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Summer Training Report at IPGCL



Indraprastha Power Generation Co. Ltd.

Submitted by
PrIyanshu dIxIt
Roll.No - 0715340073
SkylIne InstItute of EngIneerIng &
TecHnology, Greater noIda
CONTACT No.- 9 7 1 8 2 2 1 7 2 9

Submitted by Priyanshu Dixit 1
Summer Training Report at IPGCL

Indraprastha Power Generation

Co. Ltd.


This is to certify that Priyanshu Dixit, student of B-Tech

Branch Mechanical, Batch 2007-2011 of Skyline
Institute of Engineering & Technology , Greater Noida
has successfully completed his industrial training at
indraprasth power generation corporation Ltd-IGPCL,
New Delhi for Six weeks from 12th July to 23rd Aug
2010. He has completed the whole training as per the
training report submitted by him.

Date: _____________ Signature: _________________

( )

Date: _____________ Signature: _________________

Submitted by Priyanshu Dixit 2
Summer Training Report at IPGCL

( )


This project involved the collection and analysis of information from a

wide variety of sources and the efforts of many people beyond me. Thus it
would not have been possible to achieve the results reported in this
document without their help, support and encouragement.

I will like to express my gratitude to the following people for their help in
the work leading to this report:

 Supervisors: for their useful comments on the subject matter

and for the knowledge I gained by sharing ideas with them.;

 Coordinator: for organizing and coordinating the B. Tech.

Training 2010.

Submitted by Priyanshu Dixit 3
Summer Training Report at IPGCL



1. Indraprastha Power Generation Co. Ltd. (IPGCL)

2. Pragati Power Corporation Ltd. (PPCL)



Indraprastha Power Generation Co. Ltd. (IPGCL) was incorporated on 1st July,2002
and it took over the generation activities w.e.f. 1st July,2002 from erstwhile Delhi Vidyut
Board after its unbundling into six successor companies. The main functions of IPGCL is
generation of electricity and its total installed capacity is 994.5 MW including of Pragati
Power Station. Its associate Company is Pragati Power Corporation Limited which was
incorporated on 9th January, 2001.

To bridge the gap between demand and supply and to give reliable supply to the capital City
a 330 MW combined cycle Gas Turbine Power Project was set up on fast track basis. This
plant consists of two gas based Units of 104 MW each and one Waste heat Recovery Unit of
122 MW. Gas supply has been tied up with GAIL through HBJ Pipeline. Due to paucity of
water this plant was designed to operate on treated sewage water which is being supplied
from Sen nursing Home and Delhi Gate Sewage Treatment plants.
Their Vision:


• To maximize generation from available capacity

• To plan & implement new generation capacity in Delhi
• Competitive pricing of our own generation
• To set ever so high standards of environment Protection.
• To develop competent human resources for managing the company with good

The Power demand in the Capital City is increasing with the growth of
population as well as living standard and commercialization. The
unrestricted power demand in the summer of year 2000 was 3000 MW
and increasing every year @ 6 to 7%. In 2005-2006, it is expected to be
4078 MW and by 2009-10 it will reach 5075 MW.

Erstwhile DVB's own generation from RPH, I.P. Station and Gas Turbine
Power Station had been around 350-400 MW and Badarpur has been

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supplying 600-700 MW and the balance was met from the Northern Grid
and other sources.

To bridge the gap between demand and supply and to give reliable supply
to the Capital City, Delhi Govt. had set up 330 MW Pragati Power Project
on fast track basis. To cut down the project cycle duration, turnkey
contract was awarded to M/s BHEL in May 2000 based on similar project
executed by BHEL at Kayamkulam (owned by NTPC). To further ensure
reliable and smooth operation of the plant, experience of NTPC was
utilized by retaining them as engineering consultant and specification of
the Kayamkulam Project were adopted.

Indraprastha Power Generation Co. Ltd.


• Indraprastha Power Station

• Rajghat Power Station
• Gas Turbine Power Station

Gas TurbIne Power St


Six Gas Turbine Units of 30 MW each were commissioned in 1985-

86 to meet the electricity demand in peak hours and were operating on
liquid fuel. In 1990 the Gas Turbines were converted to operate on natural
gas. Later due to growing power demand the station was converted into
combined cycle gas turbine Power Station by commissioning 3x30 MW
Waste Heat Recovery Units, in 1995-96.

Figure 1: Gas Turbine Power Station

The total capacity of this Station is 270 MW. The gas supply has been tied
up with GAIL through HBJ Pipeline. The APM gas allocation was not
sufficient for maximum generation from the power station. Subsequently
with the availability of Regassified -LNG an agreement was made with
GAIL in Jan. 2004 for supply of R-LNG so that optimum generation could be
achieved. The performance of the station has improved from 49 % in
2002-03 to 70.76 % in 2005-06.

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Steam TurbIne

Steam turbines are devices which convert the energy stored in

steam into rotational mechanical energy. These machines are widely used
for the generation of electricity in a number of different cycles, such as:

• Rankine cycle
• Reheat cycle
• Regenerative cycle
• Combined cycle

The steam turbine may consist of

several stages. Each stage can be
described by analyzing the expansion of
steam from a higher pressure to a lower
pressure. The steam may be wet, dry
saturated or superheated.

Consider the steam turbine shown in the

cycle above. The output power of the
turbine at steady flow condition is:
Power = m (h1 - h2)
Where m is the mass flow of the steam
through the turbine and h1 and h2 are
specific enthalpy of the steam at inlet
respective outlet of the turbine.

The efficiency of the steam turbines are often described by the

isentropic efficiency for expansion process. The presence of water
droplets in the steam will reduce the efficiency of the turbine and cause
physical erosion of the blades. Therefore the dryness fraction of the steam
at the outlet of the turbine should not be less than 0.9.

Figure 2: Steam Turbine Cycle

PrIncIple of OperatIon and DesIgn

An ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process, or

constant entropy process, in which the entropy of the steam entering the
turbine is equal to the entropy of the steam leaving the turbine. No steam
turbine is truly “isentropic”, however, with typical isentropic efficiencies
ranging from 20%-90% based on the application of the turbine. The
interior of a turbine comprises several sets of blades, or “buckets” as they
are more commonly referred to. One set of stationary blades is connected

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to the casing and one set of rotating blades is connected to the shaft. The
sets intermesh with certain minimum clearances, with the size and
configuration of sets varying to efficiently exploit the expansion of steam
at each stage.

TurbIne EffIcIency

Schematic diagram outlining the

difference between an impulse and
a reaction turbine

To maximize turbine efficiency, the

steam is expanded, generating
work, in a number of stages. These
stages are characterized by how the energy is extracted from them and
are known as impulse or reaction turbines. Most modern steam turbines
are a combination of the reaction and impulse design. Typically, higher
pressure sections are impulse type and lower pressure stages are reaction
Figure 3: Impulse & Reaction Turbine Blade Diagram

Impulse TurbInes

An impulse turbine has fixed

nozzles that orient the steam flow
into high speed jets. These jets
contain significant kinetic energy,
which the rotor blades, shaped like
buckets, convert into shaft rotation
as the steam jet changes direction. A
pressure drop occurs across only the
stationary blades, with a net increase
in steam velocity across the stage.

As the steam flows through the

nozzle its pressure falls from steam
chest pressure to condenser pressure
(or atmosphere pressure). Due to this
relatively higher ratio of expansion of
steam in the nozzle the steam leaves the nozzle with a very high velocity.
The steam leaving the moving blades is a large portion of the maximum
velocity of the steam when leaving the nozzle. The loss of energy due to

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this higher exit velocity is commonly called the "carry over velocity" or
"leaving loss".

Figure 4: Impulse Reaction Turbine

ReactIon TurbInes

In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form
convergent nozzles. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force
produced as the steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the
rotor. Steam is directed onto the rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator. It
leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire circumference of the rotor.
The steam then changes direction and increases its speed relative to the
speed of the blades. A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the
rotor, with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating
through the rotor, with no net change in steam velocity across the stage
but with a decrease in both pressure and temperature, reflecting the work
performed in the driving the rotor.



OperatIon and MaIntenance

When warming up a steam turbine for use, the main steam stop
valves (after the boiler) have a bypass line to allow superheated steam to
slowly bypass the valve and proceed to heat up the lines in the system
along with the steam turbine. Also a turning gear is engaged when there
is no steam to the turbine to slowly rotate the turbine to ensure even
heating to prevent uneven expansion. After first rotating the turbine by
the turning gear, allowing time for the rotor to assume a straight plane
(no bowing), then the turning gear is disengaged and steam is admitted to
the turbine, first to the astern blades then to the ahead blades slowly
rotating the turbine at 10 to 15 RPM to slowly warm the turbine.

Problems with turbines are now rare and maintenance requirements

are relatively small. Any imbalance of the rotor can lead to vibration,
which in extreme cases can lead to a blade letting go and punching
straight through the casing. It is, however, essential that the turbine be
turned with dry steam. If water gets into the steam and is blasted onto the
blades (moisture carryover) then rapid impingement and erosion of the
blades can occur, possibly leading to imbalance and catastrophic failure.
Also, water entering the blades will likely result in the destruction of the

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thrust bearing for the turbine shaft. To prevent this, along with controls
and baffles in the boilers to ensure high quality steam, condensate drains
are installed in the steam piping leading to the turbine.

Speed regulatIon

The control of a turbine with a governor is essential, as turbines

need to be run up slowly, to prevent damage while some applications
(such as the generation of alternating current electricity) require precise
speed control. Uncontrolled acceleration of the turbine rotor can lead to
an over-speed trip, which causes the nozzle valves that control the flow of
steam to the turbine to close. If this fails then the turbine may continue
accelerating until it breaks apart, often spectacularly. Turbines are
expensive to make, requiring precision manufacture and special quality

Gas TurbIne

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine

that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gas. It has an upstream
compressor coupled to a downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber
in-between. (Gas turbine may also refer to just the turbine element.)

Energy is added to the gas stream in the combustor, where air is

mixed with fuel and ignited. Combustion increases the temperature,
velocity and volume of the gas flow. This is directed through a nozzle over
the turbine's blades, spinning the turbine and powering the compressor.

Energy is extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air and

thrust, in any combination, and used to power aircraft, trains, ships,
generators, and even tanks.

Gas turbines are described thermodynamically by the Brayton cycle,

in which air is compressed isentropically, combustion occurs at constant
pressure, and expansion over the turbine occurs isentropically back to the
starting pressure.

In practice, friction and turbulence cause:

1. Non-isentropic compression: for a given overall pressure ratio, the

compressor delivery temperature is higher than ideal.
2. Non-isentropic expansion: although the turbine temperature drop
necessary to drive the compressor is unaffected, the associated
pressure ratio is greater, which decreases the expansion available
to provide useful work.
3. Pressure losses in the air intake, combustor and exhaust: reduces
the expansion available to provide useful work.

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Figure 5: Idealised Brayton Cycle

As with all cyclic heat engines, higher combustion temperature

means greater efficiency. The limiting factor is the ability of the steel,
nickel, ceramic, or other materials that make up the engine to withstand
heat and pressure. Considerable engineering goes into keeping the
turbine parts cool. Most turbines also try to recover exhaust heat, which
otherwise is wasted energy. Recuperators are heat exchangers that pass
exhaust heat to the compressed air, prior to combustion. Combined cycle
designs pass waste heat to steam turbine systems and combined heat
and power (co-generation) uses waste heat for hot water/steam

Mechanically, gas turbines can be considerably less complex than

internal combustion piston engines. Simple turbines might have one
moving part: the shaft/compressor/turbine/alternative-rotor assembly (see
image above), not counting the fuel system.

More sophisticated turbines (such as those found in modern jet

engines) may have multiple shafts (spools), hundreds of turbine blades,
movable stator blades, and a vast system of complex piping, combustors
and heat exchangers.

As a general rule, the smaller the engine the higher the rotation rate
of the shaft(s) needs to be to maintain top speed. Turbine blade top speed
determines the maximum pressure that can be gained, this produces the
maximum power possible independent of the size of the engine. Jet
engines operate around 10,000 rpm and micro turbines around
100,000 rpm.

Thrust bearings and journal bearings are a critical part of design.

Traditionally, they have been hydrodynamic oil bearings, or oil-cooled ball
bearings. These bearings are being surpassed by foil bearings, which have
been successfully used in micro turbines and auxiliary power units.

CombIned Cycle Power StatIon

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Systems which are designed for maximum efficiency in which the hot exhaust gases
from the gas turbine are used to raise steam to power a steam turbine with both turbines being
connected to electricity generators.

To minimise the size and weight of the turbine for a given output power, the output
per pound of airflow should be maximised. This is obtained by maximising the air flow
through the turbine which in turn depends on maximising the pressure ratio between the air
inlet and exhaust outlet.

System Efficiency: Thermal efficiency is important because it directly affects the fuel
consumption and operating costs.

Combined Cycle Turbines It is however possible to recover energy from the waste heat of
simple cycle systems by using the exhaust gases in a hybrid system to raise steam to drive a
steam turbine electricity generating set. In such cases the exhaust temperature may be
reduced to as low as 140°C enabling efficiencies of up to 60% to be achieved in combined
cycle systems.
Thus simple cycle efficiency is achieved with high pressure ratios. Combined cycle
efficiency is obtained with more modest pressure ratios and greater firing temperatures.

Fuels One further advantage of gas turbines is their fuel flexibility. Crude and other heavy
oils and can also be used to fuel gas turbines if they are first heated to reduce their viscosity
to a level suitable for burning in the turbine combustion chambers.

• The Open Cycle efficiency of the plant is about 31%

• The Closed Cycle efficiency is around 49%

MechanIcal EquIpments:

Heat recovery steam generator

A heat recovery steam generator or HRSG is an energy recovery heat exchanger

that recovers heat from a hot gas stream. It produces steam that can be used in a process or
used to drive a steam turbine. This combination produces electricity more efficiently than
either the gas turbine or steam turbine alone. The HRSG is also an important component in
cogeneration plants. Cogeneration plants typically have a higher overall efficiency in
comparison to a combined cycle plant. This is due to the loss of energy associated with the
steam turbine

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Figure 6;Heat Recovery Steam Generator at PPCL

Evaporator Section: The most important component would, of course, be the

Evaporator Section. So an evaporator section may consist of one or more coils. In
these coils, the effluent (water), passing through the tubes is heated to the saturation
point for the pressure it is flowing.

Superheater Section: The Superheater Section of the HRSG is used to dry the
saturated vapour being separated in the steam drum. In some units it may only be
heated to little above the saturation point where in other units it may be superheated
to a significant temperature for additional energy storage. The Superheater Section
is normally located in the hotter gas stream, in front of the evaporator.

Economizer Section: The Economizer Section, sometimes called a preheater

or preheat coil, is used to preheat the feedwater being introduced to the system to
replace the steam (vapour) being removed from the system via the superheater or
steam outlet and the water loss through blowdown. It is normally located in the
colder gas downstream of the evaporator. Since the evaporator inlet and outlet
temperatures are both close to the saturation temperature for the system pressure,
the amount of heat that may be removed from the flue gas is limited due to the
approach to the evaporator, whereas the economizer inlet temperature is low,
allowing the flue gas temperature to be taken lower.

The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work
satisfactorily and safely. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has
a heavy, large diameter shaft. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be
kept in position while running. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation, the shaft
has a number of bearings. The bearing shells, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with a low
friction material like Babbitt metal. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction
between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated.

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Figure 7: Block Diagram of a Power Plant Which Utilizes the HRSG


The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is
circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell
where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes. Such
condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of
air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum
For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical
in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. Since the condenser

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temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100 C where the vapour pressure
of water is much less than atmospheric pressure, the condenser generally works under
vacuum. Thus leaks of non-condensable air into the closed loop must be prevented. Plants
operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling
water becomes warmer; unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical
demand for air conditioning. The condenser uses either circulating cooling water from a
cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once-through water from a river.
Figure 8: A Typical Water Cooled Condenser

Figure 9: Showing Exclusive Inside View of Tube Type Condenser Installed at IPGCL Gas Turbine Station

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A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air
and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones, in order to avoid corrosion of the
metal. Generally, power stations use a deaerator to provide for the removal of air and other
dissolved gases from the boiler feedwater. A
deaerator typically includes a vertical, domed
deaeration section mounted on top of a
horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as the
deaerated boiler feedwater storage tank.

Figure 10: Deaerator

Practical considerations demand that in a

steam boiler/steam turbine/generator unit the
circulating steam, condensate, and feed water should be devoid of dissolved gases,
particularly corrosive ones, and dissolved or suspended solids. The gases will give rise to
corrosion of the metal in contact thereby thinning them and causing rupture. The solids will
deposit on the heating surfaces giving rise to localised heating and tube ruptures due to
overheating. Under some conditions it may give rise to stress corrosion cracking.

CoolIng Towers

Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the
atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat
and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or rely solely on air to cool
the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. Common applications include cooling
the circulating water used in oil refineries,
chemical plants, power stations and
building cooling. The towers vary in size
from small roof-top units to very large
hyperboloid structures (as in Image 1) that
can be up to 200 metres tall and 100 metres
in diameter, or rectangular structures (as in
Image 2) that can be over 40 metres tall and
80 metres long. Smaller towers are
normally factory-built, while larger ones are
constructed on site.
Figure 11: Fan of Induction Type Cooling Tower

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Figure 12: Outside View of Cooling towers

Figure13: Inside Views of Cooling Tower Left Hand and Right Hand Respectively.

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All large generators require auxiliary systems to handle such things as lubricating oil
for the rotor bearings, hydrogen cooling apparatus, hydrogen sealing oil, de-mineralized
water for stator winding cooling, and excitation systems for field-current application. Not all
generators require all these systems and the requirement depends on the size and nature of the
machine. For instance, air cooled turbo generators do not require hydrogen for cooling and
therefore no sealing oil as well. On the other hand, large generators with high outputs,
generally above 400 MVA, have water-cooled stator windings, hydrogen for cooling the
stator core and rotor, seal oil to contain the hydrogen cooling gas under high pressure,
lubricating oil for the bearings, and of course, an excitation system for field current. There are
five major auxiliary systems that may be used in a generator. They are given as follows:

1. Lubricating Oil System

2. Hydrogen Cooling System
3. Seal Oil System
4. Stator Cooling Water System
5. Excitation System

DIfferentIal ExpansIon In TurbInes

Differential Expansion on a turbine is the relative measurement of the

rotor's axial thermal growth with respect to the case.

Differential expansion is the difference between the thermal growth

of the rotor compared to the thermal growth of the case. Differential
expansion monitoring is most critical during a turbine "cold" start-up. A
common steam turbine has a thick, heavy case, and a lighter, hollow
rotor. Due to the mass of the case it will grow slower than the rotor, so the
operator must make sure the case has expanded enough to keep it from
making contact with the rotor. To monitor, transducers can be placed on a
collar or ramp that have been machined onto the turbine.

DIfferentIal ExpansIon Measurement on La

rge Steam TurbInes

One of the challenges facing instrumentation engineers in the power

generation sector is the accurate measurement of shaft growth relative to
casing on large steam turbines. The measurement is commonly referred
to as differential expansion and applies to various stages of the turbine –
the critical areas being the turbine low and intermediate pressure rotor
stages (due their large shaft lengths). From barring the turbine through to
run up, the shaft can experience axial expansion of up to 50mm due to
the operational temperature rise, depending on configuration and power
rating. With today’s steam turbine arrangements exceeding the 900MW

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barrier this measurement is as relevant as ever and a continuing


Common techniques for measuring large differential expansion

ranges include extended range proximity probes against standard flat
collars; tapered collars, which offer an effective extended range to a
standard probe and magnetic follower arrangements. Large range probes
require a sufficient target area to be linear (greater than 2x probe
diameter) which is not always available, standard collar arrangements
also, do not allow for other shaft movement (not in the axial direction)
which can result in significant errors in measurement. The tapered collar
arrangements overcome the proximity probe target issue by utilising a
smaller probe and through the use of a four probe arrangement can
effectively eliminate other movements in the turbine structure that can
effect the true differential expansion measurement. However, these
solutions are mechanically complex, problematic during commissioning
and difficult to maintain calibration.

For a number of years Sensonics have been providing a differential

expansion measurement solution based on a mark – space technique,
which overcomes all of the shortcomings of the above methods. The
principle operates on detecting movement on a series of plates attached
to the turbine shaft. The shaft target pattern consists of a number of pairs
of ‘teeth’ and ‘slots’ surrounding and rotating with the shaft. Each pair of
teeth are tapered axially such that alternate teeth taper in opposite
directions, the narrow parallel slot between the teeth being at an angle to
the shaft axis. A wider parallel slot between each pair of teeth is used to
allow the measurement system to identify each pair. The figure 14 below
illustrates the technique.

Figure 14: Technique for Measuring Differential Expansion

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The technique operates on measuring pulse widths and detecting changes

in the patterns to determine the differential expansion of the shaft. A
standard speed probe can be utilised for the pulse measurement and with
appropriate signal processing, changes in the probe gap across the
measuring range have no effect on accuracy, since it is the shaft
transitions that are measured. Therefore the measurement provides a
true differential expansion reading and requires no further allowances for
movement in the non-axial direction.
The technique has no real limit on the measurement range, being
restricted only by the plate dimensions. During commissioning a
normalised range is calculated by moving the probe across the required
measurement window - determining the pulse width ratio at each extreme
(T2 and T3 with respect to d). The true differential expansion reading can
then be determined from the given formula.

A turbine shaft with mark-space plates is illustrated below.

Figure 15: Turbine Shaft With Mark-Space Plates

Sensonics produce a specific measurement module as part of the ‘Sentry’

Turbine Supervisory Equipment Series to carry out the necessary signal
processing and to assist with the commissioning activity. The MO8612
utilises a self-tracking threshold technique to ensure signal pulses are
measured at the optimum position within the pulse height independent of
the proximity probe gap. Specific plate patterns can be selected
depending on application through the software interface and custom
patterns created if required. It is usual to implement a number a plates
around the shaft, the module makes multiple measurements per

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revolution and minimises ‘plate wobble’ through the implementation of

averaging algorithms.

FIGURE 16: Sentry’ API670 Turbine Supervisory Equipment Series

While it is usual to implement a number of chevron patterns around the

shaft, reality is quite different. From experience the quantity can vary
from one set of plates to many - depending on the turbine engineer’s
preference. If an uneven distribution is selected it is important the overall
balance of the rotating shaft is maintained, with the addition of opposing
weights if necessary.

The plate pattern is fitted at a position on the rotor section close to where
the shaft fits in to the bearing pedestal - this location allows
straightforward access to the plate pattern through the bearing cover. The
turbine casing and pedestal are mechanically joined in most
circumstances, where the pedestal and casing movement is catered for
with a sliding base arrangement. At the HP, IP and LP3 locations a bracket
assembly fitted to the pedestal cover accepts a standard inductive
proximity probe to generate the timing waveforms.

Steam TurbIne SpecIfIcatIons

Capacity : 34 MW
No. of stages : 50
Steam flow : 125 Tonne/hr.
Inlet temperature : 502°C
Inlet pressure : 40 Kg/cm2
Lube oil grade : SP 46
No. of journal bearings : 5
No. of thrust bearing : 1
Coupled Main Oil Pump (MOP) with turbine shaft
Exhaust steam pressure : 3.3 ata
Exhaust steam flow : 2.16 Tonne/hr.
Exhaust pressure : 0.105 Kg/cm2
Lube oil pressure : 9 Kg/cm2
Over speed trip : >3300 rpm
Differential expansion : +6 to -4

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Gas TurbIne SpecIfIcatIons

Capacity : 30 MW
Gas pressure : 20 Kg/cm2
Speed : 5135 rpm
Generator speed : 3000 rpm
Generation at : 11 KV
Exhaust temperature : 560°C
Air flow : 490 Tonne/hr.

Standard operatIng procedure

Standard operating procedure for combined cycle plant

1. Pre Start Checkups

2. No PTW'S should be pending on machine.
3. 64 KV breaker to be in closed position (Unit Transformer).
4. Battery voltage and charger should be healthy.
5. DC Lube Oil Pump should be in healthy position.
6. Gas valve before the scrubber should be open.
7. Diesel engine breaker should be 'IN' condition.
8. CCT/6AC AC temperature should be 22* 2 centigrade.
9. Machine to be 'READY TO START' on CRT. No alarm persisting on
protection panel & CRT.
10. Ratching must be ON.
11. One no. seal air fan must be in running condition.
12. Lube Oil level should not be less than E.
13. Cooling water level should be normal.
14. All cooling water valves in TAC must be in open position.
15. Vapour extraction fans must be in service.
16. PHE (Plate Type Heat Exchanger) should be charged, related valves
should be in Open condition.
17. Puffing must be ON.
18. AC/DC Oil pump breaker must be 'NORMAL'
19. Excitation breaker should be healthy.
20. Availability of ON base, OFF base, TK1, TK2 Base cooling fans should
be ensured.
21. CO2 fire system should be healthy.


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1. Fuel oil level should be normal

2. Lube Oil level to be normal
3. Cooling water valves should be in "OPEN' condition
4. Air Blower Turbo Charger valve latch should be in NORMAL condition
5. Exhaust temperature should be less than 150* centigrade. In case of
higher temperature machine should be kept on cranking.
6. There should be no lube oil? Water leakages.
7. All wooden/unwanted man material should be removed from site to
avoid fire.



1. Diesel Engine idle speed around 900 RPM.

2. Check rise in temperature at the temperature gauge cooling water
3. Diesel Engine speed to accelerate about 1000 RPM
4. At 1000 RPM Turbine speed excitation appears on AVR display.
5. Firing starts, flame scanners S2, S3, S7, S8 APPEARS AT 1200 RPM
6. Base cooling fan starts.
7. Diesel engine speed to accelerate up to 2300 RPM.
8. Field flashing starts
9. Diesel engine isolates at 60% of turbine speed
10. Turbine comes on fire
11. Synchroniser to be on auto, if not on auto select manual mode and
increase voltage.11 KV breaker to be closed manually.
12. M/C lube oil pump stops.
13. TK1 & TK2 fans start.
14. Compressor bleed valve closed.
15. IGV fully opens.
16. Diesel engine stops


1. Vibration on bearings.
2. Lube oil header temperature.
3. Lube oil header pressure.
4. Hydraulic oil pressure.
5. Hydraulic trip oil pressure.
6. Battery charger should be healthy. Battery voltage should >120V
7. Cooling water pressure.
8. Air sealing system.
9. TAD should < 170 mm.
10. GAD should < 150 mm.

Submitted by Priyanshu Dixit 22
Summer Training Report at IPGCL


1. Load comes to zero

2. AC lube oil pump starts
3. Flame cuts off at 2400 RPM



Submitted by Priyanshu Dixit 23