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Aim: To study and plot the characteristics of a reciprocating pump

Apparatus: the experimental set-up, stop watch, measuring tank etc.
Instrument specifications:
Motor: 200/220 Volts
50 Hz
6 – 8 amperes
H.P: 1
RPM: 1440
Plunger pump: Double acting
Bore 2”
Stroke 1 ¾
Size 1 ¼” X 1”
RPM 420
A pump, which may be defined as a mechanical device, which converts
mechanical energy, supplied to it by an external source into hydraulic energy,
transferring it to the liquid thus, increasing the energy of the flowing liquid.
Pumps can be classified as
1. Positive displacement pumps
2. Rotodynamic pumps ( dynamic pressure pumps)

Positive displacement pumps are those in which the liquid after being pushed
into the pump chamber by atmospheric pressure is discharged due to the thrust
exerted on it by a moving piston member. Hence the name “positive
displacement”. Whatever be the resistance, the discharge of the reciprocating
pump remains constant. So, the pump will always try to discharge the same
quantity of liquid, whatever is the external resistance.
Reciprocating pumps can be classified as
1. Single acting
2. Double acting
They can be also classified as
1. Simplex ( single cylinder)
2. Duplex ( two cylinder)
3. Triplex ( three cylinder)
4. Quadruplex (four cylinder)


1. Keep the delivery valve completely open and start the pump
2. Now adjust the delivery pressure to about 4.0 Kg/cm2 corresponding to
the rated motor current of 6 amperes
3. Note down the suction pressure and time taken to fill the certain height of
the measuring tank with stop watch. This is done to get the discharge
4. Note down the wattmeter, ammeter & voltmeter readings
5. Now adjust the delivery valve to obtain a delivery pressure of
3.5,3.0,2.5……0.0 Kg/cm2 repeat the steps 3&4
6. Perform the relevant calculations for Q, H, Pi, P0 , Qth, η , ηv
7. Plot the graph of
• Head v/s Discharge
• Head v/s power input
• Head v/s power output
• Head v/s volumetric efficiency
• Head v/s overall efficiency

Diameter of the measuring tank = 37.5 cm

ps pd hinitial hfinal h Time Input Voltag Current

(mm of (kg/cm2) (cm) (cm (cm , Power(W) e (A)
Hg) ) ) (sec) (V)

Sample calculations:

Discharge Vs Vd H P0 η ηv
Q(m3/sec) (m/sec) (m/sec) (mwc) (watts) (%) (%)