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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE

1.1 what is Science?


• Science- a systematic study of nature and how it effects us and our environment 环境.
• Scientific knowledge- information produce from the study of science.
• Technology - application of scientific knowledge for the use of mankind.
• Important of science: a) understand ourselves b) understand environment c) makes our
life more confortable 舒适.
• Field of science: a) biology b)physics c)chemistry d) astronomy e) geology f)
meteorology g) biochemistry

1.2 Science Laboratory 科学实验室


• Apparatus
1.3 Steps in scientific investigation (php cc acr)
1. identify problem
2. making hypothesis
3. planning experiment
4. control variables
5. carrying out experiment
6. analysing and iterpreting data
7. making conclusion
8. writing report

1.4 Physical Quantities and Their Units


1. Physical quantity: quantity that can be measured.
2. Example: length, time, mass, temperature & electric current.
3. measured in SI Units: French term “Le system International d’unites”, standard units all
over the world.
Physical quantity SI unit (symbol) Measuring instrument 测
(symbol) 量工具
Length (l) metre (m) Metre ruler
Mass (m) kilogram (kg) Lever / beam balance
Time (t) second (s) Stopwatch
Temperature (T) kelvin (K) Thermometer
Electric current (l) ampere (A) Ammeter
4. Prefix: added to a unit to change the value of the unit. Prefixes are used in SI unit to state
a very small or a very big value.
5.
Prefix Symbol Value Multiplying factor
Tera T 1 000 000 000 000 X 1012
Giga G 1 000 000 000 X 109
Mega M 1 000 000 X 106
Kilo k 1000 X 103
Deci d 0.1 X 10-1
Centi c 0.01 X 10-2
Milli m 0.001 X 10-3
Micro µ 0.000 001 X 10-6
Nano n 0.000 000 001 X 10-9
Pico p 0.000 000 000 001 X 10-12

Test your self:


1. Name the apparatus that can be used to do the following.
a. Measure 20cm3 of dilute acid
b. Evaporate a little salt solution
c. separate a mixture of chalk powder and water
d. heat 2 cm3 of water in a test tube
e. hold a beaker of water during heating
2. Explain why you should not pour any unused chemical into its bottles.
3. Brefly describe the correct way to light up a bunsen burner.
4. State five basic quantities with their SI units.
5. State the value of he following prefixes:-
micro milli mega deci
6. Convert the following values into the prefixed form.
a. 5300 m into km
b. 450g into kg
c. 32000000B into MB
d. 0.0035 s into ms
e. 0.000087g into µ g