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Contents

1 Studying Life

1

1.1 Lesson 1.1: The Nature of Science

 

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1

1.2 Lesson 1.2: The Scientific Method

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15

1.3 Lesson 1.3: Tools of Science

 

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22

1.4 Lesson 1.4: Safety in Scientific Research

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31

2 Introduction to Living Organisms

 

41

2.1 Lesson 2.1: What are Living Things?

 

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41

2.2 Lesson 2.2: Chemicals of Life

 

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48

2.3 Lesson 2.3: Classification of Living Things

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65

3 Cells and Their Structures

 

81

3.1 Lesson 3.1: Introduction to Cells

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81

3.2 Lesson 3.2: Cell Structures

 

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88

4 Cell Functions

99

4.1 Lesson 4.1: Transport

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99

4.2 Lesson 4.2: Photosynthesis

 

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107

4.3 Lesson 4.3: Cellular Respiration

 

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114

5 Cell Division, Reproduction, and DNA

 

123

5.1 Lesson 5.1: Cell Division

 

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123

5.2 Lesson 5.2: Reproduction

 

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130

5.3

Lesson 5.3: DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis

 

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140

6 Genetics

155

6.1 Lesson 6.1: Gregor Mendel and the Foundations of Genetics

 

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155

6.2 Lesson 6.2: Modern Genetics

 

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160

6.3 Lesson 6.3: Human Genetics

 

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169

6.4 Lesson 6.4: Genetic Advances

 

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176

7 Evolution

187

7.1 Lesson 7.1: Evolution by Natural Selection

 

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187

7.2 Lesson 7.2: Evidence of Evolution

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202

7.3 Lesson 7.3: Macroevolution

 

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214

7.4 Lesson 7.4: History of Life on Earth

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227

8 Prokaryotes

243

8.1 Lesson 8.1: Bacteria

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243

8.2 Lesson 8.2: Archaea

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253

9 Protists and Fungi

261

9.1 Lesson 9.1: Protists

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261

9.2 Lesson 9.2: Fungi

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271

10 Plants

283

10.1 Lesson 10.1: Introduction to Plants

 

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283

10.2 Lesson 10.2: Seedless Plants

 

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291

10.3 Lesson 10.3: Seed Plants

 

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301

10.4 Lesson 10.4: Plant Responses

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311

11 Introduction to Invertebrates

 

321

11.1 Lesson 11.1: Overview of Animals

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321

11.2 Lesson 11.2: Sponges and Cnidarians

 

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326

11.3

Lesson 11.3: Worms

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332

12 Other Invertebrates

 

343

12.1 Lesson 12.1: Mollusks

 

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343

12.2 Lesson 12.2: Echinoderms

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352

12.3 Lesson 12.3: Arthropods

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359

12.4 Lesson 12.4: Insects

 

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374

13 Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles

 

393

13.1 Lesson 13.1: Introduction to Vertebrates

 

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393

13.2 Lesson 13.2: Fishes

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399

13.3 Lesson 13.3: Amphibians

 

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409

13.4 Lesson 13.4: Reptiles

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416

14 Birds and Mammals

 

435

14.1 Lesson 14.1: Birds

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435

14.2 Lesson 14.2: Mammals

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446

14.3 Lesson 14.3: Primates and Humans

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458

15 Behavior of Animals

 

473

15.1 Lesson 15.1: Understanding Animal Behavior

 

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473

15.2 Lesson 15.2: Types of Animal Behavior

 

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493

16 Skin, Bones, and Muscles

 

511

16.1 Lesson 16.1: Organization of Your Body

 

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511

16.2 Lesson 16.2: Integumentary System

 

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522

16.3 Lesson 16.3: Skeletal System

 

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533

16.4 Lesson 16.4: The Muscular System

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548

17 Food and the Digestive System

 

565

17.1

Lesson 17.1: Food and Nutrients

 

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565

17.2 Lesson 17.2: Choosing Healthy Foods

 

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577

17.3 Lesson 17.3: The Digestive System

 

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585

18 Cardiovascular System

601

18.1 Lesson 18.1: Introduction to the Cardiovascular System

 

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601

18.2 Lesson 18.2: Heart and Blood Vessels

 

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613

18.3 Lesson 18.3: Blood

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620

18.4 Lesson 18.4: Health of the Cardiovascular System

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632

19 Respiratory and Excretory Systems

 

643

19.1 Lesson 19.1: Respiratory System

 

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643

19.2 Lesson 19.2: Health of the Respiratory System

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651

19.3 Lesson 19.3: Excretory System

 

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663

20 Controlling the Body

677

20.1 Lesson 20.1: Nervous System

 

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677

20.2 Lesson 20.2: Eyes and Vision

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691

20.3 Lesson 20.3: Other Senses

 

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702

20.4 Lesson 20.4: Health of the Nervous System

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714

21 Diseases and the Body’s Defenses

 

729

21.1 Lesson 21.1: Infectious Diseases

 

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729

21.2 Lesson 21.2: Noninfectious Diseases

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739

21.3 Lesson 21.3: First Two Lines of Defense

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751

21.4 Lesson 21.4: Immune System Defenses

 

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759

22 Reproductive Systems and Life Stages

 

775

22.1 Lesson 22.1: Male Reproductive System

 

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775

22.2 Lesson 22.2: Female Reproductive System

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781

22.3 Lesson 22.3: Reproduction and Life Stages

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789

22.4 Lesson 22.4: Reproductive System Health

 

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802

23

From Populations to the Biosphere

815

23.1 Lesson 23.1: Introduction to Ecology

 

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