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# SOLUTION MANUAL

TO
DIGITAL CONTROL
AND
STATE VARIABLE METHODS
CHAPTER 1 OUTLINE OF THE SOLUTION MANUAL

## This Solution Manual has been designed as a supplement to the textbook:

Gopal, M, Digital Control and State Variable Methods, 2nd Edition, Tata
McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2003.
Throughout the manual, the numbers associated with referenced Equations,
Figures, Tables, Examples, Review Examples and Sections are pointers to the
material in the textbook.
The detailed solutions of the problems have been avoided; only assistance has
been provided.
CHAPTER 2 SIGNAL PROCESSING IN DIGITAL CONTROL

2.1 (a) x1, x2 : outputs of unit delayers, starting at the right and proceeding to
the left.
x1(k + 1) = x2(k); x2(k + 1) = – 0.368x1(k) + 1.368x2(k) + r(k)
y(k) = 0.264x1(k) + 0.368x2(k)

LM 0 1OP LM0OP
F= M PP ; g = MM PP ; c = [0.264 0.368]
MN−0.368 1.368Q N1 Q
Y (z ) ∑ Pi D i 0 . 264 z-2 + 0 . 368 z-1
(b) = =
R (z) 1− D
e
1 - 1. 368 z - - 0 . 368 z -
1 2
j
2.2 (a) x1, x2 : outputs of unit delayers, starting at the right and proceeding to
the left.
x1(k + 1) = x2(k) + r (k)
x2(k + 1) = – 5x2(k) – 3x1(k) – 3r (k)
y(k) = x1(k)
x1(k + 2) = x2(k + 1) + r (k + 1)
Substituting for x2(k + 1) from the above set,
x1(k + 2) = – 5x1(k + 1) – 3x1(k) + r(k + 1) + 2r (k)
y(k + 2) + 5y(k + 1) + 3y(k) = r (k + 1) + 2r (k)

LM 0 1 OP ; g = LM 1 OP ; c = [1
(b) F =
N-3 -5Q N-3Q 0]

Y (z) z+2
(c) = 2
R( z) z + 5z + 3
2.3 (a) x1 : output of the unit delayer
1
x1(k + 1) = – x (k) + r(k); y(k) = 2x1(k) – x1(k + 1) = 2.5x1(k) – r(k)
2 1
y(k + 1) = 2.5x1(k + 1) – r(k + 1) = – 0.5y(k) + 2r(k) – r(k + 1)
Y (z) -z + 2
=
R( z) 1
z+
2
SOLUTION MANUAL 5

-z 2
(b) R (z) = 1; Y(z) = +
1 1
z+ z+
2 2

y (k) = – FH -1 IK k
m (k) + 2 FH -1 IK k -1
m (k – 1)
2 2
-5 2
z Y (z) 3
(c) R (z) = ; = + 3
z -1 z z+
1 z -1
2

y(k) = - FH IK
5 -1 k
m (k) +
2
m (k)
3 2 3
Y (z) b
2.4 (a) y (k + 1) = ay (k) + b r (k); =
R( z) z -a
Ab
R(z) = A; Y(z) = ; y(k) = Ab (a) k–1 m (k – 1)
z -a
A z Y (z) Ab
(b) R (z) = ; = ;
z -1 z ( z - a) ( z -1)

Ab Ab
z z
a -1 1 -a Ab
Y (z) = + ; y(k) = [1 – (a) k] m (k)
z -a z -1 1 -a

Az Y(z) Ab
(c) R (z) = ; =
( z - 1) 2
z ( z - a) ( z - 1) 2

Ab z LM
+
(1 - a) z
- z
OP
Y (z) =
(1 - a) 2
z -a N ( z - 1) 2 z -1 Q
Ab
y (k) = [ (a ) k + (1 - a ) k - 1] ; k ³ 0
(1 - a ) 2
z
(d) r(k) = A cos (Wk) = Re {AejWk}; Z {ejWk} =
z - e jW
The output,
LM RS A b z UVOP = Re L A b Ab OP
y(k) = Re Z -1
N T (z - a)b z - e jW
g WQ MN a - e jW
ak +
e jW - a
e jWk
Q
= Re M
L A b ba - e gP
jWk O
N a -e Q
k
jW
6 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## 2.5 (a) Given difference equation in shifted form:

y (k) + 3y (k – 1) + 2y (k – 2) = 0
Y (z) + 3z–1 Y (z) + 3y (– 1) + 2z – 2 Y (z) + 2z – 1 y (– 1) + 2y (– 2) = 0
z z z
Y (z) = = -
z + z+2
3 2 z + 1 z + 2
y (k) = (– 1) – (– 2) ; k ³ 0
k k

1
(b) 2Y (z) – 2z – 1 Y (z) + z – 2 Y (z) =
1 - z-1

z3
Y (z) =
a
( z - 1) 2 z 2 - 2 z + 1 f
z -z 2 + z z 1 az 2
-0 . 5 z f 1 0 . 5z
= + 2
z -1 2 z -2 z +1
= -
z -1 2 az 2
-z + 0 . 5 f+2 z 2 -z + 0 . 5
Therefore,

y (k) = (l)k –
1 FH 1 IK k
cos FH k p IK + 1 FH 1 IK k
sin FH k p IK ; k ³ 0
2 2 4 2 2 4
2.6 From the given difference equation we get,
y (k + 1) – 1.3679 y (k) + 0.3679 y (k – 1)
= 0.3679r (k) + 0.2642 r (k – 1)
0 . 3679 z + 0 . 2642
Y (z) = 2 R (z)
z - 1. 3679 z + 0 . 3679
R (z) = 1 + 0.2142z –1 – 0.2142z –2
Hence,

Y (z) = 2
( 0 . 3679 z + 0 . 2642 )
z - 1. 3679 z + 0 . 3679
a
1 + 0 . 2142 z -1 - 0 . 2142 z-2 f
= 0.3679z – 1 + 0.8463z – 2 + z – 3 + z – 4 + z – 5 + L
y(0) = 0; y (1) = 0.3679; y (2) = 0.8463;
y (k) = 1, k ³ 3.
2.7 Taking z-transform of the given equation:
Y ( z) z2 z2
= 2 =
R ( z) z - 3z + 2 (z - 1) (z - 2 )
z +1
R(z) = 1 + z – 1 =
z
Y (z) ( z + 1) 3 2
= = -
z ( z - 2 )( z - 1) z - 2 z -1
y(k) = 3(2) k – 2(1) k; k ³ 0
SOLUTION MANUAL 7

Final value theorem will not give correct value since a pole of Y (z)
lies outside the unit circle.

2z - 3
2.8 (a) R (z) = z – 1; Y (z) =
z ( z - 0 . 5) ( z + 0 . 3)
Y (z) 2 z -3
=
z z z - 0 . 5) ( z + 0 . 3)
2 (

40 20 10 50
=- + 2 - +
z z z - 0 .5 z + 0 .3
y(k) = – 40d (k) + 20d (k – 1) – 10(0.5) k + 50(– 0.3) k; k ³ 0

z - 6z2 + z
(b) R (z) =
z -1
; Y (z) =
FH
( z - 1) z -
1
+j
1 1 IK FH
z- - j
1 IK
2 4 2 4
Y (z) - 16 8+ j4 8- j4
= + +
z z -1 1
z- + j
1
z- -j
1 1
2 4 2 4
16 16 z - 6
=– +
z-1 z2 - z + 5
16
y(k) = – 16(1)k + (0.56)k [7.94 sin (0.468k) + 16 cos (0.468k)]; k ³ 0

z2
2.9 (a) R (z) = 1 + z – 2 + z – 4 + ¼ =
z -12

Y (z) z
=
z (z - 1) ( z + 1) ( z - 0 .5) ( z + 0 . 3)
- 0 . 833 - 0 . 41 0 . 476 0 . 769
= + + +
z - 0. 5 z + 0.3 z +1 z -1
y(k) = – 0.833(0.5) – 0.41(– 0.3) + 0.476(– 1)k + 0.769(1)k; k ³ 0
k k

z
(b) R(z) = ;
z -1
Y (z) 1
=
z ( z - 0.5) ( z - 0.1)( z - 1)
2

-5 2. 5 - 6 . 94 4 . 44
= + + +
( z - 0 . 5) 2 z - 0. 5 z - 0 .1 z -1
y(k) = – 10k(0.5) + 2.5(0.5) – 6.94(0.1) + 4.44(1)k; k ³ 0
k k k

a f
K 1 - a 2 (1 - a )
2.10 y(¥) = lim (z – 1) Y (z) =
z ®1 a1 - a f 2 (
1 - a)
=K

For y (¥) = 1, K = 1
8 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## 2.11 Refer Eqn (2.45)

z ( z - 1) z
Y (z) = m ; y (¥) = lim ( = 0, if |a| < 1.
( z - a) z ®1 z - a)
m

1 1 1
z+
z Y (z) 1
= 2 - 22 2
(i) R(z) =
z -1
;
z
= 2
z + 1 ( z - 1)a z -1 z +1 f
y(k) =
1
(1)k –
1
cos FH k p IK – 1 sin FH k p IK ; k ³ 0
2 2 2 2 2

## r(k) = {1, 0, – 1, 0, 1, 0, – 1, ¼} = cos F

H IK ; R(z) =
kp z 2
(ii) ;
2 z2 +1

z2
az f
Y (z) = 2
2
+1
The output y (k) is bounded because of matching of system poles with
excitation poles.
2.13 (a) D(z) = z3 – 1.3z2 – 0.08 z + 0.24 = 0
(i) D(1) = – 0.14 < 0
The first condition of Jury’s criterion is violated. The system is un-
stable; we may stop the test here.
(b) D(z) = z4 – 1.368 z 3 + 0.4z 2 + 0.08z + 0.002 = 0
(i) D(1) = 0.114 > 0; satisfied
(ii) D(– 1) = 2.69 > 0; (n even); satisfied
Form Jury’s table; from which you will find that (conditions (2.50b)):
|a 4| < |a 0|; 0.002 < 1; satisfied
|b 3| > |b 0|; | – 1| > | – 0.083|; satisfied
|c 2| > |c 0|; 0.993 > 0.512; satisfied.
The system is stable.
2.14 D(z) = z 4 + 0.5 z 3 – 0.2 z 2 + z + 0.4 = 0

F 1 + r IJ
D(r) = G
4
F 1 + r IJ
+ 0.5 G
3
F 1 + r IJ
– 0.2 G
2
1+ r
H 1-r K H 1 -r K H 1-r K +
1-r
+ 0.4

- 0 . 3 r 4 + 3. 4 r 3 + 8 . 8 r 2 + 1. 4 r + 2 . 7
=
(1 - r )
4

Form the Routh table, from which you will find that one root of D(r)
lies in the right-half plane. Therefore, three poles of G (z) lie inside
the unit circle.
SOLUTION MANUAL 9

## 2.15 Refer Section 2.8; Eqn (2.56)

2.16 (a) Refer Section 2.9
(b) s2 + 2s + 2 = s2 + 2zw ns + w 2n

wn = 2;
ws p
= > 2; T <
p
2 T 2
(c) Noise signal: n(t) = cos 50t

## Z {cos 50kT} = Z cos { 50 k ´ 2 p

50
} = Z {cos 2kp}
1
= -1
= 1 + z –1 + z –2 + L
1- z
2p
It can be seen that the noise signal cos 50t sampled at sec be-
50
comes unity at every sampling instant. Thus the noise signal can gen-
erate an undesirable d.c. component in the output.
2.17 Refer Section 2.10; Fig. 2.36.
2.18 Refer Section 2.12; Eqns (2.72)
2.19 (i) s = – a + jb; z = e –aT e jbT
(ii) s = a ± jw0; z = eaT e± jw0T

1 1 - e-sT
2.20 Ga(s) = ; Gh0(s) =
s+1 s
RS 1 UV = 1 - e -T
G(z) = Z{Gh0G(s)} = (1 – z –1) Z
T s s + 1 W z -e
( ) -T

z Y (z) 1 - e-T 1 -1
R(z) =
z -1
;
z
=
z -e a
-T (
z -1) f
=
z -1
+
z - e-T
y(k) = 1 – e –kT
;k³0

RS 10 UV ; G (z) = (1 – z ) Z RS 10 UV
T s (s + 2 ) W T s (s + 2 ) W
–1
2.21 Ga (s) = 2

G(z) = 5(1 – z ) M
L T z - z + z OP
N z -1 2 z -1 2 a z - e f Q
–1
( )2 ( ) -2 T

10 ( z + 0 . 76)
For T = 0.4 sec, G(z) =
16 ( z - 1) ( z - 0 . 46 )
2.22 (i) Refer Eqn (2.90b)
(ii) Refer Eqn. (2.107)
10 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## 2.23 Refer Section 2.12; Fig. 2.41a.

2.24 Refer Section 2.12; Figs 2.44 and 2.37.

u( k ) - u( k - 1)
2.25
T
LM e k -e k -1 + 1 e k + T e k -2e k -1 + e k -2 OP
( ) ( )

N T Q
( ) D { ( ) ( ) ( )}
= Kc 2
T T I

## LM1 + T FG 1 IJ + T a1 - z fOP E(z)

N T H 1- z K T
-1
Q
D
U(z) = K c -1
I

2.26 Required
z = 0.45, fM = 45 deg, T = 1.57 sec.
(i) D(s) is a phase lag compensator that meets the requirements.
2 z -1
(ii) D(z) = D(s) with s =
T z +1
z - 0 . 9391
D(z) = 0.4047
z - 0 . 9752

U (s) = Kc 1 +
LM 1
+ TD s E(s)
OP
2.27
N TI s Q
LM 1 OP E (z)
U(z) = Kc 1 +
MM T s + TD s
PP
N I
s=
2 ( z -1)
T z +1
s=
z -1
zT Q
LM1+ T z +1 TD z -1
+
OP
= Kc
N 2T I z -1 T z
E (z)
Q
u(k) = uP(k) + u1(k) + uD(k)
where
uP(k) = Kce(k)
K T
u1(k) – u1(k – 1) = c [e(k) + e(k – 1)]
2 TI

u1(k) =
Kc T
Â
a f
e i - 1 + e (i )
TI 2

uD(k) =
Kc TD
T
e( k ) - e k - 1 a f
Therefore,
LM T
k
a f
e i - 1 + e(i ) T
ke(k ) - eak - 1fpOPP
u(k) = Kc e( k ) + Â + D
MN TI i =1 2 T Q
SOLUTION MANUAL 11

z z
t t
dy (t )
2.28 (a) + ay(t) = r(t); y(t) = y(0) – a y (t) dt + r (t) dt
dt 0 0

z z
kT kT
y(k) = y(k – 1) – a y (t) dt + r (t) dt
( k -1) T ( k -1 ) T

## = y(k – 1) – aTy(k) + Tr(k)

1 T
y(k) = y(k – 1) + r(k)
1 + aT 1 + aT

z z
(k + 1) T (k + 1) T
(b) y(k + 1) = y(k) – a y (t) dt + r (t) dt
kT kT

## = (1 – aT) y(k) + Tr (k)

y(k) = (1 – aT) y(k – 1) + Tr (k – 1)

d2 y dy
2.29 (a) +a + by = 0
dt 2 dt
1 a
[y(k) – 2y(k – 1) + y(k – 2)] + [y(k) – y(k – 1)] + by(k) = 0
T2 T
FH
b+
a IK FH 1 IK
+ 12 y(k) – a + 22 y(k – 1) + 2 y(k – 2) = 0;
T T T T T
y(0) = a; y(– 1) = a – Tb
(b) x1 = y; x2 = y& ; x&1 = x2; x& 2 = – bx1 – ax2
LM 0
1 OP
A=
N- b
-a Q
Using Eqn (2.113) we obtain,
LMa OP
x(k + 1) = x(k) + T)x(k) = (I + AT) x(k); x(0) =
Nb Q
CHAPTER 3 MODELS OF DIGITAL CONTROL DEVICES AND
SYSTEMS

## 3.1 D(z) = {Gh0(s)G1(s)} = Gh0G1(z)

Y ( z) D( z )Gh 0 G2 ( z ) Gh 0 G1 ( z )Gh 0 G2 ( z )
= =
R ( z) 1+ D( z )Gh 0 G2 H ( z ) 1+ Gh 0 G1 ( z )Gh 0 G2 H ( z )
Y ( z) Gh 0 G( z )
3.2 =
(
R z ) 1 + Gh 0 G( z ) H ( z )
3.3 Y(z) = Gh0G2(z) U(z)
U(z) = G1R(z) – Gh0G2HG1(z) U(z)
Gh 0 G2 ( z )G1 R( z )
Y(z) =
1+ Gh 0 G2 HG1 ( z )

## 3.4 Reduced form of the block diagram in Fig. P3.4:

D ( z ) Gh 0 G p ( z )
Y(z) = GpH2 R(z) + [H1R(z) – GpH2R(z)]
1 + D ( z ) Gh 0 G p ( z )

## 3.5 Y(z) = Gh0G1G2(z)U(z); X(z) = Gh0G1(z) U(z)

E(z) = R(z) – X(z) – Y(z);
U(z) = D(z) E(z)
= D(z) [R(z) – Gh0G1(z) U(z) – Gh0G1G2(z) U(z)]
D ( z ) R( z )
U(z) = ; Y(z) = Gh0G1G2(z) U(z)
1+ D( z )Gh 0 G1 ( z ) + D( z )Gh 0 G1G2 ( z )

Y ( z) Gh 0 G1G2 ( z ) D ( z )
=
R ( z) 1 + D( z )[ Gh 0 G1 ( z ) + Gh 0 G1G2 ( z ) ]
SOLUTION MANUAL 13

## X(z) = Gh0G1(z) U(z)

X (z) Gh 0 G1 ( z )
=
R(z) 1 + D( z )[ Gh 0 G1 ( z ) + Gh 0 G1G2 ( z ) ]

## 3.6 For r = 0, the block diagram reduces to the following:

WG ( z )
Y(z) = WG(z) – D(z)Gh0G(z) Y(z); Y(z) =
1 + D ( z )Gh 0 G ( z )
1 q ( z) Gh 0 G( z )
3.7 G(s) = ; L = ;
s( s + 1) q R ( z ) 1 + Gh 0 G( z )
RS1 UV a f a
z T -1+ e-T + 1- e-T - Te-T f
Gh0G(z) = (1 – z –1) Z 2
T
s (s + 1)
=
W ( z -1) z - e- Ta f
For T = 0.25 sec,
0 . 0288( z + 0 . 92 )
Gh0G(z) =
( z - 1) ( z - 0 . 7788)

## 3.8 Plant transfer function is,

185
G(s) =
(0 . 025s + 1)

RS 185 UV = 185a1-e f - 40 T
Gh0G(z) = (1 – z –1) Z
T s (0 . 025s + 1) W z - e - 40 T

## Let x(k) be the input to D/A block.

x(k) = KF wr (k) + KP [wr (k) – w (k)]
X(z) = KF wr (z) + KP[wr(z) – w(z)]; w(z) = Gh0G(z) X(z)

w( z ) (K F + K P )Gh 0 G( z )
=
wr ( z ) 1 + K P Gh 0 G ( z )
14 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## 3.9 The filter is described by the following difference equation,

U (z) z
u(k) = u(k – 1) + 0.5e(k); = 0.5
E(z ) z -1

## RS 1 UV = aT -1+ e fz +a1-e -Te f -T -T -T

T s (s + 1) W z -1 a z - e f
Gh0G(z) = (1 – z –1) Z 2 -T
( )

1
fs = 5 Hz = ; T = 0.2 sec
T
0 . 019 z + 0 . 0175
Gh0G(z) = ;
( z - 1) ( z - 0 . 819 )

Y (z) Gh 0 G( z ) D( z ) 0 . 0095z ( z + 0 . 92 )
= = 3
R( z ) 1 + Gh 0 G( z ) D( z ) z - 2 . 81z 2 + 2 . 65z - 0 . 819
RS e UV
-0 . 4 s
3.10 (i) Gh0G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z
T s (s + 1) W
Using transform pairs of Table 3.1, we obtain,

LM a1-e fz + e -e OP (1 – z
-0 . 6 -0 . 6 -1
0 . 45z + 0 .181
N z - 1 az - e f Q
–1
Gh0G(z) = -1
)=
( ) z ( z - 0 . 368)

Y (z) Gh 0 G( z ) 0 . 45 z + 0 .181
= = 2
R( z ) 1 + Gh 0 G( z ) z + 0 . 081z + 0 .181

## 0 . 45z + 0 .181 Y ( z ) 0.45 z + 0.181

(ii) Gh0G(z) = ; = 3
z z - 0 . 368) R( z )
2(
z - 0.368z 2 + 0.45 z + 0.181
3.11 Refer Section 3.6.
3.12 Refer Gopal M., Digital Control Engineering, New Delhi, Wiley East-
ern, 1988.
3.13 (a) 1 + G(s) = 0; s3 + 3s2 + 2s + 5 = 0
From Routh table, we find that the closed-loop system is stable.

RS 5 UV
(b) Gh0G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z
T s (s + 1) (s + 2) W
2

2.5 5( z - 1) ( z - 1)
= – 3.75 + – 1.25
z -1 z - 0 . 3679 z - 0 .1353
The characteristic equation is: z2 + 2.12z + 0.234 = 0; z1, 2 = – 2, – 0.12
A pole lies outside the unit circle; the system is unstable.
SOLUTION MANUAL 15

## 3.14 z3 – 0.1z2 + 0.2Kz – 0.1K = D(z)

D(1) = 0.1K + 0.9 > 0
D(– 1) = – 1.1 – 0.3 K < 0
From Jury’s table, we get the following conditions. (refer conditions
(2.50b))
|– 0.1K| < 1; True for 0 < K < 10
|0.01K2 – 1| > |– 0.19K|; |0.01K2 – 1| > |0.19K|
K2 + 19K – 100 = 0
The system is stable for 0 < K < 4.293.
RS 1 UV = K FG 1 - e IJ -3T
3.15 Gh0G(z) = K(1 – z–1) Z
T s (s + 3 ) W 3 H z - e K -3T

K
D(z) = 1 + Gh0G(z) = z – e –3T + (1 – e –3T) = 0
3
(i) For T = 0.5, system stable for 0 < K < 4.723
(ii) For T = 1, system stable for 0 < K < 3.315

RS K UV
T s a s + 1f W
3.16 Gh0G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z 2

K z - 1 L zkaT - 1 + e f z + a1 - e - Te fp O
-T -T -T
=
(
z
MN )
z - 1 az - e f
( )2
PQ -T

D(z) = 1 + Gh0G(z) = 0; z2 – az + b = 0
where,
a = e –T + 1 – K(T – 1 + e –T); b = e –T + K(1 – e –T – Te –T)
1+ r
Put z= , then r2 (1 + a + b) + 2r(1 – b) + 1 – a + b = 0
1- r
System is stable for,
1 + a + b > 0; 1 – b > 0; 1 – a + b > 0
Substituting for a and b and solving for K yields:

K<
a
2 1 + e- T f
-T
T - 2 + 2e + Te-T
1 - e- T
K<
1 - e-T - Te-T
T(1 – e –T) > 0 or e–T < 1 which implies T > 0.

## 3.17 For T = 1 sec,

(0 . 368 z + 0 . 264 )
Gh0G(z) = K
a
z z 2 - 1. 368z + 0 . 368 f
16 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## D(z) = z3 – 1.368z2 + 0.368(1 + K)z + 0.264K = 0

D(1) = – 0.368 + 0.368(1 + K) + 0.264K > 0
D(– 1) = – 2.368 – 0.368(1 + K) + 0.264K < 0
From Jury’s table, we get the following conditions (refer conditions
(2.50b)):
|0.264K| < 1, gives K < 3.79
|0.07K2 – 1| < |0.361K + 0.368 + 0.368K|
This gives, K < 0.785.
The system is stable for 0 < K < 0.785.

4500 K
3.18 (a) G(s) = ; K = 14.5; z = 0.707; wn = 255.44
s (s + 361. 2 )

e-z wn t F dw i 1- z 2 I
y(t) = 1 –
1- z2
sin GH n 1 - z 2 t + tan -1
z JK
(b) T = 0.01 sec,
1. 3198z + 0 . 4379 Y ( z ) 1.3198z + 0.4379
Gh0G(z) = ; = 2
z -1.027 z + 0.027 R( z )
2
z + 0.2929 z + 0.4649
By dividing the numerator polynomial by the denominator polyno-
mial, we obtain,
y(T) = 1.3198, y(2T) = 1.3712, y(3T) = 0.7426, y(4T) = 0.9028,
y(5T) = 1.148 T = 0.001 sec,
0.029 z + 0.0257 Y(z) 0.029 z + 0.0257
Gh0G(z) = ; = 2
z 2 - 1.697 z + 0.697 R( z ) z - 1.668 z + 0.7226
Dividing the numerator polynomial by the denominator polynomial,
we can obtain the response.
Y (z) Gh 0 G( z )
3.19 =
R( z ) 1 + Gh 0 GH ( z )
RS 1 UV = 1 - e ; -1
Gh0G(z) = (1 – z –1) Z
T sa s + 1f W z - e -1

)Z S
R 1 UV = e z - 2e + 1 -1 -1

T s a s + 1f W z - 1 az - e f
Gh0GH(z) = (1 – z –1 -1
2 ( )

Y (z) a
= 2
f
1- e-1 ( z -1)
; R(z) =
z
; Y(z) = 2
0.632 z
R( z ) z - z +1- e-1 z -1 z - z + 0.632
SOLUTION MANUAL 17

(a sin W) z
a k sin (Wk) « ; a2 = 0.632;
z 2
- (2a cos W z + a
) 2

1
cos W = = 0.629; W = 0.89 rad; y(k) = 1.02(0.795)k sin (0.89k)
2a

RS 1 UV = 0.632 ; Y z ( ) 0.632
3.20 Gh0G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z
T sa s + 1f W z -0.368 R z ( )
=
z + 0.264
;

z
R(z) =
z -1

0.632 z
Y(z) = ; y(k) = 0.5 [1 – (– 0.264)k] m(k)
( z - 1) ( z + 0.264 )

## Y (z) = Z {Gh0(s) G(s)e –DTs)} E(z); E(z) = R(z) – Y(z);

Y(z) = Z {Gh0(s) G(s)} E(z)
R( z )
E(z) =
1 + Z {Gh 0 ( s ) G( s )}

Z [ Gh 0 ( s ) G( s ) e- DTs ] 0 . 632
Y (z) = R(z); Z {Gh0(s) G(s)} =
1 + Z [ Gh 0 ( s ) G( s )] z - 0 . 368

## 0 . 393z + 0 . 239 Y ( z ) 0.393z + 0.239

Z [Gh0(s) G(s) e –DTs] = ; = ;
z ( z - 0 . 368) R( z ) z ( z + 0 . 264 )
z
R(z) =
z -1
y (k) = [0.5 – 0.107 (– 0.264)k –1] m(k – 1)
y (1) = 0.393 = y(0.5T); y (2) = 0.528 = y(1.5T)
18 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## y (3) = 0.493 = y(2.5T); y (4) = 0.5019 = y(3.5T)

FG z -1 IJ FG z +1.2 z +1 IJ
2
3.21 (i) D(z) = 4
H z + 0.1 K H z - 0.3z + 0.8 K
2

= 4M
L 1- z OP LM 1+1.2 z + z OP
-1 -1 -2

-1 -1 -2

## Refer Figs 3.19 – 3.20

D( z ) 50 46 . 62 7 . 38 z + 4 . 05
(ii) =- + + 2
z z z + 0 .1 z - 0 . 3z + 0 . 8
46 . 62 7 . 38 + 4 . 05 z-1
D(z) = –50 + +
1 + 0 .1z-1 1 - 0 . 3z -1 + 0 . 8 z- 2
Refer Figs 3.21 – 3.22

3.22 D(z) = 2
a
10 z 2 + z +1
=
f233.33 127.08
+
25 106.25
+ 2 +
z (z - 0.5) (z - 0.8) z - 0.5 z - 0.8 z z
233.33z -1 127.08z -1
=- + + (106.25 + 25z –1)z –1
1- 0.5z -1 1- 0.8 z-1
SOLUTION MANUAL 19

qss 30
3.23 (a) Process steady-state gain, K = = = 30°C/(kg/min)
Qm 1
q(t) = 0.283qss at t1 = 25 min
q(t) = 0.632qss at t2 = 65 min
Therefore (refer Eqns (3.53b))
1
tD + t = t1 = 25
3
tD + t = t2 = 65
This gives
tD = 5 min, t = 60 min

1
(b) tCD = tD + T = 5.5
2
Kc = 1.5t/KtCD = 0.545
TI = 2.5tCD = 13.75 min
TD = 0.4tCD = 2.2 min

## 3.24 Ultimate gain, Kcu = 5

Ultimate period, Tu = 34 sec
Kc = 0.45 Kcu = 2.13
TI = Tu /1.2 = 666.66 sec
20 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

3.25

TIM001 TIM000
# 0030

TIM000 TIM001
# 0060

TIM000 10000

10000 10001

10001 TIM002
# 0015

TIM002 TIM003
# 0030

## TIM002 TIM003 10002

10002 10003

I/O Assignment:
10000–N(Green); 10001–N (Red)
10002–S(Green); 10003–S (Red)
TIM000–Timer for 30 sec delay
TIM001–Timer for 60 sec delay
TIM002–Timer for 15 sec delay
TIM003–Timer for 30 sec delay
SOLUTION MANUAL 21

3.26

00000
10003 10000

10000
00002

10000 10002

00000 00002
00003 10001

10001

10001
CNT000
# 0005
00001

CNT000 10003

I/O Assignment:
00000–Start Push button (PB1)
00001–Stop Push button (PB2)
00002–Upper level sensor: 1 if liquid level above LL1;
otherwise 0
00003–Lower level sensor: 1 if liquid level above LL2;
otherwise 0
10000–Liquid supply valve (V1)
10001–Drain valve (V2)
10002–Stirring motor (M)
10003–Buzzer
22 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

3.27

00000
CNT000 10000

10000
00001

00002 10000
CNT000
# 0005
10001

## CNT000 TIM001 10001

10001 TIM001
# 0002

I/O Assignment:
00000–Start push button
00001–Stop push button
00002–Product proximity sensor
10000–Conveyor motor
10001–Solenoid
CNT000–Counter with a Set Value of 5
TIM001–Timer for 2 sec delay
SOLUTION MANUAL 23

3.28
00002
TIM000 10001

10001

00001
TIM001 10000

10000

10000 00001
TIM000
# 0020
00000
TIM001 01000

01000

01000 00000
TIM001
# 0020

I/O Assignment:
00000–S1; 00001–S2
00002–S3; 10000–M1
10001–M2; 01000–Work-bit
TIM000–Timer for 20 sec delay
TIM001–Timer for 20 sec delay
24 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

3.29

00000
00001 10001 10000

10000
00003 00002

00003
TIM000
# 0007

TIM000
00001 10000 10001

00002
10001

I/O Assignment:
00000–PB1; 00001–PB2
00002–LS1; 00003–LS2
10000–Forward motor
10001–Reverse motor
TIM000–Timer for 7 sec delay
CHAPTER 4 DESIGN OF DIGITAL CONTROL ALGORITHMS

## 4.1 Steady-state error can be calculated from the corresponding continuous-

time system as sampling does not affect steady-state performance of a
continuous-time system.

## R(s) + E(s) + 1 1 q(s)

K1
Js s

K2

q( s ) K1
G(s) = =
E ( s) s( Js + K 2 )

Kp = lim G(s) = •
sÆ0

K1
Kv = lim sG(s) =
sÆ0 K2

Ka = lim s2G(s) = 0
sÆ0

## 4.2 Plant model:

wT
-j
1.57 1.57e 2
G(s) = ; G ( jw) G( jw) = ; T = 1.57 sec
s( s + 1) h0 jw ( jw + 1)
Bode plot analysis:
Phase margin (without ZOH) = 45 deg
Phase margin (with ZOH) = 0 deg
Specification: f M = 45 deg
Let us use a lag compensator.
From the Bode plot of the uncompensated system, we see that the phase
margin of 45 deg may be realized if the gain cross over frequency is moved
from the present value (1 rad/sec) to a frequency of 0.5 rad/sec. To accom-
modate phase lag, we take wc2 = 0.4 rad/sec
20 log b = 8; b = 2.5
1 w c2 1 1 + st 1 + 25s
= = 0.04; = 0.016; D1(s) = =
t 10 bt 1 + sbt 1 + 62.5s
Phase margin of the compensated system is about 45 deg.
26 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

2 z -1 z -1
Bilinear transformation: s = = 1.274 ;
T z +1 z +1
0.4( z - 0.939)
D1(z) =
( z - 0.975)
1.57
Kv of the original analog system is given by, Kv = lim s = 1.57
sÆ0 s ( s + 1)
Kv of the equivalent digital system is:
1
Kv = lim (z – 1) D1(z) Gh0G(z)
T z ®1
LM 1.57 - 0.792 OP , K = 1.57
where Gh0G(z) = 1.57
N z - 1 z - 0.208 Q v

1
4.3 Kp = lim Gh0G(z) = •; Kv = lim (z – 1) Gh0G(z) = 3.041
zÆ1 T z Æ1
1
Ka = lim (z – 1)2 Gh0G(z) = 0
T 2 zÆ1
ess (unit step) = 0; ess (unit ramp) = 0.33; ess (unit acceleration) = •
4.4 z2 – 1.9z + 0.9307 = 0; z = 0.95 ± j0.168 = 0.965e± j0.175 = re± jq

## e -zw n T = 0.965 = r ; zwnT = – ln r; wnT 1 - z 2 = q

From the above equations, we get
z -In r - ln r
= ;z=
1-z 2 q ln 2 r + q 2

1
wn = In 2 r + q 2 ; z = 0.199; wn = 8.93
T
4.5 (a) (i) W(s) = 0;
Y1(z) = Gh0G(z) [R(z)D2(z) + {R(z)D3(z) – Y1(z)}D1(z)]
[ D2 ( z ) + D1 ( z ) D3 ( z )]Gh 0 G( z ) R( z )
Y1(z) =
1 + D1 ( z )Gh 0 G( z )
(ii) R(s) = 0
Y2(z) = GW(z) – Gh0G(z) D1(z) Y2(z)
GW ( z )
Y2(z) = ; Y(z) = Y1(z) + Y2(z)
1 + D1 ( z )Gh 0 G( z)
(b) D3(z) = D2(z) GD0G(z)
SOLUTION MANUAL 27

[1 + D1 ( z )Gh 0 G( z )] D3 ( z ) R( z )
Y1(z) = = D3(z) R(z)
1 + D1 ( z )Gh 0 G( z )

GW ( z )
Y2(z) = ; Y(z) = Y1(z) + Y2(z)
1 + D1 ( z )Gh 0 G( z)
(c) D1(z) can be made large to reject the disturbances.
4.6 Consider the corresponding continuous-time system.

K2 sK1 + K 2
(i) D(s) = K1 + ; D(s) G(s) =
s s( s + 1)

1 1
Kv = K2; = 0.01 =
Kv K2
(ii)

Y (s) s 1
= ; Y(s) = ; yss = 0
W (s) s( s + 1) + K1s + K2 s( s + 1) + K1s + K2
Thus a PI compensator meets the requirements.
T
-
K K (1 - e t )
4.7 G(s) = ; Gh0G(z) = ;
J s +1 -
T
z-e t

0.393 1 z - 0.607
For K = t = 1, Gh0G(z) = ; S(z) = =
z - 0.607 1 + Gh 0 G( z ) z - 0.214

## cos(wT ) - 0.607 + j sin(wT )

S(e jwT) = ; |S(e jwT)|2
cos(wT ) - 0.214 + j sin(wT )

## 1.3685 - 1.214 cos(wT )

=
1.0458 - 0.428 cos(wT )

ws 2p
= = 6.28 rad/sec
2 2T
28 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

w |S|2 |S|
0 0.25 0.5
1 0.45 0.67
2 0.8752 0.9355
2.5 1.0827 1.04
3.14 1.3086 1.144
4 1.53 1.23
6.28 1.753 1.324
| S | < 1 for 0 £ w £ 2.
4.8 (a) D(z, K) = A(z) + KB(z)
= (z – l1) (z – l 2) L (z – lk)
We consider the effect of parameter K on the root lk. By definition,
D(lk, K) = 0. If K is changed to (K + DK), then lk also changes and the
new polynomial is,

∂D
D(lk + Dlk, K + DK) = D(lk, K) + Dlk
∂z z=lk

∂D
+ DK + L = 0
∂K z= lk

## Neglecting higher order terms, we obtain,

LM ∂ D / ∂K OP
Dlk = –
N ∂D / ∂z Q z = lk
DK

∂D 1 ∂D
= B(lk) = – A( l k ); = P (l k - l i )
∂K l =lk K ∂z z = lk iπk

Dl k A( l k )
SKl k = =
DK / K P (l k - l i )
iπk

K 0.393K
(b) G(s) = ; Gh0G(z) = ; D(z, K) = 1 + Gh0G(z) = 0
s +1 z - 0.607
A(z) + KB(z) = (z – 0.607) + K(0.393) = 0
Nominal value of K = 1.
Closed-loop pole is at z= 0.213 = l

dD ( z )
A(l) = 0.213 – 0.607 = – 0.394; = 1; SKl = – 0.394
dz z=l
SOLUTION MANUAL 29

For a 10% change in nominal gain, the change in the root location is
∂K
given by, D(l k) = SKl = – 0.0393
K
1
-
1 1 - e 2t
(c) G(s) = ; Gh0G(z) = ; D(z, t ) = 1 + Gh0G(z) = 0;
t s +1 -
1
z-e 2 t

1
-
z + 1 – 2e 2t =0
1 1
- ∂p
2t 1 - 2t
Let p = e = ; e
∂t 2t 2
Characteristic equation is,
z + 1 + p(– 2) = 0; A(z) + p(B(z)) = 0
1
-
Nominal value of p = e 2 = 0.6065
Closed-loop pole is at z = 0.213 = l
dD( z ) ∂( l )
A(l) = 1.213; = 1; Spl = 1.213 =
dz z= p ∂p / p
1
∂p 1 - 2 t ∂t 1 ∂t ∂t
Now = 2
e = = 0.5 ; Stl = 0.6065
p 2t p 2t t t
For 10% change in the nominal value of t, the change in root location
is given by,
∂t
D(l k ) = Stl = 0.06065
t
0.368 z + 0.264 1 + 0.5w
4.9 Gh0G(z) = ; T = 1 sec; z =
z 2 - 1.368z + 0.368 1 - 0.5w
-0.0381( w - 2 )( w + 12.14 )
Gh0G(w) =
w( w + 0.924)

FH1 - j g IK FH1 + j g IK
2 12.14
Gh0 G( jg) =
F
H 0.924 K
jg 1 + j
g I

## From the Bode plot and Nichols chart, we obtain,

fM = 28º; GM = 8 dB; wb = 1.35 rad/sec; gb = 1.6 rad/sec
1
4.10 G(s) = ; T = 0.1 sec
s( s + 2 )
( z + 0.9355) 1 + 0.05w
Gh0G(z) = 0.004683 ;z=
( z - 1)( z - 0.8187) 1 - 0.05w
30 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## (1 + 0.001666 w )(1 - 0.05w )

Gh0G(w) = 0.5
w (1 + 0.5016 w )
(a) lim wGh0G(w) = Kv = 0.5K; K = 10
wÆ0

## 5(1 + 0.001666 w )(1 - 0.05w )

Gh0G(w) =
w (1 + 0.5016 w )
Bode plot analysis: f M = 30º (crossover at 2.6 rad/sec)
w
1+
(b) Phase lead design: D(w) = 1.994
w
1+
12.5
(obtained by standard design procedure),
fM = 55º, Kv = 5, GM = 12.4 dB
K (1 + t w )
(c) D(w) = ; Kv = 5
(1 + bt w )

wÆ0

## 5(1 + 0.001666 w )(1 - 0.05w )

The Bode plot of G(w) =
w (1 + 0.5016 w )
(uncompensated system; K = 10 has been used in the plant model)
gives f M = 30º
Required phase margin = 55º + 15º (error compensation).
Crossover frequency wc2 = 0.7
1+ t w 1 w
D(w) = ; = c22 = 0.18; t = 5.71
1 + bt w t ( 2)
Corresponding gain = 20 log10 b = 17; b = 7.0;
0.14( w + 0.18)
D(w) =
( w + 0.02 )
2 z -1 0.141( z - 0.98)
w= gives, D(z) =
T z +1 ( z - 0.998)
(d) From Nichols chart we find that bandwidth values gb for three designs
corresponding to parts (a), (b) and (c) are respectively 4.8 rad/sec,
(e) Reasonable sampling rates are 10 to 30 times the bandwidth.
2p
ws = = 62.83.
T
SOLUTION MANUAL 31

1 0.005( z + 1)
4.11 G(s) = , T = 0.1, Gh0G(z) =
s2 ( z - 1) 2
1 + 0.05w 1 - 0.05w 1 - j 0.05g
z= ; Gh0G(w) = ; Gh0G( jg) =
1 - 0.05w w 2
( jg ) 2
Bode plot analysis:
f M = – 2 deg.
In the low frequency range, – Gh0G( jg) is about –180 º. Therefore, a lag
compensator cannot fulfil the requirement of 50º phase margin.
( w + 1)
The lead compensator D(w) = 64 satisfies the requirements.
( w + 16)
The gain crossover frequency = 4
f M = 50.62º, GM = 13 dB, Kv = •, Ka = 4.
4.12 (a) K = 50
0.0043K ( z + 0.85)
Gh0G(z) = ;
( z - 1)( z - 0.61)

FH
10 1 -
w IK FH1 + w IK
20 246.67
Gh0G(w) =
F
H 4.84 K
w 1+
w I

## Bode plot/Nichols chart analysis:

Gain crossover frequency = 6.6 rad/sec.
f M = 20º, gb = 10 rad/sec, wb = 9.27 rad/sec.
0.219w + 1
(b) Lead compensator D(w) = results in gb = 18 rad/sec,
0.06 w + 1
wb = 14.65 rad/sec.
1.6 w + 1
Lag compensator D(w) = results in gb = 5 rad/sec,
6.4 w + 1
wb = 4.9 rad/sec.
(c) For partial compensation, we design lag section by selecting a cross
over frequency of 3.2 rad/sec. The uncompensated plot has to be
brought down by 9 dB.
20 log b = 9; b @ 3
1 3.2
= 2 = 0.8
t 2
1.25w + 1
D1(w) = results in f M = 54º, gb = 4.3.
3.75w + 1
1
We constrain the lead section design by taking a = = 0.333. The
b
lag compensated system has a dB of
32 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

1
– 10 log = – 4.77 at 4 rad/sec.
a
1 1
= 4 a = 2.3; = 6.92
t at
0.4347 w + 1
D2(w) =
0.144 w + 1
Lag-lead compensator results in f M = 60º, g b = 8, wb = 7.61 rad/sec.

## (d) D1(z) = 0.342 FH z - 0.923 IK ; D (z) = 2.49 FH z - 0.793 IK

2
z - 0 .973 z - 0.484
Refer Figs 3.19–3.22 for realization schemes.
4.13 (a)

1 49
Kp = 0.8K; = 0.02; K = 61.25; G(s) =
1 + 0.8 K 3s + 1
7.5215
(b) Gh0G(z) =
z - 0.8465
Closed-loop pole: z + 6.675 = 0
The system is unstable.
49(1 - w / 4)
(c) Gh0G(w) =
(1 + 3w )
1+ w
Lag compensator D(w) = satisfies the requirements.
1 + 10 w

## w=4 FH z - 1 IK ; D(z) = 0.122 FH z - 0.6 IK

z +1 z - 0.951
(d) Lead compensation will increase the gain. Since gain is to be reduced
to stabilize the system, lead compensation cannot be employed.
4.14 (a) Refer Example 4.5.
K ( z - 0.9048)
(b) Gh0G(z) =
( z - 1) 2
Sketch a root locus plot; complex roots lie on a circle. Using magni-
tude condition, we obtain the value of K at the closed-loop pole
z = – 1. It is 2.1. Therefore, the system is stable for 0 < K < 2.1. There
is a double pole at z = 0.81. The value of K at this point is obtained as
0.38.
K [( T - 1 + e - T ) z -1 + (1 - e - T - Te - T ) z -2 ]
4.15 Gh0G(z) =
(1 - z -1 )(1 - e - T z -1 )
SOLUTION MANUAL 33

(i) T = 1 sec,

0.3679 K ( z + 0.7181)
Gh0G(z) =
( z - 1)( z - 0.3679)
The root locus is a circle; the breakaway points are at z = 0.6479 and
z = – 2.0841.
At the point of intersection of the root locus with unit circle, we find
by magnitude condition, K = 2.3925. This gain results in marginal
stability.

11353
. K ( z + 0.5232)
(ii) T = 2 sec, Gh0G(z) =
( z - 1)( z - 0.1353)
Breakaway points are at z = 0.4783, – 1.5247; Critical gain
K = 1.4557.

3.0183K ( z + 0.3010 )
(iii) T = 4 sec, Gh0G(z) =
( z - 1)( z - 0.0183)
Breakaway points are at z = 0.3435, – 0.9455; Critical gain
K = 0.9653. The smaller the sampling period, the larger the critical
gain for stability.
K ( z + 0.717)
4.16 Gh0G(z) =
( z - 1)( z - 0.368)
The root locus is a circle with breakaway point at z = 0.648, – 2.08.
(a) At the point of intersection with the unit circle, K = 0.88 and
z1,2 = 0.244 ± j0.97 = 1 – 1.33 rad
= e jwT; w = 1.33 rad/sec.
(b) The value of K at this point is 0.072.
e–T/t = 0.648, t = 2.3 sec.
(c) At the point of intersection of the root locus with z = 0.5 locus, we get
K = 0.18. The line through intersection point makes an angle of 32º
with real axis. Therefore

## wnT 1 - z 2 = 32º = 0.558 rad; wn = 0.644 rad/sec

0 .2 A( z - 0.5) K ( z - 0.5)
4.17 z2 + 0.2Az – 0.1A = 0; 1 + 2
= 0; Gh0G(z) = ;
z z2
= K = 0.2 A
The root locus is a circle. At the point of intersection with unit circle, we
find by magnitude criterion, K = 0.666. Therefore, A = 3.33.
34 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

1
4.18 G(s) = ; T = 0.1
s +1
PT 0.091K
H(s) = = 0.9554; Gh0GH(z) =
2p z - 0.9048
The root locus is a circle.
(a) 1 + Gh0GH(z) = 0; z – 0.9048 + 0.091K = 0
For K = 1, z – 0.8138 = 0
T
e–T/t = 0.8138; = 0.206; t = 0.4854 sec
t
0.4854
(b) Required time-constant = = 0.12136
4
e–T/0.12136 = 0.43867; 0.091K = 0.46613; K = 5.1223

0.01873 K ( z + 0.9356)
4.19 Gh0G(z) =
( z - 1)( z - 0.8187)

## (a) z = 0.5; wn = 4.5; z = e -zw nT – wnT(1 – z 2)

This gives z1,2 = 0.6354 – ± 45º = 0.4493 ± j0.4493.
Angle deficiency at point P corresponding to z1 is – 72.25 deg. We
choose the zero of the controller to cancel the pole at z = 0.8187.
Then the pole of the controller is determined to satisfy the angle con-
dition at P. This gives
z - 0.8187
D(z) = ; |D(z)Gh0G(z)| = 1, requires K = 13.934
z - 0.1595
13.934( z - 0.8187)
D1(z) =
( z - 0.1595)
1
(b) Kv = lim (z – 1) D(z) Gh0G(z) = 3.
T zÆ1
z - b1 1 - b1
(c) D2(z) = ; =3
z - b2 1- b2
z - 0.94
Let, b2 = 0.98, then b1 = 0.94; D2(z) =
z - 0.98
From the root locus plots of 1 + D1(z) Gh0G(z) = 0 and
1 + D2(z) Gh0G(z) = 0, it is seen that lag compensator decreases the
margin of stability.
(d) Refer Figs 3.19 – 3.22 for realization of D2(z) D1(z).
SOLUTION MANUAL 35

0.2 K ( z + 0.368)
4.20 Gh0G(z) =
( z - 0.368)( z - 0.315)
The root locus of the uncompensated system is a circle. At point P corre-
sponding to the intersection of root locus with z = 0.5 locus, we get
0.2 K = 0.3823 or K = 1.91.
At this point,
wn = 1.65, Kp = 0.957.
We will use lag compensator. Kp is to be increased by a factor of

7.5 z - b1 1 - b 1
= 7.837; D(z) = ; = 7.837
0.957 z - b2 1- b2
Let, b2 = 0.98, then b1 = 0.84
wn is slightly decreased with lag compensator (as seen from root-locus
plot of the lag-compensated system), which is acceptable.

T2 z +1
4.21 Gh0G(z) = K ; T = 1 sec
2 ( z - 1) 2

## z = 0.7, wn = 0.3, z = e -zw nT – wnT(1 – z 2)

This gives z1,2 = 0.78 ± j0.18
Place a compensator zero at 0.8.
Angle criterion gives compensator pole location as z = 0. Magnitude crite-
rion gives K/2 = 0.18.
0.36 z + 1 z - 0.8
Gh0G(z) D(z) = ;
2 ( z -1) 2 z

1
Ka = lim (z – 1)2 Gh0G(z) D(z) = 0.072
T 2 z®1
Corresponding to K/2 = 0.18, we find from the root locus that third pole is
located at z = 0.2. It slows down the response.

## 40e-s /120 1 0.00133( z + 0.75)

4.22 G(s) = ;T= sec; Gh0G(z) =
+
s ( s 40 ) 120 z ( z -1)( z - 0.72 )
The closed-loop poles are required to lie inside the circle of radius 0.56.
Let us try a lead compensator. Cancel the pole at z = 0.72 by zero of D(z).
By angle criterion, at a point on circle of radius 0.56, the pole of D(z) is
found at z = – 0.4. The magnitude criterion at the point of intersection of
the root locus with the circle of radius 0.56 gives K = 0.2.
0.2( z - 0.72 ) ( z - 0.72 )
Therefore, D(z) = = 150
0.00133( z + 0.4) ( z + 0.4)
36 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

The third pole corresponding to K = 0.2 lies inside the circle of radius
0.56.
0.2( z + 0.75)
Gh0G(z) D(z) =
z( z -1)( z + 0.4)

z®1

## 4.23 (a) Refer Examples 4.9–4.10.

1 0.0048( z + 0.9833)
(b) G(s) = ; T = 0.1 sec; Gh0G(z) =
s( s + 1) ( z -1)( z - 0.9048)
We select an M(z) that has pole excess of at least equal to that of
Gh0G(z), and unstable (or critically stable) poles of Gh0G(z) are in-
cluded in 1–M(z) as zeros. M(z) = z–1 satisfies these requirements.

LM OP = 208.33 L z - 0.9048 O
NM z + 0.9833 QP
1 M( z)
D(z) =
N
Gh 0 G( z ) 1 - M ( z ) Q
1
4.24 G(s) = ; T = 0.1 sec
s( s + 1)

2p -zw T
(a) z = 0.8, wn = ; z = e n – wnT 1 - z 2
10 T
This gives z1,2 = 0.55 ± j0.22

( T - 1 + e - T )( z + a) 1 - e - T - Te - T
Gh0G(z) = ; a =
( z - 1)( z - e - T ) T - 1 + e-T

( z + 0.9833)
= 4.8 × 10–3
( z - 1)( z - 0.9048)
D(z) = z2 – 1.1z + 0.3509
We select an M(z) that has pole excess of at least equal to that of
Gh0G(z), unstable poles of Gh0G(z) are included in 1 – M(z) as zeros,
and satisfies transient accuracy requirements.
z -a
1 – M(z) = (z – 1) F(z); F(z) =
z - 1.1z + 0 . 3509
2

## E(z) = R(z) [1 – M(z)]

e*ss(unit-step) = lim (z – 1) E(z) = 0
z ®1

Tz 1
e*ss(unit-ramp) = lim (z – 1) 2 (z – 1) F(z) = TF(1) =
z ®1 ( z - 1) Kv
SOLUTION MANUAL 37

Kv = 5, T = 0.1: F(1) = 2
1-=
F(1) =
1 - 1.1 + 0 . 3509
= = 0.7491 satisfies steady-state accuracy requirements.
( 0 . 6491z - 0 . 3982 )
M(z) =
z 2 - 1.1z + 0 . 3509
1 LM
M( z) OP
D(z) =
N
Gh 0 G( z ) 1 - M ( z ) Q
( z - 0 .9048) ( z - 0.6135)
= 135.227
( z + 0.9833) ( z - 0.7491)
(b) y(k) = 0, 0.5, 1, 1, K
Y(z) = 0.5z –1 + z –2 + z –3 + L
Y ( z)
= (0.5z –1 + z –2 + z –3 + L) (1 – z –1)
R ( z)
( z + 0.9833)
M(z) = (0.5z–1 + 0.5z–2); Gh0G(z) = 4.8 × 10–3
( z - 1) ( z - 0.9048)
( z - 0.9048) ( z + 1)
D(z) = 104.17
( z + 0.9833) ( z + 0 . 5)
E(z) = R(z) [1 – M(z)]
ess = lim (z – 1) E(z) = 0.15.
z ®1

1 0 .18
4.25 G(s) = ; T = 2 sec; Gh0G(z) =
10 s + 1 z - 0 . 82
1 1
y(t) = 1 – e–t; Y(s) = -
s s +1
z z 0 . 86 z
Y(z) = - = ;
z - 1 z - 0 .14 ( z - 1) ( z - 0 .14)
Y (z) 0 . 86
M(z) = =
R(z) z - 0 .14
1 LM M( z) OP
4 . 8 - 3 . 9 z -1
D(z) =
N
Gh 0 G( z ) 1 - M ( z )
=
Q 1 - z-1

## 4.26 Parallel to Review Example 4.3.

Result:
u(k) = 10e(k) – 6e(k – 1) – 0.75u (k – 1)
U(z) = 10E(z) – 6z–1 E(z) – 0.75z–1 U(z)
38 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

U(z) 10 - 6 z-1
= D(z) =
E( z ) 1 + 0 . 75 z-1

2
4.27 G(s) = ; T = 1 sec
( s + 1) (s + 2 )

( z + 0 . 368) 1
Gh0G (z) = 0.4 ; R (z) =
( z - 0 . 368) ( z - 0 .135) 1 - z-1
M(z) may be chosen as z–1; but, as can be examined, the response will
exhibit intersample ripples. We therefore take,
M(z) = =1z–1 + = 2 z–2
E(z) = R(z) [1 – M(z)]
lim (z – 1) R(z) [1 – M(z)] = 0 gives = 1 + = 2 = 1
z ®1

## For no intersample ripples, we require (refer Eqn. (4.81))

U(z) = u(0) + u(1)z–1 + u(2) [z–2 + z–3 + L]
Dividing U(z) by R(z),
U(z)
= u(0) + [u(1) – u(0)]z–1 + [u(2) – u(1)]z–2 = >0 + >1z–1 + >2z–2
R( z )

=1 -1 =2 -2
z + z
Y (z) Y ( z ) / R( z ) >0 >0
Gh0G(z) = = =
U(z) U ( z ) / R( z ) > >
1 + 1 z-1 + 2 z-2
>0 >0

0 . 4 z - 1 + 0 .1472 z - 2
=
1 - 0 . 503z - 1 + 0 . 04968z - 2
Comparing the coefficients, we get
a1 = 0.731, a2 = 0.269,
>0 = 1.8275, >1 = – 0.919, >2 = 0.09

1 LMM (z ) OP
U ( z ) / R( z )
D(z) =
N
Gh 0 G( z ) 1- M ( z )
=
Q
1-Y ( z ) / R( z )

## 1.8275- 0.919 z-1 + 0.09 z-2

=
1 - 0.731z-1 - 0.269 z -2

1
4.28 G(s) = s (s + 1) ; T = 1 sec
SOLUTION MANUAL 39

## 0.3679 z -1 + 0.2642 z -2 –1 –2 Y (z)

Gh0G(z) = -1 -2 ; M(z) = a1z + a2z =
1 - 1. 3679 z + 0 . 3679 z R( z )
U(z) = u(0) + u(1)z–1 + u(2) [z–2 + z–3 + L]
1 U ( z)
R(z) = ; = b0 + b1z–1 + b2z–2
1 - z -1 R( z )

=1 -1 =2 -2
z + z
Y ( z ) / R( z ) >0 >0
Gh0G(z) = =
U ( z ) / R( z ) > >
1 + 1 z-1 + 2 z-2
>0 >0
a1 + a2 = 1
Comparing the coefficients of Gh0G(z), we get
a1 = 0.582, a2 = 0.418; M(z) = 0.582z–1 + 0.418z–2

## 1 LMM(z) OP U ( z ) / R( z ) 1.582 - 0 .582 z - 1

D(z) =
N
Gh 0 G( z ) 1- M ( z )
=
Q1-Y ( z ) / R( z )
=
1 + 0 . 418 z - 1
Output sequence,
Y ( z) 1
= 0.582z–1 + 0.418z–2; R(z) =
R( z ) 1 - z -1
y(k) = 0, 0.582, 1, 1, º

-2
e- 5s 0 . 3935z
4.29 G(s) = ; T = 5 sec; Gh0G(z) =
10 s + 1 1 - 0 . 6065z - 1
y(0) = 0, y(1) = 0, y(2) = 1.582(1 – e–0.5) = 0.6225
y(k) = 1; k ≥ 3
1
Y(z) = 0.6225z–2 + z–3 + z– 4 + L = 0.6225z–2 + z–3
1 - z -1

Y ( z)
= M(z) = 0.6225z–2 + 0.3775z–3
Rz( )

## Pole excess of M(z) = 2 = pole excess of Gh0G(z)

1 LMM (z ) OP 1 - 0 . 3678z - 2
D(z) =
N
Gh 0 G( z ) 1- M ( z ) Q
= 1.582
1 - 0 . 6225z - 2 - 0 . 3775z - 3

Y ( z ) / R( z ) c
1 - 0 . 3678 z - 2 h
U(z) =
Gh 0 G( z ) / R( z )
= 1.582
c
1 - z -1 h
40 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## = 1.582 + 1.582z–1 + z–2 + z–3 + L

Since u(k) is constant for k ≥ 2, there are no intersample ripples in the
output of the system after the settling time is reached.

0 . 3935z - 2
4.30 Gh0G(z) =
1 - 0 . 6065z - 1

## Pole excess = 2; second-order model.

Y ( z)
= a2z–2
R( z )
U ( z)
= u(0) + [u(1) – u(0)]z–1 + [u(2) – u(1)]z–2 = b0 + b1z–1 + b2z–2
R( z )

a 2 -2
z
Y ( z ) / R( z ) b0
= = Gh0G(z)
U ( z ) / R( z ) b b
1 + 1 z -1 + 2 z - 2
b0 b0

## From the steady-state error requirement, a2 = 1. This gives

b0 = 2.541, b1 = – 1.541, b2 = 0

1 LM M(z)OP = U z / R z
( ) ( )
D(z) =
N Q 1-Y z / R z
Gh 0 G( z ) 1 - M ( z ) ( ) ( )

c1 - 0 . 6065z h -1
= 2.541
c1- z hc1 + z h
-1 -1

It is physically realizable.

1
Y(z) = z–2 = z–2 + z–3 + z–4 + L
1 - z -1

y(k) = 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, K
u(0) = b0 = 2.541
u(1) = b1 + u(0) = 1, u(2) = b2 + u(1) = 1
u(k) = 2.541, 1, 1, 1 K
CHAPTER 5 CONTROL SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING STATE
VARIABLE METHODS

5.1

## Je = n2J = 0.4 ; Be = n2B = 0.01

x&1 = x2 ; 0.4 x& 2 + 0.01x2 = 1.2 x3

## 0.1 x& 3 + 19x3 = 100 x4 – 1.2x2 ; 5 x& 4 + 21x4 = 4

or x& = Ax + bu

LM0 1 0 0 0 OP LM OP
A = MM00 - 0.025 3 0
;b=
0
PP MM PP
MN0 -12
0
-190 1000
0 - 4.2
0
0.2
PQ MN PQ
y = qL = nx1 = 0.5 x1
5.2

u 1 if 1 q 1 q
KA KT
sLf + Rf + 1 x3 Js + B x2 s x1

## 20 x& 3 + 100x3 = 50u ; y = x1

LM0 1 0 OP 0 LM OP
A =
MM00 PP MM
-1 20 ; b = 0 ; c = [1
PP 0 0]
N 0 -5 Q 2.5 N Q
42 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

5.3 x1 = qM ; x2 = q& M , x3 = ia ; y = qL

x&1 = x2

2 x& 2 + x2 = 38 x3

## 2 x& 3 + 21x3 = ea – 0.5 x2

k
e a = k1(qR – qL) – k2 q& M = k1qR – 1 x1 – k2x2
20

LM 0 OP L 0 O
M P
A= M 0 19 P ; b = M 0 P ; c = LM OP
1 0
1
MM k - 0.5
P MM k PP N 0 0
Q
- P
( k + 0.5) 20
MN- 40 2 PQ
21
N2Q
1
1
- 2
2

5.4 x1 = w ; x2 = ia
Jw& + Bw = KT ia

dia
Raia + La = ea – Kbw
dt
e a = Kcec = Kc [k1 (er – Kt w) – k2 ia}

LM - B KT OP
A = MM -(k K KJ + K ) J
-( Ra + k2 Kc ) ; PP
MN L PQ
1 t c b
a La

LM k 0K OP
b =
MN L PQ ; c = [1 0]
1
a
c

P AP = M
L-11 6OP
N-15 8Q
–1
5.5 A =

L1 O
P b = M P ; c = cP = [2
N2 Q
–1
b = –1]

Y (s ) PD s -2 1
= 1 1 = -1 -2
= 2
U ( s) D 1 - ( -3s - 2s ) s + 3s + 2
SOLUTION MANUAL 43

1 s –1 X2 1 s –1
U X1 = Y

–3

–2

Y (s ) P D + P2 D 2 + P3 D 3 + P4 D 4
= 1 1
U ( s) D
2 s -1 (1 - 8 s -1 ) + 15 s -2 (1) + ( -2 s -1 ) (1 + 11s -1 ) + 2 s -1 ( 6 s -1 ) 2 (1)
=
1 - [ -11s -1 + 8 s -1 + ( -15 s -1 )( 6 s -1 )] + [( -11s -1 )( 8 s -1 )]
1
=
s 2 + 3s + 2

s –1 X1

1 2

–11 –15
U Y

6
2 –1
X2
s –1
8

## LM0 1OP ; b = LM0OP

5.6 A=
N0 0 Q N1 Q
A = P AP = M
L 1 1 OP ; b = P LM0OP
N–1 –1Q N1 Q
–1 –1
b=

|lI – A| = |lI – A | = l2
5.7 X(s) = (sI – A)–1 x0 + (sI – A)–1 b U(s)
= G(s)x0 + H(s) U(s)

LMs(s + 3) s+3 1 OP 1 LM OP
MM --1s PP MM PP
1 1
G(s) = s( s + 3) s ; H(s) = s
D D 2
N -1 s 2
Q s N Q
D = s3 + 3s2 + 1
44 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

5.8

5.9 Taking outputs of integrators as state variables, we get (x1 being the
output of rightmost integrator),
x&1 = x 2

x& 2 = – 2x2 + x3

x& 3 = – x3 – x2 – y + u
y = 2x1 – 2x2 + x3

LM 0 1 0 OP
0 LM OP
A =
MM-02 PP
-2 1 ; b = 0 ; c = [2
MM PP –2 1]
N 1 -2 1Q NQ
5.10 Taking outputs of integrators as state variables (x1 and x2 are outputs of
top two integrators from left to right; x3 and x4 are corresponding vari-
ables for other integrators):
x&1 = – 4x4 + 3u1; x& 2 = x1 – 3x2 + u1 + 2u2;
x& 3 = – x2 + 3u2; x& 4 = – 4x4 + x3;

LM0 0 0 -4 OP LM3 0 OP
A= M
1 -3 0 0
PP MM10 2
PP
0 1 0 0 LM OP
MM0 -1 0 0
;B=
PQ MN0 3
;C=
PQ
0 0 0 1 N Q
N0 0 1 -4 0

## 5.11 (a) G(s) = c (sI – A)–1 b

s+3
=
( s + 1)(s + 2)
SOLUTION MANUAL 45

1
(b) G(s) =
( s + 1)(s + 2)
5.12 a1 = – tr (A) = – 4

LM-2 -1 0 OP
MM -1 0 -3PP
1
Q = A + a I = 1 -3 2 ; a
2 1 2 =– tr(AQ2) = 6
N Q 2

LM 1 1 - 2OP
3 2 MM 1 1 3 PP
Q = AQ + a I = -3 2 - 4 ;
2

N Q
1
a3 = – tr(AQ3) = – 5
3
As a numerical check, we see that the condition: 0 = AQ3 + a3I is satis-
fied. Therefore, D(s) = s3 – 4s2 + 6s – 5.
(sI – A)+ = Q1s2 + Q2s + Q3 = Q(s)

CQ( s )B 1 LM
-3s + 5 4( s - 3) OP
G(s) =
D( s)
=
N
D( s) - s + 2s 2( s 2 - 3s + 1)
2
Q
5.13 x&1 = – 3x1 + 2x2 + [– 2x1 – 1.5x2 – 3.5x3]

x& 3 = x2 – r

## LM-5 0.5 -3.5 OP 0 LM OP

A =
MM 40 -5
PP MM
0 ; b = 0 ; c = [0
PP 1 0]
N 1 0 Q -1 N Q
14
G(s) = c(sI – A)–1 b =
( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 7)
5.14 (a) x 1 = output of lag 1/(s + 2)
x 2 = output of lag 1/(s + 1)
x&1 + 2x1 = x2 ; x& 2 + x2 = – x1 + u
y = x2 + (– x1 + u)

## LM-2 1 OP ; b = LM0OP ; c = [–1

A =
N -1 -1Q N1Q 1]; d = 1
46 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## (b) x 1 = output of lag 1/(s + 2)

x 2 = output of lag 1/s
x 3 = output of lag 1/(s + 1)
x&1 + 2x1 = y ; x& 2 = – x1 + u

x& 3 + x3 = – x1 + u ; y = x2 + x3

LM-2 1 1 OP
0 LM OP
A =
MM --11 PP
0 0 ; b = 1 ; c = [0 1
MM PP 1]
N 0 -1 1Q NQ
5.15 Taking outputs of pseudo-integrators as state variables (x1, x2, x3, x4: from
top to bottom):
x&1 + x1 = u1; x& 2 + 5x2 = 5u2; x& 3 + 0.5x3 = 0.4u1; x& 4 + 2x4 = 4u2
u1 = K1r1 – K1y1; u2 = K2r2 – K2y2
y1 = x1 + x2; y2 = x3 + x4
Writing the state equations we get,
x& = Ax + Bu

LM-1 - K 1 - K1 0 0 OP
A= M PP ;
0 -5 -5 K 2 -5 K 2
MM -0.4 K -0.4 K1 -0.5
-2 - 4 K PQ
0
N 0
1
0 -4 K 2 2

LM K 0 OP
LM OP
1

B= M
0
MM0.4K
5K 2
PP 1 1 0 0
1 0
;C=
PQ 0 0 1 1 N Q
N 0 4K 2

Y (s ) s+3 2 –1
5.16 (i) = = +
U ( s) ( s + 1)(s + 2) s+1 s+ 2

L =
LM-1 0 OP ; b = LM1OP ; c = [2
N 0 -2Q N1Q –1]
SOLUTION MANUAL 47

u + x1
2
+

+ y
–1
+

+ x2
–1
+

–2

Y (s ) b3 5
(ii) = 3 = 3
U ( s ) s + a 1s + a 2 s + a 3
2
s + 4 s + 5s + 2
2

From Eqns (5.56), the second companion form of the state model is given
below.

LM0 0 -2 OP 5 LM OP
A =
MM10 PP
0 -5 ; b = 0 ; c = [0
MM PP 0 1]
N 1 -4 Q 0 NQ
+ x1 + x2 + x3 = y
u 5 2
– – –

2 5 4

Y (s ) b s 3 + b 1s 2 + b 2 s + b 3 s 3 + 8s 2 + 17s + 8
(iii) = 03 =
U ( s) s + a 1s 2 + a 2 s + a 3 s 3 + 6s 2 + 11s + 6

From Eqns (5.54), the state model in second companion form is given
below.
48 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

LM 0 1 0 0 OP LM OP
A =
MM-06 0
PP
1 ; b = 0 ; c = [2
MM PP 6 2]
N -11 -6 1 Q NQ
+ + + y

+ + +

1 8 17 8

u +

z x3
z x2
z x1

6 11 6
+ +
+ +

Y (s ) s +1 b 2s + b 3
5.17 (i) = 3 = 3
U ( s) s + 3s + 2s s + a 1s 2 + a 2 s + a 3
2

## From Eqns (5.56):

LM0 0 0 1 OP LM OP
A
MM0
= 1
PP
0 -2 ; b = 1 ; c = [0
MM PP 0 1]
N 1 -3 0 Q NQ
Y (s ) 1 b3
(ii) = 3 = 3
U ( s) s + 6 s + 11s + 6
2
s + a 1s + a 2 s + a 3
2

## From Eqns (5.54):

LM 0 1 0OP LM0OP
A =
MM-06 0 1
- 6 PQ
P MM1PP
; b = 0 ; c = [1 0 0]
N - 11 NQ
Y ( s) s 3 + 8s 2 + 17s + 8 -1 2 1
(iii) = 3 = 1+ + +
U ( s) s + 6s 2 + 11s + 6 s +1 s + 2 s + 3
SOLUTION MANUAL 49

LM-1 0 0 OP 1 LM OP
L =
MM 00 PP
-2 0 ; b = 1 ; c = [–1 2
MM PP 1] ; d = 1
N 0 -3 Q1 NQ
Y (s ) 1000 s + 5000 b 2s + b 3
5.18 (a) = 3 = 3
U ( s) s + 52 s + 100 s
2
s + a 1s 2 + a 2 s + a 3

## From Eqns (5.54):

LM0 1 0 0 OP LM OP
A =
MM00 0
PP
1 ; b = 0 ; c = [5000
MM PP 1000 0]
N -100 -52 1 Q NQ
Y ( s) 1000s + 5000 50 -31.25 -18.75
(b) = 3 = + +
U ( s) s + 52 s + 100 s
2
s s+2 s + 50

LM0 0 0 OP50 LM OP
L =
MM00 PP
-2 0 ; b = -31.25 ; c = [1
MM PP 1 1]
N 0 -50 Q
-18.75 N Q
Y (s ) 2s 2 + 6s + 5 1 1 1
5.19 = = + +
U ( s) ( s + 1) 2 ( s + 2) ( s + 1) 2 s + 1 s + 2

## From Eqns (5.65):

LM-1 1 0 OP 0 LM OP
L =
MM 00 PP
-1 0 ; b = 1 ; c = [1
MM PP 1 1]
N 0 -2 Q1 NQ
z
t
x(t) = eL (t – t) bu(t)dt
0

LMe -t
te -t 0 OP
e Lt
–L
= L –1
[(sI – L) –1
]= M 0 e -t 0 PP
MN 0 0 e -2 t Q
50 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

LM OP
z
t
(t - t )e -(t - t ) dt
MM PP L1 - e - te OP
z PP = MM1 - e
-t -t

z
0
t
L ( t -t ) MM t
- (t - t ) -t
PP
PP MMN 12 (1 - e )
e bu(t ) dt = e dt
MM -2t
PQ
z
0 0

MM PP
t
e -2( t - t ) dt
N 0 Q
y = x1 + x2 + x3 = 2.5 – 2e–t – te–t – 0.5 e–2t

1 1

x2 + x1
u 1 +
+ –

–1 –1

+y

x3 +
+
1
+

–2

5.20 (i) A=
N0 2 Q
l1 = 1; l2 = 2

LMl - 2 OP 1
adj(lI – A) =
N 0 l - 1Q

## L-1 1OP ; v = LM1OP

= 1: adj(l I – A) = M
For l1
N 0 0 Q N0 Q
1 1

L0 1OP ; v = LM1OP
= 2; adj(l I – A) = M
For l2
N0 1Q N1Q
1 2
SOLUTION MANUAL 51

## LM-3 2OP ; |lI – A| = l + 3l + 2

N-1 0Q
2
(ii) A =

L1O L2O
l = – 1, l = – 2; v = M P , v = M P
1 2
N1Q N1Q 1 2

LM 0 1 0 OP
(iii) A= 3
MM-12 -07 -26PP ; |lI – A| = (l + 1) (l + 2) (l + 3) = 0
N Q
l1 = – 1, l2 = – 2, l3 = – 3
(l1I – A)v1 = 0 gives

## LM-1 -1 0 OP LMn OP L0O

PP = MMM0PPP
11

MM12-3 -1 -2
PP MMnn 12

N 7 5 QN 13 Q N0 Q
v1 = [1 –1 – 1]T
(l2I – A)v2 = 0 gives
v2 = [1 – 2 1/2]T
(l3I – A)v3 = 0 gives
v3 = [1 –3 3]T
5.21 (a)
LM 0 1 0 . . . 0 OP
MM 0. 0 1 . . . 0
PP
A= M PP
. . . . . .
MM . . . . . . .
PP
MMN-a0 n
0
-a n -1
0
.
.
.
. .
. -a 2
1
-a 1 PQ
LM l i -1 0 . . . 0OP
MM 0. li -1 0 . . 0
PP
(l I – A) = M PP
i
MM .
-1 P
MMa0 0 . . . li
l + a PQ
P
N n a n -1 . . . a2 i i
52 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## vi = [ck1 ck2 . . ckn]T; the cofactors of the k th row.

Let k = n
cn1 = (– 1)n+1 [determinant of (n – 1) × (n – 1) matrix obtained by
deleting last row and first column] = (– 1)n+1 [(– 1)n–1] = 1
cn2 = (– 1)n+2 [determinant obtained by deleting last row and second
column] = (– 1)n+2 [li(– 1)n–2] = li
cn3 = (– 1)n+3 [l2i (– 1)n–3] = l2i
.
.
.

cnn = ln-1
i

LM 1 1 . . . 1 OP
M
P= M l
l 1 l2 . . . ln
PP
MM . PP
2
1 l22 . . . l2n
. . . . .
MNl n -1
1 ln2-1 n -1
. . . ln PQ
(b)

LM 0 1 0 OP
MM-24
A= 0 0
P
1 ; |lI – A| = 0
-9 PQ
yields: l1 = –2, l2 = –3, l3 = – 4
N - 26

LM
1 1 1 OP
MM
P = -2 -3 -4 = [v1 v2 v3]
PP
4 N
9 16 Q
LM 0 1 0 OP
5.22 (a)
MM-2
A= 0 0 1
PP
N -4 -3 Q
The characteristic equation is,
l3 + 3l2 + 4l + 2 = 0
l1 = – 1 + j1, l2 = – 1 – j1, l3 = – 1.
SOLUTION MANUAL 53

LM 1 1 1 OP
MM - j2
P = -1 + j1 -1 - j1 -1 ;
PP
N j2 1 Q
LM-1 + j1 0 0 OP
P AP = L =
–1
MM 00 -1 0- j1 -01PP
N Q
LM 1/ 2 - j1/ 2 0OP LM-1 1 0 OP
MM 0 j10/ 2 10PP ; Q LQ = MM-01 -01
(b) Q = 1/ 2 –1
0
PP
N Q N -1 Q
5.23 A = M
L-4 3OP ; |lI – A| = (l + 1) (l – 2) = 0
N-6 5Q
adj(lI – A) = M
Ll - 5 3 OP ;
N -6 l + 4 Q
l = – 1, adj(l I – A) = M
L-6 3OP ; v = LM1OP
1
N-6 3Q N1Q
1 1

l = 2, adj(l I – A) = M
L-3 3OP ; v = LM1OP
2 2
N-6 6Q N2Q 2

P= M
L1 1OP ; J = P AP = LM-1 0OP
N1 2Q N 0 2Q
–1

e = Pe P = P M
At Jt Le 0 OP P = LM 2e - e
–1
-t
–1
-t 2t
-e - t + e 2t OP
N 0 e Q N2 e - 2 e -2 t -t 2t
- e - t + 2e 2 t Q
s+4 LM -3 OP
L0
A= M
-3 OP ( s + 1)( s + 3)
MM ( s + 1)( s + 3)
PP
5.24 (a)
N1 -4 Q
; (sI – A)–1 =
1
( s + 1)( s + 3) MN
s
( s + 1)( s + 3) PQ
LM 3 e -t 1
- e -3 t
-3 - t 3 -3 t
e + e OP
At
e = M2 2 2 2
PP
MN 12 e -t 1
- e -3 t
2
-1 - t 3 -3 t
2
e + e
2 Q
54 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

LM 3 e - 1 e e - e O
PP
-t 1 -3 t1 -t -3 t

(b) e =M2
At 2 2 2
e + e P
NM 2 e + 2 e
-3 3 -1 3
Q
-t -3 t -t -3 t
2 2

L 0 1 OP ; |lI – A| = l + 5l + 6 = 0; l
A= M
N-6 -5Q
2
5.25 (a) 1 = – 2, l2 = – 3

## g(l) = b0 + b1l; f(A) = eAt; f(l) = elt

f(li) = g(li) gives
e–2t = b0 – 2b 1; e–3t = b0 – 3b1
Solving we get,
b1 = e–2t – e–3t, b0 = 3e–2t – 2e–3t

## eAt = b0I + b1A =

LM 3e -2 t
- 2e -3t e -2 t - e -3 t OP
N-6e -2 t
+ 6 e -3 t -2e -2 t + 3e -3t Q
LM 0 2 OP ; f(A) = e
N-2 -4Q
At
(b) A = , l1 = l2 = – 2; g(l) = b0 + b1l

## f(l1) = g(l1) gives e–2t = b0 – 2b1

d d
f (l ) = g(l ) gives
dl l = -2
dl l = -2

b1 = te–2t, b0 = (1 + 2t)e–2t

eAt =
LM(1 + 2t )e -2 t
2te -2 t OP
N -2te -2 t
(1 - 2t )e -2 t Q
5.26
SOLUTION MANUAL 55

## LMG 11 ( s ) G12 ( s ) OP ; H(s) = LM H ( s) OP

1
G(s) =
NG 21 ( s ) G22 ( s )Q N H (s)Q
2

X1 ( s ) s -1 (1 + 2s -1 )
= G (s) =
1 - ( -2s -1 - 2 s -1 + s -2 ) + ( -2s -1 )(-2 s -1 )
11
x10

s -1 (1 + 2s -1 ) 1 / 2 1 / 2
= = +
D s +1 s + 3

X1 ( s) s -2 (1) 1 / 2 -1 / 2
= G 12 (s) = = +
x 20 D s +1 s + 3

X 2 (s) s -2 (1) 1 / 2 -1 / 2
= G21(s) = = +
x10 D s +1 s + 3

X 2 (s) s -1 (1 + 2s -1 ) 1 / 2 1 / 2
= G22(s) = = +
x 20 D s +1 s + 3

X1 ( s) s -2 (1) + s -1 (1 + 2s -1 ) 1
= H1(s) = =
U ( s) D s +1

X2 ( s) 1
= H2(s) =
U ( s) s +1
Zero-input response:
x(t) = eAt x0 = L –1
[G(s)x0]

LM
1 e - t + e -3t e - t - e -3t OP LMx OP
0
1

N Q Nx Q
=
2 e - t - e -3t e - t + e -3t 0
2

Zero-state response:

LM1 - e OP
z -t
t
e A (t -t ) bu(t ) dt = L –1 [H(s)U(s)] =
N1 - e Q
x(t) = -t
0

LM 0 1 0 0 OP LM OP
5.27
MM-6
A= 0 0
PP MM PP
1 ; b = 0 |lI – A| = (l + 1) (l + 2) (l + 3) = 0
N -11 -6 2 Q NQ
56 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

LM 1 OP L 1 1 1 O LM-1 OP
M P
1 1 0 0
P = Ml l P = -1 -2 -3 ; L = P AP = 0
MNl
1 l2
M
l PQ MN 1 4 9 PQ
3 P MM 0 –1
-2 0 ;
PP
2
1 l22 2
3 N 0 -3 Q
LM 1 OP
b = P–1
MM 1 PP
b = -2 ; c = cP = [1 1 1]
N Q
The state model in Jordan canonical form:
x& = L x + b u; y = c x
The transformed initial vector is:

LM 1 OP
MM 1 PP
0
x =P x –1 0
= -2
N Q
The solution is,

z
t

x1 (t ) = e –t
x10 + e - ( t -t ) dt = 1
0

z
t

## x 2 (t) = e–2t x 20 + e -2 ( t -t ) dt = – 1 – e–2t

0

z
t
1 2 –3t
x 3 (t) = e –3t
x 30 + e -3( t -t ) dt = + e
3 3
0

x(t) = P x (t)
1 2
x1(t) = – e–2t + e–3t; x2(t) = 2(e–2t – e–3t)
3 3
x3(t) = – 2(2e–2t – 3e–3t); y(t) = x1(t)

LM 0 1 OP ; eigenvalues are l
5.28 A =
N-2 -3Q 1 = – 1, l2 = – 2

## Y(s) = c(sI – A)–1 x0 + c(sI – A)–1 b U(s)

s+4 1
= +
( s + 1)( s + 2) s( s + 1)( s + 2)
SOLUTION MANUAL 57

3 2 1/ 2 1 1/ 2
= - + - +
s +1 s + 2 s s +1 s + 2
1 3
y(t) = + 2e - t - e -2 t
2 2
LM1 0OP LMs + 3 1OP LM2 1OP LM 1/ s OP
5.29 Y(s) = C(sI – A)–1 BU(s) =
N1 1Q N -2 sQ N0 1Q N 1/(s + 3)Q
LM 3s + 16s + 18 OP
2

= M s( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 3) P
MM 4s + 6 PP
N s(s + 2)(s + 3) Q
L y (t ) OP = LM3 - 25 e - e + 12 e OP
y(t) = M
-t -2 t -3 t

Ny (t)Q MN 1 + e - 2e PQ
1

2 -2 t -3 t

A =
N4 -5
;b=
0 Q
; c = [0
NQ 1]

## eAt = L –1 [(sI – A)–1]

LM 1 e -4t
+
2 -7t
e
0.5 -4t 0.5 -7t
e - e OP
= MM 34 e -4 t
3
4
- e -7t
3 3
2 -4 t 1 -7t PP
N3 3 3
e + e
3 Q
z LMN OP
t
4 -4 ( t -t ) 4 -7 ( t -t )
y(t) = x2(t) = 7
0
3
e - e
3
dt
Q
28 1 LM 1
(1 - e -4 t ) - (1 - e -7t ) OP
=
3 4 N 7 Q
eAt =
LMe + te
–t -t
te - t OP
N -te Q
5.31 -t
e - t - te - t

x(t) = e A ( t - t0 ) x ( t 0 )
Given: x1(2) = 2 ; t0 = 1, t = 2
58 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## Manipulation of the equation gives

x1(2) = 2e–1 x1(1) + e–1 x2(1) = 2
If x2(1) = 2k, then x1(1) = e1 – k
Thus

## LMe - k OP is a possible set of states L x (1) O for any k π 0

MN x (1)PQ
1
1

N 2k Q 2

LM 0 1 0 OP
5.32 (a) A = 3
MM-12 -07 -26PP
N Q
l1 = – 1, l2 = – 2, l3 = – 3
Modes: e–t, e–2t, e–3t
(b) Eigenvectors:

LM 1 OP LM 1 OP LM 1 OP LM 1 1 1 OP
v1
MM-1PP
= -1 ; v 2 MM1/ 2 PP
= -2 ; v
MM 3 PP MM-1
= -3 ; P = -1
3 -2 -3
PP
N Q N Q N Q N 1/ 2 3 Q
LM-1 0 0 OP
x = P x ; x& = P–1
MM 0 0 -3PP
AP x = 0 -2 0 x
N Q
x (0) = P–1 x(0)

LMe-t
OP L x (0)O
PP MMx (0)PP
0 0 1
x (t) = M 0 e -2 t
0
MN 0 Q MN x (0)PQ
2
0 e -3 t 3

## x1 (0) = x 2 (0) = 0. x 3 (0) = k π 0

With these initial conditions, only the mode corresponding to e–3t will
be excited.

LM0OP LM k OP
MMkPP MM 3k PP
x(0) = P x (0) = P 0 = -3k ; k π 0
NQ N Q
SOLUTION MANUAL 59

## 5.33 (a) x& =

LM0 1OP x; y = [1
N2 1Q 2]x

l1 = 2, l2 = –1.
Modes are e2t and e–t

LMl - 1 1 OP
N 2 lQ
(b) adj(lI – A) =

## LM1 1OP ; v = LM1OP

For l = 2, adj(lI – A) =
N2 2Q N2Q 1

## For l = –1, adj(lI – A) = M

L-2 1 OP ; v = LM 1 OP
N 2 -1Q N-1Q 2

P= M
L1 1 OP
N2 -1Q
x = P x gives

x& = P–1 AP x =
2 0 LM OP LM x OP ; y(t) = cP x = [5
1
0 -1 N Q Nx Q 2
–1] x

LM x (t)OP = LMe
1
2 ( t - t0 )
0 O L x (t ) O
PQ MN x (t )PQ
1 0

Nx (t )Q N
2 0 e - ( t - t0 ) 2 0

## If x1 (t 0 ) = 0, the mode e2t will be suppressed in y(t) = 5 x1 – x 2 .

LM 0 OP = LM K OP ; K π 0
x(t0) = P x (t0) = P
N K Q N- K Q
With this initial condition, the mode e2t will be hidden from y(t).

LM e OP = La bO L 1 O ; LM e OP = La b O L 1 O
-2 t -t

## N-2e Q MNc d PQ MN-2PQ N-e Q MNc d PQ MN-1PQ

5.34 -2 t -t

This gives

LMa bOP = LM 2e -t
- e -2 t e - t - e -2 t OP
eAt =
N c d Q N2 e -2 t
- 2e - t 2 e -2 t - e - t Q
60 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

= L –1
[(sI – A)–1]

LM 2 - 1 1
-
1 OP
(sI – A) –1
= MM s +2 1 - s +2 2 s +1 s + 2
2 1 PP
Ns + 2 s +1 -
s + 2 s +1 Q
LM s -1 OP
(sI – A) =
N2 s + 3Q
LM 0 1 OP
A =
N-2 -3Q
LM c OP
V= M PP is a triangular matrix with diagonal elements equal to unity;
cA
5.35
MM M PQ |V| = (– 1) for all a ’s. This proves the result.
n

NcA n-1 i

## 5.36 U = [b Ab ... An–1 b] is a triangular matrix with diagonal elements equal

to unity; |U| = (– 1)n for all ai’s. This proves the result.
5.37 None of the rows of the B matrix corresponding to the Jordan blocks for
l1 = – 1, l2 = – 2, l3 = – 3 is zero row. The system is completely control-
lable.
First column of C matrix which corresponds to the eigenvalue –1, is a
zero column. Other columns are nonzero. The system is not completely
observable.

LM1 -2OP
5.38 (i) U = [b Ab] =
N0 1 Q
; r(U) = 2

Completely controllable

LM c OP = L 1 -1O ; r(V) = 1
V =
NcAQ MN-3 3 PQ
Not completely observable.
(ii) The system is in Jordan canonical form; it is controllable but not
observable.
(iii) The system is in Jordan canonical form; it is both controllable and
observable.
SOLUTION MANUAL 61

## (iv) The system is in controllable companion form. The given system is

therefore controllable. We have to test for observability property only.

LM c OP
r ( V) = r M cA P = 3
MNcA PQ
2

## The system is completely observable.

(v) Given system is in observable companion form. We have to test for
controllability property only.
r(U) = r[b Ab A2b] = 3
The system is completely controllable.
5.39 (i) Observable but not controllable
(ii) Controllable but not observable
(iii) Neither controllable nor observable.
Controllable and observable realization:
A = –1 ; b=1 ; c=1
1
5.40 (i) G(s) = c(sI – A)–1 b =
s+2
Given state model is in observable companion form. Since there is a
pole-zero cancellation, the state model is uncontrollable.

s+4
(ii) G(s) =
( s + 2)( s + 3)
The given state model is in controllable companion form. Since there
is a pole-zero cancellation, the model is unobservable.
5.41 (a) |lI – A| = (l – 1) (l + 2) (l + 1)
The system is unstable.
(b) G(s) = c(sI – A)–1 b

1
=
( s + 1)(s + 2)
The G(s) is stable
(c) The unstable mode et of the free response is hidden from the transfer
function representation
62 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

10 b2
5.42 (a) G(s) = = 2
s +s
2
s + a 1s + a 2

A =
N0 -1Q N1Q 0]

## (b) Let us obtain controllable companion form realization of

10( s + 2) 10 s + 20 b 2s + b 3
G(s) = = 3 = 3
s( s + 1)( s + 2) s + 3s + 2 s s + a 1s 2 + a 2 s + a 3
2

LM0 1 0 OP
0 LM OP
A =
MM00 PP MM PP
0 1 ; b = 0 ; c = 20 10 0
N -2 -3 1 Q NQ
(c) Let us obtain observable companion form realization of

10( s + 2)
G(s) =
s( s + 1)( s + 2)

LM0 0 0 OP 20 LM OP
A =
MM10 PP MM
0 -2 ; b = 10 ; c = 0 0 1
PP
N 1 -3 Q 0 N Q
5.42 Refer Section 5.4.
CHAPTER 6 STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL
CONTROL SYSTEMS

LM-3 1 0 OP -3 LM OP
6.1
MM-1
F = -4
PP
0 1 ; g = -7
MM PP
N 0 0 Q 0 N Q
LMz + 3 -1 0O
-1P ; |zI – F| = z
MM 41 0z P
3
(zI – F) = + 3z2 + 4z + 1 = D
N z QP

L z
1 M
2
z OP 1

DM
–1
(zI – F) z = -(4 z + 1) z( z + 3) z + 3 P z = G(z)
MN -z -1 z( z + 3) + 4 PQ

L -3z - 7z OP
1 M
2

DM
H(z) = (zI – F)–1 g= -7z - 9z + 3P
2

MN 3z + 7 PQ
6.2
64 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

2 -5LM 1 OP LM OP 1
6.3 F = 1 -1 ; g =
2 MN 0
; c = [2
PQ NQ 0]; |zI – F| = z2 – z +
2
=D

2z + 2
G(z) = c(zI – F)–1 g =
1
z2 - z +
2

LM2 0 OP1 -2 0 LM
2 -5 0 4 0 OP LM OP LM OP
6.4 C=
N1 -1
;G=
Q0 1 3
2 N
; F = 1 -1 ; D =
0 0 -2 Q MN PQ N Q
1
D = |zI – F| = z2 – z +
2
G(z) = C(zI – F)–1 G + D

LM
1 2 z + 2 4D - 4 z - 14 -30 OP
MN PQ
= 1
D z+ 2 -3z - 4 -2D - 3z - 9

6.5 x1, x2 and x3 : outputs of unit delayers starting at the top and proceeding
towards the bottom.
1 1
x1(k + 1) = x1(k) + x2(k) + 2x3(k) + u(k)
2 4
1
x2(k + 1) = – x2(k) – x3(k) – u(k)
2

1
x3(k + 1) = 3x2(k) + x3(k) + 2u(k)
3
y(k) = 5x1(k) + 6x2(k) – 7x3(k) + 8u(k)

LM 1 1 OP
M 2 4
2
1
PP LM OP
F = M0
-1
MM
-1 ; g = -1 ; c = [5
PP MM PP 6 –7]; d = 8
2
1 2 N Q
N0 3
3 Q
6.6 x1, x2 and x3 : outputs of unit delayers starting at the top and proceeding
towards the bottom.
x1(k + 1) = x2(k) + u1(k); x2(k + 1) = 3x1(k) + 2x3(k)
x3(k + 1) = – 12x1(k) – 7x2(k) – 6x3(k) + u2(k)
SOLUTION MANUAL 65

LM 0 1 0 1 0 OP 0 2 0 2 0
LM OP LM OP LM OP
MM-12
F= 3 0
PP
2 ;G= 0 0 ;C= ;D=
MM PP N Q N Q
N Q N Q
0 0 1 0 1
-7 -6 0 1

Y (z) 3z 2 - z - 3 b z 2 + b 1z + b 2
6.7 (i) = = 02
R( z ) z 2 + 1 z - 2 z + a 1z + a 2
3 3

0 LM 1 OP
-1 ; g = LM0OP ; c = [– 1
F= 2
3 MN 3 PQ N1 Q – 2]; d = 3

Y ( z ) -2 z 3 + 2 z 2 - z + 2 b z 3 + b1 z 2 + b2 z + b3
(ii) = = 03
R( z ) z3 + z2 - z -
3 z + a1 z 2 + a 2 z + a 3
4

LM0 0
3 OP
0.5 LM OP
F = M1
MM0
4
PP
0 1 ; g = -3 ; c = [0 0
MM PP 1]; d = – 2

N 1 -1 4 PQ N Q
Y (z) 1 2 1
6.8 (i) =1– + +
R( z ) z +1 z +1 z + 3

LM-1 0 0 1 OP LM OP
MM 0
F= 0
PP
-2 0 ; g = 1 ; c = [– 1
MM PP 2 1]; d = 1
N 0 -3 1 Q NQ
Y (z) 5 -2 3
F z - 1 I F I FH z - 1 IK
(ii) = 3
+ 2
+
R( z ) 1
H 3K H K z-
3 3

LM 1 1 0O
PP L0O
M
F = M0
3
1
1 P ; g = M0P ; c = [5 – 2 3]; d = 0
MM MM1PP
1P NQ
3

N0 0
3Q
P
66 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## 6.9 (i) y(k + 3) + 5y(k + 2) + 7y(k + 1) + 3y(k) = 0

Refer Fig. 6.3.
x1(k + 1) = – 3x3(k)
x2(k + 1) = – 7x3(k) + x1(k)
x3(k + 1) = – 5x3(k) + x2(k)

LM0 0 -3 OP 0 LM OP
MM0
F= 1
PP
0 -7 ; g = 0 ; c = [0 0
MM PP 1]; d = 0
N 1 -5 Q0 NQ
(ii) y(k + 2) + 3y(k + 1) + 2y(k) = 5r(k + 1) + 3r(k)

Y (z) 5z + 3 -2 7 -1 0 1 LM OP LM OP
= 2
R( z ) z + 3z + 2
= +
z +1 z + 2
;F=
0 -2
;g=
1
;
N Q NQ
c = [–2 7]; d = 0
(iii) y(k + 3) + 5y(k + 2) + 7y(k + 1) + 3y(k) = r(k + 1) + 2r(k)
Y (z) b 2 z + b3 z+2
= 3 = 3
R( z ) z + a1 z + a 2 z + a 3
2
z + 5z 2 + 7z + 3

LM 0 1 0 OP LM0OP
F= 0
MM-3 -70 -51PP ; g = MM01PP ; c = [2 1 0]; d = 0
N Q NQ
L 0 1OP ; g(l) = b + b l
F= M
6.10
N-3 4Q 0 1

|lI – F| = l2 – 4l + 3 = 0; l1 = 1, l2 = 3
f (l) = lk; f (1) = 1 = g(1) = b 0 + b 1; f (3) = 3k = g(3) = b 0 + 3b 1
b 0 = 1.5 – 0.5(3)k; b 1 = 0.5[(3)k – 1]

Fk = b 0I + b 1F =
LM1.5 - 0.5(3) k
0.5[(3) k - 1] OP
N1.5[(3) -1]
k
-0.5 + 1.5(3)k Q
6.11 Refer Example 6.3

1 z +1 1 LM OP
(zI – F)–1 =
( z + 0.2)( z + 0.8) -0.16 z N Q
z
X(z) = (zI – F)–1 zx(0) + (zI – F)–1 gU(z); U(z) =
z -1
SOLUTION MANUAL 67

LM -17 z 22 z 25 z OP
M 6 + 9 + 18 P
X(z) = M z + 0.2 z + 0 .8 z -1 P
MM 6 z - 9 z 187 z PP
3 .4 17.6

MN z + 0.2 + z + 0.8 + z - 1 PQ
LM-17 (-0.2) + 22 (-0.8) + 25 OP
k k

x(k) = M 6
MN 6 (-0.2) - 9 (-0.8) + 187 PPQ
9 18 ; y(k) = cx(k) = x (k)
3.4 17.6 1
k k

## 6.12 x1(0) = – 5; x2(0) = 1

3
zX1(z) + 5z = X1(z) – X2(z) + 3U(z)
2
zX2(z) – z = X1(z) – X2(z) + 2U(z)
z
U(z) =
z - 1/ 2

-5 z 2z -2 z -2 z 4z -z
X1(z) = + + ; X2(z) = + +
z-
1
z+
1 z -1 z-
1
z+
1 z -1
2 2 2 2

x (k) = – 5 F I + 2 F I – 2; x (k) = –2 F I + 4 F I – 1
1
k
-1 k
1 -1 k k

1
H 2K H2K H 2K H 2 K
2

## y (k) = – 3x (k) + 4x (k) – 2u(k) = 5 F I + 10 F I + 2

-1
k k
1
1 1 2
H 2K H 2 K
y (k) = – x (k) + x (k) = 3 F I + 2 F I + 1
1 -1 k k

2 1 2
H 2K H 2 K
LM-1 1 0 OP
6.13
MM 0 0 -2 PP
F = 0 -1 0
N Q
Eigenvalues of matrix F are – 1, – 1 and – 2.
(a) Therefore the modes of the free response are (– 1)k, k(– 1)k and (– 2)k

LM(-1) k
k (-1) k-1 OP L0O LMk(-1) k -1
OP
0 P M1 P = M (-1)
0
(b) x(k) = F x(0) = M 0 PP
(-1)
MP
k k k

## MN 0 0 (-2) PQ MN1 PQ MN (-1)

k k
Q
68 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

1
; G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z 2
1 RS UV
6.14 (a) Ga(s) =
s( s + 2) s (s + 2) T W
0.2838z + 0.1485
=
z - 11353
2
. z + 0.1353

LM 0 1 O
P L0 O
; g = M P ; c = [0.1485
F=
N-0.1353 11353
. Q N1 Q 0.2838]; d = 0

(b) A = M
L0 1OP ; b = LM0OP ; c = [1 0]
N0 -2Q N1Q
L1 OP LM OP LM 12 (T + e 2 -1)OP
z
-2T

=M
1 T
(1 - e-2 T )
dt b = M
F = eAT
MN0 2
e- 2 T
;g=
PQ MN e At
PQ M 1 (1- e ) PP
N 2 Q
-2 T
0

## LM1 0.4323OP ; g = LM0.2838OP ; c = [1 0]

F=
N0 0.1353Q N0.4323Q
=M
L0.696 0.246OP ; g = (e – I)A b = LM-0.021OP ;
F = eAt
N 0.123 0.572Q N 0.747 Q
AT –1
6.15

c = [2 – 4]; d = 6
1 1
6.16 Let x1 be the output of the block and x2 be the output of the block
s 10s + 1
x&1 = x2; x& 2 = – 0.1x2 + u + 0.1w

LM0 1 OP0 0 LM OP LM OP
A=
N0 -0.1
;b=
Q1
; b1 =
0.1 NQ N Q
LM1 OP OP
LM
1
-0.1t
= Ms PP
s( s + 0.1) ; eAt = 1 10(1 - e )
(sI – A)–1
MN 0 1 - 0.1t
N Q
Q
0 e
s + 0.1

LM1 OP ; g =
z LM10T -100 + 100e OP
T -0 .1T
10(1 - e -0.1T )
e A q b dq =
N0 Q N 10 -10e Q
F= - 0.1T
e -0.1T 0
SOLUTION MANUAL 69

T - 0.1T
e Aq b1 dq =
N 1- e Q
g1 = - 0.1T
0

## For T = 0.1 sec,

LM1 0.1 OP
0.005 LM 0 OP
LM OP
F=
N0 0.99
;g=
Q0.1 N
; g1 =
0.01
;
Q
N Q
LM x (k + 1) OP = LM1 0.1 OP x(k) + LM0.005OP u(k) + LM 0 OP w(k)
1

N x (k + 1)Q N0 0.99Q
2 N 0.1 Q N0.01Q
LM 1 0 O
P Le 0 O - 0.1t
(sI – A) = M s +
–1 0.1
1 P ; e = M0.1te PQ ; T = 3 sec
At

MN (s + 0.1) s + 0.1PQ N
6.17 0.1 - 0.1t - 0.1t
e
2

L0.741 0 OP ; G = e B dq = LM259.182 0 OP ;
z
T

F=e = M Aq

## N0.222 0.741Q N 36.936 259.182Q

At

C= M
L1 0OP
N0 1 Q
(a) G(z) = (1 – z ) Z M
L 1 OP = 0.3679(z + 0.7181)
N s (s + 1) Q (z - 1)(z - 0.3679)
–1
6.18 2

## Y (z) G( z ) 0.3679 z + 0.2642

(b) = = 2
R( z ) 1 + G( z ) z - z + 0.6321

## LM 0 1OP ; g = LM0OP ; c = [0.2642

F=
N-0.6321 1Q N1Q 0.3679]

e -0 . 4 s
6.19 Ga(s) =
s +1

## (a) G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z

RS e UV = (1 – z
-0 . 4 s
–1
)Z
RS e
- 0. 4 s
-
e- 0. 4 s UV
T s(s + 1) W T s s +1 W
T = 1; tD = 0.4 = DT; m = 1 – D = 0.6
From Table 3.1, we obtain

G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z
RS 1 - e UV = 0.4512 z + 0.1809
- 0.6

T z -1 z - e W z - 0.3679z
-1 2
70 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

LM0 1 OP 0 LM OP
F=
N0 0.3679 Q
;g=
1 NQ
; c = [0.1809 0.4512]

Y ( s ) e- 0.4 s
(b) =
U ( s) s +1
State model,
x&1 (t) = – x1(t) + u(t – 0.4); tD = 0.4, N = 0, D = 0.4, m = 0.6
F = e–1 = 0.3679

z z
0. 6 0. 4
-s
g2 = e ds = 0.4512; g1 = e –0.6
e-s ds = 0.1809
0 0

## x1(k + 1) = 0.3679x1(k) + 0.1809u(k – 1) + 0.4512u(k)

Let us introduce a new state,
x2(k) = u(k – 1);
x(k + 1) = Fx(k) + gu(k); y(k) = cx(k)

LM0.3679 0.1809 OP
0.4512 LM OP
F=
N 0 0
;g=
Q1
; c = [1
N Q 0]

## 6.20 x& (t) = – x(t) + u(t – 2.5); tD = 2.5 = NT + DT; T = 1

N = 2, D = 0.5, m = 0.5

z
0. 5
F = e–1 = 0.3679; g2 = e-s ds = 0.3935;
0

z
0. 5
g1 = e –0.5
e-s ds = 0.2387
0
x(k + 1) = 0.3679x(k) + 0.2387u(k – 3) + 0.3935u(k – 2)
x2(k) = u(k – 3), x3(k) = u(k – 2), x4(k) = u(k – 1)
x(k + 1) = Fx(k) + gu(k)

## LM0.3679 0.2387 0.3935 0 OP LM0OP

F= M
MM 0
0 0 1 0
;g= PP MM00PP
PQ MN1PQ
0 0 1
N 0 0 0 0

e- t D
s
Y (s )
6.21 = Ga(s) = ; 0 £ tD £ T
U ( s) s2
x1 = y, x2 = y& ; x&1 = x2, x& 2 = u(t – tD)
SOLUTION MANUAL 71

## LM0 1OP ; b = LM0OP ; c = [1

A=
N0 0 Q N1 Q 0]

A2T 2
+L=
1 T LM OP
F = eAT = I + AT +
2! 0 1 N Q
tD = D T = (1 – m)T

LMt OP
z L (T - t ) / 2 OP ; g = e
z
mT DT tD
b ds = M
2
As (T - )
e A s b ds =
MN PQ
D AmT

N T -t Q
g2 = e D
1 2
0 D 0 tD
N = 0 (Refer Eqn. (6.35))

x(k + 1) =
N0 1 Q 1 2

## Introduce x3 = u(k – 1). Then,

x(k + 1) = Fx(k) + gu(k); y = cx(k)

LM1 F tD I OP LM (T - t )2 OP
T tD T -
H KP M 2 D

PP ; c = [1
F = M0
2
MM0 1 tD
PP ; g = MM T -1t D
PP
0 0]

MN QP NM Q
0 0

6.22 For this problem, the solution comes from Review Example 6.3 with
K = 2.
1 1 1
6.23 x1, x2 and x3: outputs of the blocks , and respectively.
s s +1 s+2
(a)
x&1 = x2; x& 2 = – x2 + x3; x& 3 = – 2x3 + u

LM 0 1 0 OP
0 LM OP
MM 0
A= 0 -1 1 ; b = 0
PP MM PP
N 0 -2 1 Q NQ
Eigenvalues of A are l1 = 0, l2 = –1, l3 = –2
g(l) = b 0 + b 1l + b 2l2; f (l) = elT
For l = 0, elT = 1 = b 0
For l = –1, e–T = b 0 – b 1 + b 2
For l = – 2, e–2T = b 0 – 2b 1 + 4b 2
72 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

1 1
b 0 = 1; b 1 = (3 + e–2T – 4e–T ); b 2 = (1 + e–2T – 2e–T)
2 2
eAT = b 0I + b 1A + b 2A2

LM1 1 - e-T
1
(1 + e -2 T - 2e - T ) OP
= M0 PP
2
MM0 e -T e -T - e -2 T
e-2T
;
PP
MN 0
Q
LM-3 + 1 T + e - 1 e -T -2 T OP
z M PP
T 4 2 4
bdq = M
1 1 -T -2T
e Aq -e + e
MM 2 1 1 2 PP
g=
0
-2T
N - e
2 2 Q
x(k + 1) = eAT x(k) + g[r(k) – x1(k)] = Fx(k) + gr(k)

LM 7 - 1 T - e + 1 e -T -2 T
1 - e -T
1
(1 + e -2 T - 2 e - T ) OP
M 4 12
F= M - +e - e
1
4
-T -2 T
e -T
2
e - T - e -2 T
PP
MM 2- 1 + 1 e2 PP
N Q
-2 T
0 e -2 T
2 2

z
t
(b) x(t) = eA(t – kT) x(kT) + e A( t -t ) bu(t )dt ; kT £ t < (k + 1)T
kT

## 6.24 Eigenvalues of A are l1 = –1, l2 = –2.

elT = b 0 + b 1l
e–T = b 0 – b 1; e–2T = b 0 – 2b 1
b 1 = e–T – e–2T; b 0 = 2e–T – e–2T;

eAt = b 0I + b 1A =
LM 2e -T
- e-2
T
e -T - e - 2 T OP
N-2e Q
-T
;
+ 2e-2 -e- + 2e-2
T T T

L0.5 - e OP
z
-T
+ 0.5e-2 T
b dq = M
T

N e Q
Aq
g= e -T
- e- 2 T
0
SOLUTION MANUAL 73

## LM 0.6 0.233 0.2 OP LM OP

For T = 1 sec, eAT =
N-0.465 -0.0972
;g=
0.233 Q N Q
Discrete-time model of the plant is, x(k + 1) = eAT x(k) + gu(k);
y(k) = x1(k)
For the feedback system,
e(k) = r(k) – x1(k) = u(k)
x(k + 1) = eAT x(k) + g[r(k) – x1(k)]
Discrete-time model of the closed-loop system is,
x(k + 1) = Fx(k) + gr(k); y = cx(k)

F=
N-0.698 -0.0972
;g=
Q
0.233 N
; c = [1
Q 0]

## LM 0.6 0.233 OP 0.2 LM OP

x(k + 1) =
N-0.465 -0.0972 Q
x(k) + e (k);
0.233 2 N Q
e2(k + 1) = – 2e2(k) + e1(k)
Let e2(k) = x3(k), then x3(k + 1) = – 2x3(k) + [r(k) – x1(k)]
Discrete-time model of the closed-loop system is,
x(k + 1) = Fx(k) + gr(k); y = cx(k)

## LM 0.6 0.233 0.2 0 OP LM OP

MM -1
F = -0.465
PP
-0.0972 0.233 ; g = 0 ; c = [1
MM PP 0 0]
N 0 -2 1 Q NQ
U ( s) de(t )
6.26 D(s) = 9 + 4.1s = ; 4.1 + 9e(t) = u(t)
E ( s) dt
By backward-difference approximation,

## LM e(k) - e(k -1) OP + 9e(k) = u(k); u(k) = – 41e(k – 1) + 50e(k)

4.1
N T Q
Choosing e(k – 1) as controller state variable, xc(k), we obtain,
xc(k + 1) = e(k), u(k) = – 41xc(k) + 50e(k) as the state model of the con-
troller. The plant difference equations are given by (solution to Problem
6.16)

LM1 0.1 OP LM
0.005 OP
x(k + 1) =
N0 0.99 Q
x(k) +
0.1 Nu(k)
Q
74 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## The augmented state model becomes,

LM x (k + 1) OP L1 OP LM x (k) OP LM0OP
MM xx ((kk ++ 11))PP = MMM00
1 0.1 0 1

2
PM P MP
0.99 0 x ( k ) + 0 e(k)
0 QP MN x ( k ) PQ MN1 PQ
2

N c 0 Q N c

LM0.005OP
MM 0 PP
+ 0.1 [– 41x (k) + 50(r(k) – x (k))]
c 1

N Q
LM0.75 0.1 -0.205OP LM0.25OP
MM -1 0 0 PP
= -5 0.99 -4.1 x(k) + 5 r(k)
MM 1 PP
N Q N Q
L1 -1 1 -1OP ; r (U) = 2; V = LM c OP ; r (V) = 2
(a) U = [g Fg] = M
6.27
N0 0 1 -1Q NcFQ
Therefore system is both controllable and observable.
(b) Given system is in Jordan canonical form. It is both controllable and
observable.
LM 0 1OP ; b = LM0OP ; c = [1 0]
6.28 A=
N - 1 0 Q N1 Q
U = [b Ab] = M
L0 1OP ; r (U) = 2; V = LM c OP = LM1 0OP ; r (V) = 2
N1 0 Q NcAQ N0 1Q
The continuous-time system is both controllable and observable.
Comparing the given state model with Eqn (6.59), we observe that the
given system is a harmonic oscillator with frequency w = 1 or period
T = 2p.
Therefore, T = np; n = 1, 2, K will lead to hidden oscillations.
For T = p, for example, the discrete-time model is given by (refer Eqns
(6.60))
LM -1 0 OP x(k) + LM2OP u(k); y(k) = [1
x(k + 1) =
N 0 -1Q N0 Q 0]x(k)

## The system is obviously both uncontrollable and unobservable.

For T = 2p, we have the following discrete-time model;
LM1 0OP x(k) + LM0OP u(k); y(k) = [1
x(k + 1) =
N0 1 Q N0 Q 0]x(k)

## The system is both uncontrollable and unobservable. In general, for

T = np, n = 1, 2, K the system is uncontrollable and unobservable.
SOLUTION MANUAL 75

## 6.29 The poles are: s1 = –1, s2,3 = – 0.02 ± jp

For Re(li) = Re(lj)
Im(li – lj) = 2p
2 np
T¹ ¹ n; T ¹ 1, 2, 3, K
2p

F 1 I Fl - 1 I
H
6.30 (a) |lI – F| = l -
4 K H 2K
1 1
Eigenvalues of F are: l1 = , l2 =
4 2

1
(b) G(z) = c(zI – F)–1 g =
Fz - 1I
H 4K
(c) Since there is a pole-zero cancellation, the system is either uncontrol-
lable or unobservable or both.
Given state model is in controllable canonical form. Therefore, the
model is controllable but not observable.
CHAPTER 7 POLE-PLACEMENT DESIGN AND STATE
OBSERVERS

Y (s ) b s n -1 + b 2 s n - 2 + L + b n
7.1 = 1n
U ( s) s + a 1s n -1 + L + a n

LM 0 1 0 . . 0 OP LM0OP
M0
&x = M .
0 1 0 . 0
P M0 P
. Px + M . P u
MM 0 1 P
PP MM . PP
. . . .
0 . . .
MN- a n - a n -1 . . . -a Q 1 MN1PQ
y = [>n >n–1 L >1] x; u = – kx + r; k = [k1 k2 L kn]
x& = [A – bk] x + br; y = cx

LM 0 1 0 . . 0 OP
A – bk = M
M 0 0 1 0 . 0
PP
MM 0 PP
. . . . . .
0 . . . 1
MN- a - k n 1 - a n -1 - k2 . . . - a 1 - kn PQ
LM *1 OP LM0OP
G(s) = c[sI – (A – bk)]–1 b=c M
M *2
P M
. P M.P ×
0
P 1
MM . P M.P
P M P
D

NM *n QP NM1 QP

## *1 = Co-factor of – =n – k1, is independent of k.

*2 = Co-factor of – =n–1 – k2, is independent of k.
.
.
Zeros are not affected by k.
7.2 (a) k = [k1 k2 k3]

LM 0 1 0 OP
A – bk =
MM-6 0- k 0 1
PP
N 1 -11- k2 -6 - k3 Q
SOLUTION MANUAL 77

## Charteristic equation is,

s3 + (6 + k3)s2 + (11 + k2)s + 6 + k1 = 0
Desired characteristic equation is
(s + 5) (s + 2 + j3.464) (s + 2 – j3.464) = s3 + 9s2 + 36s + 80 = 0
k = [74 25 3]

(b) ~
x = x – x\$
x& = (A – mc) ~
~ x ; mT = [m1 m2 m3 ]

LM -m 1 1 0 OP
MM-6 - m
A – mc = -m 2 0 1
PP
N 3 -11 -6 Q
|sI – (A – mc)| = s3 + (6 + m1)s2 + (11 + 6m1 + m2)s + 11m1 + 6m 2
+ m3 + 6
(s + 5) (s + 2 + j3.464) (s + 2 – j3.464) = s3 + 9s2 + 36s + 80
m1 = 3, m2 = 7, m3 = – 1
Observation equation is Eqn (7.31) and the structure is given in
Fig. 7.6.

LM 0 1 0 0 OP LM OP
(c)
MM-6
x& = 0 0 1 x+ 0 u
PP MM PP
N -11 - 6 1 Q NQ
y = [1 0 0]x

LM 0 1 OP ; a
Aee =
N -11 -6 Q le = [1 0]

## x& e = (Aee – male) ~

~ x e ; mT = [m1 m2]
|sI – (Aee – male)| = s2 + (6 + m1)s + 6m1 + m2 + 11
(s + 2 + j3.464) (s + 2 – j3.464) = s2 + 4s + 16
m1 = – 2, m2 = 17
Observer equations may be obtained from Eqns (7.38) – (7.49).
7.3 (a) k = [k1 k2 k3]

LM-k 1 -k2 -6 - k3 OP
MM 0
A – bk = 1 0 -11
PP
N 1 -6 Q
78 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## |sI – (A – bk)| = (s + 5) (s + 2 + j3.464) (s + 2 – j3.464)

k1 = 3, k2 = 7, k3 = – 1
(b) mT = [m1 m2 m3]
|sI – (A – mc)| = (s + 5) (s + 2 + j3.464) (s + 2 – j3.464)
m1 = 74, m2 = 25, m3 = 3

LM x& OP L -6 0 OP LM x OP LM0OP LM x OP
(c) x& = M -6 0
3 1 3 3

M x& P MM-11 1 0
PP MM xx PP + MM10PP u; y = [1 0
Mx P
0] x
NM PQ N NM PQ
1 1 1

2 0 QN Q NQ
2 2

A = M
L0 0OP ; a
ee
N1 0 Q le = [0 1]; mT = [m1 m2]

## |sI – (Aee – male)| = (s + 2 + j3.464) (s + 2 – j3.464)

m1 = 16, m2 = 4
7.4 Estimation error should decay in less than 4 sec.

4
Settling time = £ 4; zwn ≥ 1
zw n
The observer poles may be fixed at s = – 2, – 3.
Characteristic polynomial: s2 + 5s + 6.
|sI – (A – mc)| = s2 + (2 + m2)s + 2m2 + 1 + m1

LM -1OP
Comparing and solving the resulting equations: m =
N 3Q
x&\$ = (A – mc) x\$ + (B – md)u + my
7.5 The estimation error should decay as fast as e–10t at least. Hence, the pole
should be at s = – 10. Desired characteristic polynomial: s + 10
x& = Ax + bu; y = cx

A=
N0 0Q N1Q –1]

## We obtain a transformation: x(t) = Qq(t), that transforms c from

[2 –1] to [1 0]
q& = Q–1 AQq + Q–1bu; y = cQq
[2 –1] Q = [1 0]
SOLUTION MANUAL 79

## LM1 1OP ; Q = L 2 -1O ;

Q=
N1 2Q
–1
MN -1 1PQ
q& = M
L 2 2 OP q + LM1OP u; y = [1
N-1 -1Q N0Q 0]q

## q~& 2 = (Aee – male) q~2 = (– 1 – 2m) q~2

Characteristic polynomial: s + 1 + 2m = s + 10; m = 4.5
Refer Eqn (7.49b)

\$ q
q& 2¢ = – 10 q\$ 2 – 10y – 4.5u; q\$ 2 = q¢2 + my; q\$ = q1 = 1 LM OP LM OP
\$q 2 q\$ 2N Q N Q
LM y + q\$ OP
x\$ = Q q\$ = 2

N y + 2q\$ Q2

L0 9OP ; b = LM9OP ; c = [0
(a) A = M
7.6
N1 0 Q N0 Q 1]

## (b) k = [k1 k2]

LM-9k 1 9 - 9 k2 OP
(A – bk) =
N1 0 Q
; |sI – (A – bk)| = s2 + 9k1s + 9k2 – 9

k = [2/3 3]
(c) m = [m1 m2]T

## LM0 9 - m1 OP ; |sI – (A – mc)| = s2

A – mc =
N1 - m2 Q + m2s + m1 – 9

## Desired polynomial: (s + 6 + j6) (s + 6 – j6) = s2 + 12s + 72.

LM81OP
m=
N12Q
L0 9OP ; b = LM9OP ; c = [0
(d) A = M
N1 0Q N9Q 1]

## Select gain k which places one of the closed-loop poles at s = – 1.

Pole-zero cancellation makes the feedback system unobservable.
80 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## Desired characteristic polynomial: (s + 1) (s + 2) = s2 + 3s + 2

LM 1 2 OP ;
|sI – (A – bk| = s2 + 3s + 2, gives k =
N9 9 Q
LM-1 7 OP ; c(A – bk) = [0 –2]
A – bk =
N 0 -2Q
L c OP = L0 1O ; r (V) = 1. System is unobservable
V=M
Nc(A - bk)Q MN0 -2 PQ
7.7 &&
y + w 02 y = u

(a) x& =
LM 0 1OP x + LM0OP u
N-w 2
0 0Q N1 Q
(b) wn = 2w0; z = 1; s = – 2w0
Characteristic polynomial: (s + 2w0)2 = s2 + 4w0s + 4w 02

LM 0 1 OP ; |sI – (A – bk)| = s 2
+ k2s + w 02 + k1
A – bk =
N-w - k
2
0 1 -k Q 2

k= [3w 02 4w0]
(c) m = [m1 m2]T

LM20w OP .
0

N99w Q2
0

## Figure 7.6 gives a block diagram of the observer-based state-feed-

back control system.

0]; ~ x2 = – m ~
(d) A =
N-w 2
0 0Q N1 Q x2

## Characteristic polynomial: s + m. Desired polynomial: s + 10w0

m = 10w0
Refer Eqns (7.38) – (7.49) and Fig. 7.7.

## x& 2¢ = – 10w0 x 2¢ – 101w 20 y + u; x\$ 2 = x 2¢ + 10w0y

7.8 (a) k = [k1 k2]

LM 0 OP
1
(A – bk) =
N20.6 - k 1 -k Q 2
SOLUTION MANUAL 81

## Characteristic polynomial: |sI – (A – bk)| = s2 + k2s – 20.6 + k1

Desired polynomial: (s + 1.8 + j2.4) (s + 1.8 – j2.4) = s2 + 3.6s + 9.
k = [29.6 3.6]
(b) m = [m1 m2]T

LM 16 OP
|sI – (A – mc)| = (s + 8)2 gives m =
N84.6Q
U ( s) 778.16 s + 3690.72
(c) = k [sI – (A – bk – mc)]–1 m = 2
-Y ( s) s + 19.6 s + 151.2

## (d) x& = Ax – bk x\$ ; x\$& = (A – mc – bk) x\$ + my

LM -16 1 OP LM OP
x\$ +
16
=
N -93.6 -3.6 Q N Q x
84.6 1

(a) A = M
L0 1OP ; b = LM0OP ; c = [1 0]
7.9
N0 0 Q N1 Q
1
(b) wn = 1; z = ;
2

## (c) wn = 5; z = 0.5; s2 + 2zwns + w 2n = s2 + 5s + 25

LM m OP = LM 5 OP
1
|sI – (A – mc)| = s2 + 5s + 25 gives m =
Nm Q N25Q
2

U ( s) 40.4(s + 0.619)
(d) = k [sI – (A – mc – bk)]–1 m = 2
-Y ( s) s + 6.414 s + 33.07

(e) A =
N0 0 Q N1 Q 0]

## x& 2 = (Aee – male) ~

~ x 2 = –m ~
x 2 ; s + m = s + 5; m = 5
Refer Eqns (7.38) – (7.49).
x& 2¢ = – 5 x\$ 2 + u; x\$ 2 = x 2¢ + 5y
1
(f) x& 2¢ = – 5 x 2¢ – 25y + u; X2¢ (s) = [– 25Y (s) + U (s)];
s+5
u = – k1x1 – k2 [ x 2¢ + 5y]
82 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

U ( s) 8.07(s + 0.62)
=
-Y ( s) ( s + 6.41)
7.10 (a) Desired polynomial: (s + 2) (s + 1 + j1) (s + 1 – j1)
= s3 + 4s2 + 6s + 4
x&1 = x2; x& 2 = – x2 + x3; x& 3 = – 2x3 + u; y = x1
~
x1 = x1 – r; ~ x 2 = x2; ~
x 3 = x3

x& = A ~
~ x + bu

LM0 1
0 0 OP LM OP
MM0
A= 0 -1 1 ; b = 0
PP MM PP
N 0 -2 1 Q NQ
u = – k~
x = – k1x1 – k2x2 – k3x3 + k1r; N = k1;

LM0 0 1 OP
MM1 1 -3
PP
2
U = [b Ab A b] = 0
N -2 4 Q
p1 = [1 0 0]

LM p OP L1 0 OP
MM PP = MM0 1
1 0
P = p1 A
PP
0 ; |sI – A| = s3 + 3s2 + 2s
Np A Q MN0 -1
1
2
1 Q
k = [4 6–2 4–3]; P = [4 3 1]
3 2
(b) Desired polynomial: s + 8s + 24s + 32

## z& = ATz + cT h; h = mTz

LM1 0 0 OP
MM0 0 1 PP
A c (A ) c ] = 0 1 -1
T T T T 2 T
U = [c
N Q
LM p OP L0 0 OP
0 1]; P = M p A P = M0 1
1 1

MNp (A ) PQ MMN1 -3
-2
PP
T
p1 = [0
Q
1
T 2
1 4

|sI – A| = s3 + 3s2 + 2s
mT = [32 24 – 2 8 – 3] P = [5 7 8]
SOLUTION MANUAL 83

## LM x& OP L-1 OP LM x OP LM1OP LM 0OP

MM x&z& PP = MMM 10
1 0 0 1
7.11
P M P M P MM-1PP
-2 0 x + 1 u + 0 r
3 0 PQ MN z PQ MN0PQ
N Q N N Q
2 2

LM1 -1 1OP
MM0 4 -7PP
Ab A b] = 1 -2 4 ; |U| = – 5
2
U = [b
N Q
Conditions for existence of integral control solution are satisfied.
p1 = [– 0.8 0.8 0.2]

LM p OP L-0.8 OP
P= MpAP = M 1
1 0.8 0.2

MNp A PQ MMN -1 P
-1 0
0 PQ
1
2
1 2

## Desired polynomial: s3 + 4s2 + 8s + 8

|sI – A| = s3 + 3s2 + 2s; k = [8 8 – 2 4 – 3] P = [– 1.4 2.4 1.6]

## u(t) = 1.4x1 – 2.4x2 – 1.6 z (y – r)dt

x1 = q; x2 = q& ; x3 = ia
x& = Ax + bu

LM0 1 0 0 OP LM OP
MM0
A= 0 -1 1 ;b= 0 ;
PP MM PP
N -1 -10 10 Q N Q
|sI – (A – bk)| = s3 + (11 + 10k3) s2 + (11 + 10k2 + 10k3)s + 10k1
Characteristic polynomial:
(s2 + 2zwns + w 2n ) (s + 10) = (s2 + 2s + 4) (s + 10) = s3 + 12s2 + 24s + 40
k = [4 1.2 0.1]
7.13 x1 = w; x2 = ia
x&1 = – x1 + x2; x& 2 = – x1 – 10x2 + 10u

LM-1 1OP 0 LM OP
A=
N-1 -10Q;b=
10 N Q
z
t
z= ( y - r )dt; z& = y – r = x1 – r
0
84 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

LM-1 1 0 OP LM 0 OP
MM 1
A = -1 -10
P MM 0 PP
0 ; b = 10
0 PQ
N 0 N Q
|sI – ( A – b k)| = s3 + (11 + 10k2)s2 + (11 + 10k1 + 10k2)s + 10k3

## = (s + 10) (s + 1 + j 3 ) (s + 1 – j 3 ) = s3 + 12s2 + 24s + 40

k = [1.2 0.1 4]
7.14 c = [1 0 0]
|sI – (A – mc)| = s3 + (11 + m1)s2 + (11 + 11m1 + 11m2)s + 11m1
+ 10m2 + m3
Desired polynomial: (s + 10) (s + 3 + j 3 ) (s + 3 – j 3 )
= s3 + 16s2 + 72s + 120.
m = [m1 m2 m3]T = [5 6 5]T
7.15 x1 = q, x2 = q& , x3 = 0.1ia
KT ia = Jq&& ; q&& = 50ia
x&1 = x2; x& 2 = 5x3;

dia
u – Kbq& = La + (Ra + 0.1)ia
dt
This gives, x& 3 = – 2x3 – 20x2 + 20u

LM0 10 0 OP LM OP
MM0
A= 0 05 ;b= 0
PP MM PP
N -20 -2 20 Q N Q
|sI – (A – bk¢)| = s3 + (20k¢3 + 2)s2 + (100 + 100k¢2)s + 100k¢1
Desired polynomial: (s + 3 + j3) (s + 3 – j3) (s + 20)
= s3 + 26s2 + 138s + 360.
k¢ = [3.6 0.38 1.2]
k1¢ = k1KA = KA
k2¢ = k2KA; k2 = 0.11
k3¢ = k3KA; k3 = 0.33

## 7.16 10if = 0.5q&& + 0.5q&

di f
u = 100if + 20
dt
SOLUTION MANUAL 85

1
x&1 = x2; x& 2 = –x2 + 20x3; x& 3 = – 5x3 + u
20

LM0 1 0 OP LM 0 OP
20 ; b = M 0 P
MM0
A= 0 -1
-5PQ
P M1P
N 0 MN 20 PQ
k1¢ = k1KA = KA; k2¢ = k2KA; k3¢ = k3KA
|sI – (A – bk¢)| = s3 + (6 + 0.05 k3¢ )s2 + (5 + 0.05 k3¢ + k2¢ )s + k1¢
Desired polynomial: (s2 + 2s + 4) (s + 10) = s3 + 12s2 + 24s + 40.
k¢ = [40 13 120]
KA = 40
k2 = 0.325
k3 = 3
Y (s ) b
7.17 =
U ( s) s( s + a )

## (a) x&1 = x2; x& 2 = – a x2 + b u

LM0 1 OP 0 LM OP
A=
N0 -a Q
;b=
b NQ
|sI – (A – bk)| = s2 + (a + b k2)s + b k1 = s2 + a1s + a2
a2 a -a
b k1 = a2; k1 = ; a + b k2 = a1; k2 = 1 ; N = k1
b b
7.18 x1 = w; x2 = ia

x& =
LM 0 50 OP LM OP LM OP
0 -50
N-200 -200
x+
Q N Q N Q
200
u+
0
TL

z& = y – r = x1 – r,

LM x& OP LM 0
1 50 0 OP LM x OP LM 0 OP LM 0 OP LM-50OP
1

## MM x&z& PP = MM-200 -200 0

PP MM xz PP + MM200 P M P M P
u+ 0 r+ 0 T
Q N Q N 0 PQ MN-1PQ MN 0 PQ
2 2 L

N Q N1 0 0

## |sI – (A – bk)| = s3 + 200 (1 + k2)s2 + 10000(1 + k1)s + 10000k3

86 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

Desired polynomial:
(s + 10 + j10) (s + 10 – j10) (s + 300) = s3 + 320s2 + 6200s + 60,000.
k = [– 0.38 0.6 6]
Resulting system is of type-1.
Steady-state error to constant disturbance is zero, w(t) Æ r.

LM-3 2 OP ; b = LM1OP ; c = [0
7.19 (a) A =
N 4 -5Q N0Q 1]

## |sI – (A – bk)| = s2 + (8 + k1)s + 7 + 5k1 + 4k2

Desired polynomial: (s + 4) (s + 7) = s2 + 11s + 28.
k = [3 1.5]

LM-6 0.5 OP
; x& =
LM
-6 0.5 1 OP LM OP
(b) A – bk =
N4 -5 Q 4 -5 N x+
0
w
Q NQ
5 1
At steady state, x& = 0; xls = x2s. Hence, x2s = w
4 7

LM-3 2 0 OP
1 LM OP
(c)
MM 0
z& = y = x ; A = 4
PP
-5 0 ; b = 0 MM PP
N Q
2
1 0 0 NQ
|sI – (A – bk)| = s3 + (8 + k1)s2 + (7 + 5k1 + 4k2)s + 4k3
Desired polynomial: (s + 1) (s + 2) (s + 7) = s3 + 10s2 + 23s + 14.
k = [2 1.5 3.5]; x& = [A – bk] x + bw

## LM-5 0.5 -3.5 OP

MM 0
A – bk = 4 -5 0
PP
N 1 0 Q
St steady state, x& = 0; ys = x2s = 0

LM -3 2OP ; b = LM1OP ; c = [0
A=
N4 -5 Q N0 Q 1]

## (a) |sI – (A – bk)| = (s + 4) (s + 7), gives k = [3 1.5]

1
(b) = – c [A – bk]–1b; N = 7
N
With u = – kx + Nr, the feedback system becomes,
SOLUTION MANUAL 87

## x&1 = – 6x1 + 0.5x2 + 7r; x& 2 = 4x1 – 5x2

As t Æ • , x&1 = x& 2 = 0
5
4x1s – 5x2s = 0; x1s = x2s;
4
5
–6× x1s + 0.5x2s = – 7r; x2s = r = y (•)
4
(c) x&1 = – 3x1 + 2x2 – 3x1 – 1.5x2 + w; x& 2 = 4x1 – 5x2
1
x2s (•) = y (•) = w
7
(d) z& = y – r = x2 – r

## LM x& OP L-3 OP LM x OP LM1OP LM 0OP LM1OP

MM x&z& PP = MMM 40
1 2 0 1
-5 0
PP MM xz PP + MM00PP u + MM-01PP r + MM00PP w
N Q N QN Q NQ N Q NQ
2 2
1 0

k = [2 1.5 3.5]

## LM x& OP L-5 0.5 -3.5 OP LM x OP LM1OP LM 0OP

MM x&z& PP = MMM 40
1 1
-5 0
PP MM xz PP + MM00PP w + MM-01PP r
N Q N QN Q NQ N Q
2 2
1 0

Y ( s) 4s Y ( s) 14
= ; y(•) = 0; = ;
W ( s) ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 7) R( s) ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 7)
y(•) = r
7.21 w& = – 0.5w + 100u; u = – Kw + Nr; w& = (– 0.5 – 100K)w + 100 Nr
(a) Time constant = 0.1 sec.
s + 0.5 + 100K = s + 10; K = 0.095
N–1 = – c (A – bK)–1b = 10; N = 0.1;
At steady-state w& Æ 0 . This gives w(•) = r
(b) A = – 0.5; A + dA = – 0.6
w& = – 0.6w + 100u = – 0.6w + 100 (– 0.095w + 0.1r) = – 10.1w + 10r
10
w(•) = r
10.1
(c) z& = w – r

## LMw& OP = LM-0.5 0OP LMw OP + LM100OP u + L 0O r

N z& Q N 1 0Q N z Q N 0 Q MN -1PQ
88 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## LM- 0.5 - 100 K -100 K 2 OP

N 1 Q
1
A – bK =
0
|sI – (A – bK)| = s2 + (0.5 + 100K1)s + 100K2 = s2 + 11s + 50
K1 = 0.105, K2 = 0.5

z
t

0

## At steady-state, z& Æ 0; this gives w(•) = r.

LM 0 1 0 OP LM0OP
7.22
MM-4
F= 0 0
P MM1PP
1 ;g= 0
-1PQ
N -2 NQ
Desired characteristic equation: z z + FH 1
+ j
1 IK FH z + 1 - j 1 IK
2 2 2 2
1
= z3 + z2 + z
2
|zI – (F – gk)| = z3 + (1 + k3) z2 + (2 + k2) z + 4 + k1
LM 3 OP
N
k = -4 -
2
0
Q
LM 1 1 0OP
F = M -1 0 1 P ; c = [1 0 0]
2
7.23
MM 0 0 0 PQ
P
N
|zI – (F – mc)| = z + FH m - IK z
3 1 2
1 + (1 + m2)z + m3
2

## Desired characteristic polynomial: z z + FH 1

+ j
1 IK FH z + 1 - j 1 IK
2 4 2 4
5
= z3 + z2 + z.
16

LM 3 - 11 0OP T
m=
N 2 16 Q
LM 0 1 0 OP LM0OP
7.24
MM- 0.5 - 00.2 111. PP ; g = MM01PP
F= 0
N Q NQ
SOLUTION MANUAL 89

## |zI – (F – gk)| = z3 + (k3 – 1.1) z2 + (k2 + 0.2) z + k1 + 0.5

Desired polynomial: z3.
k = [– 0.5 – 0.2 1.1]

LM 0 1 OP ; c = [1
7.25 F =
N- 0.16 -1Q 1]

## The current observer equations are:

x (k + 1) = F x\$ (k) + gu(k)
x\$ (k + 1) = x (k + 1) + m[y(k + 1) – c x (k + 1)]
State error equation is, ~
x (k + 1) = (F – mcF) ~ x (k)
|zI – (F – mcF)| = z2 + (1 – 0.16m1) z + 0.16 (1 – m1 – m2)
Desired characteristic polynomial: z2
m = [6.25 – 5.25]T

LM 0 1 0 OP LM0OP
7.26 x(k + 1) = 0
MM-0.5 -00.2 111. PP x(k) + MM01PP u(k)
N Q NQ
LM x (k + 1)OP L 0 0 1 O LM x (k)OP L0O
MM x (k + 1)PP = MMM 1 0 0 PPP MM x (k)PP + MMM0PPP u(k)
2 2

## N x (k + 1)Q N-0.2 -0.5 11. Q N x (k)Q N1Q

1 1

3 3

LM x (k)OP
2
y(k) = [1 0 0] M x ( k ) P
MN x (k)PQ
1

~
x e (k + 1) = (Fee – mf1e) ~
x e (k)

LM 0 0 OP ; f
Fee =
N-0.5 11. Q 1e = [0 1]

## |zI – (Fee – mf1e)| = z2 + (m2 – 1.1) z – 0.5m1

Desired characteristic polynomial: z2

LM x\$ (k ) OP
1

N x\$ (k )Q
m = [0
3

## Refer Eqns (7.91) – (7.97).

x\$ e (k + 1) =
LM 0 0OP x\$ (k) + LM0OP u(k) + LM 1 OP y(k) + LM 0 OP y(k + 1)
N-0.5 0Q e
N1Q N- 0.2Q N11.Q
90 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

LM 2 -1OP ; g = LM4OP
7.27 (a) F =
N - 1 1 Q N 3Q
U = [g Fg] = M
L4 5 OP
N3 -1Q
1
[3 – 4]; P = M
L p OP = 1 LM 3 - 4OP
Np FQ 19 N10 -7Q
1
p =
1
19 1

H KH K
2 1 1 2 1
+
2 2 4

## LM -3 3OP P = LM111 -18 OP

k=
N 4 Q N 76 19 Q
(b) x\$ (k + 1) = (F – mc) x\$ (k) + (g – md)u(k) + my(k); c = [1 1]
z (k + 1) = FTz(k) + cTh(k); h(k) = mTz(k)

LM1 1OP ; p
U = [cT FTcT] =
N1 0Q 1 = [1 – 1]

LM p 1 OP = LM1 -1OP
P=
Np F
1
T
Q N3 -2Q
|zI – FT| = z2 – 3z + 1
|zI – (FT – mTcT)| = z2
mT = [– 1 3] P = [8 – 5]
(c) x(k + 1) = Fx(k) + gu(k); u(k) = – k x\$ (k)
x\$ (k + 1) = (F – mc) x\$ (k) + gu(k) + my(k); y(k) = cx(k) + du(k)
x1(k + 1) = 2x1(k) – x2(k) – 5.84 x\$1 (k) + 3.79 x\$ 2 (k)
x2(k + 1) = – x1(k) + x2(k) – 4.38 x\$1 (k) + 2.84 x\$ 2 (k)
and
x\$1 (k + 1) = – 11.84 x\$1 (k) – 5.21 x\$ 2 (k) + 8[x1(k) + x2(k)]
x\$ 2 (k + 1) = – 0.38 x\$1 (k) + 8.84 x\$ 2 (k) – 5[x1(k) + x2(k)]
Y (z) 1
7.28 (a) = 2
U ( z ) z + z + 0.16
x(k + 1) = Fx(k) + gu(k); y(k) = cx(k)
SOLUTION MANUAL 91

LM 0 OP ; g = LM0OP ; c = [1
1
F=
N- 0.16 -1Q N1 Q 0]

## (b) |zI – (F – gk)| = z2 + (1 + k2)z + 0.16 + k1

Desired characteristic equation: (z – 0.6 + j0.4) (z – 0.6 – j0.4)
= z2 – 1.2z + 0.52
k = [0.36 –2.2]

LM 0 1OP ; g = LM0OP ; c = [1
(c) F =
N- 0.16 -1Q N1Q 0]

## x\$ 2 (k + 1) = Fee x\$ 2 (k) + fe1 y(k) + geu(k) + m(y(k + 1) – f11 y(k)

– g1u(k) – f1e x\$ 2 (k))
= (– 1 – m) x\$ 2 (k) – 0.16y(k) + my(k + 1) + u(k)
m = – 1 gives dead-beat response.
x\$ 2 (k + 1) = – 0.16y(k) – y(k + 1) + u(k)
(d) u(k) = – 0.36x1(k) + 2.2 x\$ 2 (k) = – 0.36y(k) + 2.2 [– y(k)
– 0.16y(k – 1) + u(k – 1)]
= – 2.56y(k) – 0.352y(k – 1) + 2.2u(k – 1)

## U(z ) 2.56(1 + 0.1375z -1 )

=
-Y ( z) (1 - 2.2 z -1 )
7.29 Let us transform c from [1 1] to [1 0].

LM1 -1OP
x(k) = Qq(k); Q =
N0 1 Q
q(k + 1) = Q–1 FQq(k) + Q–1 gu(k) = F q(k) + g u(k)

LM 0 1OP ; g = LM0OP
F =
N-0.16 -1Q N1Q
y(k) = cQq(k) = c q(k) = [1 0] q(k)
Controller design:
|zI – ( F – g k)| = z2 + (1 + k2)z + 0.16 + k1
Desired characteristic polynomial: z2 – 1.2z + 0.52;
k = [0.36 – 2.2]
92 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

Observer design:

LM 0 1OP ; g = LM0OP ; c = [1
F =
N- 0.16 -1Q N1Q 0]

## q\$ 2 (k + 1) = Fee q\$ 2 (k) + fe1 y(k) + geu(k) + m(y(k + 1) – f11y(k) – g1u(k)

– f1e q\$ 2 (k))
= – q\$ 2 (k) – 0.16y(k) + my(k + 1) – mu(k) – m q\$ 2 (k)
q~2 (k + 1) = (Fee – mf1e) q~2 (k) = (– 1 – m) q~2 (k)
m = – 1 gives dead-beat response.
q\$ 2 (k + 1) = – 0.16y(k) – y(k + 1) + u(k)
u(k) = – 0.36q1(k) + 2.2 q\$ 2 (k) = – 2.56y(k) – 0.352y(k – 1)
+ 2.2u (k – 1)

## U(z ) 2.56(1 + 0.1375z -1 )

=
-Y ( z) 1 - 2.2 z -1
7.30 Double integrator plant:
x(k + 1) = Fx(k) + gu(k);
y(k) = cx(k)

LM1 T OP ; g = LM T / 2 OP ; c = [1
2
F=
N0 1 Q N T Q 0]

-zw n T ± jw n T 1-z 2
Regulator: z = 0.5; wn = 4, z1,2 = e e = 0.77 ± j0.278
2
Characteristic polynomial: z – 1.54z + 0.67

LM T2 OP
T2
N
|zI – (F – gk)| = z2 + Tk2 +
2
k1 - 2 z +
2Q k1 – Tk2 + 1

k = [13 3.95]
Prediction observer:
Result follows from Example 7.14.

## LM 2 OP ; U(z) = k [zI – (F – gk – mc)] m = 65.5( z - 0.802)

N10Q -Y(z)
–1
m=
z + 0.46 z + 0.26
2

x(k + 1) = M
L1 0.0952OP x(k) + LM0.00484OP u(k); y(k) = [1 0] x(k)
7.31
N0 0.905 Q N 0.0952 Q
SOLUTION MANUAL 93

L1
f(F) = M
0.0952 OP ;2

N0 0.905 Q

L0.00484
Fg] = M
0.0139OP
U = [g
N 0.0952 0.0862Q
Using Ackerman’s formula:
k = [0 1]U–1 f(F) = [105.01 14.648]
Observer design:
z (k + 1) = FTz(k) + cTh(k); h(k) = mTz(k)

LM 1 0 OP 2
f(FT) =
N0.0952 0.905 Q
LM1 1 OP
U = [cT FTcT] =
N0 0.0952 Q
mT = [0 1] U–1 f(FT) = [19 8.6]
Reduced order dead-beat observer:

## LM1 0.0952 OP 0.00484LM OP

F=
N0 0.905 Q
;g=
0.0952 N
; c = [1
Q 0]

~
x 2 (k + 1) = (Fee – mf1e) ~
x 2 (k); Fee = 0.905, f1e = 0.0952
Desired characteristic equation: z = 0; m = 9.51
Refer Equations (7.91)– (7.97)
x\$ 2 (k + 1) = 9.51y(k + 1) – 9.51y(k) + 0.05u(k)
7.32 (a) y& + y = u + w; T = 1 sec; A = – 1, b = 1;

z
T

eAT
= 0.368; g = e -t dt = 0.632
0

## y(k + 1) = 0.368y(k) + 0.632u(k) + 0.632w(k)

-T
(b) Time constant = 0.5 sec; z = et = 0.135
Desired characteristic equation: z – 0.135 = 0
F – gk = 0.368 – 0.632K
|z – (F – gk)| = z – (0.368 – 0.632K) = 0
Comparison with desired characteristic equation gives, K = 0.3687
94 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

1
= – c (F – gk – 1)–1 g; N = 1.37
N
With u(k) = – 0.3687y(k) + 1.37r we have
y(k + 1) = 0.135y(k) + 0.866r + 0.632w(k)
At steady state, with w = 0;
0.866
ys = 0.135ys + 0.866r; ys = r @r
0.865
(c) At steady state, with r = 0;
0.632
ys = 0.135ys + 0.632w; ys = w = 0.73w
0.865
(d) Integral control:
z = 0.5, wn = 4
-zw n T ± jw n T 1-z 2
re±jq = e e = – 0.128 ± j0.043
(z + 0.128 + j0.043) (z + 0.128 – j0.043) = z2 + 0.256z + 0.018
Desired characteristic equation: z2 + 0.256z + 0.018
v(k) = v(k – 1) + y(k) – r

## LM y(k + 1)OP = LM0.368 0OP LMy(k)OP + LM0.632OP u(k) + LM0.632OP w(k) + L 0O r

Nv(k + 1)Q N0.368 1Q Nv(k)Q N0.632Q N0.632Q MN -1PQ
x =M
~ L y - y OP ; ~x (k + 1) = F ~x (k) + gu~ (k)
s

Nv - v Q s

F =M
L0.368 0OP ; g = LM0.632OP ;
N0.368 1Q N0.632Q
|zI – F | = z2 + 0.256z + 0.018

LM0.632 0.2326 OP
U = [g Fg]=
N0.632 0.8646 Q
p1 = [– 1.58 1.58]

LM p OP = LM-1.58
1 1.58 OP
P=
Np F Q N 0
1 1.58 Q
k = [– 0.35 1.624]P = [0.553 2.013]
SOLUTION MANUAL 95

LM0.018 - 1.27 OP
(e) F – g k =
N0.018 - 0.27 Q
With w = 0,

LM y OP = LM0.018 - 1.27OP LM y OP + L 0O r
- 0.27Q N v Q MN -1PQ
s s

Nv Q N0.018
s s

## Solving the above set, we get ys = r

With r = 0:

LM y OP = LM0.018
s - 1.27OP LM y OP + LM0.632OP w
s

Nv Q N0.018
s - 0.27Q N v Q N0.632Q
s

## Solving the above set, we get ys = 0.

CHAPTER 8 LYAPUNOV STABILITY ANALYSIS

## LM 0 1OP . Let us take Q = LM4 0OP = LM2OP [2

8.1 A =
N -1 -2 Q N0 0 Q N 0 Q 0] = HHT

L H OP = r LM2 0OP = 2
rM
T

N H A Q N0 2 Q
T

LM5 2OP
ATP + PA = – Q gives P =
N2 1 Q
Since P is positive definite, the system is asymptotically stable.
Also, V(x) = xTPx Æ • as ||x|| Æ •
Therefore the system is asymptotically stable in-the-large.

LM 0 1OP ; A P + PA = – I
N-1 1Q
T
8.2 A =

LM -3 1 OP
Solving for P, we get: P = M 2 2
PP
MN 12 -1
Q
P is not a positive definite matrix; the system is unstable.
8.3 x1 = x2, x 2 = – x1 – x2 + 2

Equilibrium state xe =
LM x OP
e
1

Nx Q
e
2

LM2OP
0 = x 2e ; 0 = – x1e – x 2e + 2; xe =
N0 Q
Let ~
x1 = x1 – 2, ~ x = A ~
x 2 = x2; then ~ x

LM 3 1 OP
L 0 1O
N-1 -1PQ ; A P + PA = – I gives P = MM 1
A= M PP
T 2 2

N2 1
Q
P is positive definite matrix. Therefore equilibrium state [2 0] T is
asymptotically stable.
SOLUTION MANUAL 97

L7 OP
L- 4 K OP ; A P + PA = – I; P = MM 40 K
1
A= M PP
4K 10 K
N 4K - 6KQ
T
8.4
MN 101K 3
20 K Q
P is positive definite for K > 0; the system is asymptotically stable for
K > 0.
8.5 From Fig. P8.5, we have
x1 = – x1– Kx3; x 2 = x1 – x2; x 3 = x2 – x3

LM-1 0 -K OP
x = Ax; A = 1
MM 0 -1
PP
0 ; ATP + PA = – Q;
N 1 -1 Q
L0 0 OP
Take Q = M0 0
0

MM0 0 2 PQ
P
0 = HHT; HT = [0 0 2]
N
From Lyapunov equation, we obtain,

LM - 3 -3 K -2 OP
MMK--32 PP
1
P= - ( K + 4) - ( K + 4)
( K + 1)( K - 8)
N - ( K + 4) - (5K + 8) Q
-3 3( K + 4) - 9
For P to be positive definite, > 0; > 0,
( K + 1)( K - 8) ( K + 1) 2 ( K - 8) 2
and

LM - 3 -3 K -2 OP
MMK--32 P
1
- ( K + 4) - ( K + 4) >0
- (5 K + 8)PQ
( K + 1)( K - 8)
N - ( K + 4)

## These conditions reduce to the following:

(K + 1) (K – 8) < 0 or K > – 1; K < 8
K>–1
(K + 1)2 (K – 8) < 0; K < 8
Therefore, – 1 < K < 8 will guarantee system stability. It can easily be
examined that Routh criterion gives the same result.
98 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## LM 0.5 1OP ; F PF – P = – I gives P = LM 3.5 2.25 OP

N -1 -1Q N2.25 Q
T
8.6 F =
3.875
P is a positive definite matrix. Therefore system is asymptotically stable.

LM 0 0.5OP ; F PF – P = – I, gives,
N- 0.5 -1Q
T
8.7 F =

LM 52 40 O
27 P
P= M
40 100 P
27
MN 27 27 PQ
P is a positive definite matrix. Therefore, the system is asymptotically
stable.
8.8 x1 = x2; x 2 = – (1 – |x1|) x2 – x1

## For V (x) to be negative definite, (1 – |x1|) > 0 for x2 π 0 or |x1| < 1

V (x) is not identically zero anywhere other than the origin. Therefore, for
|x1| < 1, origin is the equilibrium state and is asymptotically stable.
8.9 x1 = x2; x 2 = – x1 – x12 x2

## V (x) = – 2 x12 x 22 < 0

Therefore origin is the equilibrium state and is asymptotically stable in-
the-large.

LM-3 1 OP
8.10 x1 = – 3x1 + x2; x 2 = x1 – x2 – x 23 ; J =
N1 -1 - 3 x 22 Q
LM 6 -2 OP
Take P = I. Then Q = – (JT + J) =
N-2 2 + 6 x 22 Q
|Q| = 36 x 22 + 8 > 0
Q is positive definite; therefore origin is asymptotically stable.
CHAPTER 9 LINEAR QUADRATIC OPTIMAL CONTROL

## 9.1 The system of Fig. P9.1 is governed by the differential equation:

y + 2z y + y = 0
Defining state variables as x1 = y, x2 = y ,
we obtain the following state equations for the system,

x =
LM 0 1 OP 1 LM OP
N-1 -2z Q
x = Ax; x(0) =
0 NQ
z z L2 0OP ; R = 0; K = 0
• •
2 x (t)dt; Q = M
1
e2(t)dt =
N0 0 Q
2
J= 1
2
0 0

## The Lyapunov equation becomes,

ATP + PA + Q = 0

LM2z + 1 1 OP
Solving for P, we get: P = M
1 P
2z
MM 1 2z PQ
P
N
1
J = xT(0) Px(0) = z +
4z

dJ 1 d2J
=1– = 0; z = 0.5; > 0; Jmin = 1
dz 4z 2 dz 2

Y ( s) K
9.2 The closed-loop transfer function = 2
R ( s) s + a s + K

y + a y + Ky = Kr; y(0) = y (0) = 0
e = r – y; 
e + a e + Ke = 0; x1 = e, x2 = e

x =
LM 0 1 OP 1 LM OP
N- K -a Q
x; x(0) =
0 NQ
z z LM2 0OP ; R = 0; K = 0
• •
J=
0
e2(t)dt =
0
x12 (t)dt; Q =
N0 0 Q
Lyapunov equation: ATP + PA + Q = 0
Solving for P, we get
100 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

LM a + 1 1 OP
P = MK a PP
K ; J = 1 xT (0) Px(0) = a + 1
MN K1 1
Ka
2
Q
2 K 2a

∂J 1 1 ∂2 J
(i) K = constant: = - ;a= K, >0
∂a 2 K 2a 2 ∂a 2

∂J a 1 F
I = 0; K Æ •
(ii) a = constant:
∂K
=
2
- 2
K KH
A=M
L0 1OP ; B = LM0OP ; K = [1 k]; Q = LM1 0OP ;
9.3
N0 0 Q N1 Q N0 1 Q
R = 0; (A – BK) = M
L 0 1 OP ; x(0) = LM1OP
N-1 - k Q N1Q
(A – BK)TP + P(A – BK) + Q = 0
Solving for P we get,

LM k + 2
2
1 OP
P = M 2k PP
2 ; J = 1 xT (0) Px (0) = k + 2k + 4
2

MN 12 1
k Q
2 4k

∂J 3
= 0 gives k = 2; Jmin =
∂k 2
|lI – (A – BK)| = l2 + 2l + 1; l1 = – 1, l2 = – 1.
The system is stable.
For k = 1.5, J = 1.54.
For k = 2, J = 1.5
DJ / J 0.04 / 1.5
Skopt = = = 0.107
Dk / k 0.5 / 2
Y (s ) 100
9.4 = G(s) = 2 ; 
y = 100u; y(0) = y (0) = 0
U ( s) s

x1 = y, x2 = y ; x =
LM0 1OP x + LM 0 OP u
N0 0Q N100Q
u = r – y(t) – K y (t)
Let ~
x1 = y – r = x1 – r, ~
x 2 = y = x2
SOLUTION MANUAL 101

Then u = – ~
x1 – Kx~2 ; K = [1 K]

x = Ax
~ ~ + Bu; ~ -1 LM OP
2 0 LM OP
x (0) =
0
;Q=
N Q
0 0
;R=0
N Q
(A – BK)TP + P(A – BK) + Q = 0
Solving for P, we get,

LM100K + 1 2
1 OP
P = M 100 K 100 PP
MN 1001 1
10 4 K Q
1 ~T 100 K 2 + 1 ∂ J
J= x (0) P ~
x (0) = ; = 0 gives K = 0.1;
2 200 K ∂K

∂2 J
Jmin = 0.1, >0
∂K2
For K = 0.1, J = 0.1.
For K = 0.09, J = 0.100556
DJ / J 0.000556 / 0.1
SKopt = = = 0.0556
DK / K 0.01 / 0.1

## LM0 1OP ; B = LM0OP ; K = [k LM 0 1 OP

9.5 A =
N0 0 Q N1 Q 1 k2]; (A – BK) =
N-k 1 -k Q 2

Closed-loop system: x = M
L0 OP x or x
1
= x2; x 2 = – k1x1 – k2x2
N- k 1 -k Q 2
1

## Eliminating x2 from this equation yields 

x1 + k2 x1 + k1x1 = 0
Since the undamped natural frequency is specified as 2 rad/sec, we obtain
k1 = 4.

## LM 0 1 OP ; R = 0; Q = LM1 0OP ; x(0) = LM1OP

Therefore, (A – BK) =
N- 4 -k Q 2 N0 1 Q N0 Q
T
(A – BK) P + P(A – BK) + Q = 0
Solving for P, we get

LM 5 k2 OP
LM OP
1
+
P= M PP
2k 8 8 1 T 1 5 k ∂J
+ 2 ;
MM N Q
2 ;J= x (0) Px(0) = =0
1 5 ∂ k2
PQ
2 2 2 k2 8
N 8 8 k2
102 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

∂2 J
gives k2 = 20 ; >0
∂ k 22

5
For this value of k2 : Jmin =
4

## LM0 1 OP ; B = LM0OP ; K = [k k]; (A – BK) = LM 0 1 OP

9.6 A =
N0 0Q N1 Q N- k -k Q
Q= M
L2 0O
P2Q ; R = 0; x(0) = LMN0OPQ
1
N0
(A – BK)TP + P (A – BK) + Q = 0
Solving for P we get

LM1 + 2k 1 OP
P= M k PP
k 1 1 ∂J
; J = xT (0) Px (0) = 1 + ; =0
MN 1k 2( k + 1)
2k 2 Q
2 2k ∂ k

gives k Æ •
LM2 0OP ; R = 2
9.7 (A – BK)TP + P(A – BK) + KTRK + Q = 0; Q =
N0 2 Q
Solving Lyapunov equation, we get

LM (k + 1) 2
1+ k2 OP
P= M k
MM 1 + k 2
k
(1 + k )(1 + k )
2 ;J= PP
(1 + k ) 2 ∂ J
;
∂k
= 0 gives k = 1; Jmin = 2
PQ
2k
N k k2
For k = 1, J = 2.
For k = 0.9, J = 2.0055.
DJ / J 0.0055 / 2
Skopt = = = 0.0275
Dk / k 0.1 / 1

## LM0 1OP ; B = LM0OP ; u = – Kx; Q = LM2 0OP ; R = 2

9.8 A =
N0 0 Q N1 Q N0 2 Q
{A, B} pair is controllable, and Q is positive definite.
Matrix Ricatti equation is: ATP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0
Solving for P, we get,
LM2 3 2 OP ; K = R –1

N2 3Q
P= BP = [1 3]
2
SOLUTION MANUAL 103

## 9.9 The matrix Ricatti equation is: ATP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0

LM2 0OP = H H = LM 2 OP [ LM H OP = 2
N0 0 Q NHAQ
T

N0Q
Q= 2 0]; r

## {A, H} pair is observable. Sufficient conditions satisfied.

Solving the Ricatti equation, we get

LM2 2 2 OP ; K = R –1

N2 2Q
P= BP = [1 2 ];
2
|lI – (A – BK)| = l2 + 2 l + 1
The roots of this equation are in the left half of the complex plane. The
optimal closed-loop system is therefore stable.

## LM0 0OP ; B = LM1OP ; Q = LM2 0OP ; R = 2

9.10 A =
N0 1Q N1Q N0 0Q
{A, B} pair is controllable.

Q = HTH =
LM 2 OP [
N0Q
2 0]

## {A, H} pair is not observable. Sufficient conditions not satisfied.

Solving the Ricatti equation, ATP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, we get

LM 6 -8OP
P=
N-8 16 Q
; K = R–1BTP = [– 1 4]

|lI – (A – BK)| = l2 + 2l + 1
Optimal closed-loop system is asymptotically stable:
u = – Kx = – [– 1 4]x
LM-1 0OP ; B = LM1OP ; Q = LM2 0OP ; R = 2
9.11 A =
N 1 0 Q N0 Q N0 0 Q
{A, B} pair is controllable.

Q = HTH =
LM 2 OP [
N0Q
2 0]

## {A, H} pair is not observable. Sufficient conditions not satisfied.

Solving Ricatti equation, A TP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, we get
1 2 1 -1 2
2(– p11 + p12) – p11 + 2 = 0; – p12 + p22 – p11p12 = 0; p12 = 0
2 2 2
This gives p11 = p22 = 0. Therefore a positive definite solution of the
Ricatti equation is not possible. Hence an optimal solution to the control
problem does not exist.
104 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

LM0 OP LM OP z

1 0 1
9.12 x =
N0 -2 Q N Q
x+
20
u; y = x1; J =
2
0
[y(t) – 1]2 + u2dt; yd = r = 1

Let ~
x1 = x1 – r = x1 – 1; ~
x 2 = x2. Then

x =
~ LM
0 1 ~ 0OP
u = A~
LM OP
N
0 -2
x +
20 Q N Q
x + Bu;

1 ~2
z 1 0 LM OP
N Q
J= ( x1 + u2)dt; Q = ;R=1
20 0 0
{A, B} pair is controllable

LM1OP [1
Q=
N0 Q 0] = HTH. {A, H} pair is observable.

ATP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0
Solving for P, we get

LM 6.63 0.05 OP
P = M 20
4.63 P ; K = R
–1 T
B P = [1 0.23]
MN 0.05 400 Q
P
u = –K ~
x = – x1 – 0.23x2 + r

## LM0 1OP ; B = LM0OP ; C = LM1 0OP

9.13 A =
N0 0 Q N1 Q N0 2 Q
z z z
• • •
1 1 1
J= 2 ( y12 + y 22 + u2)dt = 2 (yTy + u2)dt = (xTCTCx + u2)dt
2 2 2
0 0 0

LM2 0OP ; R = 2
Q=
N0 8 Q
{A, B} pair is controllable. Q is positive definite.
Solving Ricatti equation, A TP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, we get

LM 24 2 OP ; K = R B P = [1 6 ]; u = – x
–1 T

N 2 24 Q
P= 1 – 6 x2

A= M
L0 1OP ; B = LM0OP ; Q = LM2 0OP ; R = 2
9.14
N0 -1Q N1Q N0 2Q
Solving Ricatti equation, A TP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, we get
SOLUTION MANUAL 105

LM 4 2OP ; K = R
N2 2Q
–1 T
P= B P = [1 1]

m1 LM OP
m2
; C = [1
N Q 0]

## |lI – (A – MC)| = l2 + (1 + m1)l + (m1 + m2) = 0

If the poles of the observer are to lie at s = – 3, the desired characteristic
equation is l2 + 6l + 9 = 0. Comparing the coefficients, we get
m1 = 5, m2 = 4; u = – x1 – x 2

x = A x + Bu + M[y – C x ]; M =
5 LM OP
4 NQ
9.15 State variable description of the system, obtained from Fig. P9.15, is given
by

## LM0 1 OP x + LM0OP u; x(0) = LM0OP ; y = [1

x =
N0 -5 Q N1 Q N0 Q 0]x

## In terms of the shifted state variables, ~

x1 = x1 – qr; ~
x 2 = x2, the model
becomes

x =
~ 0 LM
1 ~ 0 OP
u = A~
LM OP
0 -5Nx +
1 Q
x + Bu
NQ
The problem is to determine optimal control law, u = – K ~
x , that mini-
mizes

z FH I

1
K
J= ~
x12 + u 2 dt
2
0

## From this J, we obtain the following matrices:

LM2 0OP ; R = 1
Q=
N0 0 Q
The pair {A, B} is controllable.

Q = HTH =
LM 2 OP [
N0Q
2 0]. The pair {A, H} is observable.

## Solving the matrix Ricatti equation, ATP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0,

we get
106 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

LM7.495 2 OP
N 2 0.275Q
P=

## The optimal gain matrix is K = R–1BTP = [ 2 0.275]

The matrix (A – BK) is stable.
The minimum value of J for an initial condition ~
x (0) = [– 5 0]T is,
1 ~T ~( 0 ) = 93.2375
J0 = x ( 0)Px
2

## LM0 1 OP ; B = LM0OP ; Q = LM2 0OP ; R = 2r.

9.16 A =
N0 -5Q N1Q N0 0Q
Solving Ricatti equation, A TP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, we get

LM F 2 I OP
M 2r GH 25 + r JK
1/ 2
2 r 1/ 2
PP
P= M
MM 2r F 2 IP
1/ 2
GH
2 r - 5 + 25 + JP
r KP
NM Q
Case (i): r = 0.1

LM3.5397 0.6325 OP
P=
N0.6325 0.1194 Q
; K = R–1BTP = [3.1623 0.5968]

## Poles: – 0.6377, – 4.9592

Case (ii): r = 0.01

LM1.3416 0.2 OP
P=
N 0.2 0.0342 Q
; K = [10 1.7082]

## Poles: – 2.2361, – 4.4721

Case (iii): r = 0.001

LM0.5941 0.0632 OP
P=
N0.0632 0.0088 Q
; K = [31.6228 4.3939]

## Poles: – 4.6970 ± j3.0921

x = A ~
9.17 ~ x + Bu; u = –K ~ x = – [k1 k2] ~x
The constraint of partial state feedback can be met by setting k2 = 0 in the
optimization problem.
For the problem under consideration, the Lyapunov equation is,
(A – BK)TP + P(A – BK) + KTRK + Q = 0
SOLUTION MANUAL 107

## Solving for P we get,

LM (25 + k )(2 + k )
1
2
1 2 + k12 OP
P= M PP
10k 2 k1
MM + k
1
2 + k12
PQ
2
2
N 2k
1

1 10 k1

## For an initial condition ~

x (0) = [– 5 0]T, the performance index has the
value:

1 ~T 25( 25 + k1 )( 2 + k12 ) ∂ J
J= x (0)P ~
x (0) = ; = 0 gives k1 = 1.345;
2 20k1 ∂ k1

∂2 J
>0
∂ k12
Jmin = 93.26
The matrix (A – BK) is stable.
9.18 From Fig. P9.18, we obtain,
y = – y + u + w; y(0) = 0
Let ys and us be steady-state values (assuming w = 0 for the time being).
At steady state: 0 = – ys + us
The steady-state equation can now be expressed as,

z

y = – ~
~ y + u~ , where ~
y = y – ys, u~ = u – us; J = (~
y 2 + u~ 2 )dt
0

(a) A = – 1, B = 1, Q = 2, R = 2
ATP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, gives P2 + 4P – 4 = 0
P = 2 2 – 2; K = R–1BTP = 2 – 1
(b) u – us = – K(y – ys)
u = – Ky + Nr; Kys + us = Nr
1
N –1 = – C (A – BK)–1 B = ;N= 2
2
Y ( s) 1 1 1
(c) From Fig. P9.18, = = ; W(s) = ;
W ( s) s + 1 + K s + 2 s
1
Y(s) =
s( s + 2 )
1
Steady-state error due to disturbance: lim sY (s) = .
s Æ0 2
108 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

(d) y = – y + u; z = y – r

LMyOP = L-1 0O L yO + L1 O u + L 0O r
NzQ MN 1 0PQ MN z PQ MN0PQ MN-1PQ
At steady state y = z = 0, and therefore

## LM 0OP r = – LM-1 0OP LM y OP + LM1OPu

s

N-1Q N 1 0Q N z Q N0Q s
s

## LM~y OP = L-1 0O L~y O + L1Ou~

N~z Q MN 1 0PQ MN~z PQ MN0PQ
~ z = z – zs; u~ = u – us
y = y – ys; ~

z

J= (~
y2 + ~
z 2 + u~ 2 ) dt
0

## LM-1 0OP ; B = LM1OP ; Q = LM2 0OP ; R = 2

A=
N 1 0 Q N0 Q N0 2 Q
This shifted regulator problem has already been solved in Example
9.8. The matrix, K = [1 1]

z
t
Therefore, u(t) = – y(t) – [y(t) – r]dt
0

(e) Block diagram of the control scheme is shown in the figure that
follows:

## Block diagram manipulation gives (for r = 0)

Y ( s) s 1 1
= ; W(s) = ; Y(s) =
W ( s) ( s + 1) 2
s ( s + 1) 2
Steady-state error: lim sY (s) = 0
s Æ0
SOLUTION MANUAL 109

## 9.19 (a) w = – 0.5w + 100u

Let ws and us be the steady-state values. At steady state:
0 = – 0.5ws + 100us
The state equation can now be expressed as:
~ = – 0.5w
w ~ + 100 u~

where, w~ = w – w ; u~ = u – u
s s

z

J= ~ 2 + 100u~ 2 ) dt
(w
0

## A = – 0.5, B = 100, Q = 2, R = 200

Solving Ricatti equation for P: ATP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, we get
– P – 50P2 + 2 = 0. This gives P = 0.19; K = R–1BTP = 0.095.
Now, u~ = – 0.095w~ ; u = – 0.095w + 0.095w + u ; u + 0.095w = Nr
s s s s
N –1 = – C(A – BK)–1 B = 10, N = 0.1
The control law, therefore, is u = – 0.095w + 0.1r
The closed-loop system becomes: w = – 0.5w + 100u = – 10w + 10r
At steady-state: w = 0, w (•) = r
(b) A = – 0.5, A + dA = – 0.6
w = – 0.6w + 100u = – 0.6w + 100(– 0.095w + 0.1r) = – 10.1w + 10r
10
At steady-state: w (•) = r
10.1
(c) z = w – r
LMw OP = LM- 0.5 0OP LMw OP + LM100OP u + L 0O r
N z Q N 1 0Q N z Q N 0 Q MN -1PQ
At steady-state: w = 0, z = 0. Therefore,

## LM 0OP r = – LM- 0.5 0OP LMw OP – LM100OP u

N-1Q N 1 0Q N z Q N 0 Q
s
s
s

equations,

## LMw~ OP = L- 0.5 0O Lw~ O + L100O u~

MN ~z PQ MN 1 0PQ MN ~z PQ MN 0 PQ
~ = w – w , ~z = z – z , u~ = u – u
w s s s
110 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

z LM OP LM OP

~2 + ~ 2 0 - 0.5 0
z 2 + 100u~ 2 ) dt; Q =
J=
0
(w
0 2 N Q
; R = 200; A =
1 N 0
;
Q
LM100OP
B=
N0Q
ATP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, gives

LM0.21 0.2 OP ; K = R
N 0.2 Q
–1 T
P= B P = [0.105 0.1]
2.2

z
t
u(t) = – 0.105w(t) – 0.1 [w (t) – r]dt
0

## The control scheme is shown in figure that follows.

100
For G(s) = , the closed-loop transfer function is:
s+a
w( s ) 10.5
=
R( s) s( s + 10 + a) + 10.5
1
For R(s) = , we have w (•) = lim sw ( s) = 1
s s Æ0

## Therefore, for A + d A = a, the steady-state error is zero.

9.20 F = 1, G = 1, Q = 2, R = 1.5
From Lyapunov equation, (F – GK)TP(F – GK) – P + KTRK + Q = 0,
we get

2 + 1.5 K 2
P=
2K - K 2

1 T 1 + 0.75K 2
J= x (0) Px (0) = {x(0)}2
2 2K - K 2
∂J 2
= 0 gives K = .
∂K 3
SOLUTION MANUAL 111

## For K = 0.67, J = 1.499.

For K = 0.57, J = 1.526.
DJ / J 0.027 / 1.499
SKopt = = = 0.1207
DK/ K 0.1 / 0.67
9.21 x(k + 1) = 0.368x(k) + 0.632u(k)

J= Â [x2(k) + u2(k)]; F = 0.368, G = 0.632, Q = 2, R = 2
k= 0

## From matrix Ricatti equation, P = Q + FTPF – FTPG(R + GTPG)–1GTPF,

we get
0.3994P2 + 0.9304P – 4 = 0
P = 2.207; K = (R + GTPG)–1GTPF = 0.178; u(k) = – 0.178x(k)

## 9.22 Gh0G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z

RS 1 UV = 1 - e -T

T s(s + 1) W z - e -T

0.4 Y (z)
For T = 0.5, Gh0G(z) = = ; y(k + 1) = 0.6y(k) + 0.4u(k)
z - 0.6 U ( z )
(a) Let ys and us be the steady-state-values. At steady-state,
ys = 0.6ys + 0.4us
Substituting in the state equation,
~ y (k) + 0.4u~ (k)
y (k + 1) = 0.6 ~
y = y – ys, u~ = u – us
where ~

Â
1 ~
J= y 2 ( k ) + u~ 2 (k); F = 0.6, G = 0.4, Q = 1, R = 1
2 k=0

## The Ricatti equation P = Q + FTPF – FTPG(R + GTPG)–1GTPF gives,

0.16P2 + 0.48P – 1 = 0; P = 1.415
K = (R + GTPG)–1GTPF = 0.277
(b) The closed-loop system is described by the equation,
y(k + 1) = 0.6y(k) + 0.4[0.277 (r – y(k)] = 0.4892y(k) + 0.1108r
0.1108
At steady-state, y(•) = ys = r = 0.217r
0.5108
(c) N–1 = – C(F – GK – I )–1G = – (0.6 – 0.4 × 0.277 – 1)–1 × 0.4;
N = 1.277
The closed-loop system is,
y(k + 1) = 0.6y(k) + 0.4[– 0.277y(k) + 1.277r]
= 0.4892y(k) + 0.5108r
112 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

0.5108
y(•) = r=r
0.5108
9.23 (a) x(k + 1) = 0.5x(k) + 2u(k) = Fx(k) + Gu(k)
Let xs and us be the steady-state values. At steady state,
xs = 0.5xs + 2us
Substituting in the state equation, we get
~
x (k + 1) = 0.5 ~
x (k) + 2 u~ (k)
where ~
x (k) = x(k) – xs , u~ (k) = u(k) – us

Â
1 ~
J= x 2 ( k ) + u~ 2 ( k ) ; F = 0.5, G = 2, Q = 1, R = 1
2 k=0

## The matrix Ricatti equation,

P = Q + FTPF – FTPG(R + GTPG)–1GTPF yields,
4P2 – 3.25P – 1 = 0; P = 1.0505; K = (R + GTPG)–1 GTPF = 0.2
(b) u~ (k) = – K ~
x (k)
u(k) = – Kx(k) + Kxs + us = – Kx(k) + Nr
where,
Kxs + us = Nr
N–1 = – C(F – GK – I)–1G; N = 0.45
u(k) = – 0.2x(k) + 0.45r
The closed-loop system becomes: x(k + 1) = 0.1x(k) + 0.9r.
At steady-state, x(•) = r
(c) Let
F + dF = 0.3
x(k + 1) = 0.3x(k) + 2u(k)
then, x(k + 1) = 0.3x(k) – 0.4x(k) + 0.9r = – 0.1x(k) + 0.9r
0.9
At steady state, x(•) = r
11
.
(d) Add to the plant equation, an integrator equation,
v(k) = v(k – 1) + x(k) – r where v(k) is the state of the integrator. A
control law of the form, u(k) = – K1x(k) – K2v(k) will provide the
required robustness. Refer Fig. 7.17 for the control structure.
CHAPTER 10 NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS

10.1 Describing functions of some entries of Table 10.2 have been derived in
Section 10.4 and Section 10.11.
10.2 Revisiting Example 10.1 (Fig. 10.19) will be helpful.
4 1 -pE
G(jw) = ;- =
jw (1 + jw ) 2
N ( E) 4M
– 90∞ – 2 tan–1 w1 = – 180∞
This gives w1 = 1 rad/sec

1
-
a f
N E1
= |G(jw1)| = 2

## This gives E1 = 8M/p

8M
y(t) = – e(t) = –
sin t
p
10.3 Revisiting Example 10.1 (Fig. 10.22) will be helpful.

G(jw) =
5
; N(E) =
4
1- FH 0 .1 IK 2

jw (1 + j 0 .1w ) 2
pE E
– 90∞ – 2 tan–1 0.1w1 = – 180∞
This gives w1 = 10 rad/sec.
For a stable limit cycle, 2 D < E < • ; D = 0.1

1

a f
N E1
= |G(jw1)| = 0.25

## This gives E1 = 0.3

Amplitude of limit cycle is 0.3 and frequency is 10 rad/sec.

## 10.4 Revisiting Example 10.1 (Fig. 10.22) will be helpful.

For a limit cycle to exist, 2 D < E < • ; D = 0.2
–G(jw1) = – 180∞ for w1 = 10.95. |G(jw1)| = 0.206

1
|G(jw1)| π - for any value of E
N ( E)
The intersection of the two curves does not occur; therefore no limit cycle
exists.
Intersection of the two curves occurs for
114 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

pD
< 0.206 or D < 0.131
2
10
10.5 G(jw) =
(1 + j 0 . 4w ) (1 + j 2w )

4 LM 1- FH H IK 2
- j
H OP
N (E) =
pE MN E E PQ
; H = 0.2

-1
The following figure shows G(jw)-plot and locus.
N ( E)
Im

Re
pH
4

E increasing -1 E=H
N(E)

G( jw)

-1
At the point of intersection of G(jw)-plot with locus, measure the
N(E)
angle of G(jw). This comes out to be –115.7∞.
–G(jw1) = – tan–1 0.1w1 – tan–1 2w1 = – 115.7∞
This gives w1 = 5.9 rad/sec
|G(jw1)| = 0.33

1 p E1
-
a f
N E1
=
4
= 0.33

## This gives E1 = 0.42

K
10.6 G( jw) =
jw (1 + jw ) 2

2 LM p - sin -1 1
-
1
1- FH 1 IK 2 OP
N(E) =
p MN 2 E E E PQ
SOLUTION MANUAL 115

2 LM
sin -1
1 1 1 OP = 1 – N (E)
=1-
p N E
+
E
1-
E2 Q c

## The function Nc(E) is listed in Table 10.3.

For any K > 0, one of the following can happen.
-1
(i) G(jw)-plot does not intersect locus
N(E)
-1
(ii) G(jw)-plot intersects the locus; but the point of intersection
N(E)
corresponds to an unstable limit cycle.

## 10.7 Revisiting Review Example 10.3 (Fig. 10.40) will be helpful.

10
G(jw) =
a fa
jw 1 + jw 1 + j 0 .5w f
2 L OP = N (E)
p MN
-1 1 1 1
N(E) = sin
E
+
E
1-
E2 Q c

## The function Nc(E) is listed in Table 10.3.

–G(jw1) = – 180° gives w1 = 2

-1
|G(jw1)| =
N E1a f gives E1 = 4.25

The limit cycle with amplitude 4.25 and frequency 2 rad/sec is a stable
limit cycle.

## 10.8 Revisiting Example 10.2 (Fig. 10.24) will be helpful.

K
G(jw) =
jw (1 + jw ) (1 + j 0 . 5w )
-1
For K = 1, G(jw)-plot does not intersect locus. For K = 2, two
N(E)
intersection points are found. One corresponds to unstable limit cycle and
the other corresponds to a stable limit cycle of amplitude 3.75 and
10.9 (a) Characteristic equation has two real, distinct roots in the left half of
s-plane.
The origin in the (y, y ) plane is a stable node.

d 2 ( y - 1) d ( y - 1)
(b) 2
+5 + 6(y – 1) = 0
dt dt
116 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

The singular point is located at (1, 0) in the (y, y ) plane. The charac-
teristic equation is
s2 + 5s + 6 = 0 = (s + 3) (s + 2)
The singular point is a stable node.

(c)
a
d2 y - 2
-8
f
d y-2 a f
+ 17(y – 2) = 0
2
dt dt
The singular point is located at (2, 0) in the (y, y ) plane. The charac-
teristic equation is
s2 – 8s + 17 = 0 with complex roots in right half s-plane. The singular
point is an unstable focus.

## 10.10 e = f(qR – q) = sin (qR – q) = sin (– q)

q + aq + K sin q = 0
With x1 = q and x2 = q , we have
x 1 = x 2
x 2 = – K sin x1 – ax2
Singular points are given by the solution of the equations
x2 = 0
– K sin x1 – a x2 = 0
This gives x1 = kp; k in an integer. We therefore have multiple singular
points.
Linearized equation around singular point (0, 0):
q + aq + Kq = 0
The characteristic equation is
s2 + as + K = 0
The singular point is stable and is either a node or a focus depending upon
the magnitudes of a and K.
Linearization about the singular point (p, 0) gives
q + aq – Kq = 0
The characteristic equation is
s2 + as – K = 0
The singular point is a saddle point.

d 2 ( y - 1) d ( y - 1)
10.11 2
+ 2z +y–1=0
dt dt
SOLUTION MANUAL 117

## (i) z = 0; singularity (1, 0) on (y, y ) plane is a centre

(ii) z = 0.15; singularity (1, 0) on (y, y ) plane is a stable focus.

## 10.12 Revisiting Example 10.4 (Fig. 10.34) will be helpful.

ch
Jq + Tc sgn q = KA K1 e; e = qR – q
Therefore

K T
e + e + c sgn ( e ) = 0; K = KAK1
J J

LM Tc OP

e + w 2n e +
N K Q
sgn ( e ) = 0; wn = K/J

## With x1 = e and x2 = e /wn, we have

x1 = wn x2

LM Tc
a fOPQ
x 2 = – wn x1 +
N K
sgn w n x 2

For Tc = 0, we have
x1 = wn x2; x 2 = – wn x1
d x2 x
= – 1 ; this gives x12 + x 22 = x 21 (0)
d x1 x2
The effect of the Coulomb friction is to shift the centre of the circles in
phase plane to + Tc/K for x2 < 0 and to – Tc/K for x2 > 0. The steady-state
error found from phase trajectory is – 0.2 rad. From the phase trajectory,
we see that
(a) the system is obviously stable for all initial conditions and inputs; and
(b) maximum steady-state error = ± 0.3 rad.

x1 = x2

## R|- x a - 1 < x < 1f

; Region I
- 2a x - 1f ; Region II a x > 1f
2 1
x 2 = S- x
|T- x 2

## 2 - 2a x + 1f ; Region III a x < - 1f

1

1
1

From the phase portrait shown in the figure below, it is seen that the
system is stable in the equilibrium zone.
118 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

10.14 Revisiting Review Example 10.6 (Fig. 10.42) will be helpful. The system
equation in the linear range is

e + e + e = 0
The characteristic equation
s2 + s + 1 = 0
has complex roots in left half of s-plane. Therefore, on the (e, e ) plane, the
origin is a stable focus.
The system equation in saturation region is

e + e = sgn (e)
The trajectories are asymptotic to the ordinates – 1 and + 1 depending on
whether the error is +ve or – ve.
From the phase trajectories plotted from the given initial conditions (with
and without saturation) we find that velocity is always greater for trajecto-
ries without saturation; thus the error saturation has a slowing down effect
on the transient.

## 10.15 With x1 = e, x2 = e and u = f (e), we have

x1 = x2
x 2 = – x2 – f (x1)
Without hysteresis, the system behaviour is oscillatory with decreasing
(tending towards zero) period and amplitude of oscillations (refer Fig.
10.32). With hysteresis, the system enters into a limit cycle, as is shown in
the figure below.
SOLUTION MANUAL 119

10.16 (a) 
e = – u = – f(e); x1 = e, x2 = e
The trajectories corresponding to x1 > 0 are given by (refer Eqns
(10.24))
1 2 1
x1(t) = – x 2 (t) + x1(0) + x 22 (0)
2 2
and trajectories for x1 < 0 are given by
1 2 1
x1(t) = x 2 (t) + x1(0) – x 22 (0)
2 2
The system response is a limit cycle as shown in the figure.
(b) 
e = – u = – f (e + KD e ); x1 = e, x2 = e
The trajectories corresponding to (x1 + KD x2) > 0 are given by
1 2 1
x1(t) = – x 2 (t) + x1(0) + x 22 (0)
2 2
and the trajectories corresponding to (x1 + KD x2) < 0 are given by
1 2 1
x1(t) = x 2 (t) + x1(0) – x 22 (0)
2 2
With derivative feedback, the limit cycle gets eliminated as shown in
the figure.
120 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

(c) Constructing a trajectory for the case of large KD proves the point. An
illustrative trajectory is shown in the figure.

x2 x2

Switching
line

x1 x1

1
Slope = -
Trajectory KD
Trajectory

x2

Switching
line
x1

Trajectory

## 10.17 q + 0.5q = 2 sgn(e + 0.5q )

With x1 = e and x2 = e , we have
x1 = x2
x 2 = – 0.5x2 – 2 sgn(x1 + 0.5 x2)
As seen from the phase trajectory in the figure, the system has good damp-
ing, no oscillations but exhibits chattering behaviour. Steady-state error is
zero.
SOLUTION MANUAL 121

qR = const + e + 2 1 q 1 q
-2 s + 0.5 s
- -

0.5

x2

2
1 x1

x1 + 0.5 x2 = 0

## 10.18 (a) With x1 = e, x2 = e and u = f(e), we have

x1 = x2
x 2 = – x2 – f(x1)
The system oscillates with everdecreasing amplitude and everin-
creasing frequency (refer Fig. 10.32).
122 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

## (i) Deadzone provides damping; oscillations get reduced.

(ii) Deadzone introduces steady-state error; maximum error = ± 0.2.
(c) x1 = x2
SOLUTION MANUAL 123

F 1 I
H
x 2 = – x2 – f x1 +
3
x2
K
A rough sketch of the phase trajectory is shown in the figure. By
derivative control action (i) settling time is reduced, but (ii) chattering
effect appears.
10.19 Section 10.10 provides solution to this problem. Optimum switching curve
is given by Eqns (10.48). Figure 10.37 shows a few trajectories.
10.20 
e + e = – u; x1 = e, x2 = e
For u = +1 (refer Eqns (10.26))

FG 1 + x IJ
H 1 + x ( 0) K
2
x1 – x1(0) = – (x2 – x2(0)) + ln
2

## The trajectories are asymptotic to the ordinate – 1.

For u = – 1

FG 1 - x IJ
H 1 + x ( 0) K
2
x1 – x1(0) = – (x2 – x2(0)) – ln
2

## The trajectories are asymptotic to the ordinate +1.

For x1(0) = x2(0) = 0,
x1 = – x2 + ln (1 + x2); u = + 1
x1 = – x2 – ln (1 – x2); u = – 1
Switch curve is given by

x2 FG x2 IJ
x1 = – x2 +
| x2 | H
ln 1 + 2
| x2 | K
The figure given below shows the switching curve and a few typical mini-
mum-time trajectories.
CHAPTER 11 NEURAL NETWORKS FOR CONTROL

11.4 E =
1
2
b
0.4 - s ( -3w + w0 )) 2 + (0.8 - s (2 w + w0 )
2
g
∂E
= 0
∂w
= – [(0.4 – s (–3w + w0)) s (–3w + w0) (1 – s (–3w + w0)) (–3)
+ (0.8 – s (2w + w0)) s (2w + w0) (1 – s (2w + w0))(2)]
= – [–3x + 2y]
∂E
= 0 = – [x + y]
∂w0
This gives x = y = 0
a0.4 - s (-3w + w )fa1 - s (-3w + w )fs ( -3w + w ) = 0
0 0 0
s ( a ) = 0 only at a Æ -•
s ( a ) = 1 only at a Æ +•
Therefore
s (– 3w + w0) = 0.4
which gives
–3w + w0 = – 0.41
The equation y = 0 gives
s (2w + w0) = 0.8
or, 2w + w0 = 1.386
Solving for w and w0, we get
w = 0.36, w0 = 0.666
FG Â w
n
IJ
H + wlh01
K
h1
11.5 zl = s li x i
i =1

FG Â w z + w IJ
m

H K
h1 h1
tr = s rl l r0
l =1

Â bv t + v g
p
y j = jr r j0
r =1
vjr (k + 1) = vjr (k) + h tr ej (k)
vj0 (k + 1) = vj0 (k) + h ej (k)
ej (k) = yj - y j (k)
q
wrlh2 ( k + 1) = wrlh2 ( k ) + h t r (1 - tr ) zl Â v jr e j ( k )
j =1
SOLUTION MANUAL 125

q
wrh02 ( k + 1) = wrh02 ( k ) + h tr (1 - tr ) Â v jr e j ( k )
j =1

+ 1) = wli ( k ) + h xi zl (1 - zl )
LMÂ e Â v
q p OP
jr wrl tr (1 - tr )
MN PQ
h1 h2
wlih1 ( k j
j =1 r =1

wlh01 ( k + 1) = wlh01 ( k ) + h zl (1 - zl )
LMÂ e Â v
q p OP
jr wrl tr (1 - t r )
MN PQ
h2
j
j =1 r =1

2 1 - e-a
11.6 (a) s (a) = -a - =
1
1+ e 1 + e-a
(1 - s ( a ))(1 + s ( a )) ds ( a )
s ¢(a) = =
2 da
Network Output:
FG Â w x IJ ; x
n
y ( k ) = s
H
i= 0 K
i i 0 =1

## Weight update rule:

wi (k + 1) = wi ( k ) +
h
2
b
( y - y ( k ) ) 1 - y 2 ( k ) x i g
4
(b) a(1) = Â w i xi (1 ) = 1 + 2 – 0.5 = 2.5
i =1

## y (1) = s [a(1)] = 0.848

w (1) = w (0) +
h
2
( -1 - 0.848 ) 1 - ( 0.848) 2 x (1) c h
= [0.974, – 0.948, 0, 0.526]
M
b
(c) y (1) = s w1 x1( 1) + w2 x 2 (1) + w3 x 3 (1) + w4 x 4 (1) = 0.8483 g
e(1) = y(1) – y (1) = –1.8483
y ( 2 ) = – 0.7616; e(2) = – 0.2384
y ( 3 ) = – 0.8483; e(3) = 1.8483
LM Â x
3
( p) ( p) b1 - ( y ( p) 2
) g OP
N Q
w1(1) = w1(0) + h 1 e
p =1 2
= 1.0518
M
FG Â w x + w IJ ; l = 1, 2
2
11.7 (a) zl = s
Hi =1 K
li i l0
126 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

FG Â v z + v IJ
2
y = s
H
l =1
l l
K 0

e = y – y
vl (k + 1) = vl (k) + 0.1e (k) zl (k) y (k) [1 – y (k)]
v0 (k + 1) = v0 (k) + 0.1e (k) y (k) [1 – y (k)]
wli (k + 1) = wli (k) + 0.1xi (k) e (k) y (k) [1 – y (k)] zl (k) [1 – zl (k)]
wlo (k + 1) = wlo(k) + 0.1e (k) y (k) [1 – y (k)] zl (k) [1 – zl (k)]
1 - (s ( a )) 2 ds ( a )
11.8 s ¢(a) = =
2 da
zl = s (wl x + wl0); l = 1, 2, …, m
FG Â v z + v IJ
m
y = s
H l =1 K
l l 0

e(k) = y – y (k)

vl (k + 1) = vl ( k ) + b h
2
g
e( k ) 1 - y 2 ( k ) zl ( k )

v (k + 1) = v ( k ) + e( k )b1 - y ( k ) g
h 2
0 0
2

w (k + 1) = w ( k ) + e( k ) b1 - y ( k )g v ( k )b1 - z ( k ) g x ( k )
h 2 2
l l l l
4

w (k + 1) = w ( k ) + e( k )b 1 - y ( k ) g v ( k )b 1 - z ( k ) g
h 2 2
l0 l0 l l
4
CHAPTER 12 FUZZY CONTROL

12.7

mR

3 FH 1 IK + 4 FH 1 IK + 5 FH 1 IK + 6 FH 1 IK + 7 FH 1 IK + 7.5 FH 3 IK + 8 FH 3 IK + 9 FH 3IK
4 4 4 2 2 4 4 8
FH IK + FH IK + FH IK + FH IK + FH IK + FH IK + FH IK + FH IK
*
12.11 z =
1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3
4 4 4 2 2 4 4 8
= 6.76
12.12 Crisp value for speed =
1600 ( 0.9) + 1700 ( 0.9) + 1800 ( 0.9) + 1900 (0.8) + 2000 (0.7)
+ 2100 ( 0.5) + 2200 ( 0.3) + 2300 ( 0.15) + 2400 ( 0 )
0.9 + 0.9 + 0.9 + 0.8 + 0.7 + 0.5 + 0.3 + 0.15
= 1857.28
12.13 x = 4; y = 8
FG IJ F I
~ K H K
a1 = min m A1 ( 4 ), m B2 ( 8) = min 2 , 1 = 2
H ~ 3 3
F I
a = min G m ( 4 ), m (8)J = min F 1 , 2 I = 1
H ~ ~ K H 3 3K 3
2 A2 B2

F I F2 I
min G a , m ( z )J = min G , m ( z )J
H ~ K 1 C1
H3 ~ K C1

F1
min (a , m ( z )) = min G , m ( z )J
I
~
2 C2
H3 K C2
~

R F2 I F1 IU
m (z) = m ( z ) = max S min G , m ( z )J , min G , m ( z )J V
agg
~
C1
T H 3 ~ K H 3 ~ KW C1 C2
128 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS

2 FH 1 IK + 3 FH 2 IK + 4 FH 2 IK + 5 FH 2 IK + 6 FH 1 IK + 7 FH 1 IK + 8 FH 1 IK
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
z* =
FH 1 IK + FH 2 IK + FH 2 IK + FH 2 IK + FH 1 IK + FH 1 IK + FH 1 IK
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
= 4.7
12.14 x = distance D = 27
y = vehicle speed V = 55
m PS ( 55) = 0 ; m PM ( 55) = 0.25 ; m PL ( 55) = 0.75
~ ~ ~
m PS ( 27) = 0.38 ; m PM ( 27) = 0.62 ; m PL ( 27 ) = 0
~ ~ ~

F I
H ~ K
a1 = min m PS (27), m PM (55) = 0.25
~

## min F m (27), m ( 55)I = 0.62

a2 =
H ~ PM
~ K PL

z = breaking force B
FH IK F I
H
min a 1 , m PL ( z ) = min 0.25, m PL ( z )
~ K ~

H 2 PM
~ K H ~ K PM

~
agg
T H ~ K H ~
PLKW PM

## 10 ( 0.2) + 20 ( 0.4) + 30 ( 0.6 ) + 40 ( 0.62 ) + 50 ( 0.62 )

+ 60 ( 0.62 ) + 70 ( 0.6 ) + 80 ( 0.4 ) + 90 ( 0.25) + 100 ( 0.25)
z* =
0.2 + 0.4 + 0.6 + 0.62 + 0.62 + 0.62 + 0.6 + 0.4 + 0.25 + 0.25
= 53.18
4 1
12.15 m SD ( 60 ) = 0 ; m MD ( 60 ) = ; m LD ( 60) =
~ ~ 5 ~ 5
3 2
m NG ( 70 ) = 0 ; m MG (70 ) = ; m LG ( 70) =
~ ~ 5 ~ 5
F I 3
H ~
a1 = min m MD ( 60), m MG ( 70 ) =
~ K 5
min F m ( 60), m ( 70 )I =
H ~ K 5
2
a2 = MD LG
~

min F m (60 ), m ( 70 )I =
H ~ K
1
a3 = LD MG
~ 5

min F m ( 60 ), m ( 70 )I =
H ~ K 5
1
a4 = LD LG
~
SOLUTION MANUAL 129

F I F3 I
H ~ K H 5 , m ~ ( z )K
min a 1 , m M ( z ) = min M

min F a , m ( z )I = min F , m ( z )I
H ~ K H5 ~ K
2
2 L L

min F a , m ( z )I = min F , m ( z )I
H ~ K H5 ~ K
1
3 L L

min F a , m ( z )I = min F , m ( z )I
H ~ K H5 ~ K
1
4 VL VL

H K H K H 5 ~ KW
3 2 1
agg
T 5 ~ M
5 ~
L VL

## 10 ( 0 ) + 15 ( 0.325) + 20 ( 0.6 ) + 25 ( 0.6 ) + 30 ( 0.6) + 35 ( 0.4 )

+ 40 ( 0.4 ) + 45 ( 0.4) + 50 ( 0.4 ) + 55 ( 0.25) + 60 ( 0.2)
z* =
0 + 0.325 + 0.6 + 0.6 + 0.6 + 0.4 + 0.4 + 0.4 + 0.4 + 0.25 + 0.2
= 34.40
(6 - 0)
12.16 With 10 bits we can get solution accuracy of
b2 10
g or 0.006 in the
-1
interval (0,6).
Let the first string of initial population be :
11001000001110010000
The first substring decodes to value equal to (29 + 28 + 25) = 800 . Thus
( 6 - 0 ) ¥ 800
corresponding parameter value is 0 + = 4.692 . Similarly for
1023
second substring, the parameter value is equal to 5.349. Thus the first
string in initial population corresponds to the point x(1) = [4.692 5.349]T.
The function value at this point is equal to f [x(1)] = 959.680, and the
1
fitness function F [x(1)] = = 0.001.
1 + 959.680