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6 Stresses in Beams (Advanced Topics) Composite Beams When solving the problems for Section 6.2,

6

Stresses in Beams (Advanced Topics)

Composite Beams

When solving the problems for Section 6.2, assume that the component parts of the beams are securely bonded by adhesives or connected by fasteners. Also, be sure to use the general theory for composite beams described in Sect. 6.2.

Problem 6.2-1 A composite beam consisting of fiberglass faces and a core of particle board has the cross section shown in the figure. The width of the beam is 2.0 in., the thickness of the faces is 0.10 in., and the thickness of the core is 0.50 in. The beam is subjected to a bending moment of 250 lb-in. acting about the z axis. Find the maximum bending stresses face and core in the faces and the core, respectively, if their respective moduli of elasticity are 4 10 6 psi and 1.5 10 6 psi.

y 0.10 in. z 0.50 in. C 0.10 in. 2.0 in.
y
0.10 in.
z
0.50 in.
C
0.10 in.
2.0 in.
10 6 psi. y 0.10 in. z 0.50 in. C 0.10 in. 2.0 in. Solution 6.2-1
10 6 psi. y 0.10 in. z 0.50 in. C 0.10 in. 2.0 in. Solution 6.2-1
Solution 6.2-1 Composite beam y 1 0.10 in. z 0.50 in. C 2 0.10 in.
Solution 6.2-1
Composite beam
y
1
0.10 in.
z
0.50 in.
C
2
0.10 in.
2.0 in.
b 2 in.
From Eq. (6-6a):
s face ; M(h 2)E 1
E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2
h
0.7 in.

h c 0.5 in. M 250 lb-in. E 1 4 10 6 psi E 2 1.5 10 6 psi

I 1

I 2

b

12 (h 3 h 3 c ) 0.03633 in. 4

bh

3

c

12

0.02083 in. 4

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 176,600 lb-in. 2

From Eq. (6-6b):

; 1980 psi s core ; E M(h 1 I 1 c 2)E E 2
; 1980 psi
s core ; E M(h 1 I 1 c 2)E E 2 I 2 2
; 531 psi

376

CHAPTER 6

Stresses in Beams

Problem 6.2-2

200 mm 300 mm is reinforced on its sides by steel plates 12 mm thick (see figure). The moduli of elasticity for the steel and wood are E s 204 GPa and E w 8.5 GPa, respectively. Also, the corresponding allowable stresses are s 130 MPa and w 8.0 MPa. Calculate the maximum permissible bending moment M when the beam is bent about the z axis.

A wood beam with cross-sectional dimensions

max

y z 300 mm C 200 mm 12 mm 12 mm
y
z
300 mm
C
200 mm
12 mm
12 mm
dimensions max y z 300 mm C 200 mm 12 mm 12 mm Solution 6.2-2 Composite
Solution 6.2-2 Composite beam y 1 2 z 300 mm C b 200 mm t
Solution 6.2-2
Composite beam
y
1
2
z
300 mm
C
b 200 mm
t 12 mm
h 300 mm
200 mm
12 mm
12 mm
E 1 E w 8.5 GPa
E 2 E s 204 GPa

( 1 ) allow w 8.0 MPa ( 2 ) allow s 130 MPa

I 1 bh 3 450 10 6 mm 4

I 2

12

2th

3

12

54 10 6 mm 4

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 14.84 10 6 N m 2

MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (1)

From Eq. (6-6a):

M max ( s 1 ) allow B E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

(h

2)E 1

R 93.1 kN m

MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (2)

From Eq. (6-6b):

M max ( s 2 ) allow B E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

(h

2)E 2

R 63.0 kN m

STEEL GOVERNS.

M max 63.0 kN m

63.0 kN m S TEEL GOVERNS . M m a x 63.0 kN m Problem 6.2-3
63.0 kN m S TEEL GOVERNS . M m a x 63.0 kN m Problem 6.2-3

Problem 6.2-3 A hollow box beam is constructed with webs of Douglas-fir plywood and flanges of pine as shown in the figure, which is a cross-sectional view. The plywood is 1 in. thick and 12 in. wide; the flanges are 2 in. 4 in. (actual size). The modulus of elasticity for the plywood is 1,600,000 psi and for the pine is 1,200,000 psi. If the allowable stresses are 2000 psi for the plywood and 1700 psi for the pine, find the allowable bending moment M max when the beam is bent about the z axis.

z

y 2 in. 12 in. C 2 in. 1 in. 4 in. 1 in.
y
2
in.
12 in.
C
2
in.
1 in.
4 in.
1 in.
Solution 6.2-3 Hollow-box beam t t 1 h h 1 2 1 2 b (1)
Solution 6.2-3
Hollow-box beam
t
t
1
h
h
1
2
1
2
b
(1) WOOD FLANGES
b 4 in.
h 12 in.
h 1 8 in.

E 1 1,200,000 psi

( 1 ) allow 1700 psi

(2) PLYWOOD WEBS

t 1 in.

E 2 1,600,000 psi

( 2 ) allow 2000 psi

h 12 in.

SECTION 6.2

I 1

b

12 (h 3 h 3 ) 405.3 in. 4

1

1

I 2 2 ¢ 12 (th 3 ) 288 in. 4

Composite Beams

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 947.2 10 6 lb-in. 2

377

MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (1)

From Eq. (6-6a):

M max ( s 1 ) allow B E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

(h

2)E 1

R 224 k-in.

MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE PLYWOOD (2)

From Eq. (6-6b):

M max ( s 2 ) allow B E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

(h

2)E 2

R 197 k-in.

PLYWOOD GOVERNS

M max 197 k-in.

P L Y W O O D GOVERNS M m a x 197 k-in. Problem 6.2-4

Problem 6.2-4 A round steel tube of outside diameter d and an aluminum core of diameter d/2 are bonded to form a composite beam as shown in the figure. Derive a formula for the allowable bending moment M that can be carried by the beam based upon an allowable stress s in the steel. (Assume that the moduli of elasticity for the steel and aluminum are E and E a , respectively.)

s

S A d — 2 d
S
A
d
2
d
are E and E a , respectively.) s S A d — 2 d Solution 6.2-4

Solution 6.2-4

Steel tube with aluminum core

steel 1 S d A — d 2 aluminum 2 d Tube (1): d outer
steel 1
S
d
A
d
2
aluminum
2
d
Tube (1): d outer diameter
2 inner diameter

E s modulus of elasticity s allowable stress

I 1 64 [d 4 (d 2) 4 ] 15 d 4

1024

Core (2): d/2 diameter E a modulus of elasticity

I 2 64 (d 2) 4

d 4

1024

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 E s I 1 E a I 2 1024 d 4 (15E s E a )

From Eq. (6-6a):

M allow s s B E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

(d

2)E s

R

M allow d 3 s 3

512

¢15 E a

E

s

M allow s s B E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 ( d 2)
M allow s s B E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 ( d 2)

378

CHAPTER 6

Stresses in Beams

Problem 6.2-5

uniform load of intensity 800 lb/ft (see figure). The beam consists of a wood member (4 in. 11.5 in. in cross section) that is reinforced by 0.25 in. thick steel plates on top and bottom. The moduli of elasticity for the steel and wood are E s 30 10 6 psi and E w 1.5 10 6 psi, respectively. Calculate the maximum bending stresses s in the steel plates and w in the wood member due to the uniform load.

A simple beam on a 10 ft span supports a

y 0.25 in. 800 lb/ft 11.5 in. z C 0.25 in. 10 ft 4 in.
y
0.25
in.
800 lb/ft
11.5 in.
z
C
0.25
in.
10 ft
4 in.
in. 800 lb/ft 11.5 in. z C 0.25 in. 10 ft 4 in. Solution 6.2-5 Simply

Solution 6.2-5

Simply supported composite beam y steel t 2 q h h 1 z 1 wood
Simply supported composite beam
y
steel
t 2
q
h
h 1
z
1
wood
L
t b

q 800 lb/ft

10,000 lb-ft 120,000 lb-in.

Plate (2):

b 4 in.

t 0.25 in.

E s 30 10 6 psi

b

I 2

L 10 ft

max qL 2

M

8

h 12 in.

12 [h 3 h 3 ] 69.042 in. 4

1

WOOD BEAM WITH STEEL PLATES

Wood (1):

b 4 in.

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 E w I 1 E s I 2 2,832,000,000 lb-in. 2

From Eqs. (6-6a and b):

h 1 11.5 in.

E w 1.5 10 6 psi

I 1 bh 3 506.96 in. 4

1

12

s w M max (h 1 2)E w E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

365 psi

s w M m a x ( h 1 2) E w E 1 I 1

s s M max (h 1 2)E s E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

 
s s M m a x ( h 1 2) E s E 1 I 1

7630 psi

Problem 6.2-6

shown in the figure. The steel pipe has outer diameter d 3 100 mm and inner diameter d 2 94 mm. The plastic liner has inner diameter d 1 82 mm. The modulus of elasticity of the steel is 75 times the modulus of the plastic. Determine the allowable bending moment M allow if the allowable stress in the steel is 35 MPa and in the plastic is 600 kPa.

A plastic-lined steel pipe has the cross-sectional shape

z

y d 2 d 3 C d 1
y
d 2
d 3
C d 1
is 35 MPa and in the plastic is 600 kPa. A plastic-lined steel pipe has the

Solution 6.2-6

Steel pipe with plastic liner

y steel 1 z d 1 d 2 d 3 C plastic 2
y
steel
1
z
d 1
d 2
d 3
C
plastic
2

(1) Pipe: d s 100 mm

d 2 94 mm

E s E 1 modulus of elasticity ( 1 ) allow 35 MPa

SECTION 6.2

Composite Beams

379

MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (1)

From Eq. (6-6a):

M max ( s 1 ) allow B E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

(d

3 2)E 1

R

(E 1 E 2 )I 1 I 2

(d s 2)(E 1 E 2 )

( s 1 ) allow

768 N m

MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE PLASTIC (2)

From Eq. (6-6b):

(2) Liner: d 2 94 mm d 1 32 mm R M max ( s
(2) Liner: d 2 94 mm
d 1 32 mm
R
M max ( s 2 ) allow B E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2
E p E 2 modulus of elasticity
( 2 ) allow 600 kPa
(d
2 2)E 2
B (E 1 E 2 )I 1 I 2
E 1 75E 2
E 1 /E 2 75
R
1051 N m
( s 2 ) allow
(d
2 2)
4
I 1
(d
4 3 d
) 1.076 10 6 m 4
2
M allow 768 N m
64
STEEL GOVERNS
4
I 2
(d
d 4 ) 1.613 10 6 m 4
2
1
64
y
Problem 6.2-7 The cross section of a sandwich beam consisting of
aluminum alloy faces and a foam core is shown in the figure. The width
b of the beam is 8.0 in., the thickness t of the faces is 0.25 in., and the
height h c of the core is 5.5 in. (total height h 6.0 in.). The moduli of
elasticity are 10.5 10 6 psi for the aluminum faces and 12,000 psi for
the foam core. A bending moment M 40 k-in. acts about the z axis.
Determine the maximum stresses in the faces and the core using
(a) the general theory for composite beams, and (b) the approximate
theory for sandwich beams.
t
z
h
h
c
C
t
Probs. 6.2-7 and 6.2-8
b
beams. t z h h c C t Probs. 6.2-7 and 6.2-8 b Solution 6.2-7 Sandwich
Solution 6.2-7 Sandwich beam y 1 t z 2 h h c 1 t b
Solution 6.2-7
Sandwich beam
y
1
t
z
2
h
h
c
1
t
b

(1) Aluminum faces: b 8.0 in. h 6.0 in.

t 0.25 in.

E 1 10.5 10 6 psi

I 1

b

12 (h 3 h

3

c

) 33.08 in. 4

(2) Foam core: b 8.0 in. E 2 12,000 psi

h c 5.5 in.

M 40 k-in.

I 2

bh

3

c

12

110.92 in. 4

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 348.7 10 6 lb-in. 2

(a) GENERAL THEORY (EQS. 6-6a AND b)

s face s 1 M(h 2)E 1 E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

s core s 2 M(h c 2)E 2 E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

3610 psi 4 psi
3610 psi
4 psi

(b) APPROXIMATE THEORY (EQS. 6-8 AND 6-9)

I 1

b

12 (h 3 h

3

c

) 33.08 in. 4

s face Mb 2I 1

3630 psi

8 AND 6 - 9 ) I 1 b 1 2 ( h 3 h 3

s core 0

8 AND 6 - 9 ) I 1 b 1 2 ( h 3 h 3
8 AND 6 - 9 ) I 1 b 1 2 ( h 3 h 3

380

CHAPTER 6

Stresses in Beams

Problem 6.2-8

fiberglass faces and a lightweight plastic core is shown in the figure. The width b of the beam is 50 mm, the thickness t of the faces is 4 mm, and the height h c of the core is 92 mm (total height h 100 mm). The moduli of elasticity are 75 GPa for the fiberglass and 1.2 GPa for the plastic. A bending moment M 275 N m acts about the z axis. Determine the maximum stresses in the faces and the core using (a) the general theory for composite beams, and (b) the approximate theory for sandwich beams.

The cross section of a sandwich beam consisting of

beams. The cross section of a sandwich beam consisting of Solution 6.2-8 Sandwich beam y 1
Solution 6.2-8 Sandwich beam y 1 t z 2 h h c 1 t b
Solution 6.2-8
Sandwich beam
y
1
t
z
2
h
h
c
1
t
b

(1) Fiber glass faces: b 50 mm h 100 mm E 1 75 GPa

I 1

b

12 (h 3 h

3

c

) 0.9221 10 6 m 4

(2) Plastic core: b 50 mm E 2 1.2 GPa bh

I 2

3

c

12

M 275 N m

(a) GENERAL THEORY (EQS. 6-6a AND b)

s face s 1 M(h 2)E 1 E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

s core s 2 E M(h 1 I 1 c 2)E E 2 I 2 2

14.1 MPa

14.1 MPa

0.21 MPa

0.21 MPa

(b) APPROXIMATE THEORY (EQS. 6-8 AND 6-9)

b 3 I 1 12 (h 3 h ) 0.9221 10 6 m 4 c
b
3
I 1
12 (h 3 h
) 0.9221 10 6 m 4
c
s face Mh 2I 1
14.9 MPa
s core 0

t 4 mm

h c 92 mm

3.245 10 6 m 4

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 73,050 N m 2

Problem 6.2-9

consists of strips of aluminum and copper bonded together as shown in the figure, which is a cross-sectional view. The width of the beam is 1.0 in., and each strip has a thickness of 1/16 in. Under the action of a bending moment M 12 lb-in. acting about the z axis, what are the maximum stresses a and c in the aluminum and copper, respectively? (Assume E a 10.5 10 6 psi and E c 16.8 10 6 psi.)

A bimetallic beam used in a temperature-control switch

z

y 1 — in. 16 A O C 1 1.0 in. — in. 16
y
1
— in.
16
A
O
C
1
1.0 in.
— in.
16
switch z y 1 — in. 16 A O C 1 1.0 in. — in. 16

Solution 6.2-9

CROSS SECTION

Bimetallic beam

z

 

y

1
1
 
     
      t

t

h

1

h 1
     
2
2
      2 t

t

   

O

    O
 
  b = 1 in.  

b = 1 in.

  b = 1 in.  
 

h

2

1

= — in.

16

1

= — in.

16

(1) Aluminum E 1 E a 10.5 10 6 psi

(2) Copper

M 12 lb-in.

E 2 E c 16.8 10 6 psi

NEUTRAL AXIS (EQ. 6-3)

1

Y dA Y 1 A 1 (h 1 t 2)(bt)

(h 1 1 32)(1)(1 16) in. 3

2

Y dA Y 2 A 2 (h 1 t t 2)(bt)

(h 1 3 32)(1)(1 16) in. 3

Eq. (6-3): E 1 1 YdA E 2 2 YdA 0

(10.5 10 6 )(h 1 1/32)(1/16) (16.8 10 6 )(h 1 3/32)(1/16) 0

Solve for h 1 : h 1 0.06971 in. h 2 2(1/16 in.) h 1 0.05529 in.

SECTION 6.2

Composite Beams

381

MOMENTS OF INERTIA (FROM PARALLEL-AXIS THEOREM)

3

I 1 bt

12

3

I 2 bt

12

bt(h 1 t 2) 2 0.0001128 in. 4

bt(h 2 t 2) 2 0.00005647 in. 4

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 2133 lb-in. 2

MAXIMUM STRESSES (EQS. 6-6a AND b)

s a s 1

s c s 2

Mh 1 E 1

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

Mh 2 E 2

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

4120 psi

5230 psi

2 E 2 E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 4120 psi 5230 psi Problem

Problem 6.2-10

3m long carries a uniformly distributed load of intensity q 3.0 kN/m (see figure). The beam is constructed of a wood member, 100 mm wide by 150 mm deep, reinforced on its lower side by a steel plate 8 mm thick and 100 mm wide. Find the maximum bending stresses w and s in the wood and steel, respectively, due to the uniform load if the moduli of elasticity are E w 10 GPa for the wood and E s 210 GPa for the steel.

A simply supported composite beam

y

q = 3.0 kN/m z O 3 m 100 mm
q = 3.0 kN/m
z
O
3 m
100 mm

150 mm

8

mm

composite beam y q = 3.0 kN/m z O 3 m 100 mm 150 mm 8

Solution 6.2-10

Simply supported composite beam

BEAM: L 3 m q 3.0 kN/m M 3375 N m max qL 2 8
BEAM:
L 3 m
q 3.0 kN/m
M
3375 N m
max qL 2
8
CROSS SECTION
y
h
1
1
h
z
O
h
2
2
t
b
b 100 mm
h 150 mm
t 8 mm

(1) Wood: E 1 E w 10 GPa

(2) Steel:

E 2 E s 210 GPa

NEUTRAL AXIS

1

Y dA Y 1 A 1 (h 1 h 2)(bh)

(h 1 75)(100)(150) mm 3

2

y dA Y 2 A 2 (h t 2 h 1 )(bt)

(154 h 1 )(100)(18) mm 3

Eq. (6-3): E 1 1 YdA E 2 2 YdA 0 (10 GPa)(h 1 75)(100)(150)(10 9 )

(210 GPa)(h 1 154)(100)(8)(10 9 ) 0

Solve for h 1 : h 1 116.74 mm h 2 h t h 1 41.26 mm

MOMENTS OF INERTIA (FROM PARALLEL-AXIS THEOREM)

3

I 1 bh

12

bh(h 1 h 2) 2 54.26 10 6 mm 4

I 2 bt

2

12 bt(h 2 t 2) 2 1.115 10 6 mm 4

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2 776,750 N m 2

MAXIMUM STRESSES (EQS. 6-6a AND b)

Mh 1 E 1

s w s 1

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

5.1 MPa (Compression) Mh 2 E 2

s s s 2

E 1 I 1 E 2 I 2

37.6 MPa (Tension)

E 2 I 2 5.1 MPa (Compression) M h 2 E 2 s s s 2
E 2 I 2 5.1 MPa (Compression) M h 2 E 2 s s s 2
E 2 I 2 5.1 MPa (Compression) M h 2 E 2 s s s 2

382

CHAPTER 6

Stresses in Beams

Transformed-Section Method

When solving the problems for Section 6.3, assume that the component parts of the beams are securely bonded by adhesives or connected by fasteners. Also, be sure to use the transformed-section method in the solutions.

Problem 6.3-1

is reinforced on top and bottom by 0.5 in. thick steel plates (see figure). Find the allowable bending moment M max about the z axis if the allowable stress in the wood is 1,000 psi and in the steel is 16,000 psi. (Assume that the ratio of the moduli of elasticity of steel and wood is 20.)

A wood beam 8 in. wide and 12 in. deep

z

y 0.5 12 in. C 0.5 8 in.
y
0.5
12 in.
C
0.5
8 in.

in

in

wide and 12 in. deep z y 0.5 12 in. C 0.5 8 in. in in

Solution 6.3-1

(1) Wood beam b 8 in.

Wood beam with steel plates

h 1 12 in.

( 1 ) allow 1000 psi

(2)

Steel plates

b

8 in.

h 2 13 in.

t 0.5 in. ( 2 ) allow 16,000 psi

TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD)

z

y

2
2

0.5

w 16,000 psi T RANSFORMED SECTION ( WOOD ) z y 2 0.5 12 1 C

12

16,000 psi T RANSFORMED SECTION ( WOOD ) z y 2 0.5 12 1 C 8.0
1
1

C

8.0

160

0.5

Wood beam is not changed.

n E s

E w

20

Width of steel plates nb (20) (8 in.) 160 in.

All dimensions in inches.

I T 1 12(160)(13) 3 1 12(160 8)(12) 3

7405 in. 4

MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (1) (EQ. 6-15)

s 1 M(h 1 2)

I T

M 1 ( s 1 ) allow I T

h

1 2

1230 k-in.

MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (2) (EQ. 6-17)

s 2 M(h 2 2)n

I T

STEEL GOVERNS

M 2 ( s 2 ) allow I T

h

1 2n

911 k-in.

M max 911 k-in.

I T h 1 2 n 911 k-in. M m a x 911 k-in. Problem 6.3-2
I T h 1 2 n 911 k-in. M m a x 911 k-in. Problem 6.3-2

Problem 6.3-2

load of intensity 48 kN/m. The cross section of the beam is a hollow box with wood flanges and steel side plates, as shown in the figure. The wood flanges are 75 mm by 100 mm in cross section, and the steel plates are 300 mm deep. What is the required thickness t of the steel plates if the allowable stresses are 120 MPa for the steel and 6.5 MPa for the wood? (Assume that the moduli of elasticity for the steel and wood are 210 GPa and 10 GPa, respectively, and disregard the weight of the beam.)

A simple beam of span length 3.2 m carries a uniform

75

75

y mm z 300 mm C mm 100 mm t t
y
mm
z
300 mm
C
mm
100 mm
t
t

Solution 6.3-2

Box beam

MAX qL 2

M

8

61.44 kN m

SIMPLE BEAM: L 3.2 m

q 4.8 kN/m

(1)

Wood flanges: b 100 mm h 1 150 mm ( 1 ) allow 6.5 MPa E w 10 GPa

h 300 mm

(2)

Steel plates: t thickness ( 2 ) allow 120 MPa E s 210 GPa

h 300 mm

TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD)

z

y 1 2 300 mm C 150 21t 100 21t
y
1
2
300 mm
C
150
21t
100
21t

Wood flanges are not changed

n E s

E w

Width of steel plates nt 21t

21

SECTION 6.3

Transformed-Section Method

All dimensions in millimeters.

I T

1

12 (100 42t)(300) 3

1

12

(100)(150) 3

383

196.9 10 6 mm 4 94.5t 10 6 mm 4

REQUIRED THICKNESS BASED UPON THE WOOD (1) (EQ. 6-15)

s 1 M(h 2)

I

T

(I r ) 1 M max (h 2)

( s 1 ) allow

1.418 10 9 mm 4

Equate I T and (I T ) 1 and solve for t: t 1 12.92 mm

REQUIRED THICKNESS BASED UPON THE STEEL (2) (EQ. 6-17)

s 2 M(h 2)n

I

T

(I T ) 2 M max (h 2)n

( s 2 ) allow

1.612 10 9 mm 4

Equate I r and (I r ) 2 and solve for t: t 2 14.97 mm

STEEL GOVERNS.

t min 15.0 mm

t 2 14.97 mm S TEEL GOVERNS . t m i n 15.0 mm Problem 6.3-3

Problem 6.3-3

of intensity q. The beam is constructed of an S 8 18.4 section (I-beam section) reinforced with wood beams that are securely fastened to the flanges (see the cross section shown in the figure). The wood beams are 2 in. deep and 4 in. wide. The modulus of elasticity of the steel is 20 times that of the wood. If the allowable stresses in the steel and wood are 12,000 psi and 900 psi, respectively, what is the allowable load q allow ? (Note: Disregard the weight of the beam, and see Table E-2 of Appendix E for the dimensions and properties of the steel beam.)

A simple beam that is 15 ft long supports a uniform load

z

y 2 in. S 8 18.4 C 2 in. 4 in.
y
2
in.
S 8 18.4
C
2
in.
4 in.

384

CHAPTER 6

Solution 6.3-3

Stresses in Beams

Reinforced I-beam

(1)

Steel beam: S 8 18.4

I 1 57.6 in. 4

d

8.00 in.

( 1 ) allow 12,000 psi

(2)

Wood beams: b 4 in. ( 2 ) allow 900 psi

t 2 in.

TRANSFORMED SECTION (STEEL)

y 1 t = 2 2 z d = 8.00 C t = 2 0.2
y
1
t
= 2
2
z
d
= 8.00
C
t
= 2
0.2
Steel beam is not changed.
1
n E w
E s
20

Width of wood beams nb (1/20)(4) 0.2 in.

All dimensions in inches.

I T 57.6

1

12

(0.2)(12) 3 1

12

77.87 in. 4

(0.2)(8) 3

MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (1)

s 1 M(d 2)

I T

M 1 ( s 1 ) allow I T

d 2

233,610 lb-in.

MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (2)

s 2 M(d 2 t)n

I T

M 2 ( s 2 ) allow I T

(d 2 t)n

233,610 lb-in.

(EQ. 6-15)

(EQ. 6-17)

By coincidence, M 1 M 2 (exactly) M max 233,610 lb-in.

SIMPLE BEAM

max qL 2

M

8

L 15 ft

q

allow

8M max

L

2

692 lb ft

qL 2 M 8 L 15 ft q allow 8 M max L 2 692 lb

Problem 6.3-4

simply supported and carries a total uniform load of 50 kN/m on a span length of 4.0 m. The beam is built of a wood member having cross-sectional dimensions 150 mm 250 mm and two steel plates of cross-sectional dimensions 50 mm 150 mm. Determine the maximum stresses s and w in the steel and wood, respectively, if the moduli of elasticity are E s 209 GPa and E w 11 GPa. (Disregard the weight of the beam.)

The composite beam shown in the figure is

50 kN/m

4.0 m
4.0 m

z

y 50 mm 250 mm C 50 mm 150 mm
y
50 mm
250 mm
C
50 mm
150 mm
figure is 50 kN/m 4.0 m z y 50 mm 250 mm C 50 mm 150

Solution 6.3-4

SIMPLE BEAM:

Composite beam

L 4.0 m

q 50 kN/m

M max qL 2

8

100 kN m

(1)

Wood beam: b 150 mm

h 1 250 mm

w 11 GPa

E

(2)

Steel plates: b 150 mm h 2 350 mm

t 50 mm E s 209 GPa

TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD) y 2 50 z 250 C 1 2850 50
TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD)
y
2
50
z
250
C
1
2850
50
150 mm h 2 350 mm t 50 mm E s 209 GPa TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD)

Wood beam is not changed.

n

E s

E w

209

11

19

Width of steel plates nb (19) (150 mm) 2850 mm

All dimensions in millimeters.

I T

1

12

(2850)(350) 3

6.667 10 8 mm 4

1

12 (2850 150)(250) 3

SECTION 6.3

Transformed-Section Method

385

MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE WOOD (1) (EQ. 6-15)

s w s 1 M max (h 1 2)

I T

1.9 MPa

s w s 1 M m a x ( h 1 2) I T 1.9 MPa

MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE STEEL (2) (EQ. 6-17)

s s s 2 M max (h 2 2)n

I T

49.9 MPa

s s s 2 M m a x ( h 2 2) n I T 49.9

Problem 6.3-5

separated by a lightweight plastic is shown in the figure. The beam has width b 3.0 in., the aluminum strips have thickness t 0.1 in., and the plastic seg- ments have heights d 1.2 in. and 3d 3.6 in. The total height of the beam is h 6.4 in. The moduli of elasticity for the aluminum and plastic are E a 11 10 6 psi and E p 440 10 3 psi, respectively. Determine the maximum stresses a and p in the aluminum and plastic, respectively, due to a bending moment of 6.0 k-in.

The cross section of a beam made of thin strips of aluminum

Probs. 6.3-5 and 6.3-6

z

y t d 3 d C d b
y
t d
3 d
C
d
b

h 4t 5d

6.3-5 and 6.3-6 z y t d 3 d C d b h 4 t 5

Solution 6.3-5

(1)

Plastic beam with aluminum strips

d 1.2 in.

Plastic segments: b 3.0 in. 3d 3.6 in.

E p

440 10 3 psi

(2) Aluminum strips: b 3.0 in.

t 0.1 in.

E a 11 10 6 psi h 4t 5d 6.4 in. M 6.0 k-in.

TRANSFORMED SECTION (PLASTIC)

y 2 0.1 1.2 1 z 3.6 6.4 C 3.0 1.2 75 0.1
y
2
0.1
1.2
1
z
3.6
6.4
C
3.0
1.2
75
0.1

Plastic segments are not changed.

n

E a 25

E

p

Width of aluminum strips nb (25)(3.0 in.) 75 in.

All dimensions in inches.

Plastic:

I 1 2 B 12 (3.0)(1.2) 3 (3.0)(1.2)(2.50) 2 R

1

1

12 (3.0)(3.6) 3 57.528 in. 4

Aluminum:

I 2 2 B 12 (75)(0.1) 3 (75)(0.1)(3.15) 2

1

1

12

(75)(0.1) 3 (75)(0.1)(1.85) 2 R

200.2 in. 4

I T I 1 I 2 257.73 in. 4

MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE PLASTIC (1) (Eq. 6-15)

s p s 1 M(h 2 t)

I T

72 psi

- 1 5 ) s p s 1 M ( h 2 t ) I T

MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE ALUMINUM (2) (EQ. 6-17)

s a s 2 M(h 2)n

I

T

1860 psi

I T 72 psi M A X I M U M STRESS IN THE ALUMINUM (2)
I T 72 psi M A X I M U M STRESS IN THE ALUMINUM (2)

386

CHAPTER 6

Stresses in Beams

Problem 6.3-6

b 75 mm, the aluminum strips have thickness t 3 mm, the plastic seg- ments have heights d 40 mm and 3d 120 mm, and the total height of the beam is h 212 mm. Also, the moduli of elasticity are E a 75 GPa and E p 3 GPa, respectively. Determine the maximum stresses a and p in the aluminum and plastic, respectively, due to a bending moment of 1.0 kN m.

Consider the preceding problem if the beam has width

m. Consider the preceding problem if the beam has width Solution 6.3-6 Plastic beam with aluminum

Solution 6.3-6

Plastic beam with aluminum strips

(1)

Plastic segments: b

75 mm

d 40 mm

3d

120 mm

E p 3 GPa

(2)

Aluminum strips: b 75 mm E a 75 GPa

t 3 mm

h 4t 5d 212 mm M 1.0 kN m

All dimensions in millimeters.

Plastic:

I 1 2 B 12 (75)(40) 3 (75)(40)(83) 2 R

1

1

12

(75)(120) 3

52.934 10 6 mm 4

TRANSFORMED SECTION (PLASTIC)

y 2 3 40 1 z 120 212 C 75 40 1875 3
y
2
3
40
1
z
120
212
C
75
40
1875
3

Plastic segments are not changed.

n E a 25

E p

Width of aluminum strips nb (25)(75 mm) 1875 mm

Aluminum:

I 2 2 B 12 (1875)(3) 3 (1875)(3)(104.5) 2

1

1

12

(1875)(3) 3 (1875)(3)(61.5) 2 R

165.420 10 6 mm 4

I T I 1 I 2 218.35 10 6 mm 4

MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE PLASTIC (1) (EQ. 6-15)

s p s 1 M(h 2 t)

I T

0.47 MPa

1 5 ) s p s 1 M ( h 2 t ) I T 0.47

MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE ALUMINUM (2) (EQ. 6-17)

s a s 2 M(h 2)n

I T

12.14 MPa

Q . 6-17) s a s 2 M ( h 2) n I T 12.14 MPa
Q . 6-17) s a s 2 M ( h 2) n I T 12.14 MPa

Problem 6.3-7

reinforced by a steel plate has the cross-sectional dimensions shown in the figure. The beam is simply supported with a span length of 6.0 ft and supports a uniformly distributed load of intensity q 800 lb/ft. Calculate the maximum bending stresses s and w in the steel and wood, respectively, due to the uniform load if E s /E w 20.

A composite beam constructed of a wood beam

z

y O 4 in.
y
O
4 in.
to the uniform load if E s / E w 20. A composite beam constructed of

5.5 in.

0.5 in.

Solution 6.3-7 Composite beam SIMPLE BEAM: L 6.0 ft q 800 lb/ft M max qL
Solution 6.3-7
Composite beam
SIMPLE BEAM:
L 6.0 ft
q 800 lb/ft
M
max qL 2 /8 43,200 lb-in.
(1)
Wood beam: b 4 in.
h 0 5.5 in.
(2)
Steel plate: b 4 in.
t 0.5 in.
E s
h h 0 t 6.0 in.
20
E w
TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD)
y
1
4
h 1
h
o = 5.5 in.
2
z
O
h 2
0.5 in.
80

Wood beam is not changed.

Width of steel plate

n 20

nb (20) (4 in.) 80 in.

SECTION 6.3

Transformed-Section Method

All dimensions in inches.

Use the base of the cross section as a reference line. h 2 g y c A c (0.25)(80)(0.5) (3.25)(4)(5.5)

g A c

(80)(0.5) (4)(5.5) 1.3145 in.

h 1 h h 2 4.6855 in.

I T

1

12 (4)(5.5) 3 (4)(5.5)(h 1 2.75) 2

1

12 (80)(0.5) 3 (80)(0.5)(h 2 0.25) 2

184.03 in. 4

387

MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE WOOD (1) (EQ. 6-15)

s w s 1 M max h 1

I T

1100 psi (Compression)

1 M m a x h 1 I T 1 100 psi (Compression) M AXIMUM STRESS

MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE STEEL (2) (EQ. 6-17)

s

s