6
Stresses in Beams (Advanced Topics)
Composite Beams
When solving the problems for Section 6.2, assume that the component parts of the beams are securely bonded by adhesives or connected by fasteners. Also, be sure to use the general theory for composite beams described in Sect. 6.2.
Problem 6.21 A composite beam consisting of fiberglass faces and a core of particle board has the cross section shown in the figure. The width of the beam is 2.0 in., the thickness of the faces is 0.10 in., and the thickness of the core is 0.50 in. The beam is subjected to a bending moment of 250 lbin. acting about the z axis. Find the maximum bending stresses _{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} and _{c}_{o}_{r}_{e} in the faces and the core, respectively, if their respective moduli of elasticity are 4 10 ^{6} psi and 1.5 10 ^{6} psi.
h _{c} 0.5 in. M 250 lbin. E _{1} 4 10 ^{6} psi E _{2} 1.5 10 ^{6} psi
I _{1}
I _{2}
b
_{1}_{2} (h ^{3} h ^{3} _{c} ) 0.03633 in. ^{4}
bh
3
c
12
0.02083 in. ^{4}
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2} 176,600 lbin. ^{2}
From Eq. (66b):
375
376
CHAPTER 6
Stresses in Beams
Problem 6.22
200 mm 300 mm is reinforced on its sides by steel plates 12 mm thick (see figure). The moduli of elasticity for the steel and wood are E _{s} 204 GPa and E _{w} 8.5 GPa, respectively. Also, the corresponding allowable stresses are _{s} 130 MPa and _{w} 8.0 MPa. Calculate the maximum permissible bending moment M when the beam is bent about the z axis.
A wood beam with crosssectional dimensions
max
( _{1} ) _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{w} 8.0 MPa ( _{2} ) _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{s} 130 MPa
I _{1} ^{b}^{h} 3 450 10 ^{6} mm ^{4}
_{I} 2
_{1}_{2}
_{} 2th
3
_{1}_{2}
54 10 ^{6} mm ^{4}
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2} 14.84 10 ^{6} N m ^{2}
MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD _{(}_{1}_{)}
From Eq. (66a):
^{M} max ^{} ^{(} ^{s} 1 ^{)} allow ^{B} E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2
_{(}_{h}
_{} _{2}_{)}_{E} _{1}
R 93.1 kN m
_{M}_{A}_{X}_{I}_{M}_{U}_{M} MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (2)
From Eq. (66b):
^{M} max ^{} ^{(} ^{s} 2 ^{)} allow ^{B} E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2
_{(}_{h}
_{} _{2}_{)}_{E} _{2}
R 63.0 kN m
STEEL GOVERNS.
M _{m}_{a}_{x} 63.0 kN m
Problem 6.23 A hollow box beam is constructed with webs of Douglasfir plywood and flanges of pine as shown in the figure, which is a crosssectional view. The plywood is 1 in. thick and 12 in. wide; the flanges are 2 in. 4 in. (actual size). The modulus of elasticity for the plywood is 1,600,000 psi and for the pine is 1,200,000 psi. If the allowable stresses are 2000 psi for the plywood and 1700 psi for the pine, find the allowable bending moment M _{m}_{a}_{x} when the beam is bent about the z axis.
z
E _{1} 1,200,000 psi
( _{1} ) _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 1700 psi
(2) PLYWOOD WEBS
t 1 in.
E _{2} 1,600,000 psi
( _{2} ) _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 2000 psi
h 12 in.
SECTION 6.2
I _{1}
b
_{1}_{2} (h ^{3} h ^{3} ) 405.3 in. ^{4}
1
1
I _{2} 2 ¢ _{1}_{2} ≤(th ^{3} ) 288 in. ^{4}
Composite Beams
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2} 947.2 10 ^{6} lbin. ^{2}
377
MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD _{(}_{1}_{)}
From Eq. (66a):
^{M} max ^{} ^{(} ^{s} 1 ^{)} allow ^{B} E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2
_{(}_{h}
_{} _{2}_{)}_{E} _{1}
R 224 kin.
MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE PLYWOOD (2)
From Eq. (66b):
^{M} max ^{} ^{(} ^{s} 2 ^{)} allow ^{B} E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2
_{(}_{h}
_{} _{2}_{)}_{E} _{2}
R 197 kin.
_{P}_{L}_{Y}_{W}_{O}_{O}_{D} GOVERNS
M _{m}_{a}_{x} 197 kin.
Problem 6.24 A round steel tube of outside diameter d and an aluminum core of diameter d/2 are bonded to form a composite beam as shown in the figure. Derive a formula for the allowable bending moment M that can be carried by the beam based upon an allowable stress _{s} in the steel. (Assume that the moduli of elasticity for the steel and aluminum are E and E _{a} , respectively.)
s
Solution 6.24
Steel tube with aluminum core
E _{s} modulus of elasticity _{s} allowable stress
I _{1} _{6}_{4} [d ^{4} (d 2) ^{4} ] ^{1}^{5} ^{} ^{d} 4
1024
Core (2): d/2 diameter E _{a} modulus of elasticity
I _{2} _{6}_{4} (d 2) ^{4}
^{} ^{d} 4
1024
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2} E _{s} I _{1} E _{a} I _{2} _{1}_{0}_{2}_{4} d ^{4} (15E _{s} E _{a} )
From Eq. (66a):
^{M} allow ^{} ^{s} s ^{B} E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2
(d
2)E _{s}
^{R}
^{M} allow ^{} d 3 s 3
512
¢15 ^{E} ^{a}
E
s
≤
378
CHAPTER 6
Stresses in Beams
Problem 6.25
uniform load of intensity 800 lb/ft (see figure). The beam consists of a wood member (4 in. 11.5 in. in cross section) that is reinforced by 0.25 in. thick steel plates on top and bottom. The moduli of elasticity for the steel and wood are E _{s} 30 10 ^{6} psi and E _{w} 1.5 10 ^{6} psi, respectively. Calculate the maximum bending stresses _{s} in the steel plates and _{w} in the wood member due to the uniform load.
A simple beam on a 10 ft span supports a
Solution 6.25
q 800 lb/ft
10,000 lbft 120,000 lbin.
Plate (2):
b 4 in.
t 0.25 in.
E _{s} 30 10 ^{6} psi
b
I _{2}
L 10 ft
max ^{q}^{L} 2
M
_{8}
h 12 in.
_{1}_{2} [h ^{3} h ^{3} ] 69.042 in. ^{4}
1
WOOD BEAM WITH STEEL PLATES
Wood (1):
b 4 in.
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2} E _{w} I _{1} E _{s} I _{2} 2,832,000,000 lbin. ^{2}
From Eqs. (66a and b):
h _{1} 11.5 in.
E _{w} 1.5 10 ^{6} psi
I _{1} ^{b}^{h} 3 506.96 in. ^{4}
1
12
s w M _{m}_{a}_{x} (h _{1} 2)E _{w} E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2} 
365 psi 


s s M _{m}_{a}_{x} (h _{1} 2)E _{s} E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2} 


7630 psi 
Problem 6.26
shown in the figure. The steel pipe has outer diameter d _{3} 100 mm and inner diameter d _{2} 94 mm. The plastic liner has inner diameter d _{1} 82 mm. The modulus of elasticity of the steel is 75 times the modulus of the plastic. Determine the allowable bending moment M _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} if the allowable stress in the steel is 35 MPa and in the plastic is 600 kPa.
A plasticlined steel pipe has the crosssectional shape
z
Solution 6.26
Steel pipe with plastic liner
(1) Pipe: d _{s} 100 mm
d _{2} 94 mm
E _{s} E _{1} modulus of elasticity ( _{1} ) _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 35 MPa
SECTION 6.2
Composite Beams
379
MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (1)
From Eq. (66a):
^{M} max ^{} ^{(} ^{s} 1 ^{)} allow ^{B} E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2
(d
_{3} 2)E _{1}
^{R}
(E _{1} E _{2} )I _{1} I _{2}
(d _{s} 2)(E _{1} E _{2} )
^{} ^{(} ^{s} 1 ^{)} allow
768 N m
_{M}_{A}_{X}_{I}_{M}_{U}_{M} MOMENT BASED UPON THE PLASTIC _{(}_{2}_{)}
From Eq. (66b):
(1) Aluminum faces: b 8.0 in. h 6.0 in.
t 0.25 in.
E _{1} 10.5 10 ^{6} psi
I _{1}
b
_{1}_{2} (h ^{3} h
3
c
) 33.08 in. ^{4}
(2) Foam core: b 8.0 in. E _{2} 12,000 psi
h _{c} 5.5 in.
M 40 kin.
I _{2}
bh
3
c
12
110.92 in. ^{4}
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2} 348.7 10 ^{6} lbin. ^{2}
(a) GENERAL THEORY (EQS. 66a AND b)
_{s} face _{} _{s} 1 _{} M(h 2)E _{1} E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2}
s core s 2 M(h _{c} 2)E _{2} E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2}
(b) APPROXIMATE THEORY _{(}_{E}_{Q}_{S}_{.} _{6}_{}_{8} AND _{6}_{}_{9}_{)}
I _{1}
b
_{1}_{2} (h ^{3} h
3
c
) 33.08 in. ^{4}
s face ^{M}^{b} 2I _{1}
3630 psi
^{s} core ^{} ^{0}
380
CHAPTER 6
Stresses in Beams
Problem 6.28
fiberglass faces and a lightweight plastic core is shown in the figure. The width b of the beam is 50 mm, the thickness t of the faces is 4 mm, and the height h _{c} of the core is 92 mm (total height h 100 mm). The moduli of elasticity are 75 GPa for the fiberglass and 1.2 GPa for the plastic. A bending moment M 275 N m acts about the z axis. Determine the maximum stresses in the faces and the core using (a) the general theory for composite beams, and (b) the approximate theory for sandwich beams.
The cross section of a sandwich beam consisting of
(1) Fiber glass faces: b 50 mm h 100 mm E _{1} 75 GPa
I _{1}
b
_{1}_{2} (h ^{3} h
3
c
) 0.9221 10 ^{} ^{6} m ^{4}
(2) Plastic core: b 50 mm E _{2} 1.2 GPa bh
I _{2}
3
c
12
M 275 N m
(a) GENERAL THEORY (EQS. _{6}_{}_{6}_{a} AND _{b}_{)}
_{s} face _{} _{s} 1 _{} M(h 2)E _{1} E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2}
s core s 2 E ^{M}^{(}^{h} _{1} I _{1} ^{c} ^{} ^{2}^{)}^{E} E _{2} I ^{2} _{2}
14.1 MPa 

0.21 MPa 

_{(}_{b}_{)} _{A}_{P}_{P}_{R}_{O}_{X}_{I}_{M}_{A}_{T}_{E} THEORY (EQS. 68 AND 69)
t 4 mm
h _{c} 92 mm
3.245 10 ^{} ^{6} m ^{4}
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2} 73,050 N m ^{2}
Problem 6.29
consists of strips of aluminum and copper bonded together as shown in the figure, which is a crosssectional view. The width of the beam is 1.0 in., and each strip has a thickness of 1/16 in. Under the action of a bending moment M 12 lbin. acting about the z axis, what are the maximum stresses _{a} and _{c} in the aluminum and copper, respectively? (Assume E _{a} 10.5 10 ^{6} psi and E _{c} 16.8 10 ^{6} psi.)
A bimetallic beam used in a temperaturecontrol switch
z
Solution 6.29
CROSS SECTION
Bimetallic beam
z
y 

1



t 

h 
1 


2


t 

O 



b = 1 in. 


h 
2 
1
= — in.
16
1
= — in.
16
(1) Aluminum E _{1} E _{a} 10.5 10 ^{6} psi
(2) Copper
M 12 lbin.
E _{2} E _{c} 16.8 10 ^{6} psi
NEUTRAL AXIS (EQ. 63)
^{} 1
Y dA Y _{1} A _{1} (h _{1} t 2)(bt)
(h _{1} 1 32)(1)(1 16) in. ^{3}
^{} 2
_{Y} _{d}_{A} _{} _{Y} _{2} _{A} _{2} _{} _{(}_{h} _{1} _{} _{t} _{} _{t} _{} _{2}_{)}_{(}_{b}_{t}_{)}
(h _{1} 3 32)(1)(1 16) in. ^{3}
Eq. (63): E _{1} _{1} YdA E _{2} _{2} YdA 0
(10.5 10 ^{6} )(h _{1} 1/32)(1/16) (16.8 10 ^{6} )(h _{1} 3/32)(1/16) 0
Solve for h _{1} : h _{1} 0.06971 in. h _{2} 2(1/16 in.) h _{1} 0.05529 in.
SECTION 6.2
Composite Beams
381
MOMENTS OF INERTIA (FROM PARALLELAXIS THEOREM)
3
I _{1} ^{b}^{t}
_{1}_{2}
3
I _{2} ^{b}^{t}
_{1}_{2}
bt(h _{1} t 2) ^{2} 0.0001128 in. ^{4}
bt(h _{2} t 2) ^{2} 0.00005647 in. ^{4}
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2} 2133 lbin. ^{2}
MAXIMUM STRESSES (EQS. 66a AND b)
s _{a} s _{1}
s _{c} s _{2}
^{M}^{h} ^{1} ^{E} ^{1}
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2}
^{M}^{h} ^{2} ^{E} ^{2}
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2}
4120 psi
5230 psi
Problem 6.210
3m long carries a uniformly distributed load of intensity q 3.0 kN/m (see figure). The beam is constructed of a wood member, 100 mm wide by 150 mm deep, reinforced on its lower side by a steel plate 8 mm thick and 100 mm wide. Find the maximum bending stresses _{w} and _{s} in the wood and steel, respectively, due to the uniform load if the moduli of elasticity are E _{w} 10 GPa for the wood and E _{s} 210 GPa for the steel.
A simply supported composite beam
y
150 mm
8
mm
Solution 6.210
Simply supported composite beam
(1) Wood: E _{1} E _{w} 10 GPa
(2) Steel:
E _{2} E _{s} 210 GPa
NEUTRAL AXIS
^{} 1
Y dA Y _{1} A _{1} (h _{1} h 2)(bh)
(h _{1} 75)(100)(150) mm ^{3}
^{} 2
y dA Y _{2} A _{2} (h t 2 h _{1} )(bt)
(154 h _{1} )(100)(18) mm ^{3}
Eq. (63): E _{1} _{1} YdA E _{2} _{2} YdA 0 (10 GPa)(h _{1} 75)(100)(150)(10 ^{} ^{9} )
(210 GPa)(h _{1} 154)(100)(8)(10 ^{} ^{9} ) 0
Solve for h _{1} : h _{1} 116.74 mm h _{2} h t h _{1} 41.26 mm
MOMENTS OF INERTIA (FROM PARALLELAXIS THEOREM)
3
I _{1} ^{b}^{h}
_{1}_{2}
bh(h _{1} h 2) ^{2} 54.26 10 ^{6} mm ^{4}
I _{2} ^{b}^{t}
2
_{1}_{2} bt(h _{2} t 2) ^{2} 1.115 10 ^{6} mm ^{4}
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2} 776,750 N m ^{2}
MAXIMUM STRESSES (EQS. 66a AND b)
^{M}^{h} ^{1} ^{E} ^{1}
s _{w} s _{1}
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2}
5.1 MPa (Compression) ^{M}^{h} ^{2} ^{E} ^{2}
s _{s} s _{2}
E _{1} I _{1} E _{2} I _{2}
37.6 MPa (Tension)
382
CHAPTER 6
Stresses in Beams
TransformedSection Method
When solving the problems for Section 6.3, assume that the component parts of the beams are securely bonded by adhesives or connected by fasteners. Also, be sure to use the transformedsection method in the solutions.
Problem 6.31
is reinforced on top and bottom by 0.5 in. thick steel plates (see figure). Find the allowable bending moment M _{m}_{a}_{x} about the z axis if the allowable stress in the wood is 1,000 psi and in the steel is 16,000 psi. (Assume that the ratio of the moduli of elasticity of steel and wood is 20.)
A wood beam 8 in. wide and 12 in. deep
z
in
in
Solution 6.31
(1) Wood beam b 8 in.
Wood beam with steel plates
h _{1} 12 in.
( _{1} ) _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 1000 psi
(2)
Steel plates
b
8 in.
h _{2} 13 in.
t 0.5 in. ( _{2} ) _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 16,000 psi
TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD)
z
y
0.5
12
C
8.0
160
0.5
Wood beam is not changed.
n ^{E} ^{s}
E w
20
Width of steel plates nb (20) (8 in.) 160 in.
All dimensions in inches.
I _{T} 1 12(160)(13) ^{3} 1 12(160 8)(12) ^{3}
7405 in. ^{4}
MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (1) (EQ. 615)
_{s} 1 _{} M(h _{1} 2)
I T
M 1 ^{(} ^{s} 1 ^{)} allow ^{I} T
h
_{1} 2
1230 kin.
MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (2) (EQ. 617)
_{s} 2 _{} M(h _{2} 2)n
I T
STEEL GOVERNS
M 2 ^{(} ^{s} 2 ^{)} allow ^{I} T
h
_{1} 2n
911 kin.
M _{m}_{a}_{x} 911 kin.
Problem 6.32
load of intensity 48 kN/m. The cross section of the beam is a hollow box with wood flanges and steel side plates, as shown in the figure. The wood flanges are 75 mm by 100 mm in cross section, and the steel plates are 300 mm deep. What is the required thickness t of the steel plates if the allowable stresses are 120 MPa for the steel and 6.5 MPa for the wood? (Assume that the moduli of elasticity for the steel and wood are 210 GPa and 10 GPa, respectively, and disregard the weight of the beam.)
A simple beam of span length 3.2 m carries a uniform
75
75
Solution 6.32
Box beam
MAX ^{q}^{L} 2
M
8
_{} _{6}_{1}_{.}_{4}_{4} _{k}_{N} _{} _{m}
SIMPLE BEAM: L 3.2 m
q 4.8 kN/m
(1) 
Wood flanges: b 100 mm h _{1} 150 mm ( _{1} ) _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 6.5 MPa E _{w} 10 GPa 
h 300 mm 
(2) 
Steel plates: t thickness ( _{2} ) _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 120 MPa E _{s} 210 GPa 
h 300 mm 
TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD)
z
Wood flanges are not changed
n ^{E} ^{s}
E w
Width of steel plates nt 21t
21
SECTION 6.3
TransformedSection Method
All dimensions in millimeters.
I _{T}
1
_{1}_{2} (100 42t)(300) ^{3}
1
_{1}_{2}
(100)(150) ^{3}
383
196.9 10 ^{6} mm ^{4} 94.5t 10 ^{6} mm ^{4}
REQUIRED THICKNESS BASED UPON THE WOOD _{(}_{1}_{)} _{(}_{E}_{Q}_{.} _{6}_{}_{1}_{5}_{)}
_{s} 1 _{} M(h 2)
I
T
(I r ) 1 M _{m}_{a}_{x} (h 2)
^{(} ^{s} 1 ^{)} allow
1.418 10 ^{9} mm ^{4}
Equate I _{T} and (I _{T} ) _{1} and solve for t: t _{1} 12.92 mm
REQUIRED THICKNESS BASED UPON THE STEEL _{(}_{2}_{)} _{(}_{E}_{Q}_{.} _{6}_{}_{1}_{7}_{)}
_{s} 2 _{} M(h 2)n
I
T
(I T ) 2 M _{m}_{a}_{x} (h 2)n
^{(} ^{s} 2 ^{)} allow
1.612 10 ^{9} mm ^{4}
Equate I _{r} and (I _{r} ) _{2} and solve for t: t _{2} 14.97 mm
STEEL GOVERNS.
t _{m}_{i}_{n} 15.0 mm
Problem 6.33
of intensity q. The beam is constructed of an S 8 18.4 section (Ibeam section) reinforced with wood beams that are securely fastened to the flanges (see the cross section shown in the figure). The wood beams are 2 in. deep and 4 in. wide. The modulus of elasticity of the steel is 20 times that of the wood. If the allowable stresses in the steel and wood are 12,000 psi and 900 psi, respectively, what is the allowable load q _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} ? (Note: Disregard the weight of the beam, and see Table E2 of Appendix E for the dimensions and properties of the steel beam.)
A simple beam that is 15 ft long supports a uniform load
z
384
CHAPTER 6
Solution 6.33
Stresses in Beams
Reinforced Ibeam
(1) 
Steel beam: S 8 18.4 
I _{1} 57.6 in. ^{4} 

d 
8.00 in. 

( _{1} ) _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 12,000 psi 

(2) 
Wood beams: b 4 in. ( _{2} ) _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 900 psi 
t 2 in. 
TRANSFORMED SECTION _{(}_{S}_{T}_{E}_{E}_{L}_{)}
Width of wood beams nb (1/20)(4) 0.2 in.
All dimensions in inches.
I _{T} 57.6
1
_{1}_{2}
(0.2)(12) ^{3} ^{1}
_{1}_{2}
77.87 in. ^{4}
(0.2)(8) ^{3}
MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL _{(}_{1}_{)}
_{s} 1 _{} M(d 2)
I T
M 1 ^{(} ^{s} 1 ^{)} allow ^{I} T
d 2
233,610 lbin.
_{M}_{A}_{X}_{I}_{M}_{U}_{M} MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (2)
_{s} 2 _{} M(d 2 t)n
I T
M 2 ^{(} ^{s} 2 ^{)} allow ^{I} T
(d 2 t)n
233,610 lbin.
_{(}_{E}_{Q}_{.} _{6}_{}_{1}_{5}_{)}
(EQ. 617)
By coincidence, M _{1} M _{2} (exactly) M _{m}_{a}_{x} 233,610 lbin.
SIMPLE BEAM
max ^{} qL 2
M
8
L 15 ft
^{q}
allow ^{}
^{8}^{M} max
L
^{2}
692 lb ft
Problem 6.34
simply supported and carries a total uniform load of 50 kN/m on a span length of 4.0 m. The beam is built of a wood member having crosssectional dimensions 150 mm 250 mm and two steel plates of crosssectional dimensions 50 mm 150 mm. Determine the maximum stresses _{s} and _{w} in the steel and wood, respectively, if the moduli of elasticity are E _{s} 209 GPa and E _{w} 11 GPa. (Disregard the weight of the beam.)
The composite beam shown in the figure is
50 kN/m
z
Solution 6.34
SIMPLE BEAM:
Composite beam
L 4.0 m
q 50 kN/m
M max ^{q}^{L} 2
8
100 kN m
(1) 
Wood beam: b 150 mm 
h _{1} 250 mm 
_{w} 11 GPa E 

(2) 
Steel plates: b 150 mm h _{2} 350 mm 
t 50 mm E _{s} 209 GPa 
Wood beam is not changed.
n
^{E} ^{s}
E w
_{} 209
_{1}_{1}
19
Width of steel plates nb (19) (150 mm) 2850 mm
All dimensions in millimeters.
I _{T}
1
_{1}_{2}
(2850)(350) ^{3}
6.667 10 ^{8} mm ^{4}
1
_{1}_{2} (2850 150)(250) ^{3}
SECTION 6.3
TransformedSection Method
385
MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE WOOD (1) (EQ. 615)
s w s 1 M _{m}_{a}_{x} (h _{1} 2)
I T
1.9 MPa
_{M}_{A}_{X}_{I}_{M}_{U}_{M} STRESS IN THE STEEL (2) (EQ. 617)
s s s 2 M _{m}_{a}_{x} (h _{2} 2)n
I T
49.9 MPa
Problem 6.35
separated by a lightweight plastic is shown in the figure. The beam has width b 3.0 in., the aluminum strips have thickness t 0.1 in., and the plastic seg ments have heights d 1.2 in. and 3d 3.6 in. The total height of the beam is h 6.4 in. The moduli of elasticity for the aluminum and plastic are E _{a} 11 10 ^{6} psi and E _{p} 440 10 ^{3} psi, respectively. Determine the maximum stresses _{a} and _{p} in the aluminum and plastic, respectively, due to a bending moment of 6.0 kin.
The cross section of a beam made of thin strips of aluminum
Probs. 6.35 and 6.36
z
h 4t 5d
Solution 6.35
(1)
Plastic beam with aluminum strips
d 1.2 in.
Plastic segments: b 3.0 in. 3d 3.6 in.
E _{p}
440 10 ^{3} psi
(2) Aluminum strips: b 3.0 in.
t 0.1 in.
E _{a} 11 10 ^{6} psi h 4t 5d 6.4 in. M 6.0 kin.
TRANSFORMED SECTION (PLASTIC)
Plastic segments are not changed.
n
^{E} ^{a} 25
E
p
Width of aluminum strips nb (25)(3.0 in.) 75 in.
All dimensions in inches.
Plastic:
I _{1} 2 B _{1}_{2} (3.0)(1.2) ^{3} (3.0)(1.2)(2.50) ^{2} R
1
1
_{1}_{2} (3.0)(3.6) ^{3} 57.528 in. ^{4}
Aluminum:
I _{2} 2 B _{1}_{2} (75)(0.1) ^{3} (75)(0.1)(3.15) ^{2}
1
1
_{1}_{2}
(75)(0.1) ^{3} (75)(0.1)(1.85) ^{2} R
200.2 in. ^{4}
I _{T} I _{1} I _{2} 257.73 in. ^{4}
MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE PLASTIC _{(}_{1}_{)} _{(}_{E}_{q}_{.} _{6}_{}_{1}_{5}_{)}
_{s} p _{} _{s} 1 _{} M(h 2 t)
I T
72 psi
_{M}_{A}_{X}_{I}_{M}_{U}_{M} STRESS IN THE ALUMINUM (2) (EQ. 617)
_{s} a _{} _{s} 2 _{} M(h 2)n
I
T
1860 psi
386
CHAPTER 6
Stresses in Beams
Problem 6.36
b 75 mm, the aluminum strips have thickness t 3 mm, the plastic seg ments have heights d 40 mm and 3d 120 mm, and the total height of the beam is h 212 mm. Also, the moduli of elasticity are E _{a} 75 GPa and E _{p} 3 GPa, respectively. Determine the maximum stresses _{a} and _{p} in the aluminum and plastic, respectively, due to a bending moment of 1.0 kN m.
Consider the preceding problem if the beam has width
Solution 6.36
Plastic beam with aluminum strips
(1) 
Plastic segments: b 
75 mm 
d 40 mm 
3d 
120 mm 
E _{p} 3 GPa 

(2) 
Aluminum strips: b 75 mm E _{a} 75 GPa 
t 3 mm 
h 4t 5d 212 mm M 1.0 kN m
All dimensions in millimeters.
Plastic:
I _{1} 2 B _{1}_{2} (75)(40) ^{3} (75)(40)(83) ^{2} R
1
1
_{1}_{2}
(75)(120) ^{3}
52.934 10 ^{6} mm ^{4}
TRANSFORMED SECTION (PLASTIC)
Plastic segments are not changed.
n ^{E} ^{a} 25
E p
Width of aluminum strips nb (25)(75 mm) 1875 mm
Aluminum:
I _{2} 2 B _{1}_{2} (1875)(3) ^{3} (1875)(3)(104.5) ^{2}
1
1
_{1}_{2}
(1875)(3) ^{3} (1875)(3)(61.5) ^{2} R
165.420 10 ^{6} mm ^{4}
I _{T} I _{1} I _{2} 218.35 10 ^{6} mm ^{4}
MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE PLASTIC _{(}_{1}_{)} _{(}_{E}_{Q}_{.} _{6}_{}_{1}_{5}_{)}
_{s} p _{} _{s} 1 _{} M(h 2 t)
I T
0.47 MPa
_{M}_{A}_{X}_{I}_{M}_{U}_{M} STRESS IN THE ALUMINUM (2) (EQ. 617)
_{s} a _{} _{s} 2 _{} M(h 2)n
I T
12.14 MPa
Problem 6.37
reinforced by a steel plate has the crosssectional dimensions shown in the figure. The beam is simply supported with a span length of 6.0 ft and supports a uniformly distributed load of intensity q 800 lb/ft. Calculate the maximum bending stresses _{s} and _{w} in the steel and wood, respectively, due to the uniform load if E _{s} /E _{w} 20.
A composite beam constructed of a wood beam
z
5.5 in.
0.5 in.
Wood beam is not changed.
Width of steel plate
n 20
nb (20) (4 in.) 80 in.
SECTION 6.3
TransformedSection Method
All dimensions in inches.
Use the base of the cross section as a reference line. h 2 g y _{c} A _{c} _{} (0.25)(80)(0.5) (3.25)(4)(5.5)
g A _{c}
(80)(0.5) (4)(5.5) 1.3145 in.
h _{1} h h _{2} 4.6855 in.
I _{T}
1
_{1}_{2} (4)(5.5) ^{3} (4)(5.5)(h _{1} 2.75) ^{2}
1
_{1}_{2} (80)(0.5) ^{3} (80)(0.5)(h _{2} 0.25) ^{2}
184.03 in. ^{4}
387
MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE WOOD (1) (EQ. 615)
s _{w} s _{1} ^{M} ^{m}^{a}^{x} ^{h} ^{1}
I T
1100 psi (Compression)
MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE STEEL _{(}_{2}_{)} _{(}_{E}_{Q}_{.} _{6}_{}_{1}_{7}_{)}
s
s _{}
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