies is only five, but already his parents are
convinced he’s a walking disaster.
The youngster has cracked his head falling into an empty swimming pool, has chopped
the end of his finger off with a penknife and has made himself ill by drinking half a bottle of Dettol.
Each time another disaster strikes Allen, he is taken to the Children’s Hospital in
Sydenham, where he has been such a regular visitor he believes the nursing sister is a member of
his family.
Now Allen’s grateful father, street trader Alan Davies, has raised £ 6500 for the hospital
to buy a neonatal monitor to measure babies` breathing and temperature.
Stitches
His wife Margaret said, `It all stated when little Allen was a year old. He fell over and cut
himself and had to have stitches in his forehead. Since then he hasn’t stopped. He’s been taken to
hospital at least ten times. The latest accident happened when he climbed on to a shelf and managed
to open his father’s penknife. He chopped the end of his finger off and had to have it sewn back on.
`
Doctors at the hospital also had to stitch Allen’s head when he plunged headlong into a
pool.
Mr. Davies, supported by the Lewisham and Berwick Street Traders` Association, raised
the cash with the help of celebrities including actor Richard Harris, songwriter Andrew Lloyd-
Webber and Spike Milligan, who donated possessions to be auctioned at a charity disco and buffet.
Mr. Davies, of Avondale Road, Bromley, said, `Little Allen is a regular patron of the
hospital. He’s always having accidents. He’s been going there since he was just one. `
Holidays
`Everyone in the hospital has known him for years, and he firmly believes he’s got a real
sister in the hospital because he knows the sister who looks after him so well. `
A sister at the hospital said, `Whenever we see Allen coming in again, we all shout “What
have you been doing this time?” `
Allen’s older brothers have also had their share of accidents and had to be taken to the
Children’s Hospital.
Robert, 15, tore some ligaments on a skiing holiday and slipped off his crutches, breaking
his ankle a few days later and Lee, 13, injured his neck doing a motorbike stunt.

Vocabulary : Try to guess the meaning of the words in italics. Can you guess 50%? / 90% /
100%?

In the article about Allen, first it says: “Allen…has chopped the end of his finger off” but
later: “He chopped the end of his finger”. Why are both tenses possible?
UNIT 7

Objectives:
a. Students will be able to identify all the –ING forms (Gerund and Participle), and
they will also make a difference between Gerund and Infinitive.
b. Students will be able to comment on a given subject and also they will shae
information in a group work activity.
c. Students will talk about their favourite TV programme, and will describe their
favourite show.
d. Students will write about their favourite pop star.

GRAMMAR

- ING forms

A. Gerund
1. Present Gerund: the action is simultaneous with the action of the personal verb: The teacher
enjoyed takig children to the museum.
2. Perfect Gerund: the action is anterior to the action of the persona l verb: He denies having
seen her.
Use:
1. after prepositions: She keeps healthy by keeping a strict diet.
2. after nouns with prepositions: He has a lot of experience in teaching.
3. after adjectives with prepositions: I am delighted at her winnig the first prize.
4. after verbs with prepositions:I object to your leaving so early.
5. after transitive verbs: You must avoid being late in the future.
6. after verbs of mental activity: I hate their arriving late.
7. after “it’s no use”, “there is no use”, “it’s worth”: It’s no use trying to leave. The book is
worth reading.
8. after verbs indicating a process, the beginning, the cotinuation, the end of an action: They
started talking.

B. Participle
1. Present Participle: the action is simultaneous with the action of the personal verb: Running
across the park, he heard someone calling his name.
2. Perfect Participle: the action is anterior to the action of the personal verb: Having run across
the park he felt tired.
3. Past Participle: it is used to form the passive voice and to form other perfect tenses, such as:
Present Pefect (He has read the book), Past Perfect (He had read the book), Future Perfect
(He will have read the book), Past Conditional (He would have read the book).
Use
1. after the noun, when it emphasizes the verbal feature: The things not wanted were given
away.
2. before the noun, when it emphasizes the adjectival feature: These are portraits of the wanted
men.
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT: READING AND SPEAKING
Reading for specific information
A LIFE IN THE DAY OF LINDA McCARTNEY
“We live in a two-bedroom house; so try to keep my life close to what it was before
as soon as James starts calling `Mummy, we married.
Mummy`, around seven every morning, he Because we have a big breakfast and a
wakes everyone up. Being his mother I like to big dinner about six we don’t have lunch. So
be the first to greet him, so up I get. about that time I’m doing jobs around the
I take him downstairs and start getting house. Paul never helps me. He likes tidiness
breakfast ready. Before long the other kids- but is not too tidy himself! If I’m working or
Heather (almost 17), Mary (10) and Stella (8)- going out I have a woman in to do the
are also down. If Paul is recording or we are cleaning. But I always do the cooking because
touring I try to make sure he’s not disturbed. I enjoy it. I cook for six every day.
But if he isn’t working he gets up the same For dinner I make things like quiche
time and joins the kids at breakfast. He’s an Lorraine- without bacon- aubergines,
excellent father, very involved and protective spaghetti, salads and Paul’s favourites, which
towards them. are pea soup or cream of tomato soup, made
It seems mad to have moved from a from home-grown tomatoes and onions. I also
large house in London to a small place on the make coffee milkshakes, which I love. I’m a
South Coast, but it’s so much cosier. Paul and real baby that way!
I are in the kind of business where we can be If I’m lucky during the day I go for a
totally detached from our kids and hardly see ride on my stallion called Lucky Spot. He’s
them grow up. If you have enough money to got a lovely temperament. Horse riding is a
live in a big house, one kid could be up in the marvellous form of exercise, both physically
attic and another could be in the west wing and spiritually. One interest we share closely
and you’d hardly see them. is football. We rarely get to the matches but
The kids travel everywhere with us. we always watch it on television. Paul is a
When touring abroad we usually rent a house great Liverpool fan, so we support Liverpool.
and make it our base, so we can return to the Because we live in the country we
kids each night. don’t socialize that much. We think that’s
We’re all vegetarian, so breakfast is also partly because we’re too lazy. There’s so
eggs laid by our own hens, home- grown much I’d like to do, especially in the
tomatoes fried, vegetarian sausages, cereals photographic field, but I hate to leave the life
and wholewheat bread. During the bread I lead in the country unless I absolutely have
strike Paul baked the most beautiful bread! to.
Quite often Paul comes with me when I get various offers to take
I drive the girls to school. Mary and Stella go photographs, and sometimes I might find one
to a local primary school and Heather attends particularly attractive. But when it comes
a nearby art school. I drive a Mini because down to it I just can’t bring myself to leave
being American I’m used to wide roads, so the kids and go to take pictures. So I stay at
with a small car I’ve no fear about scraping it. home and take pictures of them instead.
I buy most of the kids` clothes at Most of our evenings are spent in
Mothercare. I look at their catalogue or go front of the television. I watch Dallas, Top of
into the shop and pick out things that are the Pops, Old Grey Whistle Test and some
made from natural fibres. I myself feel most quiz shows.
comfortable in jeans and T-shirt. I don’t really Before I turn in for the night I always
spend that muc h- even though Paul pays all go to the kid’s bedroom and give them each a
the bills! Because we live locally I’m kiss. Trouble is James often wakes up and
regarded as just another mother who takes her doesn’t want to go back to sleep.”
children to school and has a house to keep. I
READING
“A life in the day of…” is a feature which appears in the “Sunday Times” newspaper every
week. Well-known people describe an ordinary day in their life, and they talk about their habits ad
routines, their families and their work.
The article you have just read was about Linda McCartey, the wife of Paul McCartney, who was
one of the members of the Beatles in the 1960s and 1970s.

Pre-reading task:
1. What do you already know about Linda?
2. What do you want to know from the article? Write questions about Linda. Ask about the
following topics:
Daily routine: food / hobbies / car
Family life: children / house / school
Work: what? / Where? / How often?

After reading task:


What do you think?
1. Do you think Linda is happy in her life? Why?
2. Is there anything in the article that surprises you?
3. What do you think takes up ost of Linda’s day? If you think Linda spends most of her time
gardening, put 1 next to Gardening.
a. Riding
b. Cooking
c. Looking after children
d. Taking photographs
e. Gardening
f. Doing the housework
g. Watching television
h. Visiting friends

SPEAKING
ROLEPLAY

A. Student A
You have just arrived in London for the first time.You havve come for a holiday and to learn
English. London seems a little strange and you need to ask for help.There are some of your
problems, you may add any other question you want to ask:
1. You need to change some travellers’ cheques, but you do not know where to find a bank.
2. You need to buy soe stamps and postcards.
3. You want to find a good English language school.

B. Student B
You live in London. You meet a foreigner who has just arrived and who seems to have some
problems. Try to help him. The following information is for you.

International School: 106 Dover Street, phone: 4912596


High Street Post Office: Opening hours: everyday fom 9.00 to 5.00, Sunday is closed.
Baclays Bank: Opening hours: everyday from 9.00 to 3.00, Sunday is closed.
Television
1. How many TV channels are there in your country?
2. Is there any difference between them?
3. What kind of programme do you like watching?

Look at these descriptions of different types of TV programmes. What kind of programme


are they? Match them with one of the words below.

01 d Boxing from the Albert Hall and racing from York.

02 A new production of Shakespeare’s Richard III at the Lyric Theatre,


London.

03 Cagney and Lacey as the American cops. In this week’s episode they’re
chasing heroin dealers.

04 Geoff Hamilton is in the garden, telling us what to do at this time of the


year.

05 This week’s top twenty, with disc jockey Mike Reid.

06 A laugh a minute as the northern comedian Les Dawson entertains.

07 More adventures from Disneyland with Donald Duck.

08 Superb filming in this programme about the disappearing forests of South


America. Will the world continue to have oxygen?

09 More families try to answer the questions and win fabulous prizes, with host
Lesley Crowther.

10 Terry Wogan`s guests tonight belong to the sporting, theatrical, and business
worlds.

11 Tomorrow’s weather.

12 The Magnificent Seven, 1960 classic western starring Yul Brynner, Steve
McQueen, and Charles Bronson.

e. a music programme
f. a detective story
g. a cartoon
h. a sports programme
i. a film
j. a quiz
k. a play
l. a chat show
m. a comedy
n. weather forecast
o. a documentary
p. a gardening programme
UNIT 8
Objectives:
1. Students will properly use modal verbs.
2. Students will summarize a story.
GRAMMAR
Modals
1. Can / Could :
a. Mental anf phisical ability: Tom can speak two foreign languages.
b. Permission: Can I borrow your umbrella?
c. Possibility: You can ski now, there is a lot of snow here.
d. A request: Can you wait a few moments?
e. A negative deduction: She could not have typed the report.
2. May / Might :
a. To ask and give permission: May I go?
b. A present or future possibility: He may come today.
c. Requests: You might give me a copy of that paper.
d. Reproach: You might have told me what have happened.
3. Must / Have to:
a. Obligation: We have to go.
b. The lack of obligation: You needn’t come early.
c. Logical deduction: She must be at home, she left an hour ago.
d. A habitual obligation: I have to be at hospital at eight, I begin work then.
4. Shall:
a. Obligation: The seller shall suply the parts in due time.
b. A suggestion, an order: Where shall I put the flowers?
c. An offer: Shall I help you?
5. Should:
a. The logical necessity: You should read that book.
b. A supposition: He should be here by now.
6. Ought to:
a. An action that should have been done: You ought to have crossed when the lights were
green.
b. After a verb in the past: He told me you ought to attend the conference.
7. Will:
a. An impersonal command : You will come here at once.
b. The insistance of doing an action: He will study chemistry whatever his father says.
c. A repeated action: He will sit on the bench for hours.
d. An invitation: Will you have another cup of tea?
e. A request: Will you sign the register?
f. A spontaneous intention: I’ll fetch you a glass of water.
8. Would:
a. A negative intention: He would not help me.
b. A very polite request: Would you do me a favour.
c. The insistance of doing an action: He would keep silent for hours, no matter what
arguments I used.
d. A repeated action: She would wait for me in front of the school gates.
e. “Would rather” / “Would sooner (‘d sooner)” = preference: I would rather / ‘d sooner
listen to the concert than see the film.
9. Used to
a. A past habit: I used to swim in the river when I was a child.
b. A past habit that still lasts: They used to spend their holiday in the mountais.
Reading Comprehension check
1. What is the advertisement that the Scots
Pre -reading task don’t like?
Work in groups. Write as many facts and opinions 2. Who have they complained to?
about Scotland and the Scots as you can. 3. What is the name of their organization?
4. What is the point that Mr. David Webster
Compare what other members of your group have is trying to make?
written. 5. What is amusing in the last paragraph?

Reading for gist What do you think?


Read the article. What does a mean person not Do you think the Scots were right to go to the
like doing? European Commission for Human Rights, or do
you think they took it too seriously?

Scots in Sweden upset by cheap jokes


By Dennis Barker

1. Scots working in Sweden have is the frequency of such jokes in


complained to the European Commission commercial advertising. `
for Human Rights that jokes about mean 5. But the commission did not feel that the
Scotsmen in advertising are an insult to group had fully explained its case, and has
the image of their race. asked for more information on some
2. A case was put to Strasbourg by the points before it decides whether the case
Scottish Group for Civil Rights in can continue.
Sweden, an organization formed recently 6. `There is even one group of cut-price
of Scots people working there, to protest shops in the Stockholm area that has
against Swedish Railways using such a changed its name to the Scot, ` said Mr.
traditional joke in an advertising Webster. `Their motto is, “You can’t get
campaign. it cheaper anywhere else”. `These things
3. It showed two Scotsmen accepting the are offensive only because they happen so
offer of travel for two for the price of one often, we believe. `
first-class ticket, while a third hides in the 7. Apart from the further information
luggage rack. demanded by the European Commission
4. `We are not against Scots jokes in for Human Rights, the Scots in Sweden
everyday life, ` said Mr. David Webster, a are up against another difficulty. They
38-year-old marketing manager working have so far spent several hundred pounds
near Stockholm, who helped to form the on their campaign, but voluntary
group. `There are nationalistic jokes like contributions from group members have
this in every country. What we don’t like totalled only £50.

Summarizing
Match the summary with the correct paragraph. d. A financial problem for the Scots in
Sweden.
a. A description of the advertisement they e. Some Scottish people have complained to
are complaining about. the European Courts about an
b. The commission’s reaction. advertisement.
c. The exact reason why they are f. Another example of their reason for
complaining. complaining.
g. They formed an organization and
explained why they were complaining to
the court.
James was a student at Oxford
University, where he was studying law. Like
Writing many students he did not have much money
because his grant was only just enough to live
Narrative on. Last year, during the autumn term, he
decided to go to Manchester to visit some
friends for the weekend, but he could not
afford a train ticket, and even the coach was
too expensive, so he had to hitchhike. He
Here are two version of the same caught a bus to the beginning of the
story. Compare them, and decide which one motorway and waited. It was a cold, windy
you prefer, and why. November day and while he was waiting he
got soaked to the skin. After waiting two
hours he finally got a lift from a lorry driver,
James was a student. He did not have who was in fact going all the way to
much money. Last year he decided to go to Manchester. James felt extremely relieved.
Manchester to visit some friends. He decided The lorry driver seemed a friendly fellow of
to hitchhike. He got a bus to the motorway. It around 35, reasonably well-dressed, and he
was cold and he got wet. After waiting two and James talked a lot.
hours he got a lift from a lorry driver, who Suddenly, as they were driving along
was going to Manchester. He felt pleased. The the motorway, a police car raced passed them
lorry driver was a nice man, and they talked a and made them stop. They were taken to the
lot. Then a police car overtook them and police station because the police suspected
made them stop, and they had to go to the that the lorry was carrying stolen goods. A
police station. The police thought the lorry detective interrogated James for two hours,
was carrying stolen goods. A policeman asked and he even had to spend the night in a cell.
James a lot of questions, and James spent the He was eventually released the next day.
night in the police station. He was released Apparently, the lorry was carrying stolen
the next day. The lorry was carrying stolen television sets. James swore that he would
television sets. James said he would not never hitchhike again.
hitchhike again.

1. What makes a good story?


Consider the following.
Organization
- setting the scene
- relating the narrative
- concluding the story
Description
- people
- places
Language
- vocabulary
- the use of adjectives and adverbs
- sentence construction
2. In the second story, box all the linking devices that join two sentences, like this for example:
where
3. Write about a memorable journey that you have made.
UNIT 9

Objectives:
a. Students will be able to identify and use the Past Perfect.
b. Students will be able to use the axis of tenses.
c. Students will be able to summarize a story and to present a parable.
GRAMMAR
Past Perfect

A. Past Perfect Simple


Pattern
Affirmative: Subject + had + Verb (-ed, III)
Interrogative: Had + Subject + Verb (-ed, III)?
Negative: Subject + had + not + Verb (-ed, III)
Use:
1. a past action finished before a past moment: I had finished the book by ten o’clock before
yesterday.
2. a past action finished before another past action: When Tom arrived at the cinema, the film
had already started.
3. I indirect speech to replace the Present Perfect or the Past Tense: Tom said the he had
spoken to Mary about it.

B. Past Perfect Continuous


Pattern
Affirmative: Subject + had + been + Verb+ing
Interrogative: Had + Subject + been + Verb+ing?
Negative: Subject + had + not + been + Verb+ing
Use:
1. a past action started before another past action and lasting until it: I had been waiting for my
friend for half a hour when he finally arrived.
2. a repeated action in a limited period of time: He had been writing poems fo two years when
I met him.
3. a past action anterior to another past action, being the cause of it: He was carrying a hammer
because he had been mending the fence.
4. in indirect speech to replace the Present Perfect and the Past Tense: She said she had been
reading for two hours.

Practice: Look at the following sentences, what is the difference in meaning between them:
1. The concert started / had started when we arrived.
2. When the police arrived, the robber climbed / had climbed / was climbing out of the
window.

Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Tense or Past Perfect:


The police suspected that John (break) the window at his house because he (want) to make them
think that a burglar (steal) his valuable stamp collection. They (think) that John (do) this because he
(need) money. However, they (not know) that John (fly) to Brazil the week before, and (be) abroad
when the burglary (take place).
All you need is love

The following are summaries of a magazine called “Hot Lips”. Read and compare the two versions
A and B.

The story so far…..

A
Marsha met Felix at a party one Saturday night. They fell passionately in love and got married the
following Saturday. After the wedding, Felix moved ito Marsh’s flet. Marsha phoned her parents
and told them her news. They were surprised and angry. Unfortunately, after a few months, Felix
met another woman and his marriage with Marsha started to go wrong.

B
Marsha ad Felix got married one Saturday in June. They had met only one week earlier at a party
and had fallen passionately in love. Marsha rang and told her parents her news after the wedding,
when felix had moved into her flat. They were surprised and angry. Unfortunately, after a few
months, their marriage started to go wrong. Felix had met another woman.

In version A the events of the story are given in chronological order. Put under B the order in which
the same events are given in version B. Two have been done for you.

A B
Marsha and Felix met. 1 2 Had met
They fell in love 2
They got married 3 1 Got married
Felix moved into Marsha’s flat 4
Marsha told her parents 5
They were angry 6
Felix met another woman 7
Their mariage started to go wrong 8

The story goes on…

Felix came home and packed his suitcase. Then he wrote a letter for Marsha. Before eight o’clock
he left the house. When Marsha came home she found Felix’s letter.

The end of the story…

Marsha …………….(read) Felix’s letter and then she……………….(walk) slowly into the
kitchen. She……………………(buy) his favourite food for dinner. She……………..(throw) it in
the rubbish bin. Why………….he…………………..(do) this to her? She remembered how happy
they………….(be) in the beginning. They…………..…(laugh) a lot then. Marsha…….…………
(feel) desperate. One hour later the phone……………………(ring) in the flat. It was Marsha’s
parents, but she…………………….(not answer) the phone. She………….

Now finish the story!


SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
READING AND SPEAKING
You are going to read a parable written in the nineteenth century. A parable is a short story about
everyday things which is told to make a moral or religious point.

Pre-reading task
Work in groups. Tell each other a parable or a fable. What is the moral of the story?

Reading
Read the story and answer the questions:

The man who could turn back the clock

Once upon a time there was a man who had the power to turn back the clock. Whenever he
regretted something he had done or said, he could repeat the event in the light of experience.
Now, one day it happened that this man was out for a walk when it started to rain, so he took
shelter in a barn. After a few minutes the man was joined by a very beautiful young lady and her
dog, who were also seeking shelter. The downpour lasted about an hour.
The man went home to his wife and told her why he was late. Immediately his wife was
suspicious of her husband’s behavoiur with the young lady. She questioned him about what had
happened. The man replied in a surprised and hurt voice:”Why, nothing happened. I was a perfect
gentleman. What do you expect? Especially when she had such a large dog with her.”
His wife was furious:”What! Only the dog stopped you?”
The man realized his mistake and immediately he turned the clock back a few minutes and tried
the conersation again. This time when his wife expressed her suspicion, he said:”It’s true the girl
was very beautiful ad she seemed to like me but my deep love for you gave me the strength to resist
temptation.”
However, his wife was even more furious. “What!! You wanted to kiss he! An imoral thought is
as bad as an immoral deed.”

Comprehension check:
1. How man times did the man turn back the clock?
2. What mistakes had he made?
3. How did his wife react?
In the story, two possible endings are gien. Be fore you read them, work out an ending. What
would you do if you were the man with the power? Now read the two endings? Is either of them
like yours?

A.
The man spent a long time thinking. There must be some way to please his wife! Finally he turned
the clock back again a few minutes. Once more his wife asked how he had behaved wit the
beautiful young lady. But this time he replied: “What? She wasn’t beautiful, she was ugly. I am a
man with good taste, which is why I married you my darling!” When she heard this, his wife, who
in fact was rather un attractive, flung her arms around his neck and cried, “I love you!”

B.
The man felt that his wondeful power had not helped him at all. Except to teach him that it was
impossible to please his wife, and he had suspected this for a long time. Therefore he turned back
the clock once more, not just a few minutes, but a few hours. He went back to the beautiful young
lady in the barn, in the rain.
Which ending do you prefer? Why?
UNIT 10

Objectives:
a. Students will be able to use the indirect speech.
b. Students will be able to turn into the direct speech a related interview.
c. Students will be able to work in pairs for a given task.

GRAMMAR
Indirect Speech
Tenses changes after a past reporting verb:
1. Present Simple to Past Simple: “I need some help.” / She said she needed some help.
2. Present Continuous to Past Continuous: “We are having our lunch.” / He said the were haing
their lunch.
3. Present Perfect to Past Perfect: “I have lost my key.” / He said he had lost his keys.
4. Will to Would: “I will be back at 6.00.” / She said that she would be back at 6.00.
5. Past Simple to Past Perfect: “I wrote two letters to her.” / He said he had written two letters
to her.
6. be going to, to was/were going to: “They are going to see a film.” / He said they were going
to see a film.
Commands and requests:
1. Commands are reported with tell and the infinitive: “Wait!” / I told him to wait.
2. Requests are reported with ask and the infinitive: “Please, wait!” / I asked her to wait.
Yes/No Questions :
1. These questions are introduced in the reported speech by the conjunction if. The order of
words is the order of the affirmative and not of the interrogative: “Does the London train
stop here?” / She asked if the London train stopped here.
2. “whether”= means “if…or not”. It is used to report questions linked with or: “Are you
staying the night or are you going home?” / He asked me whether I was staying the night or
going home.
Wh- questions :
Questions beginning with when, what, where, who, why, how, etc are introduced into the
reported speech by the interrogative word, the order of words remains the same as in the
affirmative, and there is no question mark: “Where is the bus-station?” / She asked where the bus-
station was.
Reporting verbs:
1. advise: I advised John not to buy the car.
2. agree: Mike agreed with Jill.
3. apologize :Mary apologized for being late.
4. ask: I asked Sue to help me.
5. congratulate: I congratulated Tom on passing his exam.
6. decide: Helen decided to become a doctor. (a decision about the future or a plan) / Bill
decided to have an apple pie.(a decision of the moment)
7. invite: I invited Pam to the cinema.
8. offer: Peter offered to carry Dawn’s case.
9. promise: Ann promised to be home by eight. / Peter promised Helen that he would wait for
her.
10. refuse: Carol refused to open the door.
11. remind : I reminded Sue to send her mother a birthday card.
12. suggest: Tom suggested spending the day at the beach.
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Reading and English in use

An Interview with a Writer

Read the following report of an interview with Celia Young, the writer of the magazine “Hot Lips”

I asked Celia Young why she had written another romantic novel. She asked that she found
romantic fiction easy to write, but that her next novel wouldn’t be a romance. She was hoping to
write something different, possibly a detective story.
I told her that I was interested in the character of Felix, and I asked if he was anyone she knew
fro real life. Celia laughed and replied that she was glad that she didn’t have a Felix in he r life, and
that she had been happily maried for over fifteen years to Richard Marsh the politician. I said that
she had now written five novels, and I asked when she had started writing. She answered that she
had written stories and poems all her life and that she would continue to write even when she was
an old lady.
I thanked her for talking to me and said that I hoped that “Hot Lips” would be successful.

On a separate piece of paper write the actual words of the interview in direct speech. The beginning
has been done for you.
Interviewer: Why have you written another romantic novel?
Celia Young: I find romantic fiction easy to write, but my next novel won’t be a romance. I’m
hoping to…

Vocabulary
Many words have more than one meaning. In the following sentences the words in italics have
moe than one meaning. Look up each word, find the right meaning and translate it:
1. Guido’s a popular restaurant, so you have to book a table in advance.
2. I’m not a fan of Rolling Stones. Their music is too loud.
3. Wood doesn’t sink in water. It stays on the top.
4. Your mother is a very kind lady.
5. Holland is a flat country.
6. Car workers are on strike. They want more money.
7. Don’t forget to turn the tap off. Water is expensive.
8. Do you have change for a five-pound note?
9. I don’t like mean people.
10. Give me a ring tonight. I’ll be home by seven.
11. There is a branch of most banks in all big towns.
12. There was a good play on TV last night.
13. My suitcase is in the car boot.
Match a line in A with a line in B:
A 1.Hello, Jane! B a.Sleep well!
2.How are you? b.Yes, can I help you?
3.See you tomorrow! c.Good morning!
4.Good night! d.Fine, thanks.
5.Good morning! e.Not at all, don’t mention it.
6.Cheers! f.Thanks!
7.Excuse me! g.Thanks! Same to you!
8.Bless you! h.That’s very kind. Thank you!
9.Have a good weekend! i.Bye!
10.Thank you very much indeed. j.Hi, Peter!
11.Make yourself at home. k.Good health!
Travellers` Tales

1. Every year a magazine called 35. one traveller a bit of a shock. Dressed
Executive Travel organizes a only in trousers, shirt and socks, he had
competition to find the Airline of the been allowed by the stewardess to leave
Year. Travellers from all over the 40. the aircraft to see if he could get a
world colleague aboard. He returned a few
5. are invited to vote for the most minutes later to find the 747 closed up
efficient, the most punctual, the safest and about to start moving- with his
and the friendliest airline. The winner shoes, wallet, passport and luggages
in 1985 was British Airway. The 45. inside. Banging frantically on the door
competition asked travellers what for got him back inside. A similar event was
10. them was most important from an seen by a businessman on a flight from
airline, and the results were as Bangladesh. Passengers were waiting
follows: for take-off when there was
50. sudden hysterical hammering on the
Punctual departures and arrivals 35% door. At first the cabin crew paid no
Attentive cabin staff 35% attention. The hammering continued.
Comfort 18% When the door was finally opened, the
Safety 9% pilot got in.
Good food and wine 3% 55. One frequent flier lost a certain amount
of confidence when the cabin staff asked
The competition also invited travellers him to sit in the lavatory during take-off,
to tell their most horrific stories of the so that they could occupy the seats
nightmare side to international travel. nearest
15. Replies included six hijacks, fifty- 60. the emergency exit. Another lost faith in
three cases of engine failure or trouble the pilot’s navigational skills when
with the landing gear, eleven lightning passengers were given lifeboat drill on a
strikes, twenty-three bomb scares, flight between London and Manchester.
thirteen cases of food poisoning, 65. For nervous fliers, a journey to be
20. eleven near misses and two collisions avoided was one between Gatwick and
with airport trucks. Montpellier, where the in-flight
Bad flying experiences begin on the entertainment consisted of watching
ground, naturally. One American pieces of the engine falling off.
airline managed to double-book an 70. Another passenger was asked to hold the
25. entire 747, but this is nothing aircraft door closed at take-off and
compared to what happened on an landing.
internal flight on a certain African Baggage is a rich source of horror stories.
airline. The flight had been There was the unlucky traveller who left
overbooked three times. The local 75. Chicago in minus-23 weather. He was
military sorted the problem out going to an important meeting in Dallas,
30. by insisting that all passengers with where the temperature was 80-plus.
boarding cards should run round the Unfortunately his suitcase had gone to
plane twice, the fastest getting the LA, where it spent the next two days.
seats. An overbooked flight that was 80. The customers he was trying to impress
going from Heathrow to America gave were more than a little surprised to see
him going round in a thick suit, heavy
overcoat and fur hat.
Reading
Pre-reading task
1. What for you is most important from an airline? Put the following in order of
importance:
safety:
comfort;
punctual departures and arrivals;
good food and wine;
attentive cabin staff.
2. Flying is probably one of the safest ways to travel, but there can be problems.
Discuss what can go wrong on the ground and in the air.
Reading for information
Now read the article opposite. A group of air travellers was invited to comment on
their flying experiences. Was their order of importance the same as yours? Did they
mention any of the problems that you discussed?

Comprehension check
1. Look at the list of disasters in paragraph 2. Which happened on the ground?
Which happened in the air? Which could have been both on the ground and in
the air?
2. After paragraph 2, how many disasters are described?
3. Why did some passengers have to run round a plane?
4. Why did a passenger and a pilot have to knock on the plane door to get in?
5. Why was it surprising to have a lifeboat drill on a flight from London to
Manchester?
6. What does in-flight entertainment usually consist of? (lines 67-68) was this
experience entertaining?
7. Why was the Dallas businessman inappropriately dressed?

What do you think?


1. The competition was answered by very experienced travellers. Why do you
think they put safety so far down on their list of importance?
2. Why do airlines overbook?
3. Why do you think the cabin staff on one flight wanted to sit near the
emergency exit?
4. Which of the stories were funny but dangerous? Which were funny but not
dangerous?
Pairwork
Student A You have just had one of the terrible experiences described in the article.
Tell Student B about it. Use your imagination to add more detail.
Student B Listen to Student A and ask questions to get more information.
Begin like this:
Student A: I’ve just had a terrible journey!
Student B: Why? What happened?
Student A: Well, I was going …
Fill in the following CV, according to the items given:

Private and Confidential


Please complete this form and return to the Personnel Director
Which post are you applying for?
How did you hear about it?

Surname Forenames Mr/Mrs/Miss

Permanent home address Telephone

Present address (if different from above) Telephone

Date of birth Place of birth


Nationality
Marital status Maiden name(if applicable)
Number of children (sex/age)

Name and address of the next kin (please state relationship)

Have you ever been employed by us before?(if so, please give details)

Please list school, colleges, universities attended: Date/Name/Subjects taken/Results

What training courses of further studies have you undertaken?

Languages (state proficiency)

Technical or professional qualifications

Give names and addresses or previous employers, working backwards from present/last job:
Dates/Name and address/Salary/Job title and duties/Reason for leaving

Signature
Unit 11

Revision Test 1

Level Elementary

1. Choose the correct phrase underlined in each sentence.


a. What time go you/do you go to bed on Saturdays?
b. Why are you waiting/do you waiting outside the door?
c. Don’t ask Tim. He doesn’t know/not knows the answer.
d. I having/I’m having my lunch at the moment.
e. When you leave/do you leave the house?
f. I don’t understand. What is happening/is happen?
g. This is a great party. I’m having/Am I having a lovely time.
2. Put each verb given into Past Simple or Past Continuous.
a. When Harry (wake up)………………….., we (tell)…………..him the news.
b. Where (you leave)………………your wallet when you (go) swimming?
c. Everyone (wait)………………for the concert to begin when a message (arrive)
d. When Tom (finish)…………..his letter, he (take) in to the post office.
e. Pam (want)…………….a relaxing holiday, so she (choose) a small island.
3. Put each verb given into Present Perfect Simple or Continuous or Past Tense Simple or
Continuous.
a. Last week I (lose) my scarf, and now I (just lose) my gloves.
b. I (work) for Blue Bank at the moment but I (decide) to change jobs.
c. We (be) here for hours. Are you sure we(come) to the right place?
d. (you see) my calculator? I’m sure I (leave) it here earlier.
e. We (have) some coffee after that and then (catch) the bus home.
f. I (never eat) octopus, but once on holiday I (eat) some fish.
g. I (hope) you aren’t a vegetarian. I (cook) you some lamb chops.
h. Recently a lot of young people (take up) skating.
i. When we (reach) the cinema, there (not be) any tickets left.
j. Please come quickly! Nick (have) an accident and he (go) to hospital.
4. Write a who or what question for each answer.
a. A family of three members lives next door.
b. I play with my little brother.
c. Mrs. Dawson teaches me math.
d. I usually eat a sandwich for lunch.
e. Horror films frighten me.
5. Put a/an or leave the space blank.
a. ………..love makes the world go round.
b. Sheila has ………..German car.
c. Rita works in ……….office in …………West Street.
d. I have………..friend who is …………electrician.
e. Paul goes to……….special school for …………musicians.
f. You are………silly boy! This is……..cat not………dog.
g. Jack is in …….hospital and doesn’t go to……….school.
h. Carol wants to go to ………university and study to be ……..doctor.
6. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.
a. Jane met a friend of hers/her in the street.
b. The desk next to the window is my/mine.
c. Excuse me, is this your/yours seat?
d. We haven’t brought our/ours books with us.
e. The dog is black and white, and its/it’s ears are very long.
7. Correct the spelling where necessary.
a. decideing
b. foto
c. qestion
d. knowen
e. beatiful
8. Choose the correct spelling from each pair.
a. takeing/taking
b. lying/lieing
c. washeing/washing
d. riding/rideing
e. studing/studying
9. Choose the correct spelling of each pair of words.
a. felt/fellt
b. shopping/shoping
c. heard/heared
d. thoght/thought
e. plaied/played
10. Add a prefix from the list to the word in each sentence.
-over, -under, -inter.
a. My alarm clock didn’t go off, and so I …….slept this morning.
b. Peter packed some shirts and socks, some…………wear, and his jeans.
c. You have to go to the …………...national airport to catch a plane to the USA.
d. It’s very cold this morning, so wear your ……………coat.
e. Helen decided to …………..line all the important words in her French book.
11. Complete each compound word from the list.
Ache, clip, cut, glasses, lace, path, post, table.
a. Make sure you walk on the foot…………, because the road is dangerous.
b. I need to fix these two sheets together. Have you got a paper…………?
c. As I was doing up my shoe, the shoe………in one of them broke.
d. On our first day at school, we copied down our time………… .
e. Tom had a hair………… yesterday and his friends made fun of him.
f. It’s really sunny today, and I’ve forgotten my sun………… .
g. Could I have a couple of aspirins? I’ve got a terrible head………. .
h. The bus swerved to avoid a dog and hit a lamp-……………. .
12. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word given
David’s mother is a famous………………. . science
At nineteen, Tony became a professional ………….. . crime
I’ve always wanted to be a jazz …………….. . music
It will take Kate years to become a …………… . law
Margaret decided to have a career as a ………….. . politics
Level Pre -Intermediate

1. Make questions about the missing information:


a. Peter has……………………….children. (Two? Three?)
b. I’m reading……………………..at the moment.
c. They went to………………….on holiday last year.
d. She works in the…………………shop. (Shoe shop? Book shop?)
e. I got up early this morning because…………………. .
f. The supermarket closes at……………………… .
g. I go swimming……………………. . (Once a week? Once a month?)
h. I borrowed……………………….. car. (Tom’s? Ann’s?)
i. She earns…………………….. a year.
j. I’ll study………………this year.

2. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense:


a. Emma……….(spend) every school holiday in Scotland.
b. Why are you under the table?……..you………(look) for something?
c. In my country we………….(not have) lessons on Saturday.
d. My wife…………(not like) football, but I…………..(love) it.
e. I……………(buy) a new pair of shoes yesterday. …….you…….(like) them?
f. Ian Fleming ………..(work) as a stockbroker when the Second World War……(start).
g. Margaretha Simons ………….(come) from Norway, but now she……..(live) in Britain. She
………(meet) her husband, Noel, while she………..(learn) English.
h. It’s Friday evening and the Brown family are at home. Mr.Brown………(listen) to a concert
on the radio, Mrs. Brown ………..(read) a book.
i. Mr. Brown always…………(read) his newspaper in the evenings. Mrs.Brown sometimes
…………..(knit) but she …………(not knit) tonight.
j. He never………..(listen) to what you say. He always……(think) about something else.

3. Put the necessary preposition into each gap:


a. I listened……….the news……..the radio.
b. I’ll see you …….9.00………the morning.
c. I live……a flat……Paris.
d. I’m looking……..my neighbour’s cat while she’s on holiday.
e. I waited twenty minutes…….a bus yesterday.
f. What are you doing…….this evening?
g. She arrived……..England two years ago.
h. I’m going………home.
i. I spoke……….Mary a few days ago.
j. My sister’s coming to stay………..19 December.

4. Put a form of going to or will into each gap:


a. ‘Why have you got so much food?’ – ‘Because I………..(cook) a meal for ten people.’
b. ‘Someone told me you’ve got a place at university.’ – ‘That’s right. I……..(study) maths at
St. Andrew, in Scotland.’
c. ‘My car isn’t working.’ – ‘John……….(help) you.’
d. ‘I passed my driving test!’ – ‘That’s great! I…….(buy) something to celebrate.’
e. ‘Why have you got your old clothes on?’ – ‘Because I………(cut) the grass.’
5. Put a/an/the or nothing into each gap:
a. China has……biggest population in …….world.
b. ……..Yangtze River flows into……..East China Sea.
c. Do you like……….Chinese food?
d. We had some for………lunch………few days ago.
e. I wanted to go to……..Italian restaurant.
f. I come to…….school by bus, but I get……..lift home with ………friend.
g. ‘Is there………chemist near here?’/’Yes. There’s one next to……..post office.’
h. We arrived in …….Paris on……..third of August.
i. Last night we had…….dinner in ………restaurant.
j. I went to…..bed late.

6. Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (the infinitive or the –ing form):
John Frantz is American. He has a wonderful lifestyle and he wants………..(share) it with an
English girl. He enjoys ………(go) on exotic holidays, but he wouldn’t like……..(live) outside the
United States. He hopes…….(find) an English wife through the English Rose dating agency. He’d
like…….(meet) someone who is independent and who likes …..(travel).

7. Put some or any into each gap:


a. I’d like…….tea, but I don’t want……..biscuits.
b. Is there……..sugar? I can’t see……… .
c. I bought………suger yesterday.
d. I didn’t buy………coffee, because I thought we had ……… .
e. We need……….bread. I’ll get it later.

8. There is one mistake in each of the following sentences. Find it and correct it:
a. How many money have you got?
b. I only have a little potatoes.
c. I don’t have many time, so I can’t help you.
d. The Sultan of Brunei owns a lot hotels.
e. Close your eyes. I’ve got anything for you.

9. What are the superlative and comparative forms of the following adjectives?
Fast, funy, expensive, rich, hot, interesting, good, bad, easy, important.

10. Match a line in A with a line in B:


What’s the weather like? Horse riding.
What’s Ann like? They’re a bit strict.
What was the film like? OK, but boring near the end.
What does she like doing? It changes a lot.
What are her parents like? She’s very nice.

11.Writing – Choose between A or B:


A. A long time ago you discussed a trip through South America with a friend. This is
now possible for both of you. Write a letter to your friend suggesting a route and a
timetable.
B. You left Britain in a great hurry and left lots of things in the flat of a friend. Now
you’d like the friend to send them to you. You’d also like to know about work pemits
in Britain. Write to your friend requesting your things and inquiring about permits.
Unit 12

Revision Test

Level Intermediate

1. Put each verb given into Present Simple or Present Continuous.


a. What (usually, you, do) at the weekend?
b. Don’t worry about the cat. It (only, eat) once a day.
c. I can’t work out the answer. (you,know) what it is?
d. What’s the matter? Why (you, stare) at me like that?
e. Excuse me, but (you, speak) English? I’m looking for a hotel.
f. Helen (stay) with her brother while her house is being repaired.
g. You should go on a diet. (you, put) on weight.
h. (they, speak) French or German? I can’t tell the difference

2. Put each verb given into Past Simple or Continuous or Past Perfect.
The police suspected that Brian (break) the window at his house because he (want) to make
them think that a burglar (steal) his valuable stamp collection. They (think) that Brian (do)
this because he (need) the money. However they (not know) that Brian (fly) to Brazil the
week before, and be abroad when the burglary (take place).

3. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning.


a. I came to live here three months ago.
I ………………………..for three months.
b. Mary is out at the shops at the moment.
Mary……………………to the shops.
c. I have had French lessons since March.
I ………………………French since March.
d. I’m still reading this book.
I……………………….reading yhis book yet.
e. Paul left the rooma moment ago.
Paul has………………..the room.

4. Choose the most suitable words underlined.


a. I don’t think you could/should tell anyone yet.
b. You couldn’t/shouldn’t possibly leave without paying.
c. That mustn’t/can’t be the hotel Jane told us about.
d. There are times when the traffic here can./could be really heavy.
e. We are enjoying our holiday, though the weather could/must be better.

5. In each space put a/an or the, or leave the space blank.


a. I’m going to stand for …….Parliament at ……….next election.
b. When I left…….station, I had to stand in ……queue for…….taxi for…..long time.
c. We took……..trip around London and saw……….Tower Bridge.
d. ………happiness of the majority depends on…….hard work from everyone.
e. ………most main roads in this part of ……..country follow………line of roads built
by ………Romans.
6. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the words in capitals.
a. We believe that the government has prepared a plan. HAVE
b. We are thinking of getting someone to paint the house. PAINTED
c. In the end I was unable to find a garage to service my car. GET
d. People say that Mr.Turner was having business difficulties. BEEN
e. The treasure is thought to date from the thirteenth century. IT

7. Complete each sentence with a noun made from the list.


Dark, friendly, happy, lonely, short, sick, silly, thin, tired, thorough
a. The ………..of the journey surprised me, as I thought it would be longer.
b. Sue was impressed by the………..of everyone in her new school.
c. We knew it was going to rain because of the…………of the sky.
d. Old Mrs.Holt’s…………was cured when she was given a pet cat.
e. The doctor told Peter that his…………..was a resultof overwork.
f. Wendy’s teacher was impressed by the …………of her work.
g. We wished the bride and groom…………in their new life together.
h. Joe’s teachers began to grow tired of his……….. in class.
i. I felt rather cold when I arrived because of the ………in my clothes.
j. Jean took a travel …………pill, and then she felt much better.

8. Comlete the expression based on the word time in each sentence using a given word.
Spare, Pass, High, Tell, Time
a. Come on, John! It’s ………..time you started doing some work.
b. What do you most enjoy doing in your………….time.
c. I don’t go sailing often, but I enjoy doing it from time to……….. .
d. When I have to wait at the airport, I do a crossword to……….the time.
e. When Carol was given her first watch, she learned to ……….the time.

9. Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence.


a. When her bike was stolen, Jill became extremely angry/nervous.
b. Peter felt ashamed/embarrassed when he had to make a speech.
c. I always write thank- you letters, just to be gentle/polite.
d. You never do anything to help me! You are so lazy/tired.
e. Sue never does anything silly. She’s very sensible/sensitive.

10. Put the verbs from the list in a suitable form: move, take, put, turn, get.
a. I’ve got nowwhere to stay tonight. Can you……….me up?
b. We’ve bought a new house but we can’t ……..in it until next month.
c. Adrian doesn’t………on with his neighbours, because they are so noisy.
d. Jan likes cooking, but she says it………..up a lot of her time.
e. Don’t forget to…………..off the television before you go to bed.

11. Write a letter in reply to this advertisement, which you saw in a magazine called Today. You
also want to know about accommodation and the cost of living in London. Is there any other
information you would like?
ACCORD SCHOOL: The experts in English teaching in the centre of London
General English classes/Executive classes/Social club.
For a brochure contact: 20 Spanish Place, London W.1, England
Tel. 0149125998
Level Upper-Intermediate

1. Put each verb in brakets into the most suitable present tense.
a. I (hear) that you have been promoted. Congratulations!
b. British people (drink) more and more wine, apparently.
c. I hope Sarah will be here soon. I (depend) on her.
d. Please be quiet! You (continually interrupt).
e. Hey, you! What (you think) you’re doing.
f. Could you come here please? I (want) to talk to you now.
g. Jane is away on holiday so Linda (handle) her work.
h. To be honest, I (doubt) whether Jim will be here next week.
i. You’ve only just started the job, haven’t you? How (you get on)?
j. Pay no attention to Graham. He (just be) sarcastic again.

2. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word or words in capitals.


a. I intended to call you yesterday, but I forgot. GOING
b. We used to spend Sunday afternoons working in the garden. WOULD
c. Paul had the irritating habit of making trouble. ALWAYS
d. Diana wasn’t always as rude as that. BE
e. I felt happy about the improvement in Jean’s condition. BETTER
f. I wasn’t very keen on sport in those days. USE
g. I might possibly go to the theatre tonight. WAS
h. I had to go past your house so I decided to drop in. PASSING
i. Susan booked out before we go to her hotel. BY THE TIME
j. What did you do at the moment of the explosion. WHEN

3. Complete each sentence with an appropriate ending.


a. I haven’t been feeling very well. 1. time and time again.
b. I went to the dentist’s 2. all my life.
c. I’ve lived here 3. so far.
d. Don’t worry. I haven’t been waiting 4. for the time being.
e. I’ve written two pages 5. for the past hours or two.
f. I waited outside your house 6. yet.
g. I’ve warned you about this 7. till half past eight.
h. I haven’t made a decision 8. for a while.
i. The repair worked 9. the other day.
j. I’ve decided to believe you 10. long.

4. Decide whether each sentence is grammatically possible or not.


a. If you haven’t received a letter yet, you haven’t got the job.
b. If it isn’t for David, we are missing the bus.
c. If it’s raining, we go to the pub on the corner instead.
d. If you didn’t le nd us the money, we would have gone to the bank.
e. If you should happen to change your mind, drop me a line.
f. If it wasn’t for the rain, we would have been home by now.
g. If you will drive so fast, no wander th epolice keep stopping you.
h. If I knew you were coming, I would have met you at the airport.
i. But for you helped us, we would have taken much longer.

5. Choose the most appropriate words.


a. Jack is/is going to be sixty next month so he retires/will be retiring.
b. Helen and Andrew are due to separate/are on the point of separating.
c. Don’t be so impatient! I’ll just come/I’m just coming.
d. I have to be back at 3.30 so I’m leaving/I leave before lunch.
e. What do you think you’ll be doing/you’ll do five years’time?

6. Correct the errors in these sentences.


a. The time yoy spend on the relaxing pasttime is good for you.
b. Don’t you work in record shop in High Street?
c. A new campaign against the smoking is directed at the young women.
d. The leader of the team is usually called captain.
e. A half the time I get phone call it’s wrong number.

7. Complete each sentence with one of the words given.


Agent, competitor, executive, industrialist, producer, client, dealer, foreman, labourer,
trainee
a. Nowadays you often find that the top………in a company is a woman.
b. If you have any problems with your work, talk to the……….. .
c. “Happy Chips” is the number one………of patato crispsin the country.
d. I’m starting next week as a ………… chef in a large hotel.
e. Our company is the …………for several large insurance companies.
f. David was not content until he had become a rich ………. .
g. Our firm is quite a long way ahead of our nearest…………. .
h. With mechanisation it is difficult to find work as an unskilled……… .
i. I have been working as a used cr………..for the past six months.
j. A company should make every…………feel important.

8. Replace the words underlined in each sentencewith one of the words given.
Rioted, dispersed, pardoned, neglected, swindled
a. At the end of the demonstration, the crowd went off in different directions.
b. The problem is that the government has not done anything about this problem.
c. Hundreds of young people ran out of control in the stress, looting shops.
d. It turned out the theemployees had cheated out of their pensions by their employer.
e. Dave was officially released from his punishment after the police discovered new
evidence.

9. Complete each sentence with one of the words.


Respectable, oppressed, diplomatic, courteous, reactionary.
a. If you are…………, you are tactful when dealing with people.
b. If you are…………, you have agood reputation in you community.
c. If you are…………, you are polite.
d. If you are…………, you are strongly againstany kind of change.
e. If you are…………, you are being ruled unjustly or cruelly.

10. A bookshop has sent you some books by post, and the bill. Write to the bookshop
enclosing a cheque, and asking for the receipt. Also, a friend has recommended a cookery book
called “The Italian Food” but could not remember the author. Ask if the bookshop has this book and
can send it to you.
Bibliography

1. John and Liz Soars: “Headway”: Elementary, Pre-Intermediate, Intermediate, Upper-


Intermediate / Student ’s Book, Workbook, Oxford University Press, 1996.

2. Michael Vince: Intermediate English Practice, Macmillan Heinemann, 1998.

3. Michael Vince: Advanced English Practice, Macmillan Heinemann, 1999.

4. Georgiana Galateanu Fârnoaga: Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Editura didactica si


Pedagogica, Bucuresti, 1995.

5. A.J.Thomson and A.V.Martinet: A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University


Press, 1996.

6. A.J.Thomson and A.V.Martinet: Exercises on English, volumes 1 and 2, Oxford


University Press, 1997.

7. Jennifer Seidl: Exercises on Idioms: Oxford University Press,1996.

8. Jennifer Seidl: Exercises on Phrasal Verbs, Oxford University Press, 1997.