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LEARN URDU

In a Month

TS

"

Page

(Easy Method of Learning Urdu Througb English Without a Teacher]

12 22 27

33

By:

A. R. ZAKARJA M.A.

, ,,'-

Read Well Publications NEW DELHI·11 0027

. "--l

[JnceRS.25.00 'I

49 56 61

,l j

r

I ,

CONTENTS

How to write

I. Alp~bet

2. Pronunciation-

s. The method of writing Urdu

4. AUf

BePe Te ~e Se Jim Ohe He Khe Oal J?al Zal

Re ~eJhe

SiD Sbin

Sad Zad

ToiZoi

AiD Gbain FeKaf

KafGaf

Lam

Mim

NUD

Wao

H;

Hamza

E. Ie

E. Ie with other letters

5. Oompound letters

6. Grammar

7 •. Vocabularies

Page

Box 6574

New Deihl ~ 110027 Phone: 5434356

12 22 27

33

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\.

All Rights Including subject, matter, style . are reserved with the Publishers.

49 56 61

l .! .i :

Page
8. Gender '7
9. Oase 98 ......,--.
!
'\-
Ie. Mod~l sentences 123
11. Oouveraatione 130
12. Letter writing 149
U. Shorr Stories 155
14. TRANSLA TION J67 PREFACE

•. J .•

Sometime back while ! was in search of II book on a science subject I chanced to see at a book atore a book on which were written loiJdclaims of learning a language in such and such time without the aid of a teacher. My curiosity knew no bounds and I wondeled how It we,s possible to verify such claUnfJ. Upon reading a few pages here and there it took m't no lime to realiM that thi,s W/lSa case of ~lVer-estimation not that this could not be done but becGuse the book had many drawbackA. However it prompted me to create a work myself which should be worthwhile and '111111, benefit the 'eamer. Although I will not claim that one can master a language 'in a given period of time because language Is s b()undless thing, yet I have takan.care to present my work in a simple and easy-ta-understand mann.r.A beginner can follow the lessons without any pause end reaU .. that this language Is lust not that difficult to learn 81 he had· dreaded.

There are writers who i,gnore grammar and fill their books with translated sentences in the! FlioU8 beUef that one can les. rn a langua. g8 with the aid of ol)ly ,,.~ made senter ICes. But this is wrong. Knowled6e of grammar is essential·to learning correct ·Ianguag.. The sUpIf8tructure of translations. howsoever wen-ma.tered. j uat diqppeaJS as soon 8S the learner is removed from

r

,'.:11"

the book and asked to correct sentences. The learner reaHses he is nowhere near the language, and that wammar is basic to the learning tJf correct language. Once he understands the rules of grammar he has

- crossed more than half the way to the language and easy presentation Of these rules $moothens his further path. We have hied to smoothen this path and believe that this book will not only teach Urdu but make a pleasant reading. We sheUappreciate constructive criticism of thit' work and invite suggestions on how to. improve it still further.

A few words

The chief object of this book is to meet a beginner'S wants, and to remove the difficulties, which are not

explained in most other books. .. .

Points which to a learned writer may seem too easy to require an explanation. often present a great ditfi. cuJty to a beginner.

When starting to learn Urdu a beginner has to fael' several difficulties, e~g.,

-Author

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (t,)

The pronunciation;

The 'order of words in a sentence; Formation of the various plurals; Declensions of Noun; and,

Agreement of the Adjectives and Verbs with the Nouns in gender, number and case.

Atfint read the Alphabet carefuJly, undeflhmding . the pro~ pronunciation from the given example.

There are many Ka.Sa and Za in Urdu. You. should know their differentiation of pronunciation. So read the examples carefully.

Read and write Urdu fro;n right to left,

Read while you write (Read &. ·write) 11 the-best IDethod for bcginD6nl. So. you too write and at the IIIlme time read it.

To Jtudy the proper pronunciation and .tyle of apeaking, listen to the programme of Urdu on RadiO 01' T. V.

Oet some simple story boob and periodicaJJ to progress your knowledge that you have laiDed.

In pronunciation be oarefu) 00 vowels. The vowell of Engii.b language have mere than one lIOund. 1!ut in Urdu every vowel has its own sound.

Before starting to write the Alphabet take the page headlined "HOWlO wrlte" andcopy the letters giving attention OD the white arrow ma .. ks :>f imide the letters,

(a) At first study the letters from -AUf' to 'Kha'; (b) Th~ start fr41UD 'DaIr upto 'Zhe';

(c) After that <&en' to <Ohain';

(d l Lattly from 'Fe' to 'Ye';

Urdu letters 'bave three forms of wflting (Page No. 6), study them as i~tructed above.

In Urdu there are sign_for vowels.

(a) Study the sign. of short vowels knowing the dift"erencea of one another.

T !

~ <
1-' , IU
'*" 'X,
- ~ ItJ
~
c: !!!F oct

~
,
-, w , w w
CIa V): '-d
.. -$
"""III1Ii -4
~
"1 w :E ~
A. W 4
~ 4
~ . ~

~ I,
~.

.~ w ct
::t Q.
: ~
I ~",
! (b) Then .tudy the ligm of.long vowelscarefuliy.

I,Y z 0
_, :r :< <
ofl .&'i .. 1" :r «
">I! ~ 3';
.",N ~
" , !
... Z .J I 1:
«
w ~ 04
S j -:j III
~. -'" I :J:
I II.)
I
I
I
. ~
I c II.
< :z: « w
t(.. w %
.t'::J~ w C( >-
0 t~ IU
-4\~ !i\' w "t')
~
..._~~--........---.'-'- --~-. ; -
, ----,-._-_ ...
II.i Z 1
N u.
f( I . Z « 0
':Ja~ C{ ""Jj
.~ )(
10 n \ \ ! 1

.. as 'z' in zoo
_) ZE z
LESSON 1 + :... ZHE zh as ox' in lizard
.J
A L PHIBfTS V SEEN 5 as '5' in sun
\'
I(
LUJI •• SHEEN sh as'sh' in shine
alif be 1- V
..
i if SUAAD ~ (Persian) as '5' ih soorath
I
Urdu letters Urdu Names Pronunciation Example. I V as 'z' in 'zarur'
I ~UAAD ~ (Persian)
f
AUF a as 'a', in far j, TOE J. (Arabi9 as <t' in 'tarah'
...__.... BE b JIIS 'b' in big 1; ~OE !(Arabic) as 'z' in 'nazar'

~ PE P as 'p' in pen e AIN a (Arabjc) Guttural
v
~ r:E t (Soft) as 't' in three .. g!'(Guttural) as 'g' in sagen
t; .. GHAIN
~ TA ~ (Hard) as 'to in tom ~ FE f as 'f' in fee
.. .~ (Arabic) as's' in sir .. QUAAF q (Guttural) as 'q' i~'qafam'
~ ~E ~
~ JEEM as 'j' in jar KAAF k as 'c' in calf
6 CHE ch as 'ch' inChild sr GAAF g as 'g' in go
r HE ~ (Persian) as 'h' in'Mohal' lAAM as 'I" in long
'-'" .
~
C l_tiE \h(Guttural) as 'ch' in Ioch i MEEM m as 'm' in me
1''1',
} I ~
as 'th' ih the ' ;=
~ DAAL d (Soft) 4j NOON n as 'n' in name
j;
) QA <1 (Hard) as 'd' in dull .J WAAO W, '0, U SIMPLE
~ z (Arabic) I, •
) ZAAl ,~ HE h as 'h'i" hot
I RE r as 'r' in'Rama' !~ f.5 as 'a in late
.;I '- YE e
b ~,
,,) ~A r (Hard) as 'r' in'larka' I
12 13 I
i
I
i
IEXP!RCISE I
I
RECOGNISE THE LETTERS i
l
J 1/
c" f.5 ~ V _) ,
• • b
~ ( t" ~ ', , z ~
'"
... •

• ir • V
.... (.,,) i..J
~ ~ '-'"
-
I •
JJ .... .. •
J, J U if .J ~
~
b~ J j, .. •
••
.,J ./ '--'I f)
1> j. .b J if. t: t:
I."".,.-' ,./ .J .J V
I"~ ',J',
.. J
L.' ~ '-- J J
." I
I
V • s. I
...::_., b J I
~ it

0 I,·.
~ • 1; "
~ (;) c t:
io.....-' _,. ~.,
..
0
~4
~
I
I -~
~ r~
:"::: ~ ~ ._ 1:; ~ - "S
3 ~~c; ';:' <:)
E .... :: £: ll:: :: 1: E: IE !:'!
- l:: ~
'E
..... ~'~ ~~
• _j ~. J_}-~~ :%
I=i '~
0 J
! z
f '<::):
-g -=:: ~ I:::. ..:c ~ .,.., 5
-0 .~ ~ I;:: ~ I::s ~ ~
3 I~
... .'- \- S~-~~ ~ 1t'J: ::; '~
'i:: }}
- ~
:
"
e ... ... ~
.2 :::: ~ (; '::I
~ ~
- ~ ~ -0
CIS C
~ t:S .5 c
~ ... M
:::: -
In ... ~ ~ ~
'" <:)
c:: <"CI 11.1 ~
e "E - '" b(I
QJ
~ .. ~ ~ ~ .. 1£ <:>
0 ~ E
... i 0 ~ 0
'u ~ .: E ~ -
QJ :::: ~ ~ ;::0
~ <:::I ':'$ ~ ~. !:I ...: <:> ~
- ... ;::: ~
-0 ~ .5 ... I:l, !:I c::
.S ... c .S .5 .5 . .-
I ; .S .- .S .5 ;s
.5 ~ c:. ~
." >::s l::I ::s ::s l::I >::s
." ,_ U> '" U>.
'" .., '" '" <"CI CIS
C ." ~ . ~ CIS <"CI CIS CIS <"CI
::s <"CI :g
0 ."<) <:> ;:!
tn l::I 'l::I ._ ,..: ::s '::S !:I
, II II Ii Ii
1 II II H II II II
., 0 -'. ';5"- ... ~ - ,- - , .......
> ,- )- ~. ~ ~ '"' B. in Engli~h 0;'): J
Be as
_ ...
,.,
P. as in Enabsh Qiij _)
Pc ' _ ~ .
_ .
T. a soft dental I l:\l ..)
Ti " like in three
..._ ...
T. hard as T iT. ]-1';; .J
l-
Ie ..,_. Tir,·tack E De,t ach- Ttanstlte", ..

ed lion and-

Form Pronuncia-

tron

--------

A. as A in far

AUf

• S. as S in sit

...::..

Sc

J.' Hke J in Jail

Detach- Transljtera-

ed uonand Form P ronunciation

.

~

K!!. guttural,

as 0) in Loch

D. soft, as Th in The!.'

D, hard .. as [) in Dog

Z, like Z in Zeal

R. as in English

Zhi

.. Zh. 3~ In 'Azure _)

f:)ebch· Translitera. Detach- Translitera.
Name ed tion and Name ed, tiol'l and
For.n Pronuncia- FO~ Pronuncia.
bon ',tion
:. J
Sheen V'" ss, as Sh in Shut Kaf ~. .1S i~ English
u: '. .1.1
Suad S. as S in Sit =,» G. as G in Give.
Zuad'r./" Z. as Z in Zeal Lim J l. as L in lane.
...
Toe b T. asT in Tie Meerp r M. as in English
Zoe b Z. as Z in kaJ Noon (;J 'N. as in English
Aio (:, 1\. guttural (con- Wao J W. O. U"as in
~t) English
• Gh. as G in the
Ghainc, German word He f) H. as H in Hot
Segen.
.. ,
Fe '-' F. as Fin fun Ye- I.! Y. ~ Yin Yard
l 9uaf - Q. guttural. like
(.) Ck in Stuck Ye "- E as Ey in They 17

i I

DlHERENT fORMS OF LETTERS

An letters, with a f~w exceptions. have four fonns, Le~ initial, medial, fil.i1 and independent. ~e inde.pendent form is also call,ed 'the Detached. ~rm. To w"ritf' a word all, the .e!ters ased are Jome{l . toone ~hei". The essential part of-the letter> hO'Nc',,,r remains unchangeoas is shown hen:;~

Qet'lched form

initial

medial

final

_)



Detached Form

)

• ..

, ..

~ V J; k ~

(;)(J.JJ

_,'--- rJ



J

18

.i l

": l

,

_.

Initial Form

'. fo ~tain the initia~ loon strik-e If

"n'"'' d I 0 the .bo rl""''''nt''-

.... "1 an circles of the deta L d £' - ..

. cne .(onn,.as,

.. ~
,.> ...7' .» ~ _) j, ...
.,. _) J .J _)
~ •

c- ..:; v j, ..
- _...p •
..,IM1 -
._,.,., ./
_) -1 _) J ~
- -'" r J'; •
.J fMPOK rANT: Since the foJlowi .

neither a circ]» nor h. I . ng IlJDt: letters have

. a onzonta line th ~ d

except 10 th. .' f r.:.y 0 not change

. . . e case 0 the final fa .

always ,oined to th . . .: m.. The) are

e precedmg Jetter but

one (ollowing All I ,not to the

. .. etters when used after them '~e'

Written in the initial or detached f; .' h

be. . onn as t e..ease may

j. )

)

Medial Form

. The medial form is obtained by ad~g a COIlllectmg nne

1'4 the right side of the initial form, as, ,.

];' • ..~
..f -£ ,~ .. ..
_.ittI _.... _,., J' ~
.... •.
• ..
• J;., lv .. :.
J" >' ~ ~. .~ ../'
9- ~ ... ..
.. ~ _i ..l _L; k
_.,.,. r: J
-
Final Form The final form is obtained by adt,ling the ~me connl'ctingline to the beginQingof the d~i,ached, form.

l

,~ ....

'It

~. i7 • k . .::.", . '., ' .

~L __J'''/ ...AJ A . .AI V ~

-~.' - . ,',' -'."



t.?v-



__.,.." i: c .Ii- ~ ~ ~

I -j .: .j

1\~d and copy the following words :

_ ... - I jab
. . -:-~.
, haJJ:I ~
1.;"'-" • v-: Ii
(.)'--"'" J ~at f,
~ 1.,;1 ~ TransUteration':":'kab ,j~b ~~b'd ]

• J.' • 1St nat guo khat. tJl ..

sa:f.iaq qadam ~

Exercise I(b)

safar qalam

Cfasam

Tfa.l18lit~rati()Jl : __ q~dam, sabaq. namak, qasim, Jat.ak,:nazar.rabar.

:Blbn ····.widad 'R:l'lnar

Exe:~ciscl(c)

.. :_.CI~:

t ";;'"

~~

badan "kln chIT

I

, TtansUtcrat.i6n' :--51t ta' ch '. '.' '.

,J. Jr, madad, kamar, kin, pin,

IIlID, Dim.

21

: ,l

PRONUNCIATION

t alif at the commencement of a word is a mere: prop for the letter hamza and has no sound of itself.

2 • ..:.. and .1 (te and dal) are softer and more dental

, ~~

than their English equivalents "T" and" 0") the tip of

the tongue should touch the . up~r front teeth when these letters are pronounced.

3. j re is pronounced distinctly like the French "r

4. ; Re has a heavy sound and when pronouncing it. the tip of th,e tongue must be turned much farther

back.

" ~. ~ 5, tJ' s, 1/ s are in Urdu homophones. The) are all pronounced like • 's" in sit.

6., c" "G". is always pronounced as "g" in "germ" and never as "s" in "game".

7. tv "Ch" is pronounced-as "eh" in "church" and not as "ch;' in "chorus".

IJ. r.. h is IOften pronounced like "h" but should be more guttural than the uhu In huge.

9. ; z,'; z, ~ z, b z are in Urdu homnphones and are pronounced like the «z" in zeal.

10. t (') is a strongguttural.(consonant).

. IL, i~ is a guttural "g" accompanied by anttl1ng. The "t." in the French grass!ye is an ipproxima~io~ only.

(2.. .... q . I .

LJ IS a strong guttura • like the • 'tic hin ~iuc~

. when pronounced in the throat.

Ij. lI"h" as Jn hand.

PRONUNCIA TION OF VOWEU.

1
"a' , is pronounced
as ":01" in Mental
_. 6i~~
.. .~ . ','a"
., Part
"a;" ..
,. . " "Ca.'t~ Bad: .
,.
··t.aul''I ..
" ':" ··'au" Paul
,II ~e" n.
•• .. '''·e''I
.. Pre),
.&., i.' ~ ..
., ,,-. r .
• • " Pit
-cci·:t "
,. .. ,ta,.,
" . I Fativue
"·0' ,.
0
., " .. ~O "
., Home
-"U'I "
,. ., '''utI Put
"
&lii,1 f . ..
.. •• e 'u~' Ju.;e
'J n
23 }i .l

.1 l

SHORT VOWELS

There are three short vowels : za,bar (--"'-~--) Ze: (--:--:-) and Pesh (-~-. ) which in EngJi~ are .-epresented by a short ." a", short '~.i" and. short "'u" respecrivelv [npractice they are seldom writt~n or

printed.

lahar. To express the snort "~" zabar is tised

over a letter as b;.,>; .. , na ~), pronounced like the "iI" in

d "

war "gun

moment pal
gold ~am
an sab
armpit ba~a\
eye·orn ..... palak _-

par ;'.and ;$ the • English

'J%{ 3;

Zer

The short "i "is expres~~d~y uSing.~e.~.ll~d~r a \eltcr.kh i as ~ Ii J. .It is prO~~otihcea as

,~ ., 1 in fit"
"1 '1i 1 •
heart dil J~ J~
pin pin >:). c(
~
day din (;)., Cl-? 24

what' kia If V
'.
.. -'
book kitib I~.r , .. /
.- " -l-i
. PeSh. Si#lilarly. the short "u" is expressed 0) putJing a pesh over a letter. as mu, ju, .ind is 'pronounced like the "u." in "put"

bridge pul ; j)
J> J:.
you tum p.> ,
..- ,-
God Khuda (_; (
!.ti ..#
IAi
Sun sura j J
C-I.1- "
J.-"y
bad bura j: J'
.4. If. EXERCISE n

;itTra·~~Ft~~)~~icin:. _,PJI,&!iap.~am, - hal~s'lmdr, bJdm M.n.~a:g. ~,~,; cffli}!,jo,so, gtr. sir,I{hudi,kitib. kia, turn. din. dll, sat, n~ch,sh3fl.

. ~

'l~dNt·· VOWELS

';"J"" ,"-

- : /,1. .A.Jif I 'w~J ~tH)Ye'O are used iilUrdu lis long v?wcls.

.,.,;.\2.W~O·.t,;,giv&sthe ",ouod. of 'W au, :1, arId 0, whereasyco ~t.}nds for Y. ai, i, and e.

,J, \Vht·h '~ridVarl.'used .al the6cginrtillg' oia .,..otd ors~nablejt giv::~ the lioulld. of w' ,arid y'l:;

w.\hshat

yaklikht .~

," .

'~;~T)

25

(nitial

EXAMPLE Medial

Fina:

'l·J

0, as, VSf os , 0, as, .J mota

,. .,., ~ ".". ...

J I au. as. ,·f aur,) . 2·" » " .

P ... .1 au, as, r,;; _" rau j , .? Jau

J I ii, as, elf, un _.J . e, as. ~ _;;-k,hiib, _j~. cbaqii j ~ .e, as, ~t Elchl = e, as, u:!"". men ~·e as ' ~

lI; ~ 'N,...'·' "-f.

,

,0.

J

10

har~

.)1' l~ ..• - . " ..

.. " ar, as, "::'~ aisa :: at, as, v:: main.:_. ai, as,4-hai

.d r, as, _Jt/, ijad

~ ...

,

- T as, ~ )'~(]In (5 r, as."";' ~ ._: "*, OJ

larki

tx«;:rl:lse

Transliteration ;-Hau.z, fauj, mauj, kaun,chauk. aur, ~hauf. pair. sair,bail, ley, ney.khair, bair, ek, jebideg. cler, bel'. seb, sher, bol, top, ~oI, mort shor, os, sech, sura], churi, rnuH, alii. ba.bu. chaqu, Lh.ilu", '-." h-"

b- IU~ ... C. un ...

'llU rat , surat.

26

LESSON 3

THE METHOD OF WRITING URDU

the letters used a .. ..:!

To write a wore! joined to one anotherPRONOUNC1ATJON~>

.PEN qalam

TRAVEL

safar

TOWN

shahar

TORCH

mas _hal

WARM

gal'am

BODY

badan

CHILDHOOD baqtpan

GASSIP

bakwaas

SIMPLY

faq~

liD +---- SPELLlNG-
f. J ..
'"
I
m 101 qa meem lum quaaf
.. . If
r ..J W
r fa sa re fe seen
;:. :.
~ .,./ ~ if
r ha stu. re he sheen
~ Jt/J,
.h ~a ma laam he meen meem rJ r .) J

m ra ga ' meem· re gaaf

(,;) -": l:J ~ l..:-'

n da ba noon daaI be.

~ 0·'-:t&~

n pa c_h ba noon pe'!_he be

swaak ba seemalifwaaokaafbe

_.b1j .b J ~.

~Oe quaaffe '

NOW

SHORT WORDS

ab

'-'

..

b a

GOD

'--'" ~
..
b ,.a
( "'
m da
V J
!i dol
..
.) ;J
r z;> rab

BREATH

dam

TEN

das

GOLD

zar

PAIN

y )1

b da a

':J ~ )
d r d;.. -:_:'"
",- ..
0 ;) ~
.~ r vt1 INKSfANb stOp

~I;,'j -e "a\vada

d;

k ru

"'dum'

2S

. ~

INTELLEC,. aqla

SU.,PLY

$T~P

THAT

ALL

WHEN

i .i

~

I qa a

~

!q~a

J

I" Ita

J J t:

I~ q~fain

J.,J...;

!oe,u~ fe

dJ

..... kaaf

V'lj V"" J ~ ba"'~~ s~k ba ~p'~"f ~kaafbe

pas

us

sab

jab

~ pa

..

'-:-""' ,~,"ta

.AI

r ~''''a

(..(1

~

".

b sa

29

s u

.,

(,/'1 ~., pesh alif

. _, .'~~ ',: ': .

be jeem

DOUBT J; JJ
shall: k sha kaaf sheen
~ J (,
MEET mil Imi laam
zer meem
fALL J ..J J
gir .-
r gi re Z6gaaf
HIDDEN I (j
gum m gu meem pesh . gaal .'
.J
( _;
YOU tum (~
m tu .meem pesh fe
" ,.,
BODY badan c:J~ 1,,;)-' 1..:-"
n da ba nooh daal be
..
GOD I..J J.J t
klJudaa a d ~u alif pesh '!be Exercise

R~ad and write the following :_

,,,,, t·- ,-'"' .....

• - I - ·.1 - I.} I _ [;" v : .. ,..- -'

- ~ I -';:'-1 ........ \ •. ,./" 'j _ Cli'

Tr.l!l~lil~Tation :-am.

as, ~j. ara, a~a. alu. .

an5,

ago

ap,

an,

30

Read and copy the 19Uowing :-

Transliteration :

farsh, shama.. garro, snbz, sard.. sij r kg, , iI m,

mireh, [ism.

., • ;, I _ r i

-,Jt.:-- - _,.~ - 'I(

- v:~

Translneration :--ga~, Judi!, gunpish.

dlae,

faed.~.

tlisir.

Read and copy the following :-

,I ::.. .. ~ . J " ... . r

. v:- - ~ - J.J~ - Lf'/f. w .y;/ - ~. - ,_)~

Y(f.JU: - ..t;t.f J'd; - "J~j('oi; -.~ V~-' - ~lt~1

./,.. ~ "," / " " $' ..

(,tll :..JJ~ V.41 - ,-,jP.f 0 .J.J_j - J~j(' _i!I'. ~

.. .. - ..,,'"

,ifjtf~~~ /~Vr: ~(jXdAfI - ~{('/' ·(JX 31

j l l

ASPIRATED CONSONANTS
.- dham
.d. bh J~ bhalii 41). dh as, (J ..
as,
phul " cJh Jk.t c}hiil
,r#'. ph as, J~ .JP) as,
-: I- rh 6'j gafh
;;- th " .. thai ~.J as,
as, vip'
} th JJ.} the1a £' kh as, l·ltt khinii
as,
~.~ -' .A ghar
, jhol g~ as, /.
rI. jh as, J~
-~ ehh as, oh chhur'i J lh as, Un dfilh~ LESSON, ..

,

,,' J ' ,'~. ~ /

.- ~. J.Jt,.~.::- j';'; .~ J / ":"".) \ yo -' l:~ j - ~.J I t {

- ... ~ , .' ~ " .. '. ,,;.;_( .- ;. ..(,

.. J1',:c,~r OJ - T ';;".JJ"! '":".? U" -- T" -~ "'i~

,; -.., .... " .

~_.I~~ "';;'J;' ... 4- ~_;~~l7Y':i'~ - 'TJ'~)

". ' ,', I

_,f '! . '7-rf::,j;J-"~ OJ -~ ~V ~ ~ I(~?, ... l.,:".-::?

. " - .

;;iJ-ir - '7- ijJ~. - JJ~~) t? -~ IJ~.V

_ .. ,n;:.r"J! ~ r'V - ; j~~ k .~ 'r *~

32

Alif I is the first letter of Urdu alphabet. It i$ oronounced according to the vowel point (srab) which

~ ,

accompanies it, e.g., I ali! withzabar sounds as the

English "8" in "large", I alifwith zer sounds as the

, " ./ , .

English "j" in "sln" ; Iillif with pe$h sounds as the

English "U" in "full": alii with mud" sounds as the fngli"l'h :. aa "

J is iltwaysused in its full form. It is never joined when occurs in the beginning ola word. L e., . in a word beginning with '.It is always written separately, it is not jQined' to the next letter. U is ioined with other letters onlywhenit occurs afterthem, and it is joined in its fun form. It will be further explained later whUedealing with' other letters.

Examples:

Now ub I.oooro.II ",._.,+I
• •
This iss VI =V.,.!
~
Them Un ~1~cJ+1
." . ~ "'"
TQday BS; ~I := ?; .. t ,
33 '.l ,i i

; :.

.":d

r'llotethe simtiarilV in these leners. The main bod" . .u;: .. _ ... "0'. :n·v."· th·e·. nu"'ber MId location of dots. 1$ ·the s~nUl;' I ,...." . . .

f"fI,!J'~cj ."oqt~ . m.ake.(he differt!f'lce. So when ~hese letters are J9ined ..... 1111 omer letHml fh~y adopt Sl1nllar

for'ms. 8~' the form itself varies. These letters adopt foUC<WH'0 diUe!i?f11 fnrrns .

Ii) They adopt the form ota 'smdli;jt~rnl-Cll';\'~ Ii"','. thrs . "and the dots are placen as usual Sl,Ich as :-.

:. lit.. \J

"" v ... '(. •

These leuers adppt tms rorm wl~tm Ihey occur ;,l ahe beglOn'ing or in the middle o! a word. Such as : -

cJL= C}tlt'-' , ~L .. ~:'.(i.IT ~ " ~:~J. "":"'

.ID .-: 10 '=. I~ ; '1;' J,_ " ... J,

U:.cJ~t"':'" .. ""'""'''' '1& ....... t. r ~ ''-:'" - '"':-' --

( i i ). They adopt 'he torrn ot. a thick tick "' ik.e this la~ me dots ~re placed as usual. Again. they adopt thiS form w,;~~ they OCCur in lhe beglllniny. of .a word but o:nly \lY"tutn .olt~wed by . ( ." • c;., - v., . G,.

~-,lJch as

(iii) These letters adopt yet another ferm which is like halfof J like this ..J. Usually this form is used when any of these letters occurs in tlTe beginning of e

. ......:.. '.

word and foliowed by- J.,",u.6-t:Gj,Uv.:'~'"

Such as:-

1:.1 == b+--i' ~$J+.{ l r.I.=tJ+ ~

• • .'.J" .Ir. j,

Ul=Ui"--l.' 4.1.= (J+~ , ~= 4..1+:1

. . w. = J +,.:., :r_,+.-!

(iv) .These letters are w'rltten in their original and perfect forms when they occur at the end of a word, that is. when a word ends in. any' of these letters they adopt their perfect forms. Such as:-

...

_., -



You should not be confused by the different forms of these letters. They are used only to help the writer in joining them with~the, letter. Alictlo practice will help you a lot. In fact, it simplifies writing and makes it faster •.. The dots are always there for the indentification of the actual letter You are saved from the strain of remembering . too many faces of letters.

3S

These four letters are smular in h>!m. The number and pos,jth~n f),fdot$ 'jndie'ate the difference, Apart from th." dots; lheselellers consist oftw0J(tain par.ts that is, the, head and the semi-circle.

rhu,e I£tti!'f!iare w(ll~~n In !~ ~f'lr \ ','freet form:when they occur at the und of ,J W!), d '·o':n as

€,. >t, -'i.A" -Ct~-~ ~ ~~r·G-r

Otlly the' head wlth'a sIlH!I 1'(lfttOn oftht> necx. like this? WIU: approjJtiatp.nornb€f of dots is used wtlefl ,lilY 01 thHS(' 1('!~"'S'(;~}t11ein Ii1B>t>egmniriq Or III the n:!ddlp' of tJ \J\!olosui'h t:l~, '

~: r .... ., ~ ~·27:T 1. • ~=lo;'"'+;' ,~ .. f+?: '-'=J.. z, b7=b;-;' JP': J~7' ,~.J~ r ..

.- .

.



)

it

)

These three letters. similar in form, are written as they are when a word begins with anvof them. Thev are not joined to any other .letter following them.as is the case with 'I They are' written sepal~ately in the beginning, such as:

36

.\ i :i

11/

vi -

They are joined wnn other letters only when t~ev follow them. tn dOing so their head porti~n is trimmed. that is, Oldy the lowerportion,which is very

much like .), is' adde'd. such as ;

• j,

) )

)

Th!s is an'.Jlher f'

fW1 0 srmilar letters, Their

position I!'. v'" II . • b

, erv rnuc simil ar to those of.J.J.J

that' I

h ' ,IS, t 1ey are wrilt&1l sepr.Hlteiy

';Y en a, worrl bCr,;,,;iWidl (}[1y of them TIle', 'I ..

, • . I, S ldPf1

IS Slightly r.hanged when J'O' 't>rl ith ',',',

, II,. WI Older 'BHlns

preceding them,

No word begins. with , Ex,Imp1es ;

J )

When these two letters occur in the beginning or in the middle of a word only the fir$t half. that is; the trident or t~e slanting curve head is writtel'l and the remaining portion is droppeci.Examples ;-.'

The upper portion of these letters is slightly "Iongll'$d and.croocked when joined with preceding letters.

Note1: No alohabet is joined after -

.J, • 1,

Jd..l,)) - J.J'-'

• j, • 10

Note 2: .' - ,),J,) •. .J .) ~ - , are never joined when

preced'e6~r followed by each other

J: cI' .like~are written in full when they occur at the end of a word and only the top portion is written when they occur the beginning or, in the

middle of a word. Examples :~

.,

- tf ~ c..+ ~ +_.p .. ~V'+ 7' - t/!=U"+ ..-!.

iJ4~J+;;~~~ .l+/IJ

s »

These two letters consist of twornaio parts. the trident head and the semr-ctrcle. FOI facility in writfng a long sfantiog curve like ...... this may b.usedinsread of thetrident,

I The two letters are written In full when they OCCUt at the end of a word.

'EJC8mPleB:- . ~= ~ '.vJ.,. (.It ~

. Vl=J+J+'T.. • V~"' V"+'; I ~=vt7.

if .. V T -; 6 V"'L= V;-Iot,'!,.

, .

These two letters - wherever they may occut'. are always written as they are Examples:,-,

I..!J):; ~ + ~ +J,~ - .~ ~ ~ orb .. J2.! -:; + ~ "j'#"J +J + 11

\

38

39

1 ;

ufrwo rnatn. I~, theparrOI-hkelre-adtmd t!H.~ $e!""~l:i!r;le. Is prcnounced d i.Herently WI!)l znhsr. ZlH. aild _I)f:sh

as is the case of alii. •

(a) When a word b.eUI'l~;w'!h t ',r t: the semr'rde is .droppedas i,; t!Hicas~ of~. ~ ~. t

.~ ~ or v4~ Only the head-is

«rltten when a word begins wltht Ot t

,: xarnples : --- " _. .'

, . . . ~ .. ~ ...

(f-:. (+-f' ... jf-=-..If..J-+'f-rr>-:. fj r+r

~~J+;

(b). In the middlE! of a word aiso only th~ head of :) or. t is wntren. But here the head Itself .::idoptsn diHerent form which. IS . very nlU' '1 l-ke a thick; dash

.c) t i

are writtenIn full but with ablunt dash-like

-ad when they occur at the end of a word, but not ' 'parardy, Examples :.--. &·~t+~+,.. _ tV.:: trt---t+.,I



.

I d) fI f; are written in full in their original form when they occur at theend of a word and not joined. Examples ;-,-

t;)tJe$t+..I+ t+"::. iJ{~i'f-'+.J.J-~: i~=i-f-l + ~ 40

These two letters are written in . full when they come at the end of a word, as is the case of many other letters. Examples :-.

•• "0''' .•• ,.

I.!J~ = ~+I +~ -if': U+ '( - lJ~."";).J

Oniv the IH'dd with sU<!dble nu;nt);:! of do!:;

e'

tlS liif- Case rnav lv,. is VvfIT~en wr.en . ....:.J {J (,!.:CUf 'n

the beginllillg or if1 (tle middto of if word: fXilillpltlS :- __ .

" ..-

C:: ~+~.j.~ ... 121 .. h+t-rl..;

_.:. ...

()/: f.).) +'_;'

~j.r:: ?+1 .s

.JJ

This is another set ot similar letters ~nd J <l.re written In their,perh.!ct founs when a word ends

in any ot them Exarnples :

. ~--4

JL .. JI.

,oil ' •

. ,

Jand .s: written in .. rn rmpertect form' wh,p they occur in tne beginning Of' in t~,e middle of . d word but not followed byl or J.' In that C:,jSf: th, length of their lower part is ~Ijghtly trirnrnt1d

41

1 ;1

( is written il) its perfect forin when a word

ends in (r.' Examples: ~ . ..

f = (+ if ~ j' ~ ( :: ( + ;; - '0 ( + f

,& ,

Jand ...!takE"l C00lph~tf;!'r dHE:frc.!\l iwn; '.'l'!',,"i tn'.~

are add£;d l>&fo';,:, I and 'J rhi~, iorrn iii Jy),! J consist» cf a :,f1\a!1 crrcle ;:,,10 011(' ~,I;"nl;nd li!k,' OV('~f In r.i'l5,~ of J and two ~,imjiJ'r ('eke; in C,)51) d J ThesE inrms \"11111 l',lt' I,kf. th is

~ , .P ~ 1/ .

Y' ::; J +" - ,J".: J+I - (,,=(+1+0 _~~;zc...f.I ... (

J

J is written in full when a word ends with it.

Examples:

J is written in an imperfect form like this J. a segm€nt of the lower semi-circle being dropped. wj""!n J is [orned in tf!e beginning orin the middle. Examples:

~ L -~ j 40L _ ~ V=C;+J+(~ :..J:I..J+J

~ ". - Note.' ,: J is ';"" .tt sn as· ~ ·and it is

regarded as a compound letter"

(,,,lied Jam -stit.

Examplf'S;

/ .P

Ui. - ~ - ~I 42

(

Only the first half of (I that is • the head is written when (occurs in the beginning or in the I)litldle of a word. Examples:

/'

~;~+( ... ?':~ ~~ :;:(:)+-~ +~ _ cJtO'= ~+~J

~ is written in its pertect term when a word ends in (j Examples :

When ,>;/ occurs in the beginning or in the

. I- t

middle of d word it is written just as '-' ....... ..:,:,. ~ C:

, . ~

are written that is, in the form of, a small

semi- circle, A. dot in the sp.mi -circle will dlfferem rate

it ft-om other teners. ,Examples :~~i _ J& . j _ ~

43

.i l 1 _I

l I

_- J, •• ~

You should note that the .Ietters +-f ~ ~ ~ 1..,1

take the form of a thick tick with suitabl: number of dots when thevocour before (.:.. C;;~VV

1,;) also takes a similar ·form before.these letters.

Examp1es: . ,I' ~ .

·fLJ, (~u{- cJUJ~'~

. :. J:...,..:;, ~ '-' take' J 'thls torrn before

AgaUl, ........ .: • •

J V Q i t" JJ j,J'c/~1.f

(j also takes a ~i!l)il;u form, with .. ~ dot. abo .... "',

be:ore these letters. fxan·~ples.:, _ ,

J~-~-(jiJ.L?

NASAL SOUND OF C) (Nun.Ghl.1nni)

In many wards C) is used to l'T"Rkna nasal sound.

In such cases tho dot of ~ is dropped. BUT only when i.:) with anasal ;;('IIJnd occurs.ln the en~ ofa word. Examples:

Note: The dot in Nun . Ghunna is w~itten when t;J with similar nasal sound occurs in the middle

of a

word. Examples i

~ J; (( ..

~I" 0. . '1 ~.y

M~~_~V •.• .,

-:.

44

When (;) occurs before~. in certain cases, it

gives the sound of. ( Examp!es :

dumhliJ

J

J gives the vowel sounds 'of 0 and U and consonant sounds of V and W. J is always wrinen in its full form, It is always joined after a letter and NEVER before a letter. it is always written separately if a word begins with ), as is the case of

.J . is never joined with ./J./ - ; J.J . I

Examples of vowel sounds:

Examples of consonant sounds:

NOTE:' J' is silent in some words. It is'written but not pronounced. , Examples:

.\ ~

Happy khush V'" f Dream

45

i I

Tnis letter is written in various [orrns which you WIll

have to learn by practice.

(a) I' adopts its original form and it is written separately wh~n it comes at the end of a word

oj! • .b I

and it is preceded by J - ) ~ ) - ) J ) -

Examples:

"'- j;"

D;J.;:- D )/'.- DJ -I) J.)

.

(b) 10 some cases ~ is written like this fand

. ,.' A

an inverted comma is inserted under It •. hke this ,

Examples:

J-f'~d+,,+/-~~::J+I~...z+I.: '-..JLf. e, )+1-1- J'i+f.

(c) Sometimes I) gives' a soft sound, very much similar to a short sound of I In such cases!

D is written like this / without the inverted comma

underneath, Examples: .' o'

y~ ~+r+~+I'-);;:: f""+f;.lrj -,.;J ~~-+~+j

(d) ~.s written in the form of a small senu

1.circle with an inverted comma underneath; in some

cases. like this t r , Examples; I

. v:- DJJ1-1..ri

46

l !

{e) There is a very important USe oi .~ in Urdu.

It is written in the form of two eyes like this ,JJ and called do cnssbm! hay (meaning the 'hay' like two

eyes),

Several letters are joined with this form or JIJ

to 111a".<.e compound letters

Hamza .I' is more or less like English 's" in form.

It is more a vowel sign tha~ a letter. No word begins with Hamza'. Its vowel sound is very close to that of

'j'. '" is generally placed over a

letter. I n most

of such cases an . extra part of a letter has to be written and ,/' is made over it. This extra part of a letter takes form similar to those of -f:.; ~ -::.. __"-.,...i,

-. . . ." .. * •

when they are joined with different letters.

Examples:

Assistant naeb

~~ Able

&~

Jv

!aeq'

Resl,.lits

nalaij

When / is to be written over J no addition of

.

the extra portion is necessary. Simply makea .t6iier

the J ~ such as :

nao ;C Injury ghio JtJ
./' is written over I in some Arabic words.
The rich .y-'. The poor ,.!)J
47 ( :i -( .i

Tr.cso aft! two principal forms of the last alphabet, 'ye' t.5 is used as a vowel to. produce the sound of : ,,( 'ee . '-- (bad ye) isusedto produce the sound

'. .

01F:1' or 'ay'. These two principal forms are used

when if or ,--occurs at the end of il word. Examples:

Q . ," ~'/. ".' .,.;

A . ~,,1. . ." ,I I

,.. L-/. - 4- ~. .. ~ ',- I..v

~ rJ With' Other LETTERS

'w.'; h' 1.1 .... ,:.J ' bJ ~ I.,.0oI ___... ;- When a

It ~ - - ',' - .

. -. d d .' , t or;J and isp r&ceded by any of the.se

wm ~S~ v - .'

. ('or). is written In its princip.al form, but In

lettef~. U ~

the precess of writ ingthe head is slightly trimmed. and·

these letters themselves are written in a bracke.t-like form, like this ,. with suitable dots above or below

as the case may be. Examoles: . t

:l~~;(+"+L .. JJ = \1..,. '.J

V.,1 v-., .

. .

With J ;- tJ or "- preceded by J. is trimmed

as explained above and J itself takes the

half form Examples :

2JC~ .. ) .1:: LtG 4-t) + b':.J~ ~ t!+ '+ ~ _ Jt: ~U-t '+l: 48

LESSON 5 COMPOUND LETTERS

It has already been stated thatd(J~chashm/ hay

,II is joined with several other letters to form

compound letters You should not be

confused" as it is mere comblnation-of thoroughly explained. with ~

~etters~

NOTE the following examples carefully.
" + IZJ = tJl.bh :_
Steam bhap ~~ India Shlrat .. ~
~ .
Benefit !Bbh AlJJ Ever k8bhi /.
.
/0 .. + Jf1 = .4!(.ph :-
,
Fruit: , J~
pba! ~ .. Flawer phil!

Torn phsts '~. Gallows phansl ,;;~
'I
.
.. ..
/+.;:&7:: til th:-
Plate thalT dt.;( Spittle th6k J'ji ..
Hand hath ;~ Forehead mithi (.;(1..
49
,.- .. ~( 70: T JJ' =~: chh ;-

Oagger

chhuri

",.

_,. t5.~ .•

~ UmJ>rella chhatrT '/"-:

Game thel

J:!' Ash

rakh

Calf

bachhr,~' Skin

r.hhilkiJ

~)±4h:4') dh:-.

illeligiofl

dhartT

dharm

Eart~

Hindrance

~)L Buddhist BiJdh

..

badhiJ

b .j;'

...' +~ :: IJII_) dh:-

qhal

Drum qhfJ/e

lose

II

qhlli' ~ -> Cover

rfhakna

. ?~.

~ Stick

Cheat {hag

Wood k§rh

}l(' To rise

u{hna

? tJD= s. jh :-

~- .

Swing jhuli

lL.3 Barren LITo

banjh

i lak.e ihf/

~ Cricket

jhfnguf

so

l ;

Fly

:"C'

~- CUCumber /chua'

ma/Ckhi

A ? ..461=11' gh:-

Horse

,.r _1-:~

.).,. House

ghar

ghDii

Lion

JL

.

Circle gbera

high

DOUBLE LETTERS'

The use of double letters is common' . E'" h h

In ng .1$ . SlJt

as "mm" in "COmmon", But such doubling of 'leWHs is rare in Urdu. You wllIcomeatross only a few words with liouble l~ttt(r& hcampli.-s

F IIort

koshlst:

'J.'~

k!

;\ Somali bird

Judge

maIHoli U/-

jal

chachi lr..

t: II

51

I .l b

?J a:

j J

SILENT LETTERS

Thereare some Arabic words. common in Urdu, wherein a few letters are silent. i.e. they are written but not pronounced. Examples:

iI'L , this word is written as balkul; but

IT., ...--

issilent so it is read as bilkul, meaning 'quite'.

/ ~ I '

~~ ,,,, this WOrd il wfittenes

.'i~iJ·$ab8h~but J:f-f/a,e silent so it Is read as 1118",bah. meaning 'early In -the morning'.

There are many other such words Which·yOll. will learn in.due'couf!:.e,

Reid aQ~ practise :

'~ .;:;.u.-
Ioil t~.., «: Rice

Milk. 4/J.J).J Kn:fe ~
Field .:;,_,/ Method ~J
..
..I llj
···SIow ~ Watch
,.,aw ~ AUnt J:
. .:.
.... ~ .. .
p li? Responsibility ~J
.w. .. .!,lJ? Mistake J),{
52 MEDIAL ,
VOWEL.SIGNS
/ A ..- ;1 ; ,..,.
,,1 ":!' J' t,1 I t ,
~.;
.- _; " .# ~
Y. i. -:!t ~ ~ -:tf -- -<01 "T'
. ;..
" ; , ; ~
~ J? -rl ~ ~ ~ ~ .> . ~
~
§ .- ., " "
J) .1) -,J -:J .1) J ...JJ 1 ~
=>
/ _.. ..P ~ t,..
r: r: «: -- y J'" ~ .-' . ...-'
.-
jJ ,b _$ jJ / J:{ -:k k !b b
J' f "V / J ,r :r ,r ({ f
-d
J _.. ".. " ~
~ ~ 'd' ~ ~ Y' ~ y ~
~ ) ) s J
) ~ ~ V :J
.. ;
liIlll oo,'!'- a; eas 0' "" !.I ali!
a
ba~ ~o bai t.1!!® 00 bi;, btl bi hm< ha
c~a!,l ch@@ ch<1li chee ihod,€'! d~u <:111 J:l"oa«: cil(!l
dlOi~ d~ da! d\l'l ItW@ du dee ~i daa ria
ssu SIO fb;':iE S~ $O@ $IU !;€\€! 51 ~a.a sa
tau to tai te too tu eee ti i:aa t
I(I~ Iti kai kere he kau hoc> !to kaa Ita
mu mi mal mee me rnau MOO mu maa rna
10 100 lau 10 lai lee Ii laa Ia
53 j _i .1

fiNAL VOWEl.SIGNS
~ ,.,
't- ~. Y
.. .I ,. ,", ~ . MILl.STONE kee It s..ha
ufo ~ Yo' ...... '"' HUNDR.ED
~ ~ .Y. • sau
1 ? ~ ~
- ,~ !)_? o: ~ rl
&:::::::- ~ .Y'
'J_~ '" <iJ ·IJ.J . " d ~. COUR.AGE tina m hi CROW vaa Y Ira
.t-,J ~.J
" ~ ..J J
Jff ~ if z: J u"l .... J;..p kbhoO .
.. J v/ e .J NEWS .? r baJWa HUNGER ~
s« f. 1:t I '" ~
;. J: ~./
~ - .. l' ~ , a: JI
.1' (jJ) ~ ,
FEARLESS r da ni MENDING .t ma", r. rna bee be bbo boon bai boo bo bah ba
shshe she shee shon shoo sho sha.h sha
wi'e wwe we wee wan wo wah wa
·ltaa'ee li'e lIaa Ie lee Ion 10 lah la
gaa'ee gah ga'e ge ge~ gon gao ga
wah lIu'ee chau: mi 00 she POST (L.tte~

PALACE

ftEUGION.

", ,

EXER.CISE ft
J/ tr.
,BAD faa bu
I khe
PLAY ~
L.-
ot. ,;
PROPER k ~he.
TO ME jhe mu 1o..P
JA ,d'i
t phoo GET UP th u
FLOWER
54 WITHOUT

MEET

fLY

DlfFERE~T

. :~

JI; Uy"
ka dati THERE n haaw.
/ ulf-,
c..Y'
fila ma HUE' n haa ya
cl) j~
'" th haa
nde. HAND
. b-; ~bt
. naabi BOOK b taa ki
J! Uw.
I mi BROTHER ee 'bhaa
}'-l un·
",I
r It 'NOT. NO nhee na
I ..P d
W-
i! da ju SONG t gee
SS LESSON 6

Grammar'

PfC,ONOUN ~r'(asam samer)
'"
I mai'n 4L
!
THOU too ~
HE. SHE, THAT wah b,J
WE ham (/
_p
YOU tum (
THEY wah ~.J
WHO kaun 01
HE, SHE. THIS yah ":f
THEY (!'lear) yah ~
YOU (with respect) , aap ~~r
MY meraa y.
.
..
"tOUR tumhaaeaa Ltw
/
OUR hamaaraa J..Ib-t ,.'"

NOUN (1, (Ism)

1, Proper Nouns 1 ~(J (Ism Ma'rfaj FollOWing nouns' come under this ca~egory :

(a) names of persons !

Note,' An proper nouns ill English are treated 'IS such in Urdu.

2: Ccmm@fi Noun g oj' ("~ (tsm Nakrah) All nouns. except proper nouns, are regarded as common nouns. It will be useful ro learn some of Urdu common nouns,

56

57

l I ..

VERB

P (Fail)

,·A word used for saying something about a person or !ning. indicating some action. is called a verb. Verbs are mainly of two kinds:

I. Intransitive

(;U (liz;m) 0;';':' (mtaddJ.,

2. Transitive

IntransItive Verb I A verb is intransitive if the . 'H"!:'.iHd~~,~·~te::l hy ti,p' verb stops with itself and it . needs only .he subject fO,f comoletiuc me sense. e.g:

{I said).

W'wn lin inuansitive verb completes Ik .sense witty· nnly a sub]: ct. it is callf';'r1 (t~4 (Po','l i;im), 3. pepect

., .

\:e"~' .~>: ,0:.:.- t "If' ~"i~e- tn q'.~ Jl.J!~~IP ('J}~,'_i' ·.·-,!,~t ,I ,~ff' 0'

, I' ~~ .~ ,,__,~. .' -,. I • ..... .... •• ~ ~ ~ .. '

~J' 1 {,<\hl1",;(1 1·'1I301t,

,.

When asubect and 'WI ·lntra.nsitjil'E'·\::;lb [i,wd some-

lhing more 'to comciete the sense the verb is catted ..;) L' ~ (Fa;;1 N;,,·J,,·\~ rIP.' iflll},!;f<'!c:t verb. For

v ,..

e x ample;

W').1 . means nOO"lIng, bUlwhen wcsayi;'JI't".41 it mean" AI>:1'Ied wasn: ,< i.

In the sent(jnC8' ~jy'''gl Ahmed is subject. which ~led I~ (Mubtada) and ).f.1' is predicate

which is called /.' (Khcrbar) and l¢' is an

incomplete-intransitive verb ..

58

VERB

banaa

SPEAK

J~ ~L

0G: /JI.-P

~

,

~

hoi

TAKE AWAY

Ie jaa

KNOW

jaan

CLEAN

saaf ka

WAIT, STAY

MEET

mil

ASK

TELL

SEND

bhej

DANCE

Mach

LIVE. REMAIN

rah

BE SLEEP PLAY

ho

so

khel

PUT

..aldt

59

~

'TRANS.".:~~.~_!~~.-=8 __ ~.::_' _A.._"",._>-",_e b_t:_, ___;P'(:_F_8_' il_M_,_ot_iJ_' a.....cd_dl_·)

LESSON 7
TIME
(waqt) ...
~~
WATCH gharee 1.5J;l
O'CLOCK baje 4!
HOUR ghantah ;;J
j
MORNING subha o:
NOON do pah~r A .. tJ
.
EVENING shum (lP
NIGHT rut 1..::,.11,;
MIDNIGHT aadhiraat ~J;l.!'./r
DAY elin l.:JJ
WEEK haftah .
~,
~
MONTH' maheenah .~
YEAR ... 1, baru 'V;'(J~
CENTURY sadee cJM
,
VUTERDAY kaI ' Jf A verb is transitive, if the action or feeling denoted by the verb dO~S not stop with itself, but is directed some pHf:'f'" ';J ti"ii!1y. that IS. Ih~ verb requires HJl object IH addition to the subject for completing the sense.

rO~ example ' if'.~,i.:"(f Lfj ,

, '.

I n tills example /"V, IS subject J"' Ij (Fa'e/)

I • ,pv

l..--" LY is object U~(Ma;ool} and I,) ""~: ' IS a

.

Following are the

~L'~ in Urdu.

u_,,;t'1 ~ (m~;; ati hun) I ,come It ZA r: (ham ilii h?!n) We come /:'.. ,b'7':;; (tiJ atii'lwf) Thou cometh

-'i ... =' r -... . "<".,.ri .

'(.,.~ {fr-' /f:J .

r~ 4<.! ;I (tum aftrfto} You come

. ! r .

i ,,&:1

'rC i frY (!loh ~ti/hf!j.) He comes

v: 1:1,jy O{ Y@h log ite hpjil) They come "" 1t0}1~ (mfi)n iJviihga) ! will come

-:f- /P,s)-O' -

d-}, r {tum blO gel You wm come ,.;./ ,.,

Jd.-j'e) (voh aye g7) She WI!! come

t;{!: r (f, (mai;; ata thi) ! was coming j~;lt%. (mi}natrttJl)! WJS coming (for woman)

. ~J1b) {yah atT thi:;:' They were corrmq (for wome-n)

~ ~

l ~ _ i

WEEK

(Wah' ~
SUNDAY itw ...
MONDAY peer
TUESDAY ' ........
WEDNESDAY budh
THURSDAY jumerut
FRIDAY jurnhaft
,SATURDAY suichar
WEEK, SATURDAY ... ftah
WEEKLY haft ......
OAY (14~) roz
DAY (11 hours) din
DAILY hu'l'O% ,p

~.

r ~ ..IJJ~ )j.)

MONTHS

(rnaheene) ~ 6
-~
JAN ;anwaree .I.h;..r ~
muharram ~
FEB farwaree O~~ safar p MAR maarch ~,;.I~ rabbee.hu'Uawwal J; lit~.;
v.:.r.,j -e
APR apre' rabbeehu 'lIaak hir -"',.,.
- . /lJl~;:,
, '"
MAY ma'ee '.f. jamaadeeu'"awwaIJ;Wo:! ~
sr:
JUN joan .I
Wr. jamaadeeu·I • .iakir .....;.vi4.5J lit
: .. '" :
JUL joolaa'ee ;. "
JU.J': rajjab ' ~
~;)
. .
AUG agast '. 1: d~
~I shahbaan
SEP sitambar ~ • dt.:V;
, ramz.aan
OCT aktobar ./.;:rI shawwaal 'J~
"'~ V ...... .
o nawamba /.~ ziqahdah tt~j~ .
DEC disambar ./: ~
'zeeJhajjah :t'CS}
63 NATURE SEASON & CLIMATE
;
(qudrat) .. (magsim wa.aab 0 ftawaa) I';; .J ..,.:r" r:~
~.J'.IJ
~
·SUN sooraj G~Y" SPRING bahaar -'it:
MOON chUncI .cb- SUMMER· prmI tJf
~
MOQNLlGHT chaandnee J.c~ RAINY SEASON banaat ' Io.:.t l;.A
~ WINTER Jura Uk
SUNSHINE dhoop· '-:(,~
STAR sitarah' II....' t:.;- COLQ ~ha. LhJ
WORl:D dunyu V-' HEAT . WARMTH aannee ,,1'
.. .~
. ~ rf
SKY aasmaan (jlrrl . WARM pram

''1'~'' ~ FRost
OCEAN samandar ....'~ puis lJ~
RIVER daryaa k..l; fOGGY dfDund!u Jl~;
MOUNTAIN pahaar Jk fOG k«Ihme W'
' . (
" aAlN :. L
WIND (air) bawu In baarish jJ'_)
" .
Jr. CLOUDY -«UN J ~
FIRE. ... ~
THUNDER .... aj Gt.! $TORM· !oofun cJlJj
(;)tf . SUN SHINE dhcop _,
RAINBOW bmun ~~J
~
65 DIRECTION.

NORTH SOUTH EAST WEST

shuinul

janoob

s.>

~;?!"

6?

'"

rnashriq

maghrlb

~~ U)u:\

J.

J_)~·.lj

<.Jkl.F

LEFT SIDE RIGHT SIDE RIGHT ONWARD

baare:fiIo'lt t3.raf daay ee'n ~raf

daayaa'n

aage

~'--.

d,_1'

BACKWARD ABOVE

peeche

ocpar

BELOW BEYOND

neeche

usf,araf

INSIDE OUTSIDE

andar'

bullar

66

j ,[

PARTS OF THE BODY

:.,
BONE
SKIN
B~OOD
BRAIN
LIVER
HAND
CLaw
FINGER
NAIL
BeARD
NECI(
EYE .. ,
BROW
CHEEK
EYE LASH
Leg ~6ng
Nose nik haddi

~~ Jt..f

. _,

C).#

-t'l' .A

,

dimaae

jipr

panJ ••

ungal ..

naalsbun 'd~he.

····Prdan

~f.rc ... ijl:!.

~ if Ann

.-,

.1/.1 .'

J' ~

. bizti .. J.i4

Ji: 'Eve

67

l i

_ I

MAN udmae (,/,J1
FAMILY '"
WOMAN aurat ~..J;
(kh.andaan) (jitl; .. ..
NEPHEW bhateejaa ~
:A}j~ 'VL ..
MOTHER maan. waalid.a UNCLE chachu ~
..
abbaa • waalid .JIJ , t:I "
FATHER , . MATERNAL UNCLE maamoo'n Uy~
. ~ )1;
SON beta .. " AUNT (mother's sister; ~aalah
j, f/o:A
DAUGHTER bet .. u-.: AUNT (father's lister) phoophee
BROTHER bhan. uw. GRAND-FATHER. dudaa ,_, I)
SISTER bahan I.:l1 WIFE'S' BROTHER sulu. LJl,...-
J)?"
sautelaa .. Y" FATHER-iN-LAW , ..
FOSTER suur ~
COUSIN chacher. bhaie. C;~·0 MOTHER-IN-LAW SUS V(,....
Barkaa I{!J SON-IN-LAW daamaad .J&G
BOY
GIRL lark .. J)) DAUGHTER-IN-LAW bahoo h
bachc:hah ». GUARDIAN niph~n cJiJ
CHILD -:
PARENTS waaUdain cI)!~ ANCESTOR baa" daadaa 'bf.., ,"",~.
'.
HUSBAND !ihauhar /ty RELATIVE rishtadaadr ... A, ;:,.J;..J
,
WIFE bHwee oK-.. 69
68 DRESS AND GARMENTS
MARRIAGE (bpr. (11 posh,"k) ~_"'t.' &;....X
(shaadee) O)t.;::; Roo.E fibaas V~
BRIDE dulhan err] RIBBON feetah ~
BRIDEGROOM du1haa L-/J TOWEL tauliyah ~;
,J'
J~ ..
FLOWER phool SHIRT qamees 4ft!
CERMONY rum r-' TROUSERS paaija.aPlah f/L
"..,. .,
INVI,TATlON da·."at ~Y.J BODICE angiyaa t,/f
GARLAND haar .Jy NAPKIN angochaa vIr
.,
JEWEL jswaahir /('~ COAT cot ~.f
~ ~,
ORNAMENT zewar ~.t; HALF PANT jaangi)"aa lilt
' •. :
PERFUME khushboo .fft" SHAWl. dushaalaa tJL? ... ..,
..
PEARL motee uy TUUAW pam-eo :f
r.I), t..S ':
RING aan~e' SA1U ' saaree l.S;l,..-
~
. SONG geet: .. ~ dutaanah ,.:.t::..- .J
GLOVE
baajaa "I;. C'
BAND .. mouh pJy
DlV~"I\CE tallaak U jjJ;',"
71
'70 HAT~ CAP !Gpe\' ttl ANIMAL
HANDKERCHIEF ' i'oom_ J~_'; (j&anwar) .I~Lt
BELT • cow Lt
~ee @ gute
WooLUN • J' DOG kuttu d'
conee 0.." .
VELVET malrhmal J-P ' GOAT bakree r.5~
SILK resham, 'I!~ CAMEL od'l1~ • .J
~~j
BLANKET omb&! d DONKEY gadhrul ~..I

PILLOW takyah ~, MONKEY bander
..I..A:4
CUSHION gaddee (J;t BEAST haiwMn d~~
CURTAIN pardah .,.,A BUFfALO bhains. ~
TABLECLOTH Ji¥ BULLOCK bail Jj
mezposh
SHEET chudar J"k CALF bachh!,u J>;f
':'
BEDDING bichhaunaa li~ CATTLE maweshN cft~
BORDER kinaaraa !it:! DEER .ran 0/1
,-
PErrl~GOAT lahangaa .~ ,ELEPHANT haatltee ~~.
fdiUFFLER gulooband '_I FOX lomree oyJ
...c:
72 73 _jACIf;Al WOLF

b _ 'f .I~~

~~

"

/.~

?-

BIRD

"

(p3l'il11r.1ah) ',k'" ~;..

LION TIGER

CR.OW

LlZA.RD

ILhargo;;h mhipkaiee

PIGEON

.jI

b~

~

V

~!.t;

PANTHER

~

,-

1)7

JI;;

~

.P

! Lft.

"~J:

COCK DUCK

mllrg~ batalsb

HORSE

~uwwar

PARTRIDGE PEACOCK,. 8AT BUITe!\FLY<

teetar

.. .p("

./'y.

Lb~ l!?

- .

'W ;f

fl

HARE

PARROT

C~OCODU.E

ch~1aa -:hi!~1

MOUSE

SPARROW

CA.T

biUee

OWl

ullu

LANB

HOUND Ply FROG

chi~~ tid~

hI,,'· j}tv..s-~:

.: . ;;

ot::'

~

l i

i i

DOMESTIC ARTICLE
(khaangee cheezen) ·iJ~Jt; PICTURE tauteer /...,.4J
,
"f)
PLATE . , BASKET tokr ••
rakaabee J.ifJ
CUP LOOKING-GLASS ainah ~,
piyalah )11 ~,
...
BASIN· bartan .. CANDLE battee ~
cI/o
BUCKET baaltee JJ~ TABLE mel. xt
KNI.FE chhuree _, CHAIR kursee ",J
~
PENKNIFE jle. ~.l>.;
chaaqoo MAT cha;aatee J f'
SPOON chamchah ~ BA.G tha~lee J:I
. FORk bantu ~~. COT pala" • ~
,
SAUCER pirch ~/r SIEVE chalnee ~
GROOM -' TUMBLER .gilaac 1I~
jhaaroo .fJ~
MATCH . diyaasafaa'ee JtVk~ SPITTOON peekdaanee j~
M .,
LOCK balaa LIb' STRING rassee if)
KEY _,. ;
chaabee J.l; NEEDLE 500'. JY'"
80TrLE botat u"Jl _ALANe! taf'uzu J)!?
76 CLOCK &haree 0>1
77 METAL

IRON lohaa

~j ~y' U'..cl?

" .,

GOLD sonaa

SILVER BRASS LEAD STE~L COPPER MINE

chaandee

peotal'

seesa"

~"",,"'.

faul.'

JJJ} " (;l;"

. "

taambaa

nan

ZINC

jast

TIN

raantc:aa

BELLMETAl

kunsaa

l)1f

;JI

l)f.7

~d

COAL SUlPHER.

kooyalaa

gandhak

WHITE LEAD

qalahee, safedaa

I • (JI'" ' ..

~

... - _."

78

EDIBLE

(khune kee cheejeh)' ;"L/?4' LV

Fr.JeD khoraak Jp
BltEAKFAST haazrGe Lf?t".
DiNNER khaanaa 1:1./
WATER paanee . L
J~
TEA chaa'e L~
RICE chaawal J_;~
, .
GR.AIN daanah ,.:.1;)
CORN makkl, ~"
anaaj ~l:1 (
WHEAT geho'n U~
BARLEY ,
jau Yo
FLOUR aataa 1fT
MEAT gasht :./
~
~ISH machhlee ~
BR.EAD ro~ee P,
I...)J~
79 PLACE
SOUP shorbah :. .~
,:,~r (jagah)
'"
MILK dooclh .II NATION qaum (}
.aU"..}
CURD dahee . 1ft"' COUNTRY mulk J:
-'
BUlTER makkhan ~ PROVINCE scobah .-:Y'"
BUTTER-MILK chhaachh ~~ DISTRICT ilaoqah, zilah &t;~
CReEM malaa'ee 6LJ/ CITY shahr ~
I
~ .
TOWN qasbah ..
SUGAR cheenee ~ ~
EGG anc#aa lJ;f. VILLAGE gu'o'n ~$t
PICKLE achaar ..IbJ LANE gali J
: or..
JAM murabbah ~ .. $ WAY raastah ~J;
~/'
HONEY shahad Nf PLAIN maidaan (.;}W
..
.II
ICE baraf ' , STREET keochah ~7
~./.
ONION pyaaz )k FORIEST jangal ~
...
Oil tel ~ .. INN saraaye Ly
SWIEIE.TMEAT minhu.'~ ~~ BURYING PLACE qabrastaan (jl;..-~
U "
BEVARAGE sharbat ~~ 81
80 ; i i

i ~ I

,A

waUHNG "
LaME ~ V~
.#
(hnunt) ~.,Ae SAND ~ i'
.
,
FOUNDATION -pH ~~ . WALL. ~ AtJ
fanh J:) "~ •
FLOOR STAll tJP.J:f':
. HOUSE ~ t;l1t-.' DOOR ~ ,;!I.lJ
ftOOM bmnh ~ 'WINDOW . khJrbs . JJJ:
101'Q11" I'UM!DShu .~~ ROOF dahGt ~
l
BATHIlOOH l!!uDI~~ .;.lf~ GATE ~ JW; .
~~hHMh .. t¥ ~ d80ukhet ~ii
URiNAL pd ,., .. " DOOR FRAM!
~
Df£AWI~ R.OOM ~ • 0001 SI.LL ~- ~"
,
VEBtANDAH. -~ AJik CHIMNEY 6uwaa'nqMh Jt,,,,1
CoYRT'f' ARD Ilihtm ~ DRAIN ~ . ($",..
t~Nlr) ~~h ~lvf ,HUT j~pno lJ)j,r.
'f ..
'rliALCO~'f _~_k~ .:,iP Alt NICHE dbh ;';f
~NC~ @$~t ~, bue b~
""'" GAftlMiI1l
""
~ . ~tt~WJj' A lANifiJl ~;
:lI:~
82
83
.' .i "j j "-,~.\ .j j.j .;

·1 1

AGRICUl TUitE
(khetee baaree) L.;}~ ~ FRUIT
CULnVATOR kisauil (.:.J(....[ , (phal) ~'t
LANDHOLDER zameendaar .J~; MANGO aam ·rr
LOAN qarz J_) PLANTAIN' , kelaa u;!
..
MUD' keechar X£ ORANGE naaraneee ~fr
,
FIELD kbet' ~ ORANGE (1005e jacket, $3.ntarah ~
PLANTER baa~ !;J~~ APPLe 5eb ~
. ..
pLOUGH Jt " .-
hal GUAVA 'amrood .)~I
To PLOUGH haI~naa b'.?J; PINE APPLE anannaas U't::il,
SeeD -i tJ; POMEGRANATE anaal jbi
/
PLANT ... GRAPE ;.;;t,
pa- J"i.: angoor
I,.EMON _, .
CANAL lsahar /'/' neeboo ~.~
~
IRRIGATION aabpaashee 3. ,_. PEAR naashpaatee Jl>~
O~·O
W"
. .,P
CROP fasaI MELON kharbooxah V
l.-~ v "
TO SOW -- bJo! WATERMELON tarboozah ." ..
,),JI.../
DATE Ithajoor -l;/
84 8S 'ftGETMU
(~) tJy. 1!DUCA1"BON
, rf
POTATO .h. if ~
fit
~T ... TEACHa .mt.aad "
;,t;...,
eAUACiG ~ t.rl STUDENT tMIlb+ilm (!~.4l.P
cAUIJA.oWH ,~, ",/J;(' S1VDY,.KNOWt.IOGE Um .. ~.
COCOANUT nurpI J:..lt SCHOOl. m&~ ~..Ifl
CUeUM_" Ii ...... wi CLASS darjIh
;oI(.lJ
NA map" ~ .. IXAHINA"nON irntihaan c'~J
»:
0Mt0N· . ,,.1 )~ QUESTION awaal ,.J~
TAMARI- .... &1 ANswa jawaab , ..... "'Po
e
1i'
PUMKDI! 1ItadkIoo J EXAMPL! miuul J~
"MACH ..... Jl. CHOIC£ pasand .~
't y
MINT pud18RU ~1.14 rUsevoE hMzrcIo "?"

J;. !
_.UAL bahpft ~ ....... zne ~"/.
CHlLU IM'ch &<~ ·coaccs I 10M ~ ~
. ,
S6 COi4KnnoN muq .... ah .Jt~
87 l [ l

. .

i l

.1

! l l i

EXERCISE masnq ? OCCUPATION
alphabet) baroaf J.J?- ~} ..
LeTTER (of an ~
W: ,...
. .f}
,n,ONUNCIA-nON talaffu~ SERVANT rlmute ..
SPELLING hijjaa 0 MASTER 'aaqM Ii!
SENTENCE fiqrah, cp, THIEf d10r .J.J?
MEANING m'anl;;) ~ 't,_:
TRAVELLER musadilr /_J
.. ~ .;
METHOD ~reeqah ,.jiJ SLAVE ghulum (~
,
zabUnee jkJ
ORAL TEACHER ust:aad -,I;:.-I
naqshah .,J;jJ. f,' .-
MAP MERCHANT saudaapi" /I_,~"..,.,
V~RSE nazm ~ JEWELLER jauhane o/tfi
aazmaaish !~~J1 _)
TEST SPY ~ V_,....~
I r..5~
PER.CENT fisadee DOORKEEPER dar-bun I.,:) ~ ... ;
zabaan I.;J~; .. ~
LANGUAGE DRIVER parHbaan I.A ;J.J1f"
shaagird f~ BOOK-SElltl:R kitaahfarosh Jv~t{
PUPIL J ,
LESSON _:abaq ~ WASHERMAN dhobee J~_)
RESULT nateejah # TAILOR darjee I...';~;
88 89 ORDINAL

Urdu numerals

(tarteeb)

._ ...

~ .. i/

. - "

FIRST

~

I ~ y'_'

o tJ" ~

Ul£.~ ~

16

pablaa

SECONO

THIRD

teesraa

~.

11

FOURTH

chauthaa

fiFTH

paanchwaa'n

egiamh

~,Ui

:,.J 'U

SIXTH

SEVENTH

solall

saatwaa'n

EIGHTH

aathwaa'n

j"

U1#1

(1)

u!Yi I,jJ.n'~~

cbsbbis

-J

v ..... 1) -:

NINTH

nawaa'n

21 ekkis (

" .. r: t

TENTH

daswu'n

ELEVENTH

giyaarahwaa'n

26

Ordinal numbers. tram seven upwards. are

regularly fm-med by adding 'W'aa'n' • IJ" • It

change$ according to the' number and gender

e. g.

daswaan (m). daswen (m. plu) dasween (f. sin. " plu.)

9.2

31

.,\ .i

2

ss.

)) 7

sat

~L.-

12

barah

IV~ 17

setreh

22

.. z ",Ii'

v":. t;.

::0

h,ii[fS

Lr.~

tll1

.,

.~

8

-:ilh

it

13

{era!'l

s2.

18

H!hiij a!, 11 D.Jl¢1

23

. ie'is

."' ....

, -"" V ..

28 aihals ." b

:: ... :::[;J

,-, ..

tcntis ~,·t

~.

eha, p-;fI'c/J

~~ .~~

9 10

nso des

} VJ

1415

ch'!!:!Jah pendran

~ .. if.: ·o/p.:

19 20

(Innis

,_.;.# (.; .. I

24

-cheubis

.._,

29 untis

viPI'

chauntis

'"--'" II'~ ~',

~J~~

93

bTs

v::-:

25

oscbi:

• . .J...{ ••

V:::'~

30

.. lis

.'

v-::

35

l !

36 ';"7 38 39 40 }6 77 78 79 SO
_, ,
chaWs -":- artis un taIlS chalis chhihattar sathattar athaliar unnasi ';«
semos 8$SI
~ ''']:T, '~~ "" .d )f
'. CIA'",.. (f'dl.<' ~ ~ .. ~ .., .-
~ ~)j ..... 1 i if L' I €f"1
;, . • 6
42 43 44 45 81 82 83 84
41 85
':- ~.,JII' tehtilis chauaffs painta/iS ekiiisT baiiist tiiasl
ekt'fJIis baialis charas! pacil"asi
'-" ~C).;. (f'vr
LX d.~ 'J~ ~If.: ~k. (j"l; tJVf.: (.(It..
,vd V ••.. ... .t ) . .
47 48. 49 50 " 86' 87 88 89 ,,~ ...
46 h- ) 90
s<ijntaiis' ar!iJis unchas chhiiSi sattiisT a!hasl
chhialis pee as nsves, nave
II ~ ... vdi:~\ iflf) I (,/'lI.. U"'I..K (j"'t;. c/t:, ()'ty ~j
v-::~ U •• ~ , .: . .r" .. .... :
.. . 54 55 91 92
51 52 53 19) 93 94 95
ekiaNan bewan tirpa(l chawwan pachpan ekiinve' bamiif tiranve cholinve
Wd oW' ~jJLJI .d-J~ pachinllii
I {j) ~ c}f.: ~ .. eLY!}
WlL,..J! .. ' .. .d.....)I.J?,. ,,-)!.f ..
. - ,60 96 97
56 57 58 59 98 99 100 .: "
ssuawen i'ltflawCln ansath sath chhianvi sattiinve a!hanve niniinviT
.:hhappan . .b :..1 }i..v s,!:!
d i.:J. I " .. , ~J~ '-Jt:. L.)~f
l~~J t;:,' ',),,J1 i ~I .::_)~' '/
'. . yo'
61 62 63 64 65 UU ONE HUNMED eksw ekJJ.Y'Ji
p!Jnsa!h 10'
eks;1th basat/; ttrsetn chsunseth AND ONE '.. ..
J-/! ~'~ ~; '"f • j.o • un ONE HUN DR!!.l D d do»yJ,
:,:; f.,. ~. ~ ,·r
o"A AND TWO ..
66 67 68 69 70 - TW'O HUNDftED do ,
m~ Y,.J r~"
chhhsMh saj'Sa[h arsa!h unhattar setter
... a_ THOUSAND ~'I'
~ by ·~Jl ~J 7 ..Jb1 ,~ ~ ~
$"" Lt3.. ~ ,r·, t
.. . n~®~ OM~ ~OU5AND$~ ~~6
1 •• F
73 ']4 7fJ ANi!) ONE IftmJl_II' @~.. "~
71 rz UliU~ @~1f1 n~OOSAND~ ~.J~
cnobetter pacllhattar ,I. f.
ekbette: bahattar tihstter AND 'fEN~'~ 6, ""
;0 '" )J( /tf.: x: ~~ n~~ lliICU5AND ~ ~r ..... !.i1., ry
/:. . ' o ,
. t ee 11), ... " 1iJ-';
95
94 B 00.000 HUNDHD I~ ..J1J

THOUSAND

!.OOO.~ r-m.UON - laafda ~IJ';

iO,OOO,OOO TEN MILLION kU'CIf FRAC110NS

QUARTER. paaw

HALF

aadhaa I aadh

THREE FOURTH

paunt!, paun

ONE AND A QUARTER sawaa

ONE AND A HALF darh

ONE AND THREE patine do

FOUR.TH

TWO AND A QUAR.TER sawn &it'

TWO AND A HALF dhaa'ee

TWO AND1'HREE paune te~n

fOURTH

THREE AtaD A saWall teen

QUARTER

THREE AND A HALf saarhe teen

THREE AND THREE paune chaar , fOURTH

i .1

f~ G '", • -Ie, ...

'L ~-:

,.., pi _.

ID'> ,. ~_),

10· l> A'_/..~

-''' ..J..i.: ,yl~

6~J d-L}-:

-, '

GC';~

LESSON 8 Geuder

The Urdu ldi' . h .

Le., the Masculine G ,~~!age as only two Genders •.

and no Neuter G . d ert er -JOd. the Feminine G d

, en er, ren er,

.Mates are 'Called Mas J'

cu me anClFemale.s ~e'rn'"

( ) s: mane.

r N(.)uns that end in • ~'<l" .' h

f' . . , Wit very few

Ions. arc Mascut· . el(cep-

Kapri-cloth. . IOCS: as, larkll-a boy;

(1) Nouns that ('nd in "i" . _

. niric: as L ,._ J~t· almost always Femi.

A • i1"u-a gIrl' GJ-

cJl'ni (man) or hha- (I I h fI-a carriage.

.bv "'Nning. I 'rot cr) arf' masculines

Masculines

Boy Son Horse

Dog

Room DooJ Cloth Egg Envelope l...oc:k

HOUf, Clock Bathroom

.. , Larki .•• BI~li

- .. Ghor! .•. Kuttl '" Kamra

•.• Darwlza

. , •. Kapr) '" And. ••• Lif'Jfa .,. Till •.. Ghan~

••. GhusJ Kblna ••• Bhii

... K1!lwin~

97

r~ e.:

I);; t!f

,/ ,;U.lJ



l!ol

,..:.JW

11'- .. ;.:I

;t;J-1 u~ j,..,r;

...

. Brother Husband

.. ,

li

1 i

li

Girl.·· Daughter. ,Mate

Qttch ·Window.J

Lark!

,.,

BItt

...... ..

_ . Ghori

. ,.

•.. Kutyl Khirki

Chibl

...

Gharl

... Glri ... Pagri suM

iii iiI_.

Ke,_ watch Carriage Turban Ink Saddle lnkpot SUter -Wife

. Zin

.. _"

Oawal

Bahen Blw;

LESsON 9

case he Nominative .lnd the

- . ortant are t

The roost imp . ase

. nve ,

• ases, . the Nomtna and

Objective c "d to be In lk d about~

Nun lS sal thwg ta e • 'The

(1) A 9 ~e of some <!' sition; as.

L~_ it is the d by any Pr P?

w~ ooverne

",hen it is not b-

soldier oriJl:;" - Here the ··S91dier'· is in the NOUli!Lltive ~ because he doe" romctbing.

(2) A Noun is said to be in the Objective Case, when something is done to it, or when If. is governed by a P~pOSition or a Transitive Verb; as. "He sees the borse", "He was on the horse:' In. both sentences "horse" is in the Objective Case .

(3) In English no alteration is made in the actual spelling of a Noun when it is Objec:tive, but in Urdu alterations, in accordance with Rules given hereaCttr • are made in certain cases where ,the objective is governed bya Post-Position. All eases, exc~pt the Nominative Case, are called the .Oblique Cilles._whtd\ have different names according to the Post-Poiitiqi\ following them.

rhus a Noun hsaid to be in the

Genitive Case lf followt.-.d by "ki"-of

Dative .. " .. ko -to

Locative " " .. par or men-.at
Ablative .. •• s r Se -with
Agent " 17 " ne -by Vocative " " s» at or 0 -o!

In the Accusative case the Noun is not governed by Post.P<.,sitionJ because it is governed by a Transiti"~

as, kill a dog'-o..eJ( kuttamaro.

N'ote;-A Noun in the Accusative case haseit~er the form as a Nominative, as in English, or is expressed

Hko'\ like the Dative.' '.' ,

Oblique Singular

\~~ular Nouns followerl by t!Pst_1"'il~ith,. '.)

_' I ~ Masculine Singul.lr Nouns ending. in .. ,," chang_e, ' ~:t~" into He" before a PQst-Positioriforthf' slke of

'eUphony; as, ,

On the horse, Ghor! par .. ;~./I (not Ghori par). h~'the room, Kamre mea "'-:t.-J (not Kamra men) 1. 'Masculine Singular N(~.ms not endin~ in ".} "'. do

aot ' change. '

3. Feminine Singular Nouns never change,

, - '

Oblique Plurals'

- - ,

" The Oblique Plurals have but' onc,rule, which is ,that all Plural Nouns (of, whatever Gender or ending) 'h~"e the suffix "on" when followed by a post.Pmition. If, however. fl Masculine Singular Noun .~nd~ il "l~' ,me "ol'!j$' dropped before "on" forthe s",ke:6£ eupho'ny;

as:-

~ ;
Man admI - To the men 3d~ionko
Table mez - On'the tables ml%ofi p~t
:House ';ghar '- In,the houses gharon meil
Office daftar - From the "Rices .i:1ftat'ni\~t!
Dog, kutti' ~ To the dogs kiitton kc
,Cloth kapri'_' O~the clothes kaproii par 100

~, '".:. _"

ivf!/' A> I)~;:

~'::DJJ ~UJ;;'

IvY .I .. f .. h%

. .

l .l

Possessl \'e ' Pronouns

My

Our Your .. , Hisj Her I'"

... Mera

". ~Hamlir3 Tumhira

Uska (ooska)

Adverbs Yahan Wah5i1 Baje Aur

J i Han .. , Ji Nahln ... Mat

-., lAb

.....1

'.

Here

There O'clock A,rid {coni)

uk

, ,"

\) f.l

~

.Iii

u}c!.; ~.i'

... ~~. v~

..::.....

",

U,>n'\ Now

ObSCfVJtiol1

Possess! V~ pron, ouns 'I" h '

_ h' -""",-~~ la\C t e Sdtn' ,'. _ ,.

as t ley J1dve in E.;:;rh'""'F (, posrnon un Ur:du

-h-~-~:~ IS i.e., they must P d· .l':'"'"* ..• e.

~;,;_2J!~:!!" --.- - --" ... _rece e ':>1: ,.NQ!.~

The Adverb must be used J'u,"t bet: •

.. " lor~the

Verb: as, ' .

Your knife is on (he table (Y .. L' '

O ,,' ') T our J'mfe, tabl

n, IS _ umhiri chiqii mt . t' t"

, 1- pu hal •

Bring that ta.ble here (That bl'

ta e, _ilere hring)

-Woh rnez yahai'l iao, -

101

.} i :

j ~i, .. 1 . .1

; j

h (fhis letter, t.h ere put)

hi letter t ere ____

Put t IS

Y h chiuhl waha.n rakho ,

e . . • , I -k h 'reo

. o'clock (Two o c Ol • ..;._

Come here at twO . .

b·- ahan ao. .

, ccmcj=- Do ale Y _ ... ,

. . -. the house (St' rvant ,

The servant IS. not In. har men n:l.hi n

h . not is)-Naukarg (

ouse m,

haL

EXERCISE· Translate into English:-

...,." ~ Sandilqon m~n

v- ...,J

v::.J Gharofl mUt

( £, ") Urkoi'l kc·

~ b-~_': Ghorob s~

" liJ Lifafop men

,.,r:k

~ rJ:J Ghor"ion par

. ~ P!tloii men

~~-: k

'/j'j. Naukaron 0

Sandiq m~i\ GhU- men· Larke ko

Ghore Sf! Ufaf~ men Gbori, par

Pitt men Naubr kc'

Translate into Urdu:- . \

from the office In the window In the inkpot From the door To the mare On the horse fo the dog

In tbe house

ln the bo'lii

From the offices In the w~ndows In the inkpot5 From the doo rs To the mares On the horse.' To the- dogs

In the houses

In the boxes

!02

I l

TJiEADJECTlVES

An Ad)eclh;e is a word joined to a Noun to'show its qu.suily (as. a strong man) ;.slzt(as. a large book); colout

(ai.a- r~d coat) or to describe it in any.way. .

Good

Ach-chha W;; I

Bad

or Burl!

Fal~ (liar) Jhfita

Cold Than<h

Wet Gill

-

.-1;-

," .

({

~,

: . ..:,.,(.....

True Sach - ch ii

Hot Garro

nry Sillcha

Clean, 1 . $a(' . dear J.

Great, . ,1Sar§ .brg!!' , big. J: .. ,

High .,Une:ha .: '(:; long. tall LambatJ Wide'>t-:hauh{··:(i;~~ Deep Gahrll .. iT,;:·;, ,f

'/

AU . ·S~b

Dark .. An<;lht!d

Young jawin

(youthful) ...

New Naya

Much Bahut

·.Dirty Small, I little J Low

Short Narrow Shallow Few

Mail§!

Chhota L~
)\jichii ~
'11".
Chhota .I:~
Taftg, .,..t:"
lIthli ilK:
.. Chand ~
Raushan " .. ?
~..,~
Buddhi ft.,~ k'';' Bright eJlf. OId

- (animate) .~ . Old (inanimate) Pur~nl to';"

A liule Thort It.,:

'"Ijd (quantity)

i l

1. if J MI;\;culine Singular Noun )$ not followed t: aPost.positiol, the final "a·' of the Adjective does not , .

change; as. a large dog-15k bara kl)tta.

"2. If a Masculine Singular Noun is followed by a Post.position and befote aU . Masculine Plural Noun~ ( ..... hether followed by a posl"position or not) the fin~l

«a" of the Adjective is changed into "e:"; as, ;

/e.:

_;

z.,. };

f'J';1' ~j.

To the large d()g. The large dogs -. To the large dogs.

Bare kutte ko. Bar~ kutte. Bare kutlon ko.

3. The final "a" of the Adjective is changed into "i" befole all Feminine Nouns, whether Singular or Plmal or whEther followed bv ;& Post-position or not; as,

~ f ~ .:

Bari gho(j. (J.Jr (~./.

Bar i ghar I par. ..I'-:l!j,llJ ):

Bari ghorion par. {VJ))(J},

A large mare.

On the large mare. On the large mares.

Adjectives
Rich AmI. ~l
Poo, ··Yharib -f
...
Easy As~n ~L...:'i'
Difficult Mushkil tP
WeIr Tan-durust ~P:;
III Blml1T .Jt:.
Wise Aqfinand .»
foolish Blwaquf .!,Jix·
Hard Sakht s»:
lQ4 S,yifl 1(1:
Slow Dhima o'·ilalka .'i
Sharp 1 10. t/j
Tcz . -
.'
Blullt !':und /:
~(
Art ivc Chiilak ... .f!J~
Lazv S11St ;' ,
..,::. .... .---
fieatrtiCul KQflb~uL'.' ~
'':..:.Iyf)?
. Ugly Bad ·s~r;d. ~Jyff~
Soft Narrn
Honest fmandar (J
..Jk~t
Dishonest BE.im:in I,:) {J I.;...
Strong Milzbut ~ .
1y'P
Weak Kamzor )J;f'
Dear {expensive) Mahiit;a !CJ
Cheap ·Sasta ,
.t:- The Interrogative and Relative Pronoum el("

I . Whenaskhga question, if there is no word (such as "why" ,"what". etc.) which shows that the sentence is i.nterre>gathe, either' use the word "kia" (what). at the begInning or simpY> raise the voice at

the erd

is that your horse ~

Kia wah lumhara ghora hat?.,._ 1;/1/,/:) ~(

h my book on the table .

Merl kitlh me\!. par hai ; -r..l-:,"d-;.[fu/.

105

··7 .i

i [ l l ~

Wcn'tis The Advel"b~
The Adverbs are of several kinds, most of which rre
An hour Ghantl.l :;.f ven below under dlffereat' headings.
Day Din or roz oPI Now Ab
)'J !;).J -I
Week I-lafta' . Always Harnesha .~~
~
, ...
fortnight Do Harte ~J.J Just now Abhl .!.l
Month . Mahfna ~. Quickly JaldI se ~J .. ~~
8t.
Yur Sillorhara-; V'~9JL.- Yet Abhi tak ~f.1
~ ,-
Night Rat e.G Soon Jaldi J..J,:
To-day Aj 0.7 Again, then Phir .P~
,
To-night Aj rat ko Ever Kabhi ;
/'.. .. , . .-' If:
.... ,6.-,
Morning Subah e,_J In future A.tnda " ...
,,~.,
Evening .' , Sham ,; Never Kabh'l nahin vf;;!
Do pahar ( ..
N.:Ion /,'!.JJ Every day . Har roz ,d'J)/c
Afternoon Ttsre pahar . ,.. .. Suddenly Achanak ~~I
..f; '7-: .
At sun-rise Din nikle £ch Now-a-days Aj kal J~~
, C.l
At sUU-SJet Uin chhups .:£._ cJ) Now and then 1 Kabht kabhj » ..r't.f.f
u· .
'. At midnight Adhi rit ko .iu: Som~tim~s J
."
Every Har Often Aksar ~.J !
/. #
Once Ek daf .. .J";)-f. At present: Filh5i JUI,J
In turns B3r"i bsrr fl' " L
Twice Do dafa . 0 .. ·::..11 •
~J_ • Adverbs of Place
This mommg Aj subah ko /tt(;,1 .

This e\lening Aj sham It;:; 1(t;.&'i Everywhere Har jagah e ..
~ .J~
. No where Kanio nahin . c"
last week Pichhle halte 42(~ ~v""
By sea Sumandar ke raste ........ v
;:_~.c..l~-'
N.!xr week Agle harte ~£I By land Kkushk I ki! rhte .. I L. r"
.;:;;.~ .. ~
Earl, Sawere &.--tr By air . Ha",vU j.lhal )e '~J'''''
~J • '.:,..
106 107 A liute Even Onh

Adverbs of Quantity
Thor! c> .\Ione AkEli if.
Bhi rf.. Enough KID JIf
Sirf .:J/ .Some Kuchh ¥ The Conjunction

Yu ]1 han

Ct'Tlalnly Zarur

UJJ. I '.J/;- ,

Undoubtedly 1 Bt!: shsk or Indeed J ..e+

A conjunction is .. word, which is used to connect 1:WO words or sentences; ~,

And Aur J.11 That

Keh

Adverbs of Affirtnation

Nu, Not N~t at aU

Nab'iii '-tt BHkul nabin

° VI!.

V'{v-.

..

Otherwise 1 W~rna ;J.J J o'rnabin to

Or Yl l rf ~
Agar ,1'
But lekin /. Also,cvell Rhi ;II'
~ oJ·
Howeve Magar p Yet (even then) Phir bhi
" Because fff ~~
Kionkeh Although Ag<lrch~h f;r
Since ChiUikch f:l;, Therefore Is lie . ::d.t./'
According Chuniiflcheh Likewise Is hi urah
j"~ ,,) "'v I
~ ~ 'Adverbs of Negation

~fherollowIDg Arabic Ad'\ferbs ar.e commonly used in Urdu

~
Fauran ,_ .
At once 1.11
AbMlt (nearly) Taqriban l!: _ ..
. ~/'
Per fOrce Majburan i.l~
By 'force Jabran ..
'/.-
For example Masalan p
By chance Ittiflqan . . -
In;';1
Probably GhiJibab {Jr;
, !?specially iChusiisan .,. I '.
cPrP
Commonly ") Umiiman t:.,.t
Usually J
Approximately T"'~J;ninao ' ~ -
1#
Surely Yaqir.ta~n ~.
_ ..
108 The Interjection 'Of uO"iir"Ai" ,.::.!';'J.H(irl'ah

'Well done) Bral'.o.J

Shib1sh

Jp;

Haill!. ~

Is 'it r~l1y?

Ki i such much

~ ,

tcv

K..habardir ~ ..

J'~?

'" .. ----

'THE VER8

"

" .' Thereare.two principal kinds of, Verbs. viz., Tnnsi. tive and 'ntnnsitivc.

(a) i\: verbis Transitive, ifd'lC actien hasan uhJect wi,thout whleh thc!s('o~c WOIJIti he iQ~.)m.

-~ :

l "~'

i .[

.i ~ .. J

The dog killed a fox. 1 saw a man.

Here the sense would be incomplete without mentioning "fox" and "man"./ and therefore the Verbs • 'kill " ;.nd "sec" are both Transitive.·

(b) A Verbis Intransitive . if the action does not

-pas.. to an Object; .15,

The servant is sleeping. Thy boy Tan.

He re the sense is alr'.'ill]Y complete wirhou placing any c,bjcc:tsaftcr rhc Verbs "sleep" or "run" Th c ·y are therefore Intransitive.

Nbte:- The Transitive and Intransitive Verbs cliffet In their use only in the Past T ensl.'.

The Infinitive

The Infinitive expresses only the action or state and IS not limited as regard!> person, number and time; as,

To come, .To cut, To fall, To write. etc.

1,\5 in English every l~finitive is preceded by "To" ·50 in the same way evcrv Infinitive in Urdu terminates

in "n~",

Infinitives

Intramitin;f Transitlves
~'i' I Wo_,
TOC{)\1W Ana I To see Dekhn5
I _ ..
To go ):ina L'I, i- To show Dikhanli l:th
. ~
To take away I lejana Tosav, ") Kahna
or To carTY J t'~ To teil J
To sleep Son? L'y To eat Khana
To fan Girui- LJ To give Dena
To send r: 8b~jna·. ! ~ -j

r
To walk Chalna ~. To drop Girana til
To wake. (one self) Jagna To awaken Jagma l'll~
" /.
"1
;J. J>
To speak Bolna L:J :. To call Bulana t· Vo.
To' lir- dOWTJ Letnli ~ To change Badalns i;J.~
Totaugh :-Iansna ~ To write Likhna r:../
To brin~ .. To drink P~na L:.:.
t ana (. ci
To sit Haithna ~. To open Kholns tJ/
~o wait Thairna ~ To shut Band kama
L_/,F'
To rise lJthna- •• j~ ..J . rr.
t.:.r I ./.0.;
To arrive 1 Pahunchna· To '.i'''} .
or J L:.';'~ . To lift up . U~I~ana L·t:(
To reach ' -:" ~ To pick up .. - 2:0 climb 1

1,0 mount ( To gel on ] .

1

. JRakhna

To keep To put To place

Thl: lmperative

. 'The _'_l1du \0 erbs art' quite simple and H>gular in form and It wants hut little pr.lcticcto form any particular par! or tense ol' a V erb t jf we know the Infinitive of it.

(a) 'The root of a VI;',h {s obtained InIinal : 'na" of the Infinitive: as,

Togo . lana Root

To speak bolna . Root

ornit t ing the

Ja Bol

(b) The Imperative or " "word of command" . jsformrd by adding "o"·tothe root of a Verbras,

HI

Root Imperative

Bolns Bot Bolo , )!

MSma '_ Mar Maro ,;\.,.

Girana Gira Girlo .JI/

. ,

Note:-If the root ends either in v c" or "0". these

vowels are dropped, . for' the sake of eupho, ny, before the termination "0" of the Irnperative; as,

To give To sleep

Root Imperative

De Do

So So

Deni Sona

EXAMPLES

I. Come Into the room. K'amre men ao.

1. Bring my horse. Mera ghora lao.

l; Take aU things away. Sab chizcft lejio.

4, Open.thatbox. "Woh sandaqkholo •

.s • Put that paper in my pocket (Wohkighaz mfrl

" , l J!b met. rakho.

6,Sendthis Jetter to the mess. ( Yeb chlt~hi mess

", .. l ko bhlj- .

,Prohibition is expressed by using t,~e. particle _·m.t" -"do not" or "don't" before the Imperative; as,

I~ Do not (or don't) go to the me .. to.tay.

Aj mete komatjlo. ',t. Don't aiton the chair. l<;u1$l par mat baitho.

\\'2-

,

, The usc of the Preposition "to"

The preposit' ." -

pb'" (a~d not b IO~'k' to m~st. be translated by "ke

being (or aPron~un o!y~h('nlt JS used before a human (which it will be n2;icedt~ any I of the [oHowing Verbs,

I ' rnvo vc movement f

p ace to another):_ '.' rom one

.janio To go L't.;

Ani< Bhejnlo

I Lana I Lfjilna

.J Pahunchna

To bring L·p To take to L·b!.

....

To reach t.:i=

,{ .

"to'l> k'

ta ce its.

To come L'1 To send V

~ - ~

Nc.te:-Bef~u inarumateobjects ordinary form "ko",

113

! i

Intransitivc:s

l:"~J J To hear

Oaurnii

To run L/, Toknow

To die Mami c..r:

1'0 How, &hn~ ~ •.

To come out ~ikalni L'l r

To, fly Urni l:.-.1

To live Rabni. '

Kkafi honi

To be angry . .' L.:,zt;;

.. ",,' To work

Muskarana

tl 1"1

!/""'.. T,) take

b Jalni cJf

To urn

To escape. h 1 Bachni ~,

(from pURlS - .r 0:

ment etc.) J

To eS'-3pe ,1 aha ;na

(from danger, g .. ?

, .) J \;J ~

. etc. . .

b J HOlla. To sell

To • .. 'J'"

To have ' .

"oj~na .1 ahuy

L' ~:; ,

}"'e. barhna Todcan

To advanl:l,.~ g', .. _ t:

To come v..;: .

forward' To strtke

. J Pllhhe ha~ni To hit

To retreat ~ .,('~ To beat

To get back .!.:. ... ;- f::

\14

Infinitives

To smile

To bec"me

; .~ !

To cut

To take out To fill

Transitive~ Sunna Jinn! Kitril Nikilril I\harrii

stand To do

To under-

Samajhnli . Karol

To ~hrow To make To read

I To ~sk . 'To burn To light·

. Lena Phtflknii B:aninl Parhni

1 Jalini

I .s

I i .i j

To weep To cry

To shout Toery

To .scream

To swim

To kill Mfr-cl""l I;JIJ~l,. To prepar.e. 'J Tai,lr bmi'

To get reG!dy "l:hbM

To steal ChLirlnlC I"i.

To breakTo~II:J)

.' . ~

. To take off Utlrni Ljl.1

}ChiMini ..... , L *-

'" Taim5 t. ~ /..

f

To get down1Ut3m~ To dismount) .

. .

To put on hhcnni ~

L'; : To teacli Sikhln. t·"

CONJUGA nONS

present Indicative (or (ndefinite)

Singular P'ural

I go Main jau hun I We go Ha~ jit~ haiii

. Thou goesr , To -.. hai Yoil go Tum.. ho

He goes Woh to t. IThey go Woh jitt:miA

She goes Wah jan hal !Jhey go (fern.) Woh jUt haii'l

Prescnt Continuous (or. Definite)

Singular 1 am going

Thou art going

He is going

She is gning

Plural

MaiO jt raha hun Tu ja raha hai Woh ja Tab. ·hai

. Woh jli rahi hai

IJJf}.J~ ... ~ '~fJ4r; TfAt'.1 ,",tF.A~~J

:- ' ~ .

We are going y ~u are going They are going

They are goin,!.! (fern.)

Ham ja Tah! haiti Tum- ja rahe ho Woh iii rahe hain Woh jaralll haill

llS

I l

Substantives used as, Post-positions (ke qar ib, or

~ ke nazd lk ,

l f~~ ke pas

·ke sabab

Near

Under. below Behind

ksntche . k! pichhe

:J-£; ~fJt: z.L J~ c ,d[,._·£_.

_ ..

~.~;).L

·L .... L t.-;'£.. :j';L

JJL dhrJ'iL.,. ~l.-£_.

For ke waste or ke lie

Without k! ba~air

With ke sath

In the middle of ke~ich men

Between kt darmian

instead or

Beyond

I\cc:ordingto Roqnd.

Round about

In front of Before (ahead) Before (in time) After (in time)

• nside ')utsidf'

i ~

l i

ke badlt ke pare kemuJfi,t k!gird U ~s pl~ ke slmn' tte iigl

sl! pahle kt biid

ki! andar kebiihar

ke khilaf

116

'OSTPOSITIONS (her06Jaar).Jk JJ..J"

'"

A Preposition II called a Postposition In Urdu. It is used after the Noun or Pronoun.

Example :-
Pronoun Noun OStposition
To him 1\1'( to Nazeer J'"
From him ., trom hoUM from
~VJ 4-
Of his ,# of house of (
b""'v"f
In him , house
.L.J! VI In in ce
,
On him A"-"'· on house .r,. -4
Upto him J='Jt upto boule J~ upto J Read these sentences taking care on Postpositions

See this man. ~. /' ,,~r ",1

. Write with the pen. A e.. (i

Give money to Hazeer.

.J.1 ~'.i /' /..:j . ~ .( ~.J' 4/J 4-/ (vi ~ rr J c)(_;1 4- -{._,;J 4 A.(~

This woman's son •

It is his house.

Come uptothe sho~. Picture is on the wall.

117

,.6.:d ,If.J /., _)"

'. I!":'

;" " ~I~»

\

~.I~ f"' .. : .,

.J~! ..JJ 1./',

.1" f~.J

He . It. '" . the h.t1W00ID. ~""O: ,:,l; ~ ,~

..... " ..... dBt- ~I ~jDi=..if;i~v1 It .hJ ,nIJ' ..... I0Il. +- rs» ,}. '.4 ~

I staJ. ~ te. we ~.Jit:fpQ! ~f +>'4)1 ~ to.A .: No.in .. or P~ w...n' used 1fIIdaout • .':;'it...... '. in the NomInati.,.

... ~ ............•...

Cae, .......... QIII .... Cue is .. always coyer-

• • '.CPDIitiottC».'lo .'

'.. ~'. .' NorIDinata..

r. ::-~:td 1=-::;:

2. In .. ObIi.,.' cUe, ~Iino ~ Pronouns and Ad§ect:i" .. endiftl in 'U' chan .. the hi .... Into .. ' for the ·sin..,'.,. e. 80 r..QI ....}. 0/-

11S

H .........

GM.tO ..........

~ U.lJ! . 'If''' ulY

JJ /JY.'? j/YoJ>[61 Call thosestPd8nts. jut·/, J~~LJ,ffi

__ .. I che ·ri,.tte,s of ., i.A: .• ~lr' i.' w)-~

I..... -- 7 . f. --. <- V •. l . ...., ... " V.W" -

'. . women. . .,., '·rf' . ..: .

Buy My black . ..J..s.s' .i¥7Jjj,$~

~8a~~~.l'i~·

to .il. M .. UiUn'e .nd Feminine N"o~II~~;.·

I == l~~~jtl i: 5;r~t

2 -. Muculini, No~nse~din&i in iara" "op the

'la' before the ion' is added.. . .... ........,;;

. T~ boys=/vJ!); To boy:rrJl;b07= fY

jf"laJ~~is ~~~. ~,C»n~~~j~,~~.ii.

for 'ObIique Plural. They .. remain in .•• the·. ordinary. InfleCted form. / .c~ __ }. --d" = To my elder son

At homes

Of boys

Give to poors·

Open t~ win,dows.

PER.SONAL PRONOUN

(umeer kee qisme'n ).r ' -.:; . (' ~ 1"..1,:-, (J.....:::

am here.

M ~A '-"Lr .. U£

, ;

~ T- /-'f ~_,

. ~ 4~·(f. . ,J ~~~d

,+V'(t ~vf ·~.~k~

. .I

~ ;:;_ Ul)'" ~ J) 11,)'

., l i'

;

"J.J ~'C(J.!~

'. ,1'~4Vr

• JJ f'~.~ #J

,J"!" j'. ~ J' .::-;Z. ~ U" I

;1 J (:_

('" ."

Jf (.IA·.··.at·

&j:(A ~.I~

He is there.

We are' at home.

Give my book.

. What is his name 1.

He is my son.

Where is your boy?

Give me a book.

Don"t (all on him.

Give' that . i~tter to me.

BriR, it from him.

Come upto us.

Take pity on me.

Come to our -, house,

120

l :

, I

POSSESSIVE-PRONOUN )l)J~(....£/

. ..

She is my ""other.

. ~ IJ~ t.f.d ~

~ 4- V(tl;L(

\

. 0.; v:!f0~-~" ':--;:'

. ~- urt.~ lif~ . 4- d';t~ "'::"-.J~ • '. JIJ~t:(~=

;

~4-J .~,.J yLf d !!'

What is your name r

My father is not here .

It j.; ,hj~ village .

IndiA is our home-land.

. Bring my book.

Is he your friend r

Give the rent, of .my • . I '/'; t' ,-

. • .,'J.&-) _ ~ ,,~,.;_~ 1" ,

house today. ""..F.; e-

The price of his pen is .• d::_ oU . ') i/t~'" ,;

hi" e »: a 'JJ

muc ~ I . .

All these are his, ' ..... ~ r: .¥

V;.' .:!,.. l:J' ~ ~

Today we will get our ration J4:~i-,-,_; I • .f ... k . 1st and 2nd Person Singular addPJural take'raa' and "ree' in tlte place of 'kaa', 'ke' and 'kee'.

(J/. t.::-_d'!d J,,'+, .... ,," ~

... . v_ '" ,,+ v:

If;~ / "'-.I!.{f .1;l.-j :: ~ 'I-~ <. './ + (i ..:: (' -+- ~

'.5_d t ~ ( y • 1-1- » <: I, +') ..:: ,/. + I:{

.. c ()" _ 'j, r » .I":r~

W. • ...... )~:;~ ;1:,. ~+q)r',< .J_. +( <: b"+?

121

{ .. ~

I .iJJ

POSSESSIVE CASE () w;,

He is his son.

. +(JI If Vi ~ -+7 Off r.!-,74ff ~

It is this man's hOuse

She is that ina~'s daughte .... + (/9 J' f.!/(v' ~o

They are hi~ $anS . tit £j L 01",

It is your ';ili. ' +- .~~ JL.; ~o

Yaqub's weddinj is tomorroW. 4- d "htJ: cJ~JAi? Bring from i~t shop - jiJ ~ cJk,1v' I come from ..iilla,shOuS..U,r jr 4:,/Z- .~

Give the answ~r ~(ofhis - J-' ~j;' (~&!

letter~

1.1'nep~iiion of P"'seissiv. Case which agre~5 with the thing pOssessed In and Number e .. I~o

JJ;t' J."~.1 v~;sJ ifr::,1

1. The ~k'" "I( , becOrnies 'ke' before the Oblique.

'.~ . ,: .

is 'k .. , Gen.r

')7~~.1

... J./ £~J

'Z

i r

LESSON 10 MODEL SENTENCES'

You com •.

You don't come

You coinetomorrow.

You don't come tomorrow.

Please . corne.

Please r."me tomorrow.

~(itH~ the ~~~nirig. Bring my handkerchief.

You sit there.

Please' sit. 9" the chair. Don't speak here.

j.sJ. ~ uk

,

Wi. ~ ~;r..~ 4-'1). Wi-.,i_): l;'r.·~ ~~~1

\.I~, •

Never tell lie.

It is bad to tell 'lie.

He don't know tor~d.

123

I am a teacher

She is in that class

Who i!S there?

They are in' luclcnow

Are you there?

Where were you?

I was in Madras

Moth~t' was in the kitchen

My brcth~,. was at home

She was in the Post Office

Tomorrow he will be at Ooty'

She. will be here

.9 1_:'; <""! '

U-'1 )V' I ~I v.!'

4- U'! ~Ir. U'f u 4- ~juL~

. I

L.t, o: ~ IJJ

"' ..

~ . .tt Ur' l if

~ s: ul{l L3 ~ V~), J.: ifu:.J' On J~ ~·_;~Jjv.~

r.J ~ .d.-li JJ DJ

.. ~~

4-r.,I.: ~" rJ

They will be in the train £Yf v:uJI! J.: DJ

,c_ ~ • ~

Where wi!! you be tomorrow? ~ ~Y; ?A' (' J'

The price of his pen is . 4-l1)i~ ".1) t(..ft' Lv (

much. I.

All these are his.

Today we will get our ration J 4- ~T A.-':) J'.Jk

124

She is My mother .

. ~U~ Lfd·-:

. _,

~ +- if' (I: !Aj

What is your name?

My father is not here.

It . i.. his village.

; .~ ~ 11

-.c:- U,I{ tf LT'-=

. 4-ci'; ~h"':;""jL.r.

Indi .. .is 4;)ur home-land.

aring my book.

,

Is he your friend? ~~, .:.,.../~~ !;L?~' V

Give the rent of my . _J~.e;...>;;!/ ~ ",f""-..r.( {;,7

house today. .

_.r: ?" . .P

You learn Urdu f( ~' .J.J.J1 ('

,

What do you read? fta:.J; V f

'. .,

I tak~ bath uJ.l;f J->{.)!

He reads news-paper.4-t.-J; ,.J!J' H

She went fa the hospital Jf Ut::rT d When did tfle;y go to Bombay .;:t ~ y(.,

I came here last week ~r uLr- .c!:, ~v.

. . ~ ~

Did you come from the . .; .l.J &::- JJ; ~;;::rl if'

library? • . ~' I

When did you return .~.,t_) ~ 1

125

J

He. ilia the hIIMt oftaIinJ liD +, l:'fUi. ~.JI'- ,,}

..... in tho hritIit· of COftIinlt.!'Jf k1 U~ .,

...... '

1'hey are in til. ItMit of ~ J.1 ,1.,/ IJ.; v~ 6}

Wo are - .• hMit of,... .... l/; .t/1l,. U~J r:

I em in.lmbitoA...... uA·lift"J; ~I::.;li·

boob· ', .

Ana' you in the lIMit of SOi"I ~ ~.J.Ji "- Jr{ '-r(i V ...

He .. in tho hdit: of c:awinI t;' It f ~1 .dL.- ~ '.1

with... .I

You ... iR the ..... of 1OOIna.Yf ~f~ ,~ JJ;/ r'

a. cWIy .,....; J. It ;

I ...... the IIaIIIt of 1.3 1:'..1 I;:' i..I:.J o:

.....,

He is in the haIIIit of doing ~ tr./'tfJ-! .... J ;.J.J #-'

u:wdIe daily 7 ~"

WhD is ift the habit of ~ ,L_ if 4. ~, '!;l;)/

cItIeking, wi_ ,,-r .. ~ fl . ..;'

She is in the habit of .::.... 'if"tJjLJC;' Ij JJ.J i.J

_:.1...... .-: ... J 0/ ~ '. ,,/ ..

a_--.~-7· ~ ..

He is in thGhabit Of 4:-l:'fk!' ..:Jt( t1'.JJ.J

shsYi"l dBilJ in the IIIOI'nirig

I wish to see ),our mother uA 11~b6 ..rU~J"t'rv£ • L(4

What do .you wish to buy ? ~ . .J1 . .ar~ li.-t'.(.. r'.

. . . .J.

Come to my house to eat )( ..J' ~ ~ '-r"r(Ui i.

your book . , t'

A woman has come ~ook .+J'i~;,_1 J:F~L.l.~ La; ..

She is not ugly to look .c!',,_t,:j ~~ I...t'~d

126

I shall give you

"'u.,,;/~d t JD'i.:fu

. lf~f ~ (~.; '''.J ".Lv .1; cfri1 V'4" G1 N Lv:}; r.Y GL~ (I

When will she· come ,

He will not do this work

The servant will bring

They will return today (f)

. '

w. shall'SO to Tajmahal

Two men were going L'tCf'.iI k~ ,,;r .r»

, to Bombay ,..

Women were learning. v:? "f'./ ... ),.0,}-

What was he dOing there .t; r.J f If U~J Dj

He had come yesterday

Lt? !t cY II__' 4'- kLf'f.~ Lv:·

I haYe eaten a: manJO

, ,

I had eaten two mangoes J:, z,'iJ'" (1' J~:t_ vf

H~ has written a . letter tO,L ~1sJ. ·&:::..1 ~vr. him rt:

Mohan had gOrie to Salem (,{. ~~ ... ..:J.:_"

Mothel' hal cOmQ~'6r U~

There we have IefIn him

4- .~. v~J ~1)"r: . 4-.~ ,~) l..u:

I ht\Ye studied Urdu

He was not there

W' ~(.)~.J U

_ . . ... .... ,.... . -!Jf,

If you wou Id not come '~here i:Lt u::[ ~ V! J.J..I ." r' .

I too should not 10

He does noteorne eYery day .1:1V!j ).J.J J.J.J " .

-J!1v;lJ(r

We $hall not come tomorrow

"+~ !;.:-= t-V, U!j / ~_. u

~ kf·..:-u~.J· - _~j,; ~. LVI

i4. letter was written by him;~ ,,~ .;,; ~ ~ 0"1

It is not mine

He doe; not go to his house

Wh)" didn't_~ome?

He wrote a letter

He was killed by_meifv~ 4-';~~. fJ It is impossible (or me toJIl. U!j6i..f tJ;J.J 't ~).

eat this bread' ..i

1 can not sleep here' ·,.lil,. u:1 ~Y U"r-- ~.J.

. '- - - .,' , ,_":' ..i

I am helpless~ pb\ynowl;'k~ fkJ" 4.,.,;/. ~I

Is this the best book 1

f+-rti~f~~.:;V . + f!.: ':::"U:i ,/'-::

This room is bigger th~n that

They will do better work than, .~.f(I{W;f ", ~v~

. this

Even this poorest man wil! .~I.f"L.tfJ,~-:: if.dj'I..;:'}~i

not eat thi-s rice .'

h: is the lowest price . 4- (I) /' ~ (-:. .

128

I i

.":!? "'

This is ill pod dog. - ~ I;.t ~I -:

.~ ll. ~ ll" ,

-I will buy another one . _D"J~?,-,!::!yJ_' t.v;', tt::.jJ",'o./!

better than thIS •

This boy is better than that - i-~' .if:;.. v1 1f'!J -::

'.J. 'If. (",

. This is the biggest table ·TV.-]x.c:::..,":""" ~/V, 'to

.' .in this ,com' ~ ..# ?

This cot i.smaller than that . +- ~~~Vf ~.-:;

He came in. when I .was kfu '"""' tJ~ v ..,~v! ~

. ,eading

He was. not here when l.3~vlz:.'J ~ &1..;!~ I came

I wzs in the office when ~v!j).l.i ~k1u~ he came

That·man who came ~re +~J_'.k U kfulf .. ,p;J

yesterday is my friend .

.k,w· call the man who .+Lr1~ ~'" Po JIK J7JfI'u4..,;1

wants. to 110 ~ '. <

Ten me what • .,., yw know . j~ ~ . .Tf ~ /,.J':

11te man whose house is ill the city He went. . to hb house

+~ ~ ~r'f/; tJJ1" t/ r...J4tJ d lJ: ~ u~..irJ.; v! .I<_ll ~E ~ ..or,

~4-~~ 1 Li! 2:fJ? If' ~(.,p,) ~.~.

129

l l

.:[

lESSON 11 COMYi:RSATIONS Food

Get my dinner quickly-H.1mir~ khanz jaMi lao. look here. this spoon is not dean.

Dskho, yeh charncha saf nahin hai.

This meat is under dOlle-Yeh gosht kach-chs haL

This. potato, is over _cooked. . Yeh alii bahutgal gava hai.

What fruits are there in the bazaar?

Bazar men i<:la kn mewa hal?

This cup is broken - Y eh pnla tiita hai

No sir. it is not broken-Nahii'l saheb sabut hai.

Sharpen this knife quicklYj

Yeh chhur l jaldl tez karo,

Always bring fresh fish-Hamt:sha t3zi machhl i lio.

This bread is stale-Yeh ro~'i baslhai.

Take away the tea tray-Chae ki ~areL.lej~o. Clean your hands-Apne hath sal' karo .

Don't put your finger inside the cup.

~h meil uiigll mat 4a10.

Throw this soup away-Yeh shorba phenkdo. look here, it smdls-Dekho is men hii iiti noli.

~.

Bring some boiling water.

Thora khault~ pant lao.

Put some more ice in it.

ls me.n thO'{i bf'raf aur da10.

130

:j - ~ .:l

J shall dine out tonight.

Ai sham ko hamara'khanii hahn hai

'This meat is bad - Yell <7o,ht ·s'r·" I - J .

e :': D." 1113 1.il.

Bring hteaH.lst quickl y - NashtJ jaldt h~ •.

This cheese smells - Is ran ir m!n hCi lui. Don't butter the toast

T

. os par mak khan mat l.lgao.

Bring some peppn and qlt

Th - k

ora narn.i aut gol nnrch lao .

I don't like ghi H k I-

.- ,lIn·o g 11 pasand n.4hin h;i.

This ~range I~ very SI'Jur

Yeh sangtara bahut khatt a I •

• . lOll,

This mango is ver- sweet

Yeh am bahut mI~ha hal

This ~,mana is very delicious,

) eh kelii bahut mazed~r hai

The ~ionkeymit:; are bitter •

Mung phalHn karv.."i haiii.

Thi5 is very tasteless,

Yeh bahut bad maze hai

Is this bi scuit dry or sweet (

Yeh biskut namkin hai ya mithli hai

What lime do you want t ,"

ed,Slr'

Janab ko chae kitnehaJe en"l --}

, dlle.

I want tea at quarter to hve ..

Ham ko en"! paun~ panch baje challie

131

; I

Nhat time' rs it ' It i~ one o'clock

It i~ two 0' dock Quarter ,past one Half pd~;t one

Half past two Quarter to three <._JL!artoer past th r ee

half past three

Tillie

._ xts wagt hai ? - Ekbaja hal. ' Do baje hain.

Sawabaje (not sawa ek). Qerh baje (not sarhe ek) Qhai baje (not sarhe do) Paun e tin baje ,

Sawa t in baje.

- Sarhe t in baie.

t~uar\er to four Paune chllrbaie

It is tel'. minutes to Icur.

Ct.ar ba;ne men das minat (kam or biqi) haW. or Db minat kdm char baje hain.

I t IS ten rninutes past four.

Char baikar das minat hue hain.

Arc you fleel: .. or) can you spare time? . Tum ko Iursat hai ?

1 am vt!ry buay Ham ko bahut k am hal.

t have no time to Sp?fe.

Ham ko [ursat flahifl hai.

Be here in time Don't be long

\ Waqt par ana. - Der mat kama.

Flow long -ago "

Uf a matter of hours or minutes) kitn i der hili (If a matier of 'month or days) kitne din (or

fOX.) hUf

i r

How long will you wait here?

Tum yahan kitne din ~hairoge, How I~ng will you stay at Bombay?

. . 1 urn B0l~lbJy men kitne din (or roz) thairoge ? This clock is tell minutes .~IDw.

Yeh gllall!~ das mina~pichhehai.

My watch is tell minutesfasr

MerIghJrl das minat age hai.

You are lat c - Turr. Jer se ae.ho.

You are early - Tum wagt se pahie ae ho, You never do .lily thing in tjme~

Tum k arn Wdgt pal llahln karte ho , Get it ready by Saturday.

Is ko hafte tak taiyar bro.

Have you got" the watch with you? , Turnhar e pas gha(i hai ?

I shall be back in a minute. .'

Ham abh t wapas au: hain.

How long will you take to make it?

Tum IS ko kitni cler men banaoge?

Wha"t do you mean? Do you unrle rst and

1 do not understand VDU.

J .

Ham turnhar i bat nah\o

- Tumh ar a kia rhallab haL Tum sanuJ"te ho .?

sarnajhte..

f do not believe jOu.

Ibm turnh ar I bat na.hln rnante .

I trust yuu 1 am sure

-- Ilam ko lumhlrli ctbar hai. .

-_ Hamkoyaqin hai, .

133

; J

I don't know - Ham ko malum nah'ii'l.

I am right ..,.. Hamar] bat ~hik hai.

You are wrong - Tumhiiri -bat ~alat hai.

Don't be afraid ~ Daro mat.

Don't make a Cool of me.

Ham ko bew,lqufmat banao,

Don't both.er me - Ham kodiq mat karo.

Alright, le-ave it alone.

Ach·chha is ko ralme do.

Never mind.

_ Kuchh parwa nahHl.

Go and mind your own business.

Jan, apnii kam -karo.

Is there any.mswcr to it.?

15 kli kuchh ,awah hai?

No, there is no answer to it.

NJhiii ~s kJ' kuchh jawab n"hlli LaL

Put an anna stamp on it.

Is par ek ane ka tikat lagao

Post this Ictter - Yeh chinhi ~3k m~n. qalo.

Whar's up - KI} hiH.

Don't shout - Chlli!lo mat.

Shut up or hequle:t -Chup ~aho.

Don't chatter - Bak b,lk mat karo ,

It is useless- Yeh befaida hai.

I shall ride (3 hone) - Ham ghor~ par jaengr

I shall drive. - Ham gliri men lli~ilge.

1 shall go by car . - Ham rno tar me!') jliiiiige.

1 shaH walk - Ham paldal jaenge_

134

There is one anna short.

Ek linna kamhai.

J llke you for it.

Mujh ko tumhari yeb hn pasand hal.

G,et that man out of my sight.

Us admj ko mere dmne se hat3 do.

Why don't k h ~

. you spea , W en you are spoken ?

Jab kci bO.h!to jaWlb kio~ nahlft dEteho 1

It comes to the same thing.

Yeh eJ.: hi bn hai.

I cannot get my tongue round this word Yeh Iafz meri uhlin par nahlflcharh~-

_ I.

-But me not huts.

Ham se agar magar mat karo,

135

j l l

MY HOUSE

-r. .

(meraa ghar) / Jd. .

IT is MY HOUSE . -+/ w ~

yah meraa ghar hai

_, ..P

IT IS BEAUTIFUL .. 4- ~..I~.P ~

yah khoobsoorat hai

IT IS NEWHOUSE ~... 4- ~ !!. e

yah "ayaa ghar hal .

IT IS NOT SMALL • + .. u::f U'~ ~

yahc:hho~ naheen hai '

THERE ARE FIVE ROOMS 0&-/"~,,5i.rj >

. IN IT ,. me'n punch kamre hal . ..1

IT IS 8ATHROOM. • 4-~t,;~.~.

yah ghusalkhaanah h..l\i .

THAT IS URINAL. ..-4--,..:.-L; "':"~ u

wah peshaabl!!!aauah hai .

.. •. ,,-

THERE IS NOYERANDA 4- .\..Ct~j, ~~VJ

IN IT is me'nbariaamdah nahee," hai

IT IS MY ROOM ...•.... . ..... + .~ k -::

. yahmeraa karrirah hai ..

.. j. '. ..

HERE I STUDY· Ul"f ~;; \...J! U 1.;:..

yahaa'n maj'nparhtaa hoo'" '

136

MY WATCH '5 NOT +v:i ~ ",!"J' O.d

CORRECT meree gharee ;heek manee On hai

WHAT IS THE TIME ~ u.} ¢. ;;( ~I

NOW? ab kithe baje hai'"

- "j, """

IT IS BEING EIGHT ~ +..1(; .t:b f ..,...,1

O'CLOCK ab u~h baj rahe tlai'n

.IT IS TEN TO"rWP 0~ 4,,/'.J ~ ~ ,:1

do baine lYIen das minit hai'n

IT IS TEN PAST d)L,f ~V"Jft ~.J

. TWO do baj kar das minit huye hai'n

'T IS QUARTER PAST ONE sawaa baiaa hai

IT IS QUARTER PAST TWO

, ;. L';,-, .,;:

V .. ' .,'... "

sawaa do bej.. hai'n

" , , "'"...,

IT IS QUARTER PAST THREE ~. ··~·~Iy

sawaa teen bajehai'n· .: . .

!T IS HALF PAST ONE .+ ~ .'. ;S'~J derhbajehaj

IT IS HALF PAST TWO 0 . .f .. J~j c:lhaa(ee bajebaj'n

QUA~TERTO Two;1e.~_j J._a)

.. . . ~'. . ~

paunedo baje hili'" ... . .•

IT IS

•..

AT WHAT TIME?

kitn~baje

.. 'i. £l. ;:;:E .

.. "

AT ONE O'CLOCK ek baje

117

I .i

IN THE MARKET (baazaar me'll) ~..J0t

WHERE IS TH.E SHOPKEEPER? 4- uL(~J.t~;

dookundaar kahn'll hai • .

WHAT IS THE PRICE f dum kyaa ha;

FOUR RUPEES PER KILO chaar !"upye kilo

(HE) IS COMING

aa rahaa hal

PLEASE COME; WHAT ,~~l? l,..(t~(..." ~I DO YOU WANT aa'iye' ~~a«, "k;aa·chaahrre .

*~rr

IT IS VERY DEAR 4- ~ ~ .

bahut maha'ngaa hai

BUT'IT IS VERY GOOD + t( A ~/.'cR QUALITY lakin bariyaa kisma (k~ hili

. #.P_

CIT) CAME ONLY THIS MOR- ~ I t,J; ~ e,.,.1

NING aaj!uba~ hee aay.

CI) WANT MANGO aamchaahiye

GIVE TWO KILOS do kilo do

HOW MANY? kitnae

HOW MUCH THESE GRAPES 4j L _.;.,(, "J

• _ N

ARE? yah angGOr kaise

FIVE RUPEES PER KILO _,J( ~ 3...; ~ ~

punch rup)'. kilo

". ...v.,..,

THESE MANGOES ARE .4.JJ v::t .:!t:.f ~1 "'"

NOT GOOD yah aam achchhe nahe~'n ..... h~i'n ..

. -"

I WANT FRESH MANGO $kt"r~)I;'L

mujhe taazah aam C~h iyJ .

GIVE HALF KILO

Sift. THESE MANGOES? yah aam ¥Qa,ab

aadhaa kilo do

. 'p.P ~

SHALL .1' GIVE WATER.MELON? U,'''' ;j/ ~



tarbooz doo'n

NO. TAKE THESE RUPEES j it J.J ~ \I.:i

nahee'n ,yah rupye 10

., ,.b

THESE ARE VERY SMALL W ~~~,.."

yah bahoot chhotc hai'tt" • £ H

BUT VERY SWEET. SIR ._..,.t,_" --"~~. rI. :

• • . . V,j ~~ .. O"i.

lekln bahoot meele hai'n"~af~b .• '

13&

139

I i l i

WHERE IS THE POST.OfFICE!~~6t; __rjJ

~kkhaanah kidhar hai '

HOW FOR IS IT? ~ L ~, ,~.!'J • --r-.,.I.J J t.,;:.

kitn.. door hai

Gly'lE ME fOUR ENVELOPES .J.J LW ..... !3 ..

. chaar lifaafe do ' ' " " ":

GIVE ME TENSTAHPS OF J)4V_'L~t.r:;

TWENTY PAISE bees paise ke das tikat do I

TAKE THIS LETTER:O THE Jk.L:,.1; JrJ ~ POST-OFFICE yah ch!tthee daak kh' aanah I .',

• .. .' _ e JUo

WHAT is HIS AnDRESS? '~~~ ~ (V'

u's kaa taa kyaa hai ' , '

,WRITE HIS ADDRESS ON Ak(v1./..~(#J.

THE ENVELOPE liraafe par us kaa patahOlikh:

GIVE THIS TELEGRAM TO.J.) 'J jl; Af',Jr'v1

HIM u's ko yah tear de do '.. ' ,

BRING THE. RECEIPT

.raseed laa·o

THIS LETER IS NO, T MrNE~,/" M,<~,k

. ,'{ ·V.~·tiVr-~: ,4;; ·r ....

, yah chi~el! meree n~hee'~ hai" ,,,"

140

RAilWAY STATION

THE TRAIN HAS LEFT Jf~AiJJ"

paree choo~ pyee

AT WHAT TIME THE 1J.6L£Bt. VJ"'.J

DE " • ... v- ~

LHM1AIL ARRiVES? Dlllee.mail kitne baji

pahundregee ,f

'WHEN WilL THE TRAIN1I.JYi, ,.:,!".J ~ oj,!

DEPART fgaaree kab' raw-aanah' hogee

THE TRAIN I,S COMING LATE +o:;lc::...-{..JoJt

laa,. der se aa rahee hai '

"

,/<,""'" ' ...

PORTER! COME HERE :Jf/JJ J'

qulee idhar aa'o

TAKE THIS sox

yah pe~ee 10

~ / THE BEDDING IS OVER +- ~ ~" /J I THERE udhar oopar bistar had

, WANT A TAXI J L1 (J 1"":" ;.

~"I'U-:~' ~, mujhe ek ~eksee chaahi ye

HOW MUCH IS THE fARE? ~ +- t:;(~ if

,ldf'M},<l'.h Ic:itnu mi .

WEll TAK~ faITY PAise) h.J1~ ~ V~ 1,j;1 HORJ! $.11_ pad!'u1I p&i$$ xi~h ~@

NOW DRIVE.TO CHAND~N2 A .J_ Je ~i£ ~,I

~ "Ii' ~

.ijlb li':hruall'u~ini ~~ cha~@

141

i I .t .~

HOTEL

ChotaOJ' ~

.S THERE ANY GOOD1+J'}.~ljjUtr..

HOTEL r yahaa'n k~'eeachchaa ~el hai

WANT A ROOM .4i ~. ~ ~ ~.

mujhe ek kamrah cha:shi ye

ONLY FOR THREE r)AYS ~£\:J: cJ5 Wfi

sin teen din ke Ii Ye .

"-

IS THERE BATH-ROOM? t+if-,.:.l;~ V

. k)"aa ghusalt_haanah bhee hail .

HOW IS THE RENT? .; 4- !::.( ~1/

Stir"yah kitnaa hai?

IS HOT WATEftAVA!lA .. ~ f oJ} j~ (ft/

BlE r kyaa pr-ampaanee. milegaa

WHERE IS MY ROOM? i .4- /4:' ~~

meru kamrah kidhar hai .

WHAT ~S THE NUMBER! +-/ / d" ~ OfF THE ROOM ~ k.urwe Ita nambaf' It}'" hai

fl

WHERE IS THE BATH- ~ 4-ul{ .;.L?~ ROOM? I!!.usalkhaanah kaha!a'" faai

BRU'4G P. CUP OF TEA JJj Lk. .-I k J,

IIr ... " ...

eDt pyulah dma'e Ia'o

142

Meeting

Ram···· Good mormng. ••. ""--1

",,'"/' .. ')/"-r ~

• • .j

Ahmed -- Good morning. ,.' I ..,

...!fy" c"y- ",;",1; f -y' How do you do ?

Ram -- Thank you: I ali! well. ( .. /lr!.;I •. i ... .e • .- f; ~(j J

" •• ~ ., ... ~ 1.....-

Ahmed ..... Please sit down. When did you COme from

Allahabad? 'i LrJ.::!...JLT,.)j ... _"_r: • ,:,",'

. ..' _, . . ",::"I-':;;-.J~~_~'

Ram --- I came here on last Monoa" •

~.r.._) lL::lj/yy;:';:;J v:;_ (L

Ahmed .;_~ I did not know that you were here, Or '1 would have come to See you.

• -_ ....... ('" •• ' f - ,/ • ~ • " . L

~~;JUZ~,...,..;:,J~I\..o!~/_I ... ' ~(yP;;.,_fjy. ""':1

•• .!;"'". It .' ••• I ' , .... .__.. _-

- L:;Y I,,-"/V~ 2- L .: (;'il.' V-::

Ram - Would veu please come to my place tomorrow?

~Lvf. V~~?U~: . .i-/.:L(~l!_ (j~

Ahmed :- Thank you for your kindness. I wi!! positively come tomorrow evening.

_ ~'Jt?~~J»/(~J/~- -;;P ~tJ ~/. .. f --:;1_ #",j

Ram -- Is it your own house >

•• ,. p . (

" ~~~~ o i,! y_, I,.. LI. I""

tJ .. ",iii 11_, I'll

Ahmed'~ Yes . "L' _. 71

." \.0' J'. .NO Ram -- How many rooms are there in this house?

Ahmed - There are four rooms 01'1 the upper floor In addition.rthere is kitchen and a bath room, There is a .. mall gdrden at the back of the house

~~).;-'10",~~J7J.;'-..vV..ijjJ I d.-j: k- V'I "7-''': !;~J' ~t;c.{_)J~C,,~L(jI. 0V:::JjAif~.:,_'1 . . d~LL,~Y!JJ/.~JtJl1/

~It '.. ....._ . . .".

Ram - Now I beg leave. to go. Ihava been very pleased to see you.

;/' : • .- j,-. (L. ". ,.. .

~ (J.J'\f' _j" if /../ V; ~._" - U .... : 1.1!" ,:;,,_,d.~ I ~t _ (I_)

• • I.' .,:. ,

Ahmed -e-- It is kmd of you to visit rae. Pleasehave

a cup of tea. ~

. LL' ~?~L.~GjJ...f~ ~t;d."';;'T ~_g, I

- ad; L_l:,J L· .. .1,

...: It"'" -: .• _

Ram· ThankVou. ! have to go 10 me pictures with. a friend of mine.

Peeto .. and Patient

Patient - Doctor, I have a severe cold since yesterday. a .

slight temperature and also a headache, .

~.Jl?I.~~+(t(i~~(,~~~.t.¢/

. • ' .. ~~J)vtf/')JI e-

Doctor .- I am writing the prescription. Take the medicines regularly. your cold will disappear in tw~' da\,s.Oon't

W(lrry.

j(~1~J~JD~~·~t)J-vi;L?);ryv.!"'_~;

. - \(.h/oG>t~~f..J;tU::clJ-'J(";

Patient---:- I didnor sleep last ni'1hL I had a stomachache and censtipanon too .

- '7'J./jU::-~.~,I_.,d - ~.Y~vf~L;v.r.:- ~/

. . - 4-u"!J4:'+

145

,] :;

:l )

, - .. ---- . ._.~---

Yesterday I ~~w a war-film which was' very exciting.

~ ~,~ b-G · e.

. 7."~ zr/.f.J!)li:'~4-U:(J

Indian film industry has made ad' •

, goo progress.

Patient .. ~ My eyes qe! wed whiie readinc

0; . /~. . • j, 6 ..... ( """ "2-1 ;#

L.'~" ~l...~ t:::- ;:e_/..v:;c I D / .. - Lf./

"It 11 • • .

. t:!rJ tf.l(f}l:. ~ D·<t'._ .

, • {J'~U(:,VJ.M'

L I ike entert"'in{ng films., (,

Doctor - Your eve sight is weak. You need glasses for f~adlnq.

~~L?~/":r1-':'-'Jj}',;,1_~;

.. ' ' -t:!r~).v()

In ,the Market

Customer - How much per dozen are these. bananas '1

Cinema

c.lne .... a. C.inema and !he,ltle are

I like to go to ,n

pastimes,

.d...)1":;";·J~) j ~.~ V Y:l:;:~ .: wf; ~ -:

. g 1./1 .r .

. -l7.__ I ,:;:.._,;;.-

, I ~.1iI

~utC":IJZ' J£ .. _ j J"., j'

.. . .... - ....

Shopkeeper - TheV are fWorupees per donn

Customer all )

,({)i:/.IJ4."t J~IJ) ~ - ),:(.,

. , ".-- ~ . ' ...

It. is expensive What' w'll

.' '.:" .. 1, yOU

Students c'anbe benifited by educational' t Im5

.. r'. I ~ ..II' J; .[j ~

. f..(J ~J,,¢ Ie). J f' ,-:,,"Il ~ I.) Y :./ ..

Most of the films are antertaini nq.

... -~ ,.~ ,~

-V':. /"t .J#J,.jl)[,' /'<. ,;'

\)_..7 .. , . v.... ~ ./'

II!-If ~ - ..._ ..

146

147

' .. j.

; _i

i [

l .i • .

Shopk~eper _ These are tour ruoees a kilo

v~ .;/ .:»: ) _))..: ?F' - j I; b"')

Ut;l." of! .'".: 0.: GOO

Custome1- tt\f!se apples Me [Oneil, even .. ! yOUglVt~ them tree th':!V are 1'0\ wortn having.

~~ tt ~i~" J ,.;(/" £f:...I;I-'i}~ -'- .t, j

- •• ' II' •••• ".: • ..... ••

Customer -,-:Whefe is this cloth torm ?

,. /" I • ,/ 1" I':f [, 'i, ~( j .. .;

., _~DI...·LAt' _'-~'-"-;

.." • "" J . w,: •• ••

Shopkeeper _ It has recently been imported hom Japan,

_~L~~0L·t.,.~,.., _)l~b')

" " I~ • .II' .,.

Customer _ But the Quality of this cloth is not good. It gets creases soon.

/. J:!l.. /(( ». r.

. .......:/' ....._.;; ",p p.,.J....l

~- ... ...l.-,7 .. 4-~. ,~J •. 1 U d,_.; .: lr'J,o .• ' - )!~ I!

.' . 1:0

w J: '-'" ./..~

.,.. • I

Cu<,wmer- How much is this cloth pPt metre?

~ "j, '~J. ,/

.., . &') .'!"I .. \ ~

.~ t:.r- •. d.7U ~.:L. -.I':>.

Shupkeeper-> It is len rupees a metre ..

customer

_ Well. give me five metres. ~

11 ;( ~

_))~) !(. (S. ~olf.l- _-iL:; /'

. .

148

LESSON 12 letter Wrltmg

LETTER-t

Kailas Shavano Bombay-~].

Date 8 January. 1915.

My dear Gopal.

Kindly send me back my book, which I had give to you Yesterday. because I want it for my studies.

Yours beloved.

Bashear ..

LE:rTER-l

Dear Ahamed.

My parent~came here today in the morning. so, wan~ Twenty Five rupees. Plgse send it with this man. T~ayl shall not come to your house, tomorrow certainly

I will come. >

Yours friend,

Ramesh.

149

I j

_j l .. j

LETTER-]

8, West Main Road.

M.dras-Il.

Oe:ar Friend,

Tomorrow is my birth-day. therefore there will be a party in our house at five o·cloCk in the evening.· So that you should comie. Don"tforlet.

Yours beloved.

Kailash

ISO

To

The Editor. Magazine -Sarnnee' Sewapura. Bhopa1a5.

Dear Sir.

I am sending my annual subscription R.upees Fifteen by M. O. for 'Sayaaneet, The receipt>s number is 301, Please send/one magazine from tbis month onwards.

-

YourS faithfully,

. Mohandas.

~~~ji",:",~,~~ I J~' ,Jt...-..1

l4~

t> .Jh/'

~ o~ ,.:.Vl..- If' J t- '.-11..-..1 .£:._;r .

. . ..

• t/ ' 'h".. ;

''7- "".1 /. 0 ~..1 .l.1Jj r..l if' ~ ..1)..11 &" ~.h'

.~ 6f~ i:::;i if! ,JL..-..1 £f j~/j )}bJ If'J

0:

(fi)CJ1f' The MaNlger,

Kitab Mahal, Patnaw4.

Dear S!r.

Kindly send me the following books by V. P. P.

i. Armakhaan Urdu

2. Kahanija

1. Burhi Kaaki

Yours faithfully.

Anwar Ahamed Khan.

J51

'-::-""~ f.:! ~,I:.% ~4- ( t..V~1:(

. ('"-A

,,/.! l(-l';(S.l'( ~ ¥ f 7- ~ J' /'

.~? ~ ~ .J-:.J~.(5! . ~ ~ .JL, 1,j~.Ir _ I

u!; if.,.

. - , .

Jlf'if); or'

))1,;., v"~ u(; ..11'1 .)jl

THANKS GIVING LETTER

. Dear friend.

, ..... accept my sincerest gratitude for pttins for

me a job in the Benpl Chemicals .Ltd. You were determined as a true friend of. mine to fix .me. up . in' a decent firm. You have done your job wonderfully wall. It Is lor m. to (orne up by hard labour and loplty.

Y GUn beloved.

John Edwin.

'~,.) C'-,.Ib

W ~IJ'J '+- ,( Jk (J:r. .... JIi.; J:r ~~lJ.:dt) Jf j;f J;;t -::ft

.. ~

152

; l , ,

r 4- t-!f ~if ':t .L"( _j(,f ,,? L

~ ~

~ if) ~I ::_( - Yf ~.I~ ~ "-4.' f

lrl~ "" ..1 .P ~ ~

u~J.J_" ~~; J4 j ~j - #- !l"GI ~.P

.. ~~f Jy ~I ~

, .

APPLICATION FOR LEAVE

From

Abbas Ali Khan, Typist,

The f~est Departm~ntp Ranchi.

To

The Director,

The Forest Department, Ranchi.

Dear Sir.

As I am going to have an eye-operation at· Madras, i request you to grant me medical leave for fifteen days from May 2 to May 16. ; shall produce a medical cer.tifi~

cate at the time of rejoining on duty. Thanking you,

Yours Obidient.

Abbas Ali Khan.

153

l .i

$em'S ~t~ 'fW) I'm father

Mohammed Ahmed

J 5, Mahatma Gandhi Road.

Calcutta-700012.

LESSON 13 SHORT STORIES

Respected Father.

I hope you are well. I reached here safely on Tuesday

'Respected bro [her was oresent at theetatien to receive me.

Please don't "mty about me. EvelY thing is all right here. Pleaseconvcv ii,> ",,!am to my mother and nest wishes to

the 51 ster.

A LAMP OF A BLINn

Expectin'd VOU; D;t;Ssmgs.

Your servant Mohammed Ahmed

There was a blind.man. He was daiJygoing to the river in the night and bringing water in an . earthen pot. At the time of going and coming he used to have a lamp in his hand. He was blind. so what w~s the advantage for him by the lamp? Having seen that the people amazed.

One day a man asked him. "O! For lOU, what is darkness ] what is brightness? There is' no difference. But why do you have the lamp with you in. t~ night.·hour ?

~u,b""U)lu

.

() l; ~'-.f1

~I~

Hearing tl1is the blind began to smile ~nd . said. '·This lamp i5~ not for me. but for one, who ·is blind, even though he has good sight; that Is, he might not be dashed on me and this earthen pot might not be broken.

Hearing that the man became ashamed.

155

l i

til·~ ..J_ ,.i

IDLE SERVANT

Once there was a shopkeeper: His shop was vuy. big. Many servants were working in that- shop. One of them was very idle. Daily he used to come late. The shopkeeper was looking it.

One .y the shopkeeper asked . the 5e"vant, t' Why do ),ou come late daily 1"

".., .;., /1,;

.. ."'"

'7-:? ! '-,II '.-~;r ~ d'~r JI c» JI

u) Jj o: U)-,-, ~u~f~~~; v= ~~ ::t- (.,~ ~~ ':: ct.' ~_1 J . 0 -.i;... I ~

r ~ t .......... ,

The servant said ... Sir, my w.Atch is not showing the correct time. Please excuse me te>-da)'. From to.morroW' onwards I shall come at time.

Aftar that, one lay the servant came again late.

The shopkeeper asked him--" Why do )'0 come late

again ? ..

The servant said, "Sir. my watch is nat in good condition."

The shopkeeper said, "Get a new watch to-morrow. otherwise I will appoint a new servant.iJ

157·

,j -j

.!f €,S;: ,~ i.:J~J J U"f - ~ ~li('; -fI ~rU!u')} cl e Lf(¥ JJ rY'v: 0(,J u4 . ~ t:P6 ~ ~!tl6f.la1 b1 1f1!::....c-'" ).J.,I fI.J • ~ r '.% tal

-!. .p. ~'. (~. J r:

)J.) (».IIfY\" .J-~~t6.J ~/.JI J"I 0~ ~J

{( .. ,... ('

~ fi .d-I ~.oC-' u~

0.J ~ f.5;J {jd ~I,.; JJ.k~;_» !(tJl(l A ~# ~ J-~JlY e;;J.JL;.. v:j' ~J;(,J- i ~~., A Ji ~.J (j~ ~ ~ £ 4/1 1f~.LT uY.!' 4- ~-'/r CiT ~"-~.::-v: .L ."4-0;J;! u:J' LiA ~t..;J' .t.(.i.h

(1 J ( +- # J1 ~ L{ l- ~lt IG: L: I.{ ~

A l;._(i J!' j u:f . J~? 0;/ (j ~ . Iv) af5

158

Thef'te '"u § nt. ~e wu sa frog too. Both were friends. One day tM1 mad a piece of bread. Having this the two Mps" to di~.

The nat was de5iring~ ~. May I eat the full piet:e. so . the frog wl . .!Idn't; have any bit.

The frog too was ~rinl. uMay I lick the full piece. so t"e rat coold stay in hunP'Y'

There was a 'he-goat Fazing near them. it advised them, .. Why are you fighting r Take half-hal""

They two did not ac~ept the advice of the shemgoat.

They were disputing with one another.

A kite was flyin, above. The sight of it was fallen on them. It was too hungry. So it came down and seized the 'disputing !rca: and rat in the nails and took

away •

Thepiec:e was btains there on the Ifound.

159

i I

l i

....

:fj

~_'J u;~~-~~Jk ~>dLJ ~~~ /d- ""-J - u:vt{ ~ I{ L;.JI/,(j1 d~~.· di. .1. »A uj>J ~ u1 (U$k tar ijI v~ J: - ~ t:r~~h

. A ..

-4;' ~ 7f~~

·uj~ /' ~ j$ ~~ v: fl¢'~~_P~

1/; L~· ..

_L~ D.) IJ{ p,/- !~~dJ

r: Ui_,y,c!! ~U"f-tfi lS7.J~ If-* ~/",-,r

_ J.L ~)I~Jr ~Yf ;_:J}. u/w k v.

o: lrfT. J~ .: ~~ J' of. IJ"f rf'-.J_ UJ"f

. +I ·ut. 2:P· (J~/.: (_)).1J d()J J' i.J{c.i'4'jJ( ~~ {,If

),1' Jk ~IJ ,d_.p..I-,IC;1 ~ '-'-¥VJ·1..i JAt.5J: " oJ ( ~.J.i -(/~ IJlfii U! u/.-:u),,_, ~J+~

_ v: ~ -4 ~; t..t;-' ~i'

- . - _.. ,,~ \

StRIAL

One da,.; ).kbar Badshah and queen. w _in, .

man..,. sitti"lin the terrace. Eatinl the rnan the

. Dads_ (Kin&) WN putting all the stones and the peels on

the side of the queen. In the meanwhile 8irbal came there.

Just seeinC Birbal the King thought of makin, a fun on queen.

"Have you seen Birbal rtf The King said, U What a gonnandthis lady is! She has eaten so malty mangoes. k is true that she has piled these much stones and peels."'

.. 01. K!ng ! It is the· effeCt: of company.'·

" What ! Has she become #Ormand because . of·· my CGInpUI)' r' .Akbar asked.

.. Ok, Your Imperial Majesty! ·\VW. always imitates her hUsband."

At"" asked,. U But. am I pmalid? Peels and stones :are on her side. Is there anyone of them on my side !U

BirbaI answered, «. am al.sayin, the IOmethin,. ·Oh ~ the ..... has eaten· so many mafDlOGltbut you have I'Mllt 111ft eYeIl ~ peek and stones too."

16l

160

: iii l

l i

LEUON 14 U"' .... ,,'t' ..

(T raoslate . into English)

Kitab par. Adm'i sC. Pani meiL Dukan ko. c:;hinhi

mell. TopI par. Daftar ko, Sanduq se. 'Aurat ko. Ghar

mfil Kl~3z par. Naukar 5e. Pi5ti men. Chhuri SP

(Translate into Urdu)

To the woman. In thC'house.On the paper. From the servant. On the water. 1'1 the letter. To the office. On the 00", From the man, In the belt. To the shop.

(Translate into English)

Tum hun ho? MaUl apks naukar hun. Tumhllrl ~har bb"!" hail Mera ghar Delhi !Denhai. Wah daCt ...

mlll mi. Ham dukan meii holin. Apka nauk.lr gh~r men hal. Wah daftar men ria.hin hai, Wah mera naukar

f

hai, Tum kahan ho? Main 'ghar men hun. Tum daft.1r

men nahin ho. lIskli gharbazar mlil nahin hai

(Translate into Urdu)

Who is he? He is my servant. 1 am in (he office. fhey are not men. Where are you? He is in the office. Weare in the shop. I am a dhabi-Where is your house? He is not here. I am not his servant. They are not in the shop. . He is not in my officI!. Which is your box?

,! .&J ~J l.? ,0 ~ J~

~ . ,

16'

166

(Translate il to English)

Daftar ko 30. Ghar men thairo. Dukan ko jiG.

Chitthi sanduq men hai. Topt mel: parhai.· Mez daftar se lao. Woh kiig!:az sanduq men rakho, Yl'h sanduq ghar men rakho..

<Translate into Urdu)

_ Come in the house. Go to the shop. Wait in the

office. The hat is in the box. The letter ill on tilt" table. The table is inihe shop"l\ring the box to the shop. Put the paper in the book. Take (away)

lhis book to the office. Send the hat to the houu:., BJ:ing the stlck from the house. Put the knife on t.Le table .... Wait on the verandah.

Read, -write and translate i nro English

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168 ..

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112

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Delhi is the capital of India. It is an old city and till now we can see the remains of very antique times. . this is such a. beautiful city that once one comesJnhe never thinks of leaving it to settle elsewhere. In the culture of this city there is some such thing that we are forced to say-,-Ieaving away Delhi's streets. Ghalib. where else you 'will go?

Books are strange gifts. When in our lives hOY2the dark clouds of distress, then books like true friends provide us consolation. When other dear, friends and relations leave as in ill times, books stick to us. They increase our courage and teach us how to win over difficulties. Booksara the result of man's eontinuous work o'fthousapds of years, Ev.on '[hen all books are not good. We should cho. oseonlv good books for reading.

in man's life, childhood is the best of (tImes. In this age there is no worry~ parents and other people showlove. give good things· to eat and good clothes towear and as far as

174

possible provide fOf full comfort even though they have to bear difficulties for this. for their children some parents break stones, s~me.carry loads, even then whatever is pesSible IS done so that the progeny can five in comfort

In those days who did not know the name of Hatim.

He had become a greatest of aU by his goodness. The people also were giving grt-at respect to him. Hatim had innu.merable riches. He was merciful. Always he used to give alms.

One day one of his friends asked him, •• Hatim. have you ever seen iIIny one greater than you 1"

Hatirn answered ... Yes,1 have seen.'.'

•• WhElI'e ?- The friend asked .

Hatim sai~ ... One day there was a public feast in my house. The rich and poor all of them came, That day in the evening I went towards a forest. There a aged wood-man was collecting dry woods. I .asked him that

there is an pub!' f . H

. IC east In· atim's house. Why didn't

you go f"

175

i .1 i I ii

The wood-man answered. •• Why shQuld I unfold my hands in front of (beg to) anyone, as long as my hands and legs have strength.

Havili: heared this I came to knQw that I have riches.

SC) I have heart too; but the woodman hasntt has. any rich. even then he has a ,reatheart. So Mis ... I"eater than me.

Some years ago an illiterate bu,inemnan ,..ho had to go to a certain City reached the Railway StatJ,on jUlt at the tr.jn was about t? depart. He asked tbe booking clerk ror a ticket. but the latter said "I cannot issue I ticket to you at the train i. ju~t going. n The busineSllDln said, "Please giv~me a ticket, I must catch this train. elSe I shall suffer a great financial lou.

. On hearing this the clerk g~ve him a ticket .nd seIzing it the businessman rushed off to cit~h the ~r.ilI. On. reaching the train he found it was justitlrting. The bUSInessman ran up the platform, and managed to get hold of a door handle and stand on the footboard. But to hi. annoyance a Railway policeman caughtbim by the arm and pulled him off the train saying to him 4'No one is

allowed to get into a moving traln, OJ •

Just th~n the busi~~s5man saw the guard, getting into the gU<lid s "an, ,O:f, he ran and seizing the guard by the arm. pulled him oH, On being asked by.· the. irat~ guard why he pulled him oa~ the businessman fold him that a Rail way policeman had just told him that i10 on, is allowed to gr~ into a moving train.

, 116

I .i

A king had a jester, who alway. used to chew tobacco. ConsequentlJ his breath W,IS always. very unpleasant. The king did not like thlundseveraltimes forbade him to chew tobacco, but the jester .~ould not: ghte up thi. bab'~. As he was such a good [ester, the" king did Dot want to dismjs~ him.

It se happene~ .thatone day the king went out "hooting accompanie~ aJ usual by his jester. The rOYII camp',w .. spitc~ed. ~~ar some, tobacco fields .. :here ~erc lome donkeys grazmg in ,these fields, and Jhe . k,lOgnotlced that they only ate the grass.lellYing the .to~a~c;:o;1lone.

The king a.t once called for his jester. and pointing to the donkeys said to him, look! even the donkeys

do not eat tobacco to .

"Your Majesty' is quite right, ,donkfJ's de note.at tobacco", answered the jester smilingly.

,I. I shall not go to the club today. a., WlU your , hrotber ~d this book? J. When will the coolies anivehere? 4. I shall send two servants with you. f. The A(ajQr will DOt come to the office today. 6.· Who wiD give you two hundred rupees for this lame hone? s- He wiJI riot give you, any advance. 8. I shall be readypresendy ." ,. I know that you will not make IUCh a mbtUe again. r e,: Will you also go withmr brother for shooting? I I • His wife wUI not go with hUn to the dance. 11. Two mares will abo run in -the race. I 1.

f will beat rourson. if I 'see him again in this room.

177

L The ripest fruit fans first (of all). :2. Whom

'lire you. caning? J. • do not eat meat often, 4. [am loolting for my hat. which I put on this table an hour ago. r.: Why have you not got up yet? 6. What were you doing with that kniFe? 7, Do you not see what I am doing? 8. Who ..... is this gentleman, who is coming towards us? q, Where is the envelope on which you wrote the address just now? 1 e , I am going

. home, will you come with me?· t J • What did you do

during the holidays? 12. ~mehody is calling you. fl. This is notthe stick. which I left In that corner, some one has changed ft, 14.. If you had told the waiter. he would have brought two bottles of bees, one for you and one for me. I {. ~~do not know why he has not sent the answer to my lener yet. 16. If you see the 'dog in the garden. send it back to its own~r. 17· If the doctor hold come here, 1 would havesllown him the wound. 18 ... have heard that he will not do it ... 19. If J had given even one hundred rupees to my servant, he would have !lp<'nt them all in one day. 2 o. What are you' thinking about? 2 J. I heard al1 what he said. 12. He may not arrive here. by ten. 1 3. I will give the children .aU the fruits.andflowers. which I hrought from the jungle.

LESSON 16 VOCABULARY ENGLJSH-UH,UU

,\ BBHEVIA TiONS

tn-·}fasculillc.l Feminine, ad). Adjective ad~J Ad .l 1':. Conjunction In. Interi . I •• vern, ti . n .eTJ~c~ 1011. "r» .. Pronoun, Pre. Prep osi-

IOn. v. fr.·-Verh Transitive. 11. 'Inf. Verb Intransitive

k, karna; It hona;d. dena; j. jana.

A h,lIlcl () n Ability

A hit: .. atl] Ahode Abolish

Chhoj- dena I ia~,lt f.

Lli iq . Thikana 11'1,. M,llIquf karn~

Abound KJqat se hO;la

About (n~:.1rly)

Taqr iban. ,,(Conarning) kr blihat

Ahove Ke upar.

Abreast Barabar.

Abroad Pardes m,

Abruptly ad».

Eka ekr.

Ahst'nt (J(~j. Ghair hlizir Absence adj.

Q,hair hlizirl . Absolute adj.

Mutlaq ~bsurd adj.·· Bilhilda

A

Abulld .• "ct' Abund.m; Abuse Abu~c· 'if. tr, Accept Access Accident Accordingly According t() Accurate

Kasrat r Uahllt. .

Gali f. Galidenlt (_?ahul karna Pahufich t, Hadi~a m, Chunancheh. Kemuafiq ThTk

Accuasation ilzamm.

Accuse (par) i Izlm

J.'gana·

Accused Mulzim

Across . K! par

Active Chlla:k

, Actual adj. Asl

Address PaLl

Admiration n.rjf f . Adrnonlshr , Tanbih Ie

Advance (money) . •

Pemgi f.

179·

.1 -j

Muqar-rar kama v. tr.

Apprehend, to

Giriftar kama

Approval Manziir'i f.

Approve. Manzur kama

Approximately .

Andlzan Raqba; Illqa m. Hujiat k. 1J.tr. BizO

adj.

Hathyir band

Armpit Ba~al f.

Arms Ha'illylr

Army Faujf. ,

Arrange, to Baud-o-bast k. Arrangement Band-a-bast

Arrears Bliq'i J.

Arrest Girifnr k.

Arrest, to Hawilit mei\

be under honl

Arrive' Pahuftchnl

Arsenal Aslah kh_lna

Art Hunar m.

Artful Chilbiiz

Artillery Topkhtnam.

Ascend. CharM!

Ascent Ch"rhn J.

Ascertain. Tahqiq k. Ashamed adj.

Sharminda

Rlkh Pachhnl Mai'lgni Gadhl

(ko) Madad d!nl

" or (ki) Madad

kaml (ko) Yaqln

dilini

Attach laganl .

Attac!. (par) Hamla k.

Attempt Koshish k,

A~ctiLln Nilim m,

Authority I!m.tilr

Avarice Lllach m.'

Avaricious ad}.

Ll1chI

Ausat/. Anlrl Ku1htri Dhura

Appoint

Assist

Ashes Ask Ask for

Ass

Area Argue Arm Armed

Assure

Average .Awkward ~xe

Axle

B

Back , Pith I.

Backadv. Wapas

Backwards adv.

Pichh~

Bag Baggage Bail Bald

Thailt ,. Asblb m. ZamanatJ. 'Ganji

180

,Samboo 81&' m, I Beddinc- B' '

Banana K-I- e . rstar m.

B d ' e a' m. I Beef Gle ki gosht 'In

ean age Patti j. I Before ss pahle

Bank; shore Kinara m.

D~ k'or k.e stlmni!

Ul!i:n er Sarraf m

Banner Jhan4a m Beggar Faqlr m,

Barb, e r N-- h . . I Begm Shurlik.

ar, al'llm m. B L

Bare (naked) Nanga enaviour Chit chalan

Bargain Sauda m. Behind K~pichhe

Bark DCa tree BeHeve, to YaqJn k.

Chhal j.BeH Ghahtf

Bark, to Bhaui'lkn§ Belly Petm.

~ilrit'YJau m. Belt PetTJ.

Barrel (gun) Nali j. I Bend Jhukh§; rno'rrii

Base (mean) Kam'ina Benefit Faeda m.

Basket Tokra m~ Besides Ke ahwa

or Tahi/. BeSiege Gh~rn§

Q.husl m Bet Shart f.

Nahana Bettel' Behtar

Larai f. Between Ke dar) ,jan

Sangin j. Beyond ¥! pare; batar

Hona Bier Jan ala m.

Chol'kh f. dill (account)

U;hanl Hidb tn.

Bhalu;richh m, Birc Parlnda

Darhi J,Bitch KutUf.

Janwar m. Bite Kitns

Mlirni Bitter Karwi

Khuhsul'at Blacksmith lohi,- m.

Khub$urtl / Blank (paper)

Kionkch c. Sidii

Bath Bathe Battle Bayont't Be. to Beak

Bear v. tr, Ikar

Qeard Beast

Beat, to Beautiful Beauty Because

181

City Shahr m. r Country (Runl) ·(jihit
Claim D§wl m. Covel" v.trl>h.lcnl
·Class Oarja i or :l)hlkn1i
Clean, clear Sif Covetous LitchI
Clever Hlhhyh Cow Glef.
Cleverly Hushyarl sf: Coward Buzdil ;ctarpOk
Climb Charhna Cowherd Golli;
·Clip. to Kltn! charwlbl
Clock Ghant/! m. Cream Maln f.
Cloth -, Kaprl m. Crew . Jahiii
Cold, cool Thandl Crime Jurmm.
Collect Jama karna Crooked TerM adj •.
Cummence ShurCi k. Crop FalIl r.
Common Am. m'lmlilt Cross Ke pJr J"nl
Commonly Amuman Cross-road Chal'rlham.
Complain, to Shiklyat k. Crow KawWi m.
Complete Purl. Crowd Hajum
COmpound Ehlta m. Crown Tij m.
Comrade 51thl m. Cruel Zilifu
Conceal Chhupln5 Cruelty Zulm
Condition ' Hllat Cry v : Int. Roni •.
Confidently ItmTnln sl chi1-hh,'
Consent . MaTzI f. CUlprit Mujrim m.
Con~ider Sochni Cultivation Kilen r,
Contagiou~ Phallns wah Cultivator- Kisan
Cont inually Baribar; Cup Pilla m.
musalsal Cunning Challk
Cbntract Thiika m. Cure v. tr. 111; k,
Contractor Thekedlr Curtain Parda m.
Copy v. tr. . NaqJ k. Curve Mar m.
rord t>orf f. Cushion G .. ddI r.
Comer Konam. Custom nastut
Correct Thik C'-Iltoms Mahsulm.
184 Dacoit

Daily Roz marra

Damage Nuqssn m.

.Damage v. tr.Nuqsln k.

·Damp Naf11d3r

Dance N5~h 'In.

. Dance v. tr. Njdm3

Danger Oa.r,

khatra m .

Oange.rous adj. KhaufnJk

Dark . . . Anelherl

. Date T~rtkh I.

Date (fruit) l(hajur m.

Daughter 'Biti

Pawl! adv. O_n niklc

Day Din or

rQzm.

Day byday Roz roz

Dead of n'jght Adhl rU

Dear ailj. BahrJ

Dealing Len den m.

Dear(~xpensi:ve )Mah~g5

Each Hal" ek

Ear Kin

Early Saw!re

Ear Iy in the morning

Subah sawl!rl!

Earll v. t1'. Kaminli· Earth (ground)

. ZantlnJ.

·1 .·1

D

Deduct v, tr. Ki~nli Deep Gahri Deface v, tr, KhaTib k. Defeat. Shikast ,. Defeat v, tr. Shikast d. Defeated, to pe

.. Shikast khlini

Defect • Alb m,

Defective • Aibdlr.

Defence Bachjo m.

Defend Sachana

Deficient Kam

Defile v, tr. Ganda k.

. Delay v, tr, Dlr k.

Delicate Nlizuk

Delight f(hCishi

Delicious Mazedar

. Demand.v. tr, Mallgn.a

Demollsh v, tr.

. Ujarni Inkar m . (se) lnkar k.

Earth (world) Dunyn J. (ground) Zamin [;

Eart:·.quake Bhautichil m.

Ease Aram

I East Mashriq J.

I Education TliJim

Effects Asbab; mil

I Effort . Koshisb ,.

18S

.j ; _j

Enmity Dushmanr I Exertion Mehnat !.

Enough Kafi Expenditure Kharch m,

Enquiry Tahq iqat Expensive adj.

Enter Dlikhil h., Mehnga

Entirely !3ilku( Explain ".tr. Samjhanii

Entrench Moreha b3n~l'li iExplanarion Bayan 'TIl.

Envelope lifafa m. ,', Jaw~b m.

Equal adj. Barsbar Extinguishv. tr, '

Erase v. OtT. Mi;ana Bujhana

Erect v. rr, Khar1 k, Eye Ankh I.

G

Game Shlkar m

Game (play) Khel Garden Bi!~ Gat~Phatak Gather v.e,..Jama k. Gather v.Int. Jama h.

Generally Aksar

Gently , Ahi$ta $e

Girth ]is'§mat f.

Glad adj. Khush

Glove Dasrsoa m.

Goat Baha m.

God Khudli m. •

Gold Sana m,

Goodness Bhaln, ni;k i f.

Gonorrhoea So~ak m.

Goods Mal m.

Governv.tr. Huknmar k.

rain ..rrape Grass Gratis Gratuity

. Grave

Graze Green adj. Grief

Dana t ... Aiigtir m . Ghans Muft In·am f. Qabr f . Charnl Hara

Ran] m.

Ml!.lish k.

F
~
Face MUi'ih; I Fight, to larna
chehra m. Fifl v,tr. Bharni
Fact Asl bat f. Filth Kari
Find v.tr, Pana
Fair (show) Mi!la Fine (money) Jurmani m.
Fair adj. Khisa Fine Y. tr. (par) Jur~3n3 k.
Faithful Wafidar Fine adj. Llrnda
Falsehood Jhiit , ringer Ungli
Family Kunba m. Finish Y. tr. Khatm k.
Famous Mash-hur Finish v., Int. Khatm h.
Fare Kir ava rn. Fire Agf.'
,
Farrier Nal band m.
Fat adj. MOPi First Pahla
Fate Qismat f. Flag (big) Jhan~li m.
Fatigue Thakan (small) Jhan~i f.
Fault Qasur .m, Floor Farsh m.
Favour Mehrblini Flow Bahna
Fear 1;)ar m. Flower Phul m.
Fear Y. Int. OarnJ Fly, to Urnli
Feed Y. tr. Khilana Foolishness Bii!waqiifi
Felt Namda m, Foot of hill Pahar kt
Female' Mada f. dima,.
186 Groom v. tr. Ground

Zamin f.

adj.

Be bunysd

Ugnl Muhafiz Mehman m. Qayas k.

Groundless

Grow Guardian Guest

Guess v. tr.

H

Habit Adat f.

Hair' BII

Half adj. Adht.

Halt Muqam en.

Handkerchief

Rum.I m.

Handle Desta m.

Hang (suspend) v. tr.

Latk~ni Hang (execute) v, tr.

(Jco) Phi fbi d.

Heap Ohl'r m. Honesty Imand:lr'j
Hear. to Suon! Honour fzzat
Heart Dil m, Hoof Sum m.
Heat Garrnj r. Hope Llmrn id
Heaven Baliishr f. Host Mezbln
Heavy adj. Bharl However Magar
187 --l

... ,'_<' L
~nd Zamin light adj. Balk:!
~: t.&ngu.lge Zaban f. Light v. tr. Jall!na
I L~w Panlin Like V.tr. Pasand karnj
,1~af Qatta m, like adv. Ki rarah
Ice BarH. Injustice BI!-insl!fi f. Learn v.tr. Sikhn a Likewise Is hi tarah
Idea Khlil m. . Ink SHhi f. leather Cham(a m. Limit Had f.
Idle adj. Sust Inkpot Dawat Leave Chhut-ty f. List Fehrist
12norant jahU, . nldln Inn Sara~ f. Leave v. tr. Chhorni To live (dwell) v. Int.
Irnportantadj. Insralment Qist f. left ·B~yin Rahna
ZarUri Instead of Ke bad le leg Tang f. To live (exist) v: Int.
Impossible adj. Insufficient Na kafi Leisure Fursat f. j'fna
NI mumkin Insult. v. tr, Be,izz.tti k. Lend Qarz d!nl'l load Bojh m.
'nhabitant B5shinda m. i In vain adv. Befaeda Less Kam " v. tr, Llidna
Injure y. tr . Nuqsln k, Hamla rn, Le~son Sabaq Look, to nli laglriii
[Tnvaslon Letter Chit-tht f. Look D~khn'l
J Khatm. Look for TaI~sh k.
Lick v , tr. Ch~tni Loose adj. J;>hlla
Jackal Gidar m. I joint n. Lie (animate) tetna Lose v. tr. Khona
Jor (inanimate) . Lose (a bet) v. tr.
jaw Jabr! m. . Joke- v. tr, Maziq k. Parn~ Himii
jealous adj. Hisid journey Safar m. Life jan f. Loss Nuqsan
Jerk v. tr. Jhatka mirna Joy KhQshT f. Light RoshnT f. Luck Qjsm~t f.
K Keen Shauqin

"Keep Rakhni

Kettle . Ketli f.

Key. Chabi f.

Kick (man) Thokar mlrnl Kick (or horse) v ..... tr.

lit marni Mir dilni. Mar jlnl

Kill Killec

Kindness Kindly King Kingdom Kitchen

Kite (bird) Knee

I Know .

t Knowledge

188

Mehrbanl f. MehrblnI si Bldshah Bidshlhat Bliwarchlkhllna m. Chil f. Ghutna m. linn I

'llm m.

Mad adj: Pagal

~h.il tr~inPik garl f. -tdango tree A'mkl. darakht Manner Tariqa m. . March v, tr. KOch karoa

··Mark Nishan m.

Mal'dagc Shidi f. Marry v.rr. se shadi k, Moster (owner) Milik

Matter M'uimli m.

Measure v. tr.

Nlpnl

Gosht m, Tamgha m. Dak.hf deni! f,)ak1ar ho,.

Tih-bl

Meat Medal Meddle Medical

Medicine

Dawj r

189

Mend v , tr. Marammet k.

Merchant Saudigar 01'

Tajlr

Message Pai~im m.

Method Tartqa In.

Middle Bich; wast

Mile Mil f.

Military Fau] f.

Mind Dilm.

Mischief Shaearat f

Miserly adj, . Kanjes f. Misfortune Musfbat f. Missing' Kam, ~aib

Mistake Ghalatll'.

Mix v. tr, Milana

Money (r('ady) Naqd m.

Monk('y 8andar rn,

Month Mahina

Moon Chand m,

Mount v. tr.Charhna MOlintainPali:3r

Mouth Munh m.

Mud K.ichJf

MmMy adj. Gadla

Mule Kh.lch-chal' m,

Murder Q,ulk.

Mosquito Mach~t:hhar m~'

Mount, to Ch.lrhna

. Mutiny 0..had.ir m.

N

Nail Kit f.

Nail ( of'finger)

Nakhun m, Naked adj. N.1i'lga Narrow adj. Tang

Nation Qaum f.

Native adj. Desi

Navy . BehrI Bera m.

Necessary adj. Zarur'i f.

Necessity Zarurat

Neck Gardan f ..

Neglect v. tr.

!.ihal1at k.

NeighbOl~r Paraus'l m. Neighbourhood

Paraus m,

Jilm. Khabar f Sharit'

Net

News Noble adj.

. Noise Shor m.

Nonsense WlihHt f.

Noon 00 pahar

North Shumal m.

Nose Nak f.

Nowa<bys Aj br.· .. '

Now and then Kabh Ikabh I

Nuisance W.lbal m.:

Number Ginn. f. tedad f.

Numerous adj.

Beshumar

190

l :

Oath (to take an) v. tr, Qasm khini Obey v , Int. (hukm) Manna

. Object Matlab m.

Object v. tr. Etrliz k.

Oblique . Terhij Tirchhj

Obtain Hasil k.

Occasion Mauqa m.

Occupation Pesha m. Offend, to v.tr, Nlrlzk. Official adj. Sarkari Oftenadv. Aksar

Old age Burhapli

Once Ek dara

Only Sirf

Open.ro Khoms' .

.Pace

Pack v. tr. Page

Pain

. Parade Pardon. to

.Qadamm. Bi~dhni Safha m. Pard

Qawiiid, pare4 V.tr. Mu'if k.

o

Openly adv- llihir mi!n

Ordinary Mamiili

Opinion Rae f.

Opportunity. Mau'la m ..

Opposite Simne

Oppress v, tr. Satlina Oral ZahlinI Order (method) Tarrrb

(command) hukm

Orderly Ardali m.

Original Asl

Ornament Zewar m.

Otherwise Warna

Outward Baharki taraf

Owner Mllik m,

Ox Bail m.

p

Parents Mar .. hip

Part Hissa rn.

Particular adj.KM.skar Particularlvadi. Khas kar

Peacock Mol' m.

. People (plural) log

I~l

Quail Bafer

Quarrel }hagrll m,

Quarrel v, Int.

Ihagarna Malka f,

Q

I Queer adj. 'Aiib.-

Qu. estionv.tr. Sawa/ k.

QUickly }aldi sa

/ QUietly. Cbupke sa

Qui~e adv. BilkuJ

R.

Rebel v. tr. Ba~l'iwat I Reward v, tr, In'§m d.

ReceIpt R"id. 'ruce Ch, ... l rn,

Recenl'y . fI" hi mell Rldev.tr. Sa"'r h.

Recognhe v.tr. P",ch'nn' Riches D.ul .. t.

Recommend v.tr-, Slf'rl,h 1. R;(Je Rill.lf.

RecrUIt. R'~gr"l Right (Prope,) Thrk

Refu,", v.tr. (") M" k. RIght (no. left) .dj.

Regiment P"t>of. 0"'".0' D,h ••

Reg'e. v. '.t.P,rhh"o. Ripe adj. p.ik.

ReI., B'g t. Ri,. v. r.t. Ulho.; nih'nJ

Rel at ,onR"h" rn. Rive,.. D"1' m,

Rel.tive Ri,h''''r. no.d Metoned S>r.k

ReI .... v.tr; ehhorn• Ro,," Dh'r f.

Religion M"h>b rn, Rob v. tr, lOIn'

Remember v. <T. v.d k. Robbe, O'k. rn.

Remind v .n-, (1,,) Y3d dil.oS liohber, Oik.

Ren, Xir.y. R""k Ch.!!. t.

Rep.l" Maramm .. f. Root . Ckhat (,

Rep.1, y. rr.k; 101 ... .,; ... , k. R"", Jot. f.

R:,'pe ' R.5s; r. , Ru~bish l(ura III

R. otten. ad!. S~f.j huA /; .Rui.n _. tr. narbad k:.

Round .d,. Gol Rul. Q .... rn .:

Row (a line l QaUr f • ,

Royal 'Shih; Rush Jhapatna

Rub v. tr. Molni RU$I z.ng m,

Queen

192

S

SaddJe Zin I Send (for person) Bul~na

S,le adj. Sol,,,, .. , "',hfu. Send (fo, 'hing) Moog"",

Safety Hifazat Sense Hosh m.

Salt Narnak m. Senseless Behosh

SaIJAtation ,Salam m. ' Separate v.r-. JUda k.

SOl",. v. <t .. K. "I'm k. Sepor.'ely adv. JUd' Iud.

s:.m. Woh hi; •• hi Serve >. 'F. No.hi k,

Sid. ·'I'."r t. Some Kuchh_

~ (.fpenon) Pah!a In. Sometim" K.bht Kabh,

Sei~ v. rr. Pakarni SomeWhere Kahi6

~gh'; ,how 7a~"ha So rr ".. ~f ...

$igr. v. ft. 'shar.) k. Sort Qtsm f.

$ign(a pap~r) v.n-. I Soup Sho:_blr IJJ.

.' lpar) D"tkI!at 1. South Ju.ub

Daslk_hat rn. / Spare ad;. Fafta

Kh amosh i f. SpecialKbIS

Clillp 'Speed Raftlr f. ,

Resh.ilm Spend v.tr. Kharch Ir.

Chifldi f. Spit v.tr. T'liikn.i

Gunah m I' Spo;l v.tr. 8ig,lrn1iba'rbld

Gina karn.

£kqallr I Spoon Cf..amcham.

J)abni .. Spread v t. t,Pha. illn .. I

Bahen to Y. Int. Phai.rnJ .

&ithna Spy lisiis m. ,

HOshyJ!"' I Squanderv.tt. Barbld k.

Kh21 f'Sc-ahle '. Asti!bal m.

Asmllll m. I Sta]~ adj·8Is1'

G.huflm. m... .. sta." d. J nr. Kharl h.'

Nlnd f. Star' , Rawlna hoca

" . ' Son! , Statement· BaYlin m.

.•..•..•••.•••.•••...•••••.... Astin ../ .•.. Steal v, tr, ChU,r!nl

,> Phl.aln·Step Qld_

.. ·.• ..•... · .• ·•· ..••. • ... ·i ...•. ·.·•· ••..•... Ohlm!; ihista 'Step out, to Qadam Nrhlnii

...•..•...• Sui'ighnl toile· Pat.thar m.

......•..•.•.••...• OLaI" m. Stop RoJc:nl

Stonn 1'Orln

., (wind) Andht

Story Kahan1 f. . Storey (of house) Manzil f. Straight adj. SIdhi

Stranger ghilir admI .01'1

Strap Tasma m. I

Stream Naddi f.

Strength nqat f.

Strike M am 1i I

Student Talib-c-ilm

Submarine Success Successful Such Summer Sun

Dubaknt kishtT - KamyJhi Kamyab h. Aisa

Garml f ..

SOrajm

~hup Shakk~ sath Mithllf

Talwar f. Hamdardi f ..

Sun-shine Suspiciously Swt'et Sword Sympathy

T

Tan Dum ThirstJ Pllisli

Tali Lambs Thorn· Kanta m.

Take . Lenil Thought Khul

.. off Utiirna Thousand Hazar

Take out NikJlnll . Threatcnv.u-, ,Dhamki d,

Tank Tllhb m. Throat Gala

Tape. FIta rn, ' Throw v.tr .. Phei'lkn~

Target Nishlna Thumb Angutha In.

Teach v.tr, Sikhanl . Thunder Garaj f

Telegram Tar m. Thus adv. Is tarah

Temper Mizlij m. Tiger Sher

Temporary adj. A~rzi . Tie v-.tr. BlIindhol

Tent Olra ; tambu TigressSh!rnl

Terriblekhaufnlk . Tight adj. Taftg

Theft ChorI . Time Waqt

Therefore Is wlstiE; Is lie Time (leisure) Fursar f.

Thick adj. . Mo~1 . . ... ·Tongue Zabln f. Thigh Rln; jJnghf ./ Tooth .. D'lii'lt m.

Thin, lean DUbJ.,a .• patlD._m. TOP .. 0. f. h. i.B Pahaf kl chon

Thing Chiz f. . Torment SaUnl

Think v. tr. I'..btil k. Touchv.tr.Chhani

j ~ , i

Tour Daura m. TrenC'h Morcha
Towards Ki taraf· Tribe QablJa rn.
Towel Taulta m, Trick Chil f.
Tower Burj m. Trouble.. Takliff.
Transport Barbardarf Trousers PadDnor
Travd vtr Safar Paej5ma
Treasury KA.-.zlna Try v.tr, Koshish k.
Traveller- Muslfir Tunnel Surdng
Treat v.tr. Salttk k. Tl.lrll Ghumina
Treatment (Medical) lIaj Tyranny Zulmm.
Tremble v In~. Kinpni I Tyrant ZIJirn
U Ugly Badsurat

Unaware Bekha,bar

Unconscious Rehosh Understand Samajhna Undoubtedly Beshak

Unfit adj_ Naqa,bil Unfortunate. Bad qismati sf

Uniform Wardlf.

Union Anjuman f.

Unintentionally Nldanista

Unopposed 8f: TOk tolt

Unpleasant NJgawlr

Unreasonable Bajl

I Unsafe Khatarnik

. Unusual Yhair mlmiili

Upper Upar ki

UrgentildJ. Zaruri Urine PEshib Use (benefit) Fieda

Usev.tr. Istemll k.

Useless 8efieda

'I Usual adv. Mama)!

Usually Amiiman

i UteO$II Bartan m.

V

Vacant adj. VaCcinate Value VaJuable ad; Vegetables

K.bl11

Tika lag3nl Qimat Qimti Tarkari

Verbal Verification Vicious Victory Victorious

lab!ni Tasdiq f. Badzlt • Faull. fIt f. Fatehmand

Village Vlnegar Virtue Voice

Gion M. Sirka Ill. N~ki f t\waz f.

\ Vorn .. it v.tr. Vow

Vulture

Ahdm. Gldh

w

Waist Kamar f. Wicked Ba.dm5sh
Wall Diwaf f. Widow: B{w.l
\Var larai f. Widlh Chau('" .f
Warn Tanbih Wrfe 8iwi
Wash v. <I". Dhona Wild Jangl.
Wasve v.rr. B::rbad k. Wilfull), Jan bujh lear
Weapon Hathiar m , Willingly adj. K,hushi sE
Weather Mausarn m Wln v.rr. jltna
Wedding Shad. f. Wind Hawa f.
Weight v.tr. Tolna Winding- Mordlir
Weight VVi'I.'lan rn. Window Khirki f.
w-u Kuan rn. Wine Shar5b
Well adj. Ta.I.dunlst Wing Shurn.
!
w-u known adj. Winter ]5r5 m.
MiI~hhur Wipe ".tr Pollchhna
West Maohrih Wire Tsr m.
Q....
Wha,e-te:- Jo kuchh Wisdom Aql t.
Whenever Jab kabhl Wise Aqlmand
Wherever J~h1ii kahJO Without ki! bO'l~air
Wheel Pi.\h'ip ITI. Witness GGwih m.
whio Chlibuk m. Woll Bho;r'Ui m
,
Wh;stle v . tr. Wonder v.tr. Ta'ajjub k,
Sin bajana \ ·Wonderfu! ",clj.
Wh<51k f. SI~1 Aj3b
White Safcd I Wood Lakri I.
'Whole Sab; Tlm~rn t W oolien adj. Ull 1" -,
Wick f, &tt1 Word l::3(1, m. ...

Work KIm

World Dunya f.

Wound Zakhm m.

Wounded- adj -

Zak,hmY .

Yard

Year

Yearly adv. Yellowadi. Yesterday

Gaz Sal

Har slll Pila; zard . Kat

lea 1 Sargarm! f.

Zealous adj.

Sargarm,

Wrap v, tr. Wrath Wrist Write

, Wrong adj.

y

Yoke Yoke v.tr. Young Youth

z

Zigzag

Zinc

Lap!t", Ghussa m. Kaln f. Likhnl G,halat

AbhT tak· phir blJi ' J(Bi rn, Jotna Jawan Jaw~nT f

Pechdtr; Mor tor kl Jast m.