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Kana Version
Association for Japanese-Language Teaching
-. *-
Tokyo = New York London
The Authors: The Association for Japanese-Language Teaching
(AJALT) was recognized as a nonprofit organization by the
Ministry of Education in 1977. It was established to meet the
practical needs of people who are not necessarily specialists on
Japan but who wish to communicate effectively in Japanese. In
1992 the Association was awarded the Japan Foundation Special
The Association maintains a web site on the Internet at and can be contacted over the Internet via by teachers and students who have questions
about this textbook or any of the Association's other publications.

Distributed in the United States by Kodansha America, Inc., and

in the United Kingdom and continental Europe by Kodansha
Europe Ltd.
Published by Kodansha International Ltd., 17-14 Otowa I-chome,
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8652, and Kodansha America, Inc.
Copyright O 1996 by the Association for Japanese-Language
Teaching. Al1 rights reserved. Printed in Japan.
ISBN- 13: 978-4-7700-205 1-2
ISBN- IO: 4-7700-205 1-1
First edition, 1990
Revised edition, 1994
Kana version, 1996
100908070605 15 14 13 1211 10

Preface vii
About the Kana Version of Japanese for Busy People 11 V111

Introducing the Characters

Lesson 1: Rush Hour
Lesson 2: Lost and Found
Lesson 3: The Health Club
Lesson 4: A Business Trip
Lesson 5: A New Word Processor
Lesson 6: A Pale Face
Lesson 7: Mr. Johnson's Arriva1
Lesson 8: The O-Bon Festiva1
Lesson 9: Prep School
Lesson 10: Letter from Kyushu
Lesson 11: Job Interview
Lesson 12: Hotel Reservations
Lesson 13: A Gift of Chocolate
Lesson 14: The Referee's Role
Lesson 15: A Forgotten Umbreila
Lesson 16: The New Showroom Design
Lesson 17: Brown's Diary
Lesson 18: Birthday Flowers
Lesson 19: The Public Library
Lesson 20: Cherry Blossoms

A. Plain Forms and Connective Patterns
B. Verb Conjugations
C. Grammatica1 Patterns and Common Constructions

Quiz Answers
Japanese-English Glossary
English-Japanese Glossary
Fu11 Text with Kanji
Preface for the Kana Version of Japanese for Busy People

When Japanese for Busy People I was first published in 1984, rnany non-native learners,
particularly frorn non-kanji cultures, considered Japanese one of the world's rnost difficult
languages because of its seerningly inaccessible writing systern. Japanese for Busy People
was designed especially for such learners-be they businessrnen frorn English-speaking
countries or learners of Japanese-as-a-second-language frorn other parts of the world-
people wished to learn natural, spoken Japanese as effectively as possible in a limited
arnount of time. To this end, rornanized Japanese was included in the Japanese for Busy
People series so that learners both incide and outside Japan, as well as non-native instruc-
tors, could use the textbook to its fu11 extent without the need to read Japanese script. As
a rneasure, however, kana and kanji were progressively introduced through volurnes I to
But in the decade since Japanese for Busy PeopleS first publication, there has been a
growing increase in the number of people learning Japanese-as-a-second-language through-
out the world. Many of thern are now interested in studying Japanese in a more compre-
hensive way, and wish to learn to read and write as well as speak and understand what is
said to thern. Educationalists have pointed out the problerns of teaching and learning accu-
rate and natural pronunciation through rornanization, as well as the inconvenience of not
being able to read and write at an early stage. AJALT has received rnany requests to drop
rornanization and include more exercises in kana and kanji. In this, the Kana Version of
Japanese for Busy People, al1 rornanization has been omitted so that the learner can now
learn Japanese directly through native script frorn Book I.
We sincerely hope that the book will be of much use for the rnany people interested in
Japan and the Japanese language.

Septernber 1995
Association for Japanese-Language Teaching (AJALT)

vii W
About the Kana Version of Japanese for Busy People 11

How can Japanese for Busy People help you learn Japanese?
The aim of Japanese for Busy People is to help you learn essential Japanese quickly as pos-
sible, so that you can actually comunicate with native speakers in their own language. It
has been prepared under the guidance of a working group of AJALT's experienced and
specially-trained language instmctors who have tested and revised the material in a class-
room environment. Japanese for Busy People ZZ aims to help you learn Japanese by increas-
ing your awareness of just what kind of language Japanese actually is through basic
conversation patterns.
The Kana Version is a basic textbook for students who intend to master the native
kana and kanji scripts early on in their studies. This edition is designed so that it can be
used by those attending a course in Japanese and for self-study in combination with either
the cassette tapes or compact discs (and indeed al1 other components in the Japanese for
Busy People series).

What does Japanese for Busy People II cover?

Japanese for Busy People ZI carries on from where Book I leaves off, and as in the first
volume, covers "survival Japanese." This means al1 the language that you leam--conversa-
tion patterns, sentence structures, grammatica1 principles, and vocabulary-can be put to
immediate use in conversational situations with native speakers.
Unlike many other textbooks that overwhelm the beginner with an excessive and all-
to-often irrelevant amount of information, Japanese for Busy People 11 limits vocabulary
and grammar patterns to what is essential for the most common situations in which non-
native speakers need to comunicate in Japanese. Simplistic or even juvenile ways of
expression that abound in most introductory texts have been abandoned in favor of
uncomplicated adult speech. Much more than simple grammatical accuracy, emphasis has
been placed on natura1 and authentic linguistic patterns actuaily used in Japanese commu-
These then are the specifications that we believe make Japanese for Busy People I1 the
essential textbook not only for busy, working people who want to learn basic Japanese, but
also for people who already know some Japanese but wish to review the phrases they
know and reconfirm that they are using them in the correct situation.

What Japanese for Busy People II does not include

The Kana Version assurnes that you are thoroughly farniliar with hiragana, katakana, and
the twenty kanji introduced in Appendk M of Book I. Learners should also be confident
with the grammar and vocabulary in Book I. We recommend that anyone who has diffi-
culty with the first lessons in this book should review that text before proceeding to the
more advanced material.

The strutture of Japanese for Busy People II
Each lesson is based on one distinct conversational situation, and in a total of twenty
lessons are included two reading reviews in Lessons 10 and 20. At the back of the book
you will find three appendices covering among other things, particles and verb conjuga-
tions. We have also included suggested answers to the Quiz sections, two glossaries, and a
fu11 index of the main grammatical items introduced in this book. The Opening Dialogues
are presented in the standard vertical form of Japanese writing in the Supplement. The
map of Japan printed on the front endpapers and the list of new kanji used in this text-
book printed on the back endpapers should also prove useful to your studies.
Typically the lessons evolve around a practical topic or a cultural theme such as
reserving hotel rooms and discussion of the d e s of sumo wrestling. The title of the les-
son and the English topic sentence at the beginning of the lesson should give you a f i m
idea of the content of the dialogue or reading passage.
A new feature in Book I1 is the use of kanji throughout this textbook. On its first
occurrence on a page, a kanji is accompanied by hrigana (the contextual reading of the
character in hiragana printed below the kanji.) An exception to this rule is made in the
sections about Grammar & Lesson Objectives and Notes where furigana is added to al1
the kanji.
An idiomatic English translation of the dialogue or reading passage appears immedi-
ately after the Japanese text. New vocabulary and new usages of previously learned vocab-
ulary are introduced in a list with their English equivalents. Note that new vocabulary is
treated in exactly the same way when it appears for the first tirne in the Practice section.
New sentence patterns are explained in Grammar & Lesson Objectives. Since the
same constmctions may appear at earlier and advanced levels, grammatical explanations
are not always treated comprehensively in one place and may to some extent be repeated.
When appropriate, explanations include related constructions and patterns.
More detailed analysis of important words and phrases is included in the Notes section
of each lesson. Here, we aim to explain, as accurately and briefly as possible, points that
many non-native learners commonly find difficult to grasp. Although we have concentrated
chiefly on offering linguistic information, in some cases we thought it necessary to add
some social or cultural references.
The Practice section reinforces the main points of the topic. Key Sentences are given
in both Japanese and English to provide further examples of language patterns and vocab-
ulary usage. Many non-native learners will find these examples useful for reference even
after completing al1 twenty lessons. Exercises encourage you to learn new vocabulary, to
practice conjugating verbs, and to acquire many other communication skills. Short Dia-
logues summarize aii new points introduced in the lesson through variations on the main
Finally we have included a selection of problems in the Quiz section to enable you to
check how weii you have acquired the new language skills.
The two reading review lessons (Lessons 10 and 20) are somewhat different from
other lessons in that they are presented in the form of written Japanese. In our experi-
ence, students leam Japanese most effectively when studying both conversational and
written Japanese from the very beginning. The underlying rationale being that the two
modes of communication, ora1 and written, are different, and it is thought best to highlight
the difference at an early stage. When simply talking, speaker and listener share much

information that could be ornitted from the conversation without detriment to comunica-
tion. In a story, report, or letter, however, it is essential to be more organized, structured,
and explicit in order to comunicate effectively.

The kanji in Books I1 and III

Modern Japanese is written primariiy with three scripts: kanji, hiragana, and katakana.
Arabic numerals and the English alphabet are also used when needed. Japanese is typically
written as a rnixture of kanji and hiragana, although the number of words written in
katakana is increasing. Katakana is used for words borrowed from other languages, the
names of foreign people and places, the names of plants and animals, and so on.
The Opening Dialogues in Book I are written only in hiragana. A few kanji are intro-
duced in Appendix M of Book I, but from Lesson 1of Book I1 they are introduced system-
atically. While hiragana is a phonetic writing system in that each symbol represents a
specific sound, kanji are ideographic, that is, the characters represent ideas. Each one has
its own meaning, and a glance at the kanji in a printed text will often reveal the content of
the piece. Learning kanji is an essential element in learning the Japanese language.
In total, there are over 50,000 kanji, but the number used in daily life is between about
2,500 and 3,000. Many newspapers, magazines, and textbooks restrict themselves to the
1,945 kanji (called j6y6 kanji) designated by the Japanese government in 1981 for writing
Japanese kanji have two types of readings: the on and the kun. On readings are the
Japanese versions of the Chinese pronunciations that were introduced into Japan from
China together with characters themselves. The origina1 Chinese pronunciations varied
depending on the era and the region they originated from, so some kanji have two or
more on readings. In most cases, though, only one on reading is used. Kun readings are
Japanese words with meanings similar or identica1 to those of their associated kanji. Some
kanji have severa1 kun readings, while others have none. There are also a few kanji called
kokuji that were created in Japan, and some of these lack on readings. In ordinary kanji
dictionaries, when furigana is attached to kanji, the on readings are generally written in
katakana and the kun readings in hiragana. Combinations of kanji, called jukugo, usually
consist of only on readings or only kun readings. Some jukugo, however, include mixtures
of on and kun readings.
The new kanji that appear at the end of each lesson are presented in the following

Both kai and ;i't sha are the on readings, so the furigana are written in katakana as
4 -ì i-. Since ;i't has no kun reading, no furigana are given next to the boxes showing
the stroke order. The kanji also has the kun reading au, which is given under the
kanji in hiragana. Since a u is a verb, the verbal suffix appears in parentheses.
The complete stroke order for every kanji is shown progressively in the boxes, with
the total number of strokes appearing in parentheses to the right. The stroke order is

important both for miting and in order to know the number of strokes in a kanji. When
looking up a word in a dictionary, even if you do not know the meaning or reacimg of a
kanji, you can find it in the index listing characters by the number of strokes.
Some 220 kanjz are introduced in Book I1 which together with the 120 new kanji in
Book I11 makes a total of 340 characters. Additional kanjz are also used throughout the
text to m i t e persona1 and place names as well as to refer to everyday words such as
?%k"No Parking." These characters are only provided for recognition and the learner
need not remember how to m i t e them, only to read them.
The kanji chosen focus on the core requirements of Levels 3 and 4 of the Japanese
Language Proficiency examination, augmented with a few characters that are widely used
in business and everyday life. This means that learners who have mastered the 340 kanji
covered in Books I1 and 111, are well prepared to pass Level 3 of this internationally recog-
nized Japanese language qualification.
This Kana Verszon has been designed so that learners are required to master an aver-
age of eleven kanji per lesson in Book I1 and six kanji per lesson in Book 111. Furzgana
(pronunciation guides in the phonetic hiragana) are printed below a kanji the first time
that it appears on a page. An exception to this rule is made in the Vocabulary, Grammar &
Lesson Objectives, and Notes sections where furigana has been added to all kanjz regard-
less of how many times that a kanji is repeated.
Al1 220 kanji introduced in Book I1 are used indiscriminately throughout the textbook.
For example, a total of 31 kanji are used in Lesson 1. There is, however, no need for the
learner to try and master al1 these characters at once. At the end of Lesson 1, we have
selected the eleven new kanji that we recommend to be studied at this stage. When
selecting kanji, priority has been given to those characters appearing in the Opening Dia-
logue. Severa1 kanji required for Levels 3 and 4 do not appear in any of the dialogues in
either Book I1 or 111. In such cases, the kanji was identified and picked up from the Key
Sentences, Short Dialogues, or Exercise sections. The important Level 4 kanji 5 "west"
has been presented as a new kanji in Lesson 20 of this volume, even though it does not
appear anywhere in Books I1 and 111.

aff. affirmative
neg. negative
ex. example
Aa answer, affirmative
An answer, negative
i\ adj. i \ adjective
adj. 6'adjective
Other publications in the Japanese for Busy People series
Teachers and learners alike will find the following publications useful supplementary
The opening dialogues, reading reviews, key sentences, and short dialogues for al1
twenty lessons in Japanese for Busy People 11 have been recorded in authentic,
natura1 Japanese on four audio cassette tapes and three compact discs.
A workbook for Japanese for Busy People 11 provides drills, tasks, and activities to

irnprove ora1 and written fluency. Learners may also find the two sixty-minute
audio cassette tapes of the workbook particularly helpful to self-study.
The Kana Version of Japanese for Busy People 111 is currently being prepared by
an experienced group of instructors at AJALT. This title will focus on further
speech levels and styles.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS for Japanese for Busy People 11
Four AJALT teachers have written this textbook. They are Ms. Miyako Iwami, Ms.
Shigeko Miyazaki, Ms. Masako Nagai, and Ms. Kimiko Yamamoto. They were assisted by
two other teachers, Ms. Kumiko Endo and Ms. Chikako Ogura.
For background information, many sources were consulted. The authors would particu-
larly like to thank the Japan Sumo Association for making it possible to write Lesson 14,
and the Meterological Agency for materia1 included in Lesson 20. They also wish to
express their appreciation to the editors at Kodansha International for assistance with
translating and rewriting, as well as the usual editoria1 tasks.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS for the Revised Edition of Japanese for Busy People 11

We would like to express our gratitude to the following people for preparing the new edi-
tions of Books I1 and 111: Mss. Miyako Iwami, Shigeko Miyazaki, Masako Nagai, and Kimiko
Yamamoto. They were assisted by Ms. Mikiko Ochiai.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS for the Kana Version of Japanese for Busy People 11

We would like to express our gratitude to the following people: Mss. Kimiko Yamamoto,
Mikako Nakayama, Kyoko Tsurumi, and Toshiko Takarada.




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Mr. Smith (43 years old)

Mrs. Smith (41 years old)
Mr. Srnith is a lawyer at ABC. He came to Japan with his wife three years ago. They
are both interested in traditional Japanese culture.

Mr. Brown (35 years old)

Mrs. B r o w n (36 years old)
The Browns came to Japan two years ago. Mr. Brown is also a lawyer at ABC. Mrs.
Brown is interested in the history of Japan. Mr. Brown likes Japanese ukiyo-e wood-
block prints. He sometimes writes letters in Japanese.
Mr. Hayashi (45 years old)
Mrs. Hayashi (38 years old)
Mr. Hayashi is a division chief at ABC. He sometimes goes jogging. Occasionally he
goes mountain climbing. Mrs. Hayashi is good at cooking. She is concerned with envi-
ronmental issues.

Mr. Kat6 (37 years old)

Mrs. Kat6 (36 years old)
Mr. Kat6 is a section chief at ABC. He is very busy a t work. He used to live in

Mr. Chang (28 years old)

Mr. Chang also works for ABC. He came to Japan last month from the Hong Kong
branch office. He can speak English and Chinese. He likes music.

Mr. Suzuki (25 years old)

Mrs. Suzuki (25 years old)
Mr. Suzuki is also an employee of ABC. He got married two years ago. He often makes
jokes, but sometirnes makes mistakes in his work.

Mr. Johnson (26 years old)

Mr. Johnson used to work at the London office of ABC. He was transferred to the
Tokyo head office this year. He is a cheerful person. He's enjoying life in Tokyo.

Ms. Nakamura (26 years old)

Ms. Nakamura graduated from university the year before last and worked for a trading
company. However, she left that company because her work was not related to her spe-
cialty. Then she joined ABC.

Ms. Watanabe, Mr. Kimura, and Mr. Sat6 are other staff members of ABC.

Mr. Tanaka (51 years old)

Mrs. Tanaka (47 years old)
Mr. Tanaka is a division chief at Tokyo Electric. Tokyo Electric is a client of ABC. The
Tanakas are good friends of the Smiths and the Browns.

Keiko Tanaka (18 years old)

Keiko is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Tanaka. She graduated from high school this
year. Keiko is a friend of Mr. Johnson.

Daisuke (19 years old)

Daisuke is a friend of Mr. Chang. He is a university student. He lives near Mr. Chang.

Other characters appearing in this book are Linda, who is a friend of Mrs. Smith, and
Mr. Yamakawa of the M Design Office.


Lì Vocabulary

.;. C ,L Mrs., wornan

a AI- before
T L Y i 7 3 (Q) traditional
-1: 3 1?&P be interested in
h ' )a l t
i 3 L 2 woodblock prints, "floating-world pictures"
.i: C, 1 i division chief, departrnent head
t: a i: occasionaily
OlbO aT clirnb
+,L 3 L 5 environrnent
6 /"t:\\ problem, issue
$3.3 LA, (Q) keen, devoted, enthusiastic
+C, L i section chief
L ++[\,L company employee
Llt fail, make a mistake
i3,LLr head office
T,L3,LL&-d- transfer, be transferred
e\ i.fl.7 life, living
f:mLAait enjoy
t:\ \fic { university
+???L iL a l t graduate
L k i L r trading cornpany
L 71. L however, but
+itL&X, specialty
?"&a-$ leave, quit
la75\1: besides, other
l i f : b + a-$ work
Y')iT.+*+ client, business contact
Lt:Lib friendly with, close
Z j Z i high school
f<\ \ P {-ti\ \ university student
YiCkiL&-$ aPPear



~ ~ 7 ~ 7 9 3 .
2 , -,v

Mr. Chang tells Mr. Smith about taking a rush hour train for the
first time.
After meeting Mr. Chang in the elevator Mr. Kato advises him to
take the rest of the day off.
Kato: CYour) complexion isn't good. Caught cold?
Chang: Eh, I went to the doctor the dai before yesterday and got medicine, but it's not get-
ting any better. My temperature this morning was 38 degrees.
Kato: In that case it's better to go home early and get some rest.
Chang: Actually, since this project has just started-
Kato: It's better not to overdo it. Next week'll be (even) busier. It'd be better if you got
well right away.
Chang: Weil then, I'm s o n y but 1'11 leave after asking Suzuki or Kimura (to look after) the
rest (of my work).
Kato: I just asked Suzuki (to do) some other work. It'll have to be Kimura.
Chang: I see. Good-bye, then.
Kato: Take care of yourself.

D Vocabulary

-7<a (lit.) "go, do something and return"
Q$.Q$.-Q\ \
not any/at all
.t-kzL'v in that case
-t: (i!$$< i \ \ \ it's better to .. ./(you) had better . . .
/Po./,P b project
li C
a start
-f:(f (have)just
C119 ta overdo
C 11 impossible
-Q\ \ [f j $C i\\\ it's better not to . . .
t, 7 Y more
j Si: right away, before it's too late
5C)rTli well then

*#,b ' 62 VOCABULARY

I'm sorry (lit. "There's no excuse")
EP L hit
excuse, apology
-</L Mr., Master (informa1 men's speech)
or (particle)
rest QF . , <yeh,-aefl)
a short time ago
some other (thing)
work, business
ahead, before, beyond
Take care of yourself. (Said to sick people.)

. . . r a i fif ~ t \ T - f

? Ci,
13idc i \ i \ T t L o
As in these sentences, which are suggestions, the t: form is more comrnon before l3 i
dt i \i\T+,although recently the dictionary form has also come to be used. For nega-
tive~,whether verbs or adjectives, always use the plain l'a' i \ form. For either type of
adjective, use the ordinary form, such as 3 i \ i3 idc t \ i \ T t or 4 X, 'I ta' l3 i
+'*l l\ i\ T t . After nouns add the particle a>.

This is the same as L <Q i \ T + (Book I, p. 86).

ex. 1. k3
< A ') %eL/Qi\T-d-,
2 t. n,
. A')%t,L/ta'l\T-f,
Sirnilarly with Q adjectives: BQd.TldI I: e $5 'I 2 -tfL or -TX, 1) T i 2 1 L" v A 1) 2 +? X,

(introduced in Book I, p. 88) can be BQd.T[d/ I:

L -T
Q \ \T-bor <L 'I T i 2 1 I: e G'i \T
t . These alternative pattems are interchangeable in meaning.
~ . w L + I : .i=i77 m
t , i , , 7 ' ~ ; aL ~ Z ,
This 7 < 6 pattem sometimes has its literal meaning of "go, do something, and retun."
(See Book III, Lesson 7 for a f d e r discussion of tìiis pattem.) The sentence can be
translated, "I went to the doctor, got (some) medicine, and came back."
ex. 25 R
T 73 T, "I11 buy bread (and come back)."
3. Qd.Qdb a< Q 'J &eh0
Q jl\ Q 73\ plus a negative implies that, contrary to expectations, something does not
exist or has not happened or a favorable outcome is lacking despite a person's efforts or

"CI) still haven't become good at English."

"The letter (I've been waiting for) from Tanaka hasn't arnved."
4. Z a ) 7°0./r7 bfic ,t:lfd"iT?td\bo
I1 L

The pattern t:lf 75' 1) indicates something has just happened.

ex. l . $h f.; Ll i 4' #5t:lf75.iITTo
rif !
2. ;f- 0 ZL -2 5 $VT
t: 1275. 1) T?, "ljust learned that news."
ti- +
A d b *5 HC &< Al: ...
< L is less polite than 'C L. Typically heard when younger boys or men are being spo-
ken to, it is never used between women or when addressing elders.
6. %%l: L7)21\L &?to
* I

The sense of this is that by leaving before others, one is doing something one should
excuse oneself for. It is a very cornmon expression, often shortened to either % 35 I: or
'l i

L 9 4t 1 \ L a T . (See Book I, p. 46.) % B I: 5'

may also be said when proceeding others
through a door or into a car and so on.


1. You'd better telephone the police irnrnediately.

2. I'm going to that shop to buy tobacco.
Ci Vocabulary

I Review: Study the examples again and convert the verbs into the 2 form.
A. Reg. I
ex. ;f=i < + RfibQi \ %--t-+
li P
,% <-.+
, g f i s ~ ~ \ a q-, a t-*{\
&a Q{\ B., i -

3. k -hs < 6. $%q

9. L .;: 12. i&

B. Reg. I1 and Irreg.

ex. M&6+
& a,t \ *a-
k;') b + k;i)Qt\ --t-&-+ L *i \

I1 Make dialogues by changing the underlined parts as in the examples given.

A. ex. A: Y 5'3-T %T3a L ..t i
B. ex. Q: %T< I l &

f 7.
:i h
la i dC i\\ \TTdxo

4. H $ ' 5 L l = %L;-&&
t: +i*. L

C. ex. Q: Y " i L & L a ?dbo

3.T<" & d b l f b 6. (%) < l + % %77<4


D. ex. Q:
3% L 7 t i\i\TTd\,
A: ti T Q la? dC i\i\TTko
l. f : i f < % T i . l S L < i l : k < Q i \ T T

E. ex. Q: mdc i \ i \TTd\o

F. ex. Q: Y- G L; +?

CI Vocabulary

get well, be f i e d
(heatingl stove
announce, publicize
Chinese cooking
Shinjuku (area in Tokyo)
weekly magazine

B: AL^: :ria al) a-f)kd(,-f)-dC ka 1) a - 4 2 ~ ~

a % , t:,>
A: Qktli \\I$a-f)kh,

A: (Do you have) a cold?

B: Yes. It's nothing serious, but the coughing doesn't stop.
A: That's too bad. (lit. '?t doesn't go [welll, does it?")

A: How's your cold?

B: Thank you (for asking). It's considerably better
A: That's good.
Suzuki: Heiio. This is Suzuki. I'm going to stop by the hospital, and 1'11 come to the
office after that. So I'ii be a little late.
Kato: What's the matter? (lit. "Has something happened . . . ?"l
Suzuki: Well, I've hurt my leg.

LI Vocabulary

serious, important
coughing, cough
Thank you (lit. "Thanks to [youl")
considerably, greatly
from now (on)
stop by, drop in
something is wrong
leg, foot
(be) hurt
injury, wound

I Read this lesson's Opening Dialogue and answer the following questions.

1% 68 QUIZ
I1 Put the appropriate particles in the parentheses.

In Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs indicated.
1. eBs7dC
C 4.X.
h 0 &-tiLd\b, ( ) 139 dC t \ t \ T - f L o (,%C)

IV Circle the correct words in the parentheses.

l. i a i . 7 a
7 L L n
> QTn. %M%
L A. ..:A.
2. 7 - a 3 7 i \ a - f d Q , (Q+Q~/\, @,<i)) la-&Lo
3. (;m&7, 2-r) * 5 L t : %b-ti7, (-€#LTli. +#Ld\b) A L Q
li L ~ i r ~

V Choose a sentence to mal iggestion appropriate to the situation
A. Your friend is embarrassed about having left his bag on the train.

B. Your friend, despite having a fever, is drinking sake.

io. a


g.$&* B X t c %T{
, -; Q-. . I.

Mr. Kato and Mr. Suzuki are talking about Mr. Johnson's arriva1
Kato: Tomorrow is the day Mr. Johnson comes to Japan, isn't it?
Suzuki: Yes, that's right.
Kato: Won't someone be going to meet (hirn) at Narita Airport?
Suzuki: 1'11 go. I have time.
Kato: Will the work (I) asked (you to do) this morning be f i s h e d today?
Suzuki: Yes, I can (do it).
Kato: Al1 right, please meet him. By the way, do you know Mr. Johnson?
Suzuki: He's (one of the) people in the London Office, I believe.
Kato: Right.
Suzuki: (I've) seen (his) picture.
Kato: His arriva1 time at Nanta Airport is 14:50. Since planes sometimes arrive early,
please finish lunch earlier and leave.
SuzLlki: Yes, sir. Where's the hotel Mr. Johnson's staying at?
Kato: Ms. Watanabe knows. Please ask her.
Suniki: I see.

Lì Vocabulary

someone, anyone
go to meet
meet, greet

raa stay, stop at *

e Modifying nouns
A pattern corresponding to the relative clause in English is made by placing the modi-
fiers before the noun. A verb appearing in the rniddle of the sentence is in a plain form,
as noted earlier (p. 29).

present aff. ;b> L t: Jt\ 5 A t: 6,"people (who are) corning tomorrow"

< L'L

neg. W L t: $?xi \ ^t: 4, "people (who are) not coming tomorrow"

past aff. ?! a> i &t:
%, "people (who) came yesterday"
neg. 3 a> i $724.7 ti Af: ti,"people (who) didn't come yesterday"

The following show how a sentence is converted into a mo-g

ex. 1. $L[$
ht; L


R i a L t:
\ -++ a $L $</a> R 7 t:
ht: L IlL

+ "the book (that) I bought"
g7tz 5
ht: L '.L 5 IIL n. bf: L '.L 5 6.

"the book (which) I bought in the Ginza yesterday"

Note the changes in word order, the verb forms and the particles. Particle la is replaced
by fiiJ or when a clause is very short, it often becomes a>.
ex. 1. T 2 a> klftd'
"a person (who is) good at tennis"
2. $m -Ei tF3
"a man who haslhaving long legs." Alternatively, "a man with long
legs" or "a long-legged man."
Clauses ending i and 5.' adjectives and noun plus T t in the plain form, either past or

negative, cari modify nouns. (See Appendix A for the patterns.)

These plain forms, shown in the foilowing three examples, are also discussed in the next
lesson. (See the table, p. 87.)
ex. 1. ;d;4%7 t:
t: i).
+ «a book which was expensive"

2. .-f ? t: -7 t: "a person a) once liked"

3. $40
- t n ~
2T 7
1'1 i i ' L
t: t: 7 & a> "the building which was a hospital unti1
last summern
Take careful note of five sentences in the dialogue in which this type of modification
pattern occurs.
4. I L i t:
s er07la
C t-b
1 4 q 50/n\Tf,
L ..-r.
5. : ì 3 2 ; r 7 . * ~ a >y aa * T I L ~Y~- Z T - + ~ ~ > . ,

7 < kt 2 +l lC is a form of request, but it would not be used when speaking to a supe-
rior. The meaning is "do (something) for (melus)."
ex. #C7 kt 2 +l L< 'Won't you please come?"
Some other interrogatives of the same type as tifi+ are iijld',
- "something," i \Td., +.

"sometime," and Y* Z +,"somewhere."

ex. 1. tiktd. E7 i 2 L f: 73., 'Was anyone watching?"

2. l: i 73. .f=i 5 t: i \T$, "(I) want to go to Kyoto sometime."


"Give me (any kind o 0 cold drink."

2. V Z j C i t FF<
l ii
Z Z t Aij$To
In addition to the information given in Lesson 4, you should observe that Z Y is a noun
meaning "thing," "happening," "experience" and the pattern Z Y 6 $5 1) 2 t conveys
the idea "it sometimes happens that . . . ," "there arelhave been cases of . . ."
ex. 1. h R + l i t:i\7i\ %#,%T 6f-T$-t d C . V Z ? 3 T %T< Z Y 6
%%*O. LLO.L~L r i

2 t o
"Ousually go to Osaka on the Shinkansen, but sometimes (D go by plane."
2 . 5r eL ia0r. a -fI+ra d \ i \ r % -fa Z Y ~h l ~ t ,
L:r ?t
"Saturday is a day off, but sometimes meetings are held."

"Japanese rniddle schools teach English to (their) students, but there are some
schools which teach French."

1. X t X 5 L I i ABCT 7 dhzLT-It,

1. Mr. Smith is a lawyer who works for ABC.
2. Kyushu is a warm region, but in winter it sometirnes snows.

CI Vocabulary

v b l d q .i,? it snows (lit. "snow falls")

vbl snow
.i. a faU

I Noun-modifying patterns: Memorize the following sentences.

2. $&*i\ Ad' f:Tka7 *& L t < O


3. +-,T$ %771\6

5. 5i)i JRta'dx-t= Ali + $ A l f 7

< t 3i\o
C. 1. d x h l i & t < 2 dC 1 ATTO

3. d b k d C E Ali * v 4 i . + k , ~ t ~

I1 Make dialogues by changing the underlined parts as in the examples given.

A. ex. Q: Z hli iiiTTTd.0

A: A $ ;3.( Y*? C T T O
B. ex. Q: TkLa41L. ~?,PI+

L i i i r i
< /;Ali Y*)ZTTfi\o

C. ex. Q: %M% 7 7 Ffi$ %77t\LaTfi'o

L L.;.L 7 L;? L

D. ex. Q: &El t\*ficL\\TTfi'o

E. ex. Q: - 4 I *i': Ali
i':&TTfi'o .

3. ai': *7i\a-t-x,

F. ex. A: ha) Ali i':ktTItd\o

B: h&, ha) & d ' h % d\lf7i\6 ATItdbo

III Practice the following pattern by changing the underlined parts as in the
example given.
ex. #t L i': d x O

IV Make dialogues by changing the underlined parts as in the example given.
ex. Q: ~ \ 3 fi Y Z i $T 473 $-6fi\o

Lì Vocabulary

lesson (counter)
irnplement, machine, appliance, t001
boiled egg
carry, transport
bake, griil, roast
go throughlpast
even (emphasis)
marital disagreement
husband and wife
quarrel, fight
~ P P ~propose
wear, put on (glasses)
stand up

laugh, smile
by oneself
(one's own) wife
promise, appointment
keep, obey
once in a while

Section Chief: Won't someone lend me a hand for a moment?

Watanabe: What is it (you want)?
Section Chief: Do me the favor of putting away these papers.
Watanabe: Yes, certainly.

2.A: X-~~-lZ e+$*+<,E 7 7 + $ L ~ j d \ ~

I i)'

B: 5zL-A% E 9 7 + 7 < t:5\\.,

A: I'm going to the supermarket. Can I get you anything?

B: Please get me some juice.
A: What kind of juice do you want.
B: One that's not too sweet.

LI Vocabulary

n i
$ 2
section chief
7% lend a hand
+B lend

Li)&< papers, docurnents
d\f:ilf b put away, tidy up

I Read this lesson's Opening Dialogue and answer the following questions.

2. 3 i Y+Za> CCL a i: i AT-j-fi.,


3. mii<x/ia
n. r ,
. / 3 ; . ~ / ; . ~ ~ a ,r a a J 3!3T7t\g-j-fi\0

I1 Put the appropriate particles in the parentheses.

I11 Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs indicated.
i. x f i ( Aia tf&LT$fi\o ( ~ a-j-1

3. ' c o i x 3 i F'$ ( ) Aia +E

? t i
R 7 { t:5ibo

5. 5 a > i ( ) Ai: +#-I%$

(*a i-LT L t:)
6. + E ( ) +@O) +T C&dc -& &dbi>f<TTo Lf:)
? t i :m e*. ,'t, I:L t:*.

VI Look at the picture and answer the questions.

2. bjlifkas d b l f 7 t \ 6 Ali f<&TTd\,

3. 5 % 7 ~ \ 6 Ali f<ktT-kd\a

V Answer the following questions.

H I I I I I I I~ l ~ l * l ~ l ~ l ~ ~
ii- 7 .

' ' & V * *

Kanji for recognition: &W 35%

$ 0 I: 7 h 3 0



Mr. Chang, who's thinking about a trip to Kyoto, asks MI-. Kato for
Chang: Around August 10, I think I'd like to take a (pleasure) trip to Kyoto. Which is more
convenient, the Shinkansen or a plane?
Kato: I reckon the Shinkansen is more convenient. But then I'm afraid there aren't any
more Shinkansen reserved tickets. Plane tickets are probably sold out, too.
Chang: Why is that?
Kato: The O-Bon Festiva1 is around the middle of August. There are hordes of people
returning to their home towns. This homecorning rush begins around the tenth. It'd
be best to give up your trip.
Chang: I heard Suzuki's going back to his home in Kyoto on the tenth, too.
Kato: Um. He said he bought a ticket a month early.
Chang: 1s that so? How long does it take to Kyoto by car?
Kato: I guess it'd take more than ten hours. Suzuki went by car last year and he said the
congestion was terrible.
Chang: It's because Japan has a lot of people and cars, wouldn't you say? I'd hke to go some

place where it's not crowded.
There is a place without crowds.
Where's that?
Kato: Where do you think it is? It's Tokyo around O-Bon.
Chang: I see.

Ci Vocabulary

reserved ticket
appointment, designation, specification
anylno more, any/no longer
sold out
around the middle
O-Bon (midsummer festiva11
home town, birthplace, country
hordesllots of people
give up, stop
house, home
more than h) fi - es-h
congestion, traffic jam P
many, much
I see, it's reasonable
L t:, (He said)
.. . Y <
$ obviously signals quot:ed rnater,ial. It should be note8 that when a third per-
son's statement is cited, the verlbis . . . Y: $ - , - T \ \ & Lt:or ... Y $77\\&-#-.
ex. +%.*Llil t : $ 7 7 \ \ &Ltz0
IiCL + i i Z i.

"Hayashi said that he wanted to go to Kyoto."

If the emphasis is on the action of saying, the verb S i is used in the same way as other
verbs, e.g., %$21 L l i tzikl: Si 2 L :7' d\, "Whom did Mr. Suzuki say (it) to?"

L t: is found in story-telling style, written or verbal. See Book III, Lesson 12.
A verb tense form in quoted material has no relation to the tense form of the verb end-
ing the sentente, so it may be the same or it may be different. It is also quite cornrnon
for negation to be expressed in the first, rather than the main verb, and this sometimes
contrasts with the pattern in English, as in 2 2 21 ILli ;k> L t: - 7 2 ~ \ Y ,E\
\ 2

It,if this is translated, "I don't think Srnith is coming tomorrow."

When the subject is the speaker or the listener in interrogative sentences, . . . Y 66
is the recornrnended form to use. If the subject is a third person, . . . Y W 7 7 i \ b is
used exclusively.
As in the examples above, verbs, adjectives, and TIt after nouns corning at the end of
quoted material are in plain forms, as shown in the chart below.
Plain forms which precede Y & 1 Y $i \ 3 T.

Present Past
aff. neg. aff. neg.
Reg. I i%i
3 1).
4%*.7 t:
Reg. 11 i\& \\+i-\
1 I\t: i\t671\7 t:
Irr. &a \
$t: 4 ~ 7 2 dt:> ~
-fa La\\ L t: L 7271.7 t:

Adjectives, Noun + T*
Present Past 1
aff. neg. aff. neg.
i\adj. %
<Q \ \ * d \ 7 t:
h n.
< Q d . 7 t:


* T L a i
V Z i30) 3 . t:.;:L $?l) 3 f i T L 1: io
1 m

TL r i,seen in Lessons 2 and 3 as a way to soften a direct question, may indicate con-
jecture or probability, or what the speaker believes to be true. Words coming before T
L r iare in a plain forrn and in the case of td' adjectives, T L 1: icomes directly after
the stem, just as it directly foilows nouns.
ex. l . $0) L T
L -I
:iA L l i 3 d ' T L t i
"That park is probably quiet."
2. d . f i i i 4L:LT-f- d.fiii K L C L T L 1: i"HeJsalawyer,Isuppose."
3. + t > ? L i a t I S
L - T ~ \ ' ~ ~ \ \ Tio
"Chang probably hasn't told Ogawa yet."
For fdler connective pattems, see Appendk A.
Since it irnplies tentativeness, T L 1: i would sound awkward or irresponsible if it
referred to the speaker's own action.
ex. Z : Z - ' r L l i hLt: ARI:
However, & <
%T T L 1: iis awkward.

1. % & ( ~ h O-Bon
e Festival)

For this festiva1 on August 13-15 (there are a few local variations on the dates), many
companies close down and rnillions of people desert the big cities. Originating in Bud-
dhist beliefs fused with folk traditions, it celebrates the return of ancestral spirits to
their birthplaces for a three-day visit and is, together with the New Year's holidays, a
major event among the literally hundreds of annua1 festivals. Secularized to some
extent in recent times, O-Bon is an occasion for family reunions, and the highlights are
the Bon Odori, "Bon Dance," O-haka-mairi, "visits to (ancestral) graves," and the
lighting of fires and lantems to welcome and send off the spirits of the dead.

The usage of t i, "aiready," t i 'ts l,"not any morellonger," and t:, "yet, still,"
need not be confusing. Study the following examples.
ex.1. Q: 2 i' 1 7 .;:li $5 'I 2 Td., "DO(you) still have tickets?"
Aa: li \ , 2 ti' $5 li a T, "Yes, there are still (some available)."
An: tt A t i h 1) -2 -tiLo"No, there aren't any more."
2. Q: i i t i & da.[?2 L t: "Has he gòne out already?"
Aa: i . 4i & dd.If 2 L t:. "Yes, he's aiready gone out."

An: \ \ \ \ A , & t i & d ~ l f - T \ \ & - t ? L ,2t: $1: \\$To

T %'i

"No, he hasn't left yet. HeJs still at home."

As shown in Book I (p. 841, d i can also mean sirnply "more," i.e., 6 i 1 2I \ '4 9
. % < t: 5 t \ "Give me one more ticket, please."
3. Y - Z f-'Y ,si\&-6fi~o
t; L

Expressions similar to this one are:

1. Q-tf Y ,CI \ \ 2 -6 fi., 'Why is it, do you think?"
t; L

2. t<kt fi.' fi % 9 f: Y ,% i \ 2 -6 rlbO "(Cad you guess who said so?"

t; t


1. There's a strike tomorrow, so I expect trains and buses won't be &g.

2. Kimura said he knows Sapporo.
3. Tomorrow will probably be rain(y).

Ci Vocabulary

m, rnove, operate
f:.ì:X, probably, perhaps

Make dialogues by changing the underlined parts as in the examples given.

C . ex. Q: E3*5LI.i f i 'RiJ&Ltz13\o

1. L@i13\t\ii t i %2ii2Lfz
li L

2. L z0 - t i M32Lf:
3. Efle5Lia I t i &t\aLf:

4. RRLiIaiia t i 2r2I,&Lt:

D. ex. Q: ta'3.Mikl:
0 1:
L 2-4-13.,
A: j k s i g - $l+?y.1: fT+t:t\z lgt\&-j-o
li7 O i>L 7

l. %
t: <5L %C

2. 2 % si
A' b

3. I C b 0 +Ah% 3-6
7 S'

4. t t f l i 0 f
?niLni rt

E. ex. Q: $50 A 0 I:;t'Laa> $6 Ffi% %77,\&-4-13\0


A: I $ t \ 5 - 3 0 Z Q ' ) t < Y l%t\2-4-o

F. ex. Q: M 5 X I i i Y %-,Tt\2Lf:fi\,
<-T I. '
i L

3. X E X , s i L k fj\t\$+l: & f : < Q t \ ~ - f


4. &E,
Pi t:
sia 'i X S - Y S T a ermC si li
C *L

G. ex. Q: siLf:a> i Y " i T L a id.,

?L 1

LI Vocabulary

bo& A/ '

research ""4
prime minister
gathering, assembly
minister (of state)
client, guest, visitor
research, study
be brought together, be in order


care, trirnming, mending
next, neighboring
suitable, appropriate

Brown: Where are Shinkansen reserved seat tickets sold?

Passerby: (They're) sold at the Green (Ticket) Window over there.
Brown: I'd like two adult tickets and one child's to Kyoto.

A: What (number) track does the 10:30 express going to Nagano depart from?
B: It's track number eight.

CI Vocabulary

Se? seat
-?Z?& passerby
A Y- 1) 0 2 Y*O Green (Ticket) Widow (for reserved seat and express tickets)
A Y.' 'I green
a YÙ<- 5 window, clerk
ktj rA
-e li?
Q * < o,
Nagano (city)
-47 ? bound for
special/limted express

(counter for tracks)

I Read this lesson's Opening Dialogue and answer the following questions.
i. I san i o a z i ;
6<7 6'
~ ' z - A z F %TCf<t\r t %

1 ' C - 7 7 i \ a t$\,
fi L

2. &&n zF,ti Y"i L 7 .8-< O z i ? ? %#@n ?-.i:


$ 551) CkclC '21) $*$\O

QUIZ 93 ,
I1 Put the appropriate particles in the parentheses.

IIi Complete the questions so that they fit the answers. (Use a question word.)

IV Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs indicated.

% 94 QUIZ
V Answer the following questions.


L - -- l.-

* w/;<c:-S
e% oì M

p ~ s e q-\pev
When going to the Tanakas' house, Mr. Johnson meets their
daughter, Keiko, on her way out.

T ("TT1i.o
C , 2

z'&hfd5i'o +H*Iz ~V;'%I, q L%&%

5 i i C n i :i t i :

L Q i f k t I f Q') atih1i.hO
At the prep school.

Keiko: Oh, Mr. Johnson.

Johnson: Ah, Keiko, are you going out?
Keiko: Yes, I have to (go out).
Johnson: (Do you have to leave) right now?
Keiko: Sorry, (yes). I have to register at a prep school today.
Johnson: Prep school?
Keiko: Yes. I didn't pass the exam for the university I wanted to attend, so I'il take the
exams again next year.
Johnson: Well, well. Good-bye.
Keiko: Bye-bye.
Keiko: Are (my) application papers al1 right (like) this? This is the entrance fee and (here's)
three months' tuition. I think I'd like to register for the sumrner course, too. Can't I
register later by mail?
Clerk: Yes, mai1 is OK. As for payment, you don't have to go to the trouble of coming (al1
the way) here. Please transfer (it) to our bank.
Keiko: 1s sending it by registered-cash mai1 ail right?
Clerk: Yes, either will be fine.
D Vocabulary

female given name

Oh! (women's speech)
I'm sorry, Excuse me
preparatory school
pass (an examination), succeed
success, eligibility
take (an examination), receive, undergo, have
entrance/matriculation fee
3 months' (worth)
portion, share
instruction, Iesson
fee, charge
summer course
later, aftenvard
must not
is al1 right
go to the trouble of
don't have to

registered mai1 (for cash)
registered mai1
Obligations, orders, prohibitions, and permission
Z h 71.4 &d.if'a'lfhif 'a'[) &+!L,
ZL+~,% ~ ~ i f t t i f ~ l ~ a i l ~ ,
'a' lf hI f (made from the 'a' i \ form) Q 1) 2 -t? L,basically a pattern expressing obliga-
tion, may be used in making excuses, as here. As an order-"you mustn-it sounds
harsh and willful (not the kind of thing heard in polite circles). On the other hand, the
tone is fairly neutra1 if it reflects conditions beyond the speaker's or listener's control.
ex. +i rsi i i /;A& fthT$k& A bTP75\4. $T
a 6. I ? (31
%Td,'a'lfhlf 'a'') 2+!LL,

"Since both buses and subways are on strike today, (youll) have to go by car."
Sentences ending with T l i i I f 3. +!L,"must not," have an imperative tone.

ex. 2 $7 l i i\ lf 2 +!L, "You mustn't leave now."

This pattern and 'a' lf hlf +L '1 & -t? X. d \ (with the particle 75. at the end) are freely
used in asking questions. With alrnost the same meaning as T 6 i i T à d\ (Book I,

p. 142), T i i i lf 2 -t? L dx can be a way of asking permission. The pattern Q lf #tlf Q

11 2 -t? L 75. means "Must you . . . ?" or "Must I . . . ?"

Noun plus T 6 i i T 8 or T 6 i i \ T à 75. is sirnilarly used to give or ask permis-


sion. One meaning of T & being "even," the sense of T 6 i \ i\T? is that it's ali right
even if X happens or a certain condition exists.

By using this negative verb form, this pattern says it is OK not to do something.

This cornmon expression is formed with k; plus the 2 8 stem and 7'8.It is used in its
literal sense here but may occur simply as a greeting not particularly requiring an

T 4 9 L .r i is said to a person who will return to the place he or she is leaving,

%T-> \

so it may be heard in offices and other places as well as homes. The person who leaves
generally replies with %T-> 7 2 i 2 B/%T -> 7 3 2 8.The expressions used when

the person returns are 7': ti\ 2 and k;'% il 'a' ? i \, as given in the Short Dialogues in

this lesson and on p. xvi of Book I.

3. a U.%
: 3

Students attend L U'a,"prep schools," to prepare for college entrance examinations.


The ratio of applicants to openings, especially at the top schools, is quite high and aspi-
rants may take entrance exams for two or more years before meeting with success.
Good prep schools may also have more applicants than openings, which explains why
Keiko wants to apply early for the sumrner course.

4.Zh. X % & Y
i r n i O < <? L
h 5 a ? # Ti - - $ ,
'I t

Note the absence of a particle after Z kt. This actually draws attention to the subject
and here is like saying, "Here is the money for . . ."

After a noun or pronoun, asking perrnission or confiimation is done with T i i T t \

d\, and giving it with T i \ i \ T + . (See also Lesson 14.)

. . . T L < Q i T t cannot be used for refusals, the style of which is apt to vary with

the situation.
ex. 2 <I L li Z kt T i \ i \ T t -h\, "1s this spelling right?"

An adverb meaning "go to the trouble of," h 5" h 5" may express appreciation or reluc-
ex. 1 &7<t<'l-77.
"Thank you for coming (al1 this way to see us)."
2. q L/ - F % R I: 2+ L d.oi'Wouldn't you like to watch the parade?"
1:G.t; L(
hSh21' @ @$T,
I-i ?

"Al1 the way to the Ginza? On Sunday?" (implying, "No thanks.")

Compared with Y+S 4 T 6 i \ i l T$, this is a little politer.

I n q u e s t i o n s , Y + % i , T t / Z k t T i \ i \ T t d \ c a n b e u s e d , b u t r % G T 6 / Z k t T If
7 Z -j Ttil' cannot.


1. I must go out now.
2. You don't have to go to school tomorrow.
3. Can't I send it by mail?
4. You can send your application form by mail.

I Verbs: Review the examples and convert the verbs into the plain negative
ex. Reg. I % & 3+%&

Reg. I1 t \ b + t \ t a ' t \
Irreg. #C 3-+#C2
L \

1. ara6 io. t ~ t k a a 19. b 4 i

2. t/\ R b (change) 11. &%Tb 20. ;3\t:31?6

3. tza>;h; 12. .;.a 21. A r; .;.i

4. +P i? .tra 13. 3 a ( c u ~ ) 22. 2 ta

5. $L+ )t\i 14. ; h ; + A 6 23. + ? Z * L $ 3 - 6


7.kab 16. L-fG 25. t \ b (need)


I1 Practice the following pattern by changing the underlined parts as in the

example given.
ex. $ 0 i . 6 7 Z h.f&EI: %Td\td'lfktlf ta' 1) .trLfi\i?
t-i' L 4.L

l L~kt~\L&-f,

l. %T{
LLr i i , L

I11 Make dialogues by changing the underlined parts as in the examples given.
A. ex. Q: +
i, l
%&% $&bQlf&la' Q
i l i,
i) &-ttLd\,
Aa: [it\. %i%t\L$To
n o<

5. +E+I:
' r i C.ri

B. ex. Q: 4%$ @d.+~*< 7 t L \ i\T$-+,

i ik

Aa: l i i \, %?2 < 76 i \ i\-??To

C. ex. %%T f:[a'T$ T77li i\l?$tkLo

Vi ii%X

1. 13x1: %<&4


5. t 3 >.L % Y b

E. ex. Q: +
/.i/LZ-fl' $'I ia-t?,Lo Y i;/T$, t\t\-r-$fi\.

A: [ $ t \ , Y i ; / T $ , If7ZiT-6.

Lì Vocabulary

be late
throw away
air conditioner
(credit) card


+i$kLIf +i\I3Z" iliqyf
il+ IiC

Mr. Yamakawa asks Mr. Hayashi on the phone if he likes the new
design for the showroom.
Yamakawa: Hello, is this Mr. Hayashi? This is Yamakawa of the M Design Office. We have fin-
ished the showroom design you requested.
Hayashi: Ah, yes. We received the blueprint by fax (just) a little while ago. It looks quite
good to me.
Yamakawa: Are there any problems? If (we) start construction work next week, it'll be fin-
ished by the end of next month.
Hayashi: I see.
Yamakawa: If there are no problems we'd like to start without delay.
Hayashi: As it gets near the end of the year, contractors get (quite) busy, don't they?
Yamakawa: Yes. The earlier the better, I think.
Hayashi: I'm afraid we'd prefer to meet (you) and have one more consultation before (you)
Yamakawa: I understand. If you have tirne, 1'11 come (over) now.
Hayashi: If you can, please do so. The front entrance is closed at six (lit. "when it gets to be
six"). If you go around to the opposite side, there's a back entrance. Please come
in that way.
Yamakawa: Yes, of c o u s e .
Hayashi: The back entrance is open unti1 ten o'clock. I'U be expecting you then. (lit. "I
request you to iactl properly.")
CI Vocabulary

design, plan
someone else's request, commission
be finished/ready/done
blueprint, plan
(polite form of & b i \ 2 L t:)
some-Ianything, some, any
construction work
= if

without delay, directly

end of the year
contractor, supplier,
trader, businessman
if . . . -er/more/less, (then) . . .
visit, ask (polite)
when (particle)
front, face, surface
be closed
l i L t: i \ficb opposite side
iiLt:ii opposite, reverse
-+C+, side

ib(s back entrance

i6 back, reverse (side)
a6L( properly, well, at one's discretion

The I f i l i f i li form is calied the conditional form and is made with verbs, the two types
of adjectives, and nouns as shown below. Note also the negatives (in which practice is
given in the Exercises in this lesson).


/ @,'firbm
aff. neg.
Eh'3t i (Reg. I) ,Ftàla' ,%.htìititzla'

tìadj. iL'Itì ( < L 'lTAitzla') + L ' l T / L'++tì~t&lf

< L ' )t ì b ( l f ) /f<7f: b
noun (rTfiT &&la') fh ai T / L' r t ì i t i t z l f
i ha

atì 4
(la') ,'t:-, t: 4
tì 4la' is found in written Japanese and is a forma1 way of speaking.
To see the conditional in relation to other forms, refer to the verb table in Appendix B.
I2 ... l3r ...
a i t w a ' at\iir<t \ [ \
li T- li T-

This pattern uses the conditional form of an t adjective with the dictionary form of the

same adjective plus l i Y" and leads to a conclusion.

ex. hhh ? l? & l f h? t \ l iY" t \t \T-$, "The larger the better."
For tì adjectives the pattern is $dx ? I * d " b l i Y*
4 i t it \ T t "The quieter the better."
Essentially the same pattern consists of the conditional form of a verb and the dictionary
form of the same verb with l i Y" coming after it.
ex. Ritzla' R b iar' ia L < tì l) 3 t:
"The more (I) look at (it), the more (I) want it."
Particle Z

lfLf:t\d'hI: b
i h
i 4 ,~ d ' & i ) $ t 2
\ "

A clause endmg with Y followed by a main clause with a present form is a way of saying
if or when A happens, B occurs as a natura1 or habitual result. The sense is often "when-
ever." Two points to remember are that Y comes after the dictionary or plain negative
form of a verb, and this pattern is not appropriate for expressing one's own requests,
suggestions, intentions, or the granting of permission. Specifically, it is not used in sen-
tences ending in 7 < f:? t \ . 3 L a i , 3 t f L d x and so on.
ex. l. f t Lid LTCY , < 4< tì "I 3 tc"When the sun sets, it gets dark."

"If you push this button, the machine will (start) running."
Y , t: b , ?A' b and la' are in some cases interchangeable, as when they are translated by
"if," but there are rules and restrictions in the usage of each word. Please refer to the
grarnmar sections on each one.


This word refers to traders, suppliers, and manufacturers who provide goods and ser-
vices to larger enterprises and government organizations. It can be compared with Y i)
V 'i %, which implies a more equa1 relationship.

2. q*
ilX i7

The fina1 few days in December have traditionally been regarded as the period for fin-
ishing the year's business or settling accounts. This feeling still pervades society, even
though the fiscal year for the vast rnajority of companies now extends from Apri1 to
March. People do their best to clear up any outstanding problems within the year so
that they can relax during the New Year's holidays.


1. 1s there any beer?

No. there isn't, but if I call the liquor store they'll bring some over right away.
2. When spring comes, the cherry blossoms come out.
3. As for fish, the fresher the better.

d Vocabulary

% %
i: 6
'r < blossom, flower

I Verbs: Study the examples, convert into the conditional form, and memorize.
ex. i'? < +i"irf [a‘, 4 ' i l 5 - ~ [ f &la‘ &G~-+&~~LIX, +fili

*a-*ktrw, ;tcai+h[f -cta--fk~ir, L ~ i t k ~ l r

I1 Practice the following patterns by changing the underlined parts a s in the
example given.
ex. $ 4 ,R&T l 30% d\d\'j & T o
*3 .;.L

3. RI:
L 0.X
aa. C I 4r.r aa
4. gr4dZ
1)aL z )27 KWI aa h

5. [a, 5 1) ~ a - t i ~b d.x ' ) a - t i ~

I11 Adjectives: Study the example, convert into the conditional form, and memorize.
ex. & ? t \-&71?)2If,
$57 < tìl?)2lf

IV Practice the following patterns by changing the underlined parts a s in the

examples given.
A. ex. Slfit2lf Rl\$-tiLo
R t \ & B d ' , &l$$.rIf
'?-T h' t:+

V Make dialogues by changing the underlined parts as in the examples given.
A. ex. A: A $ - ' Y 9 371: A')&-t)L-t/\O
li i

B: &(jkCIf A 1) i \ Y \ & T,
X? % 3, CC

6. $4
a <d \ l ;

B. ex. E E l q . ; . I ì X , : hid't:t 737-93-1: I73&+-t/\,

1 +- 3

x i x.;,IìX,: V & $ < hkCIf $ 7 C & + ,

VI Make dialogues by changing the underlined parts as in the examples given.

A. ex. A: glSkClf l - i\r\T+ka,
L :r li?


jo a a e ~ u e ~ pa ey e ~'jo asn ayew e&t&
Lpeap (I S "TI
&+l; \\ rare, unusual
b \
a little, few
not delicious
(from) early
Mrs., lady, woman
flower show
baby sitter
be found, find
(house) rent
right in front of (lit. "in front of your eyes")
put in
go out, be extinguished, put out
p d

A: Oh dear, it's 10:30 already. It looks like (1%)be late for the plane.
B: 1%take (you) (lit. "send you off") to the airport by car. If (we) hurry, you'll be in time.
A: Thank you. (lit. "If it is not too much trouble for you to do so, please do so.")


P rclb,c-
Ci Vocabulary

f:\\+k Oh dear!
y!lz!5 ?J be inlon tirne
$5 take, seelsend off, escort
C@\ \h< trouble, inconveniente

p p - - - - - ~ - ~ ~ p ~ p - ~

I Read this lesson's Opening Dialogue and answer the following questions.

4. ABCO i b (a5 l i 1.7eI: Q ~ Y

1) &Itdxo

I1 Put the appropriate word or word parts in the parentheses.

III Complete the questions so that they fit the answers.

QUIZ 185 I
(4-3 Y 4 . 4 3 W ) " C f (1.5 >4'!\Q42x1 ( ) ..TI ( ) .o1
Y 7.1
< 4 P $ Z c # ' 4 $ Y @ = 4 ) "-k-P\12 2 ( ) '.TI ( ) .!l%'6 %
( 4 P G Z C H '4.2-\\lfl) " G P l P ( ) A'-? ',e] ( ) '8
( 4 V l 3 ) "4-3 (l P€# >QL.iI A ( ) 3 'L
'SWJOJ J I I ~ ~ . ] qayi
/ J ) oiu! saari3alp~pui? sqJaa 3upiolloj ayi iJaauo3 AI

~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

S;A*13.Y 6iEEI
$5 $5 L L iA ì 3

Mr. Brown has to keep a diary as a part of his Japanese study.

Era .;.f:hra h a i ) Rtd'i~ ?L+% %lzo
L6 x

Wednesday, December 31
Fair, later cloudy
Today is the (year's) final day. At the Ono house next door, beginning in the morning, every
member of the farnily did (some) cleaning up. Everybody washed (somethingl-the fence, the
car, even the dog.
In the afternoon I wrote New Year's cards in Japanese, but they are probably difficult to
read because of my poor handwriting. In the early evening we went to eat soba with the
(Later) in the evening, I watched television, which I do not ordinanly see very often.
Switching channels one after another, I came across an uproanous show, a samurai period
drama and such like. On Channel 3 they were performing Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. The
other day Nakarnura told me, "Every year when December cornes around Beethoven's Ninth
Symphony is performed al1 over Japan." Interesting country!

Thursday, January 1
I salute the New Year in Japan! The city has few people or cars and is very quiet. Because
factories and cornpanies (are) on vacation, Tokyo's usually dirty air is clean. (What a) good feel-
ing! The neighborhood stores and the superrnarket are ail closed, too. Where have those rush-
hour, white-collar workers and students gone, I wonder?
New Year's cards came from Japanese coueagues and friends. They came from business
associates, too. Most were printed ones, but some were written with a bmsh as well. Quite
beautiful, as one would expect. Of the cards (I) received, alrnost aii have lottery (nurnbers) on

Ci Vocabulary

last day of year
Japanese surname
fence, wall
( h a n d h t i n g , character, letter
poor, unskillful
difficult, awkward
farnily, household
buckwheat noodles
one after another, in turn
uproarious, noisy
period drama
show, play
Ninth (Syrnphony)
( p r e f i for ordina1 numbers) VOCABULARY 191
%L+?-$& perform
%A,+? performance, recital
%B the other day
@ LC 7

every year

%S& aii over, various districts

*.< 6
L LtlL
new year
t;\ \-L very
Z i l i ~ i factory
a :*ha beibecome dirty
3filf; feeling
iLC k

kLQ ali, everything

37-i177- msh hour
Y3'J-72 white-coliar (salaried) worker
C<n)t:4i 15, I wonder
\\A,? 7 printing
.;.T bmsh
?/i 'J = ? -> ia" iJ (just) as welyou expected

i 7 <L i \ beautiful
iarkr alrnost
< L ;:
ali, every
< L-3 with lottery
<li lottery
-7- with,attached, included

Plain style
In this course, the plain forms of verbs have up to this point been used only in the mid-
dle of sentences. As the fina1 verbs in sentences, the plain forms are tied into, and are
the main indicators of, the level of politeness. The plain style is used, for example, in a
diary, a thesis, or in informal speech.
In informal speech there is a great variety of usage, related to the sex and age of the
speakers and their relationships. Situation and topic may also be factors influencing the
level of formal~tyand politeness of forms and diction. Read the Short Dialogues in this
and the following lessons carefdly and note how the speech levels depend upon these


The following table summarizes these expressions, most of which have already been
T T / 3 T style plain style
1 Rt: ZYd< h i j & s t o * & i % Rt: :Yds $521~ AFE-
H+,ld, n'i~t~.
( , ia>i APX-
t;H5d, ?i~t:.,

3 . it:+h?,.
< * ' r i i n x ~ ~ t i t t ~w~
$ , *. ~ . i i * ' r i ‘ d . t ~ t i t ì i i .

l . T4t:tl.b %Al:< i \ t < 4 j o

C -. t: I
I: <iadded to the & st stem of a verb gives the meaning "difficult," "hard," "awk-
ward," and so on. In this context the translation can be "illegible." The opposite is Y'ib
i \, as in %k Y'ib i "legible, easy to read." Both Y ' t ii and l: < i are themselves

inflected in just the same way as 1 i adjectives, e.g., % k I:

<< 'r i "not hard to read."
2 . l 1 : q73t:0
t: ' i d . ,.-id.

+ lf in many varieties is everyday fare in Japan. The buckwheat noodles prepared espe-
cially for New Year's Eve go by the name of Y L Z L I f , s i g m n g the passing ( Z L ) +
of the year ( Y L ), thus by implication the irnminent arriva1 of the New Year.
... e;flJil-f'3$ ?
~ . + T ; / ; ~ - I L $t / . i k 4 ~
C tfi'
In addition to the Y . . . & T pattern (p. 154, there is the Y . . . iL t: pattern mean-
ing "A did X and then discovered Y" or "X happened and then Y occurred."
ex.LL*'lX.dZ jft&Y,5?4$a> A l i ' 1 ht:L&Lt:.
CI t K i it?lt Vr

"When Yamamoto came, the receptionist handed hirn (his) umbreiia."

In conversation, '7 -> 7 i & is by far the most comrnon way of saying something is on
TV, is being produced on stage, and so on. if the time is the future, Y' & is used.

As noted in Lesson 1, Z , +
and h words are not iimited to the tangible or what is
irnmediately at hand. The expanded usage of h can denote "that which both you and I
know about." In this sentence, ha> underscores the unforgettableness of the rush hour
subway experience.
5. t b ~ f : $aLt/'La ? l i L q$
@L i:
< L9$T&40
Christmas cards are sent in Japan but in nowhere near the quantities of the more tradi-
tional New Year's cards (over 3 billion in one recent year). These regular-size but spe-
cially printed postcards bearing lottery numbers go on sale at post offices in November.
if mailed by the deadline (around December 20), they are delivered on New Year's Day.
The lottery is held every year, on or around the second Sunday of January, and the
lucky winners receive things like bicycles or portable radios or consolation prizes of
commemorative postage stamps.
The ending of this sentence, T b 5, is the equivalent of T $ and belongs to a bookish
style of writing.


1. Yesterday was warm so I went swirnrning with my friend.

2. When I opened the box, it (the inside) was empty.

U Vocabulary

I Practice the following patterns by changing verbs and adjectives as in the

examples given.

"=4lTYSl 3 &@C-
t :C:v
0 . 4 33* -xa 'a
17 f a
4.24 A . n )o/ PIY 'C
4 . L Y S l TI 4 -o/.& .P
4 6 7 2
L :P(! G P f i l C 'I
$.LC@ >p11-.i=1 P I Y C - Y z Y 'i:
L I Y I @%' 'P
Y Vocabulary
dance, dancing
tax office
office, bureau
large surn of money
fermented soybeans
easy to put on
put on, wear (shoes, pants, etc.)
easy to
consdt, look up in
come in
outside, exterior, outer
strong box, safe, vadt

Man A: Have you already seen that movie?

Man B: Uhn-un, not yet. How about you?
Man A: Un, I saw (it).
Man B: How was it?
Man A: Not very interesting.


3 iaa28a +%[la 0-f 0 + f i Z ~< 7 ~ r t ì ~ f : ~
t;YZ h ? 1-t, fiif ?

mfiia r,s\t: %?.i<

3: ii A,. Y " Z I - f , 3 8 1à a>X,2Fi) L +:\\h,

Woman: New Year's will soon (be here), won't it? Which day do you work until? (lit. "[Yourl
work [isl until when?")
Man: Until December 28. The end of the year is always (so) busy. It's horrible!
Woman: Are you going someplace for New Year's?
Man: No, nowhere. (I) want to take it easy.

Q Vocabulary

uhn-un, nope, no (informal)

you (informa1 men's speech)
un, un-huh, yeah (informal)
not very (colloquial £or 6 'I )
New Year's
horrible, nasty, unwelcorne
(informal contraction of L" Z 8,)
take it easv

I Read this lesson's opening passage and answer the following questions.

198 QUIZ
* '.l*
I1 Complete the questions so that they fit the answers.

I11 Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the words indicated.

TV Answer the following questions.

QUIZ 199

l iC 2%

Mr. Johnson wants to find out whether giving flowers to a woman

friend is an acceptable practice in Japan.
Johnson: Yes. But she's not a special girlfriend.
Suzuki: It's not strange. It's (quite) OK. (Are you going on) a date? That's nice. (I'm jealous.)
Johnson: Urnm well . . .

Johnson: I'm thinkuig of sendmg flowers to a friend. Can you take care of it?
Florist: Yes, of course. Delivered, you say? We can do that. What's the delivery day (you
have in rnind)?
Johnson: Please deliver (them) tomorrow.
Florist: Certainly.
Johnson: How much are these roses?
Florist: Y250 each.
Johnson: Al1 right. I'd like twenty of them. (They're) meant to be a birthday gift, so would you
include this card and deliver (them)?

Miss (Keiko) Tanaka,

Happy birthday!

Florist: Yes, of course. Where should they be delivered to?

Johnson: Yokohama.
Florist: There'll be a Y500 delivery charge. 1s that al1 right?
Johnson: OK.

LI Vocabulary

(voiitional form)
strange, funny
/Q special, extraordinary
t:i \ 1 j I';, (Q) al1 nght
send (a present)
intention, purpose
include (lit. "attach")
consignee, destination
Yokohama (city)
deiivery charge, postage
al] right

k ivolitional form

Verbs ending in L i (plain form) and 3 L a i are in the volitional form and, in general.
are translatable by "1'11," "we'ii" or "let's." As in other cases, the usage of plain forms at
the ends of sentences indicates familiar speech.
ex. 9 7 9 - T i7 :i "Shall we go by taxi?"
4 4 \ 2 .
Z i L "Since (it's) close, let's walk."
As for the volitional form of Regular I verbs, note Z i in the example and keep
in mind the correlation with the a, i, u, e, o vowel order.

&t fom dictionary form volitional form

Reg. I S
fi <
iI&t $25
$ 3 $7'- s< s: i
& ~ & t $i 9%i
Reg. 11 &[?'&t Aif5 AifL i
lr sr' i S & t Sr r'i f 25 gr ri t a i
E&+ 2.6 $a i
Irreg. +&t *L i
i&+ 4-25 Lai

9 & l) is actuaiiy a noun and is much used in this pattern to show intent or purpose.
ex. 1. +Eì
I L l r
L P JR&-f4', $h+d.r\?& 1) Tt,
"Mr. Yoshida is coming today, but I don't plan to see him."
2. A L t: 3 l F8 1) & t 'Wiil you go back to Tokyo tomorrow?"
7 +li
Z Z , +a> ? & l I T t , "Yes,Iintendto."
Polite expressions
The polite expressions in this lesson can be compared with others previously introduced.
.L 4 L i \ T + 4\ is the sarne as r \ i \ T t 4 \ but is more polite. The appropriate response
isnot L 4 L r \ T t , b u t i f 9 Z i T$, r \ r \ T t , o r s i m p l y l i \ \ .
%Frlf T T 4 \ "1s it to be delivered?" In this case, too, prefacing the verb with the honorific
-L is one way of expressing politeness or respect. (See p. 23.)
ex. l. r -LIR
1) T t 4.. When are you coming back?"

2. l i++
5 L [i t L % L 4 Z 2b.T L t:. "Mrs. Hayashi was very pleased."


f "*
meaning a s 7 <#
& -tfk
i 7 ) - but is more polite.
- p - -


1. I intend to study Japanese every day.

2. If it clears up tomorrow, (1) plan to play tennis.

Lì Vocabulary

lih6 clear up

I Verbs: Study the examples, convert into the volitional form, and memorize.
ex. ;3<+;3Z i &<3+&4a j jft3-sRLi
6. ti <
%i-%;t;$ - -63-Lai

l. lR3 (return) 4. ;t;la'23 7. 1-I: '1 3

b.* b.

I1 Make dialogues by changing the underlined parts as in the example given.

ex. Q: 4 8 E?+5 LI: &i \&- ~ X J \ ~
4 1 ; t f i b . h

0 Vocabulary

SITR 6 remember, memorize

11 a i ')+a COO~

a i 1) food
Y 6 take a vacation
(5Y"dfic) 7 s 6 have a baby, become pregnant
find spare time
feilure, mistake
try hard
take (a person)
take, bring, be accompanied by
help, assist

Section Chief: On the way home shall we have a drink?

Ogawa: My wife has a cold today.
Section Chief: If it's just a short one, it'il be OK (I think).
Ogawa: No, it's really out of the question.
Section Chief: 1s it now? Oh well then, I give up.


Kato: Are you going to take part in this year's Japanese speech contest?
Brown: Yes, I intend to, but if I cannot do enough preparation, I wiii probably do it next year.

tl Vocabulary
;t- i dt = -t- i T-$$,
h ? $636 give up, be resigned
z ' - # ~ ~ T t-z speech contest
2 i9-$. speech
32TXÌ- contest
&6 participate, be a contestant
L n i .L
C YPLS preparation

I Read this lesson's Opening Dialogue and answer the following questions.

I1 Convert the following verbs into their volitional form.

208 QUIZ
I11 Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs indicated.

IV Choose a sentence appropriate to the situation described.

A. Congratulate a friend for passing his exarnination.

B. You want to ask your section chief if it's al1 right to call him very late
tomorrow evening.

QUIZ 209

t, . ,#- d
.suo!)sanb $uyo110~
ay) xaMsq A
.qoF xnob )!nb o) puaw! op b~lieaxnob $u.Cies bq uo!)sanb i? xaMsuie noA .a
O.P-&..Z (I L e& i,:%& FIY1 'E:
.ar.uoy ) a $ ~ ay
~ y
am!) ) E ~ Msxnob 30 axn?)u!enbm uie 30 aj!M ay) ysie nob auoyd ay) u o '3

- -


r L k d ~ L

Mr. Chang and his neighbor, Daisuke, go for a walk together.

Chang: What's that?
Daisuke: It's a library.
Chang: Can anyone use it?
Daisuke: Yes, of course. Anyone can go in. You can get books and look at them, so it's very
easy to use.
Chang: That's nice. Choosing books by looking through (the card catalogue) is difficult for me.
Daisuke: But I suppose you can read kanji, can't you?
Chang: Yes. I understand the meanings. But I like libraries where I myself can look at the
books and choose.
Daisuke: It's in a slightly inconvenient location, but it's roomy and quiet, so it's a pleasant
Chang: Can you borrow books and make photocopies?
Daisuke: Yes. If you go through the formalities, you can borrow books. At present I have bor-
rowed two books.
Chang: Can you borrow newspapers and magazines, too?
Daisuke: No, you can only borrow books. But you can ask for photocopies of newspapers and
magazines. We can get there in a couple of rninutes, so shall we go (there) now?

LI Vocabulary

male given name

anyone, everyone, someone
of course
can go in
get, take in one's hands
can see
difficult, poor at
can read
can choose
but, however
formality, procedure
can borrow
(counter for books)
can ask
can get io, reach, can go

Potential form of verbs

Potentiality can be expressed by the verb T 2 5 and also by the pattern Z Z 71' T 5
b . (See Book I for the first and p. 38 for the latter.) In addition, many verbs have a

fina1 u of Regular I verb is replaced by eru, for example, C -

potential form made by conjugation. It will be noted that in terms of pronunciation, the
4 , "can read," "be
readable." And iì i,.i: -. A 4 ib, "can choose," "can be chosen." (Aithough it is techni-
cally correct to call b and A b b dictionary forms, in the great majority of cases
this form does not appear in bilingual dictionaries since the verbs are made by regular
transformations of other verbs.)

Regular I
Q\1 2-f I conditional 11 7 ti

Potential verbs conjugate the same as Regular I1 verbs but have no volitional form.
Other examples: %T{ +%Tltb,%$ -.%-tib,~@b ~ i)'z ~ fi < ~-.$)24,f
~ b
{ , ~
sita,xs xita
l i i,
- i ii
i i 'i l i 'i i),%

The foliowing sentences compare the meanings of the verb and its potential form:
ex. 1. f t 2 'I L l i EiSE l: A l) 2 T . "Chang enters the library."
LL i)'L
t Iii,

2. f t 2 'ILii EiSt%l:
L L t +,,L
lt, 2 -f, "Chang can enter the library."
For Regular I1 verbs add i; 6 to the stem of the t form as, for example, i

R+d't -. J$ b il6, "can see," "can be seen," and 'I 7Cb t -. 4% O b 6 , "can borrow,"
"can be borrowed." The Irregular + 6 becomes i;#t 6 ,"can come," and 8 6 is
replaced by T 3 6.
An easier, more practical way to make this form is to insert b )2 (or sometimes only il
in colloquial usage) between the stem and the fina1 6, 3 8, t:,etc.
ex. & I : b & 6 , & " . b ) 2 a ~ t b , & i b h & 8 , & i b ) 2 f :

Regular I1 and Irregular

ii $8 conditional

8 6 -. T $ 6 : ex. Y"4 4 $11

H L 2 8 , "Children use (it) too."

-f Y"t 4 $11H T 3 2 8 , "Children can use (it) too."

'I I +

The topic or subject of a potential verb can be either animate or inanimate. For exam-
ple, Z 0 t i7 li L < 3 )2- 2 T . "This knife cuts well."
ex. 1. 2 E 25 L li S.),l ? dC C %& 2 8 , "Smith can read Sino-Japanese characters."
2. Z 0 i Y 7L ,!l" { 7 %& 2 +iLmeans "the letters are unreadable."
Potential verbs have customarily taken the particle d\ but recently % has also come
into use.
ex. l # r 2 5 Lli 1 % 8 & 2 8 "Chang can read SineJapanese characters."

2. $ d i / 5 I% 1) b )2 a 'You can borrow books."

3. 3 ko- dPl% it; 0 6 2 8 , "(You) can ask for copies."
When it comes to a choice between the potential form and Z Y d C T 3 6 , it can be
said that the former, being slightly shorter, is often preferred. # r 2 5 L li EiSE
r L i i).A
b Z Y d P 7 . 3 2 8 ,although grarnrnatically correct, sounds a bit stiited. Stiii the
forms are interchangeable, and it is not necessary to be overly cautious concerning the
differences between them.
ex. 1. 2 E L li L4%l ?,A
25 KraJ d P 8&2 8 , '5mith can read a Uapanese) newspaper."
4 T l f l f , 1 0 +( I Li i* Ìi 0 %
M$ 8
LA.;:A I
ZYdC T 3 & f o
'H (you) go to the library, (you) can read newspapers from ten years ago."


l. T -f-t.;/5LIi S $ d z %bj&-T'La i .
i)X L

When used like this, T L h i normally has a rising tone and implies, "I suppose (some-
thing). Aren't I right?"

I ? E' is a colloquial shortening of l? ì- and I t & Y i, , meaning "although," "but." In

some contexts al1 these are comparable to the particle d' and convey no particular
meaning. (See Book I, p. 76.)
ex. i, L i, L , 9 3 2,)2 7 T 1 5 t / i ? Y . / l ? & ~ ' ~ / l ? & E " i , , i t i \ T 3L l i

3.&i\L L i\i\-T'PLo
IrS Lf

Before the connective L, plain forms can occur as well as TT and the t form. (See
p. 51.)

g'j &)2$-tfko
L 15\ with a negative means "only," "merely," emphasizing that besides X there's noth-
ing else. This contrasts with the usage of i, to emphasize how many or much. (See p.
227, Note 4.)
ex. 1. 5 \\.;,a> Ipl- 2000W L15' h l! $-tfL, "Ionly haveY2000inmypurse."
*I i). ZX
2. 5%l: L 15. ! ì -tf L T L t:. "I visited Kyoto only."
17 !
I r i r

5. 2 . 3
3 X
% m
~ a-6a.
One way to indicate the time or money required is with the pattern T plus potential
form. In meaning, this sentence forms a pair with 2 3 .'B\ L 15. 4\15. l! 3 -tf L,rather
than 2 . 3 71\15\11 $ T .
ex. h 17lfli' 4000WT R ; i & T L ,
/i Q r A. i),

"At that store (it) can be bought for Y4000."


1. Mr. Brown can speak Japanese.
2. If they go through the formalities, anybody can borrow books.
3. Watanabe eats only vegetables.

I Verbs: Study the examples, convert into the potential form, and memorize.
ex. e<-+%lfb \ \ 3 - + t \ G k t 6 ;~a-&~kt&
Slf Q i t\GktQi\ \ &r;ktQi\

I1 Make dialogues by changing the underlined parts as in the examples given.

A. ex. Q: P\ElSì7
+:t,: ':
j t i t:k a-kd.,

l.:a> %
b,L L
2. A L t : $h4? 7 G l C &d>lfa

3. 9hEìAO
%t $2. % T
r):i.: (
<- gla'ita
4. B*%T
I . IiL :
B. ex. Q: R a q l C $ hb?>r;ktaTr/\,

4. o o - 1oSai-r iaLa
C. ex. Q: V G d ' Q t tb.L c

W& 1 ' = 4 G . Z C @ I Y V > T -2
Yr z,\
MOOS ' 4 \ 1 Z L # Y % > - 4 3%9 +'I
Lì Vocabulary

foreign language
international telephone call
second (counter)

A: I have to find one more receptionist for the meeting. Can anyone come to help the day after
B: (If I'm good enough) I can come.
A: Thank you (lit. "you save me"). Please do.

D Vocabulary

help, assistance
be relieved, be saved

I Read this lesson's Opening Dialogue and answer the following questions.

Zifì8 OZZ
.sasay)ua~eday) s p ~ ao) e~! ~ d o ~ d day)
e )nd 11
> : Y .>:J YCI 1
( y ~ f
(,q) O ( ) :]&v @i ' ~ 1 V C i r i (..&&.
l I J I W -6
k g 't.
DE 11'-
PZ'C C 3
,t ' t
-.3 '
"t 7
C/ ,"
Have you heard the term sakura zensen? The flower typifying spring in Japan is, undoubt-
edly, sakura, the cherry blossom. As spring approaches, people predict the day the cherry
(trees) will blossom and agree with friends on a day to go blossom viewing.
Japan is an island country extenàing in a long (line) from south to north. Kyushu, Shikoku,
Honshu, Hokkaido-there's quite a difference in temperatures, so the day the cherries blos-
som àiffers somewhat, too. In the southern part of Kyushu the cherries bloom around the end
of March, but in Hokkaido they bloom around the beginning of May. Thus, the cherry blossom
"front," a line starting in the south of the Japanese archipelago and (moving) north, shows the
state of the cherry trees' blossoming. This takes as long as forty days.
In adàition to the cherry blossom front there are other flower fronts, such as the apricot
blossom front and the azalea front. Apricots start in Kyushu a whole lot earlier than the cherry
trees, but they reach Hokkaido at almost the same time (as the cherries). Therefore, if (you)
travel to Hokkaido in early or mid May, (you) can see (various) spring flowers at the same
time. On the other hand, when it gets to be auturnn the autumn leaves front makes its way
from north to south, dyeing the trees in the mountains crirnson or yellow.
With flower viewing in the spring, maple (leaf) excursions in the autumn and so on, people
enjoy each season (in turn).

9 Vocabulary

cherry blossom front

typify, represent
prediction, estimate
(cherry) blossom viewing
well, incidentally
extend, stretch, postpone
island country
Shikoku (place name)
Honshu (place name)
(air) temperature
differ, be different
southern part
beginning, first
thus, in this way
way, manner
be (in the process of ) blooming
state, circumstance, appearance
show, express
in addition to
apricot, Japanese plum
such as
and so forth
a whole lot, al1 the tirnelway
therefore (same as f:d' b)
IlovpX, first third of the month
L L i

QLvph second third of the month

G a i

-71'4 - 1 ; d'l? 7 from . . . to . ..

auturnn (lit. "red") leaves
be advancing
maple leaf excursion
excursion, hunting

Supplemental vocabulary
4 ~ L t LO?
a a species of cherry
day of blooming
i\?li+;iT a species of maple
ZiLiv: day the leaves turn

I. &a#&,
z i L i q#&
5 i h+!Liih iihrih

These i%,@
are analogous to warm and cold weather fronts, so perhaps it is not surpris-

ing that information on their progress comes from the 3 L L i S L i , the Meteoro-
logica1 Agency. Arnong its weather-related functions are predicting the harvest time of
fruits, but predictions and reports on the $ i and Z i L i are the most eagerly awaited.
* < h

The harbinger for the many varieties of cherry blossoms is the species known as -T- id>
\ \ L L D , a n d f o r m a p l e s i t i s \\/;li
2. $2
? < h

i L L 0 only blooms for a very short period, from five to ten days. If it rains or is

windy, which is typical spring weather in Japan, the blossoms may al1 fa11 overnight.
'i h
More literally this means "No matter what anyone says . . ."

The particle 'L here emphasizes the number of days the cherry blossom front takes as
it moves from the south to the north of Japan. This use of 'L reflects the speaker's
feelings of "so many" or "so much."
11 V -* \ 7T \ < o (llit.) "The flowers bloom progressively."
Adding i < , which means "to go," to the 7 form of verbs indicates the continuous
progress of the action.
ex. 1 i 108 "i; ,,89 *t*
Y tLTi13 3 B o
"Swallows fly (lit. "go flying") south in October."
i ' & C
l i ZI
xdT Chd'L607'$o
l i a'

D TB is equivalent to L TB but less colloquial. (See p. 117.)

7. *k
-i -i

The kanji h indicates the repetition of the syllable(s) coming immediately before it,
sometimes with a phonetic change. Nouns in Japanese are generally written and pro-
nounced the same whether singular or plural (as noted in Characteristics of Japanese
Grammar in Book I), but this is one way of specifying plurality. Other examples: E h .
l14' li'&

"flowers"; E!h , "countries"; & h , "islands"; LL h , "mountains"; +k h , "we." (See Book 111,
( f: < ': L J L * ? ' Z ?'it htt hil

Lesson 1.)
Words made plural with suffixes are comparatively few and must be learned as they are
encountered. ;k> +d~ 7': 27, for example, is one way of pluralizing "you." From familiar to
d t:

formal, there are a number of words for "we," such as If < i;,$h 7':
S (the most com-
mon) and $h 'f' t (humble/formal).
hi: L

8.SI: ia , i a t A L +<i)
i1 6 11.' i hl

When things are listed or enumerated, it is sometimes permissible to omit predicates

and, in fact, this can create a dramatic effect.

I Read this lesson's opening passage and answer the following questions.


A: Plain Forms and Connective Patterns

The plain adjective and verb forms given in the charts below are used in a nurnber of patterns. Excep
tions, which occur only in the case of a Q adjective or a noun followed by f:, are shown in boxes.



Reg. I1
;R4 l
i \Q\
\ * \t:

Adjectives, Noun + T f

I I Present I Past I

Four connective patterns using the following words and phrases are encountered in Book 11.

1. Basic Pattern
Before L , L%?, L ( , etc., verbs and adjectives end in the plain form without exception.

2. Noun-modifying Pattern
Nouns (Lesson 71, L 3 , la h i (Lesson 121, 9 t 'I (Lesson 18).
When these words are modified, the following exceptions occur:
After Q adj.: %d, L j i? / L , etc. <
After noun: Z L"t 0 $/
li A.
L 3 , etc.
3. T L a i Pattern
7 L I i (Lesson 81, f: 6 i (Lesson 131, d' t L )2 ib \ (Lesson 13)
6' adjectives and nouns plus f i are exceptions. The stem of Q adjectives and nouns comes directly
before these words.
ib adj.: e d ' T L I i (after the stem)
noun: L"t T L a i

4. Q 0 7" Pattern
0 1 T - b (Lesson 11). 0 7" (Lesson 13).
Q adjectives and nouns plus f: are exceptions.
Q adj.: 07"

Index: la ;b> i \ (2), f : 4 i (31, 7" L h i (31, 1)' 'L L k1. 3 -eL (31, 0 7" (41, 0 1 7-b (41, noun (21,
Y i \ i / M i,$ i i-, f: 2 4 (11, Y ? (21, 3 'L 1) (2).
Notes: The number in the parentheses refer to the pattern number.
For other words and phrases, such as ?A' 1)' 6 , Q 7 'L i \ i\, Z Y 1)'h b , which follow other
forms, refer to their connective pattern in the grarnrnar sections of the respective lessons.

B: Grammatica1 Patterns and Common Constructions

"4-P &t4
A 7%,.V 4<q ?n E
'I@+ Lf1$ TIY %N$ - 'L- 8C
"147 p 131% ' L f 1I$$ 3% CD2r - '.L/l- LS p1 =ossa7
Lesson l 7 68 Plain Style

69 -r. -a L~I ma: xar. z:g;3: 72~7

? V lfi, TLh

t\& Lfzo

Lesson 19 7 4 Potential

Lesson 20 78 -7 \ 3 af i9jf,\&
* ** *
? t:
li +r
3 $0

C: Verb Conjugations
Except for the two irregular verbs { ? and 6 ,al1 verbs belong to either the Regular I or Regular I1
category and conjugate as in the foilowing tables. The 7l f z form comes from the & form, but

euphonic changes occur in the case of most Regular I verbs. Note the last sound of the & stem is


- d
I1 JeImax
C\ 1 S! ) \ 1 JO ~ J O J
1 aqL .uo!lda2xa auo JaquIauIax :aloN
71 Y'P
CPCf ( D L - 1% Q "4$!11\14 . L \ j Q
L > I ~ { TI$ (DYE 0 4 . . ~ \ 1 4 \ ~ ~
z>Y TI/:L~X
irjrita *lYl
1 (D? '2 " t ) G.?4 > Z (1 ce ..zxl+g'1 l (D: '1 A
:I :'t '.,p ':l'P > p ':l '(D '2.E (D '?\4'Z 3 '2 ( D I1
" k ~ ~ :i) (bl 2 3 1 ( ~ 7 2 3 (D)
T uossaq
s uossay
p uossay
E uossay
:Q '6 1 4 8 1 '1 ' L 'I 'CD '9
3 ' 3 'C s4 'CD 'CD ' P l 'a4 ' > 4' I l z 3 C D l T I1
ZI uossay
(D s (D ' 3 'P >P '(D 'I (D ',P ' Z \P ' > 4 '1 I1

h i -'< -> greeting, address, 39 i ' t: ti5 % (phrase used before eating), 133
h d ' / 3% crimson, scarlet, 226 i :'7 ti <
accept, receive (politer than 6 4 j1,147
h d' 6 i bright, 21, 56 i \ G I z G;-R (in)aday,lO
h fi 4dj 6 give up, be resigned, 208 i b 6 k l k LYP j - / - ~ ~ a l l y e a r r o u n d , 2 8
< be vacant, be empty, i 6 ifk / -& most, number one, 7
(bel open, l28 i -> d \ / ' -efamily, household, 191
hit"6. +If6 raise,79 L d. i I f k d j i \ a s h a r d a s o n e c a n , 5 9
h L ;/Wleg, foot, 68 i -> 7 2 i \ 'I 2 % good-bye, 99

A % 4' 6 //%d' 6 take care of, keep, 141 ' -> T 6 any-/sometime, 135
h % lf 6 ,'% 1-f 6 deposit, entrust, 167 i -> 7 4 -> L r i good-bye, 99
-la'/-ltdtlf if,178 i ' -> /a"\ full, 146
$5 ji .;C play, 33 i -> 6 always, 153
h t: t: d ' i \ warm, 56 i \ ,,' dog, 171
t: 2 d'i t i bright, clever, 21 i 2 0 i 6 l-/+n i 6 1- right away, before
-> bJ 6 gather, collect, assemble, 159 it's too late, 62
h Y /'?& rest, 63 i / meaning, 214
h Y T/'?&T later, afterward, 99 (Q) horrible, nasty, unwelcome, 198
7t3 2 A announcement, 153 i' 4i request, commission, 178
h o &er, 28 i 4 -> L r 6 (polite form of < 6 ./'&6 ,
T /T- b apartment, 56 i < ,/'%T< , i i 61,167
U" 6 bathe, 34 6 need. 104
$5 .i:'A' i dangerous, 120 0 d t 6 / X d t B putin,184
h 2 ') not very, 198 i 6 / fd color, 62

$5 dj / 'I% rain, 89 t ' 6 li 4 . 2 7 a species of maple, 227

h 4 Oh! (women's speech), 99 i -'< 7 printing, 192

h 4 i /#t i wash, 34 4 A b 7 5" 5' - instructor, 28

h 4 h % /& % show, express, 226

h k L k / g 1 ~ ~ e a c e o f m i n d ; L A-6 3 i A 3.- whiskey, 57
6, '$(C% 6 be relieveci1 relaxed, 39 '? - IL wool, 16
h kt! A / * S safe, 120 i + , , ) Cj visit,
. ask (polite), 178
h i guidante; h k Q i \ % 6 show i l f 6 ,.'%i? 6 take (an examination), receive,
around, 28 undergo, have, 99
i Z' 3 2 h 6 ,., fi E J 6 move around, 153
i ' 2 ,/& house, home, 86 ? Z' < //% < run, move, operate, 89
i 3 /%TC going, 7 i L 6 / ?&6back, 15
-i 3 /%Tbound for, 93 i t: song; ? t: ? sing, 33
i < -> how old (for a person), 58 ? 6 C L,,' h deposit, partial payrnent, 128
i 'If If Q / Y l f Z flower arranging, 34 6 D our, 49
(-7li) \\If'si~mustnot99 iG YP j universe; i 6 YP i V Z i L
\ L" d. more than, 86 astronaut, 56
i 4 <" /' <"
,% hurry, 33 7 <
L i beautiful, 192
2 horse, 16 L 2 f good-bye, 63
i 2 )2 6 / Y 2 )2 6 be born, 121 k; L .t.K i) f 4 chat, 79
dh apricot, Japanese plurn, 226 k; L 1 i - h ' ~ / k ; X 8 NewYear's,198
i 6 back, reverse (side); 6 <' 6 ' 6D k; f push, 184
back entrance, 178 k; f 's ?i 6 07, 'k;* 3 Q%?Jthing(s) you like, 28
i 's )2 / 3 ') 3 )2 sold out, 86 k;+khI:?ia ';f;w%l:Q4 beunderthe
)2 L delighted, happy, 141 care of, be indebted to, 141
i 7 driving; 7 f 4 drive, 33 k; ? iL 3 funeral, l34
i Y" iexercise; i Y' if 4 exercise, 171 k; ? )2 i 2 f excuse me, be sorry (polite), 128
k; f: i \ L 1: / % h $ I:Take care of yourself, 63
2 Oh dear (excalamation of surprise), 141 k; % 4 drop, fall, 22; fail, 159
2 \d'L h/%??$% spoken English, 121 k; 7 Y husband, 184
2 2 Y let me see, 160 k; Y sound, 184
2 3 L \ L/',% E station employee, 15 k; Y f lose, drop, 22
2 Y" L \/ %F Edo period, 111 k; Y Y'lf/k;%if delivery,203
2 6 \ important, illustrious, eminent, 154 k; Y Y"1f 5 3 /%%l? # consigee,
2 6 .i: choose, 80 destination, 203
z L ? iperformance, recitai: X X, ? if 4 k; Y Y L year before last, 116
perform, l92 k; Y ?i,/hh adult, 93
2 pencil, 104 k; Y" 5 < be surprised, 159
2 1 reserve, restraint, diffidente; 2 L %?iI'/m L same, 141
1 ?i without hesitationlreserve, 147 z
k; li +A' / k; E (cherry) blossom viewing, 225
k; 2 Y ibox lunch, 34
k; L < 7 how old (for a person), 58 k; 13 2 4 remember, memorize, 207
k; k; L \ / 9 L many, much, 86 k; 1 3 k / k; O-Bon (midsumrner festival), 86
k; k;+k \ hordesllots of people, 86 k; A I?'souvenir, 133
f - k / 4 motorcycle, 219 k; dh T Y i5'2<'L 2 f congratulations, 203

f - f'- OB (old boy), alumnus/i, 153 k; 6 i \/L heavy, 79

k; k; A ? -h\ last day of year, 191 k; 6 i/,%i think, 86
k; -h\ 6 5 2 k; 5 2 (someone eise's) k; 6 7/& front, face, surface, 178
mother (polite), 121 k; a <' swim, 28
k; -h\ 2 Q 5 \ welcome home, 105 k; 6 f withdraw, 104
k;-h,lf"'c 2 7"Thankyou,68 k; f L warm water; k; f L 7'- )L heated

k; -h, L L strange, funny, 203 (swimming) pool, 28

k; 's V <5 client, guest, visitor, 91
k; 2 4 3 4 get up, wake up, 21; happen, -h, or (particle), 63
occur, 146 d,,/i)C Tuesday, 34
k; put, set up, 44 --h\/% lesson (counter), 79
;h' { 5 2 (someone else's) wife (polite), 111 -h'/% section, 49
k; 'I 6 m / % <
gift, 141 fi - F credit card, 99; greeting card, 141
k; 6 send (a present), 203 fl'- )L 7 1/ F girifriend, 141
k; 4 /% 4 take, seelsend off, escort, 185 --h h side, 178
k; )2 4 be late, 104 -h\ /m time(s) (counter), 34
k; z 5 L,/k;'-f 5 X, (someone else's) -h\\ L k / & E club/society member, 167
child (ren), 58 -h\ L -h\ U;'/ Eì day of bloorning, 227
k;5 3 I C L 7 ) 2 L \ L a f / k ; # l : L 7 ) 2 \ \ -h'\ \ Z < Z " / Yb 2 foreign language, 219
d \ \ \ h/&;%conversation, 121 ? :" %i. feeling: ? I Z i l) 2 L f: / %i. l :A 1)
d\ ,/l% l/ coming back, returning, 7 L f: wasiis satisfactory, 28
d' 6 change, 49 ? i 4 ./'#Eyellow, 226
d\ ;f; face, 62 ? ;ì5 go out, be extinguished, put out, 184
d, k; i 6 complexion, 62
\ ? k; L (air) temperature, 225
d'd' l ) ./i% person in charge, 128 ? d ' i machine, equipment, 146

d' ? bj registered mail, 99 ? d'i opportunity, occasion, 122

d\ < % //&f& al1 over, various districts, 192 ? d \ L system, 7
d, lf 6 call, 16; wear, put on (glasses), 79 ? T , / * & trees, 226
d\ ZScage, basket, 111 ? z A 5 .'' Brfl Z A 6 can hear, be audible, 153
dx L Z 2 I) 2 L f: certainly, 128 ? -ti1 homecoming; ? -tii i-6 6 return to

d' L ?//d' L E confectioner, confectionary, 142 one's home/birthplace, 86

d.-6 lend, 80 ? !t- 7 season, 226
- d' f: ,/?7 way, how to, 50 ? f: /"jL north, 11
d\-kk a cold; d ' e 5 catch a cold, 56 ? f : a \ dirty,56
d'-t? wind, 197 ? h silk, 57
d' f: hard, 183 ? donation, contribution; ? 6 donate,
d, f: +'l? 5 put away, tidy up, 81 contribute, 172
dx% a i section chief, 80 ? k you (informa1 men's speech), 198
dC7 d' be disappointed, 159 ? bj 6 /%%@I 6 decide, 49
d'Q h 7 be sure to, certainly, 128 ?6 %./'%.e % feeling, 192
d c L-6 5 endure, be patient, 105 ? 6 03 /?ikimono,
$% 153
d \ k hair, 21 ? rp ? i C /,% i suddenly, 121
d' k paper, 15 ? rp l/ I i salary, 184
d'bj L/a & screen, 50 5 I L" surno referee, 153
d.6 L)2&-t?L maybe,141 5 I i L contractor, supplier, trader,
d ' k / A @ Tuesday, 67 businessman, 178
d' h empty, 194 ? I L" vp professor, 21
(-7) d ' h after, 50 ? I ? L" vp 3 1- / + E q I - withintoday,16
d \ h ... I - d \ l f 7 f r o m . . . to,226 ? I i k interest; (I-) ? I i k d C h5 be
f i 7 v karaoke, 146 interested in, 111
d \ h f!~/#body, health, 120; d' h f<l: 1 \i\' ? h \ (id.) dislike, unlike, 146
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good for the health, 122

) excursion, hunting, 226

* :" # f 3 giri chocolate; 5 l ) (sense of)
obligation, 141
6. 5 /e 'l 5 borrow, rent, 146 ? 6 cut, 79
d X 6 \ light, 56 ? 5 /%6 wear, put on, 44
d\)2 he, 79 =
? L strong box, safe, vault, 197
d ' h leather, 22 ? L L" I //&& neighborhood, 192
d'h river, creek, stream, 111
d ' h i \i cute, 171 <" hi condition, 120
d ' h 5 change, 104 7 - 7 - air conditioner, 104
d ' L cancer, 184 < 5 smelly, 197

d\ dcA 6 //% 2 5 think, consider, 33 < L" lottery, 192

d ' k Z".;, nurse, 92 < I- home town, birthplace, country, 86
4, L f: L sirnple, easy, 50 < 6 l) cloudy, 191
d ' L I 2 5 try hard, 207 7 7 X class, 34
7 7 7'.club, 28
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%$jgIF~BNEX?iE!$ s E
Easy-to-use dictionaries designed for non-native learners of Japanese.


Both of Kodansha's popular furigana dictionaries in one portable, affordable volume. A tmly com-
prehensive and practical dictionary for English-speaking learners, and a n invaluable guide t o
using the Japanese language.
30,000-word basic vocabulary Hundreds of special words, names, and phrases
Clear explanations of semantic and usage differences Special information on grammar and usage
Hardcover, 1318 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2480-0


%ec i31D ?Y8+U3XP%
The essential dictionary for al1 students of Japanese.
Furigana readings added to al1 knriji 16,000-word basic vocabulary
Paperback, 592 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2750-8


%Zkk i31 o 7Y83NXP%
The companion to the essential dictionary for al1 students of Japanese.
Furigana readings added to al1 knllji 14,000-word basic vocabulary
Paperback, 728 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2751-6


%e&i- 7 8 W Z X P @
A portable reference written for beginning and intermediate students.
16,000-word basic vocabulary No knowledge of krirlji necessary
Paperback, 688 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2753-2


37t;t-fxE 0 - 7 3 W Z X P @
A first, basic dictionary for beginner students of Japanese.
10,000-wordbasic vocabulq Easy-to-find romanized enhies licted in alphabetical order
Definitions written for English-speaking users
Sample sentences in romanized and standard Japanese script, followed by English translations
Paperback, 480 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2849-0


H*ZW"a" i%E%EXPE
An annotated dictionary useful for both students and teachers.
Over 4,500 headwords and 18,000 vocabulary items Examples and information on stylistic differences
Appendices for technical terms, syntax and grammar
Paperback ,l520 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2895-4


The first truly bilingual dictionary designed exclusively for non-native learners of Japanese.
Over 6,000 headwords Both standard Japanese (withfi~rigniln)
and romanized orthography
Sample sentences provided for most entries Numerous explanatory notes and kritiji guides
Vinyl flexibinding, 1200 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2148-8
Easy-to-use dictionaries designed for non-native leamers of Japanese.


A first, basic kunji dictionary for non-native leamers of Japanese.
Complete guide to 1,006 Shin-kyòiku kanji Over 10,000 common compounds
Three indices for finding kanji Compact, portable format Functional, up-to-date, timely
Paperback, 576 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2752-4


OfiiaK EiHd%RZ&$R
A functional character dictionary that is both compact a n d comprehensive.
Complete guide to the 1,945 essential joyo k m j i 20,000 common compounds
Three indices for f i d i n g kanji
Paperback ,928 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2891-1


The perfect kanji t001 for beginners to advanced leamers.
Revolutionary SKIP lookup methocl Five lookup methods and three indices
2,230 entries and 41,000 meanings for 31,000 words
Paperback, 1060 pages (2-coIor);ISBN 4-7700-2855-5


A concise, bilingual dictionary which clarifies the usage of frequently confused words and phrases.
Explanations of 708 synonymous terms Numerous example sentences
Paperback, 768 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2850-4


Al1 idioms are given in Japanese script a n d romanized text with English translations. There are
approximately 880 entries, many of which have severa1 senses.
Paperback, 672 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2797-4


Treats over 100 particles i n alphabetical order, providing sample sentences for each meaning.
Meets students' needs from beginning to advanced levels
Treats principal particle meanings as well as variants
Paperback, 368 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2352-9


Author of the best-selling Al1 About Particles explains fifty of the most common, basic pattems
a n d their variations, along with numerous contextual examples. Both a reference a n d a textbook
for students at al1 levels.
Formulas delineating basic pattem stmcture Cornrnentary on individua1 usages
Paperback, 320 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2608-0
Easy-to-use guides to essential language skills


EI*%EdEJdEJi8TItò!XD 1 30%3 Giles Murray
The most fun, rewarding, and universal techniques of successful leamers of Japanese that anyone
can put immediately to use. A unique and exciting alternative, fu11 of lively commentaries,
comica1 illustrations, and brain-teasing puzzles.
Paperback, 184 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2302-2

BREAKING INTO JAPANESE LITERATURE:Seven Modern Ciassics in Paraiiei Text

EI*ZEAb'tcb30-t;30%Z Giles Murray
Read classics of modern Japanese fiction in the origina1 with the aid of a built-in, customized dic-
tionary, free MP3 sound files of professional Japanese narrators reading the stories, and literal
English translations. Features Ryunosuke Akutagawa's "Rashomon" and other stories.
Paperback, 240 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2899-7

READ REAL JAPANESE: Aii You Need to Enjoy Eight Contemporary Writers
arigkkH * Z P % t 7 Janet Ashby
Origina1 Japanese essays by Yoko Mori, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Machi Tawara, Shoichi Nejime,
Momoko Sakura, Ceiko Ito, Banana Yoshimoto, and Haruki Murakami. With vocabulary lists giving
the English for Japanese words and phrases and also notes on grarnmar, nuance, and idiomatic usage.
Paperback, 168 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2936-5


The most common and less common particles brought together and broken down into some 200
usages, with abundant sample sentences.
Paperback, 160 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2781-8


Clear and straightforward explanations of Japanese verbs-their functions, forms, roles, and
politeness levels.
Paperback, 180 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2765-6


H$Z~ZJI\~ 7 ~ Kamiya
Taeko 9
An indispensable reference and guide to Japanese verbs aimed at beginning and intermediate
students. Precisely the book that verb-challenged students have been looking for.
Verbs are grouped, conjugated, and combined with auxiliaries
Different forms are used in sentences Each form is followed by reinforcing examples and exercises
Paperback, 256 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2683-8


H$%fl%$A EUA! \3/ F?Y 9 Taeko Kamiya
The ultimate reference manual for those seeking a deeper understanding of Japanese adjectives
and adverbs and how they are used in sentences. Ideal, too, for those simply wishing to expand
their vocabulary or speak livelier Japanese.
Paperback, 336 pages; ISBN 4-7700-2879-2

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