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UNIVERSITATEA BABE

BABEŞŞ-BOLYAI CLUJ-NAPOCA
FACULTATEA DE LITERE
DEPARTAMENTUL DE LIMBI STRAINE DE SPECIALITATE

CURS PRACTIC DE LIMBA ENGLEZA

ASISTENT drd. CAMELIA-DANIELA TEGLAS

2010
I. Informa
Informaţţii generale

1.1. Date de identificare a cursului


1.1.Date
Date de contact ale titularului de curs: Date de identificare curs şi contact tutori:

Nume: Asit. drd. Teglaş Camelia-Daniela Numele cursului – Curs practic de limba
Birou: Cab.10, Departamentul LSS, Horea engleza
nr.7 Codul cursului –
Telefon: 0264/530724 Anul, Semestrul – anul 1, semestrele 1,2
Fax: Tipul cursului - obligatoriu
E-mail: cameliateglas@yahoo.com Pagina web a cursului
Consultaţii: joi, 10-12 Tutori:
Adresa e-mail tutori:

1.2.Condiţţion
1.2.Condi ionăări şi cuno
cunoşştin
tinţţe prerechizite
Cursul este conditionat de deţinerea de cunoştinţe de limba engleză care situeaya studentul la
nivel B1, conform grilei de autoevaluare a Cadrului comun european de referinta a limbilor:
Competen
Competenţţe A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2

Înţelegere-ascultare 1 2 3 4 5 6
Înţelegere-citire 1 2 3 4 5 6
Vorbire-conversa
Vorbire-conversaţţie 1 2 3 4 5 6
Vorbire-exprimare 1 2 3 4 5 6
Scriere 1 2 3 4 5 6

Trebuie avut în vedere faptul că înscrierea la examenul de licenţa la finalul ciclului bachelor
este conditionat de susţinerea şi promovarea unui test de competenţe lingvistică într-o limba
de circulaţie internaţională. Pentru aceasta, studenţii au la îndemînă două variante:
a. Susţinerea unui test în cadrul facultăţii, care se finalizează, în caz de promovare, cu
acceptul de înscriere la (şi numai) la licenţă;
b. Susţinerea Testului de competenţă lingvistică ALPHA, la Centrul Alpha al UBB, care se
soldează cu obţinerea unu certificat de competenţă lingvistică ce atestă nivelul de cunoştinţe
al candidatului. Condiţionarea înscrierii la licenţă este obţinerea a minimum 20 puncte din
totalul de 30 posibile.

1.3.Descrierea cursului
Este un curs cu obiective specifice care vizează achiziţia de cunoştinţe şi dezvoltarea
deprinderilor de limbă străină ca instrument de formare şi informare academic academicăă şi
profesional ă .
profesională Tipologia programului de învăţare are în vedere crearea unui profil de
competenţţe axate pe studiul limbajelor de specialitate
utilizator cu competen specialitate.. În acest sens,
studenţii îşi vor dezvolta capacitatea de conştientizare a stării actuale a cunoştinţelor şi
deprinderilor, se vor deprinde să-şi fixeze obiective reale şi realiste, să-şi selecteze în mod
autonom materialele şi să se autoevalueze. Pentru aceasta, catedra LSS a elaborat o programă
care a utilizat ca documente de bază Cadrul European Comun de Referinţă pentru limbi şi
documentele referitoare la Politica lingvistică a UBB.
http://lett.ubbcluj.ro/limbi_straine/limbi_straine.html
1.4.Organizarea temelor în cadrul cursului

2
Cursul este organizat în doua module, corespunzând celor doua semestre de studiu.,
cate 14 intalniri/ semestru.

1.5.Formatul şi tipul activit ăţ


activităţ ilor implicate de curs
ăţilor
Parcurgerea şi promovarea cursului presupune completarea şi rezolvarea
exerciţiilor şi temelor precizate în pachetul de studiu precum si redactarea si prezentarea unor
proiecte individuale in timpul semestrului.

1.6.Materiale bibliografice obligatorii


1. SIDE, RICHARD – WELLMAN, GUY: Grammar & Vocabulary For Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency,
Longman, 2001
2. Camelia Teglaş (coord.), Cristina Felea, Vlad Mezei English B2 – C1, Social Sciences and Sport, Seria
Autodidact (coord. Liana Pop), Cluj, Ed. Echinox, 2009
3. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman, 2003Prodromou, L., Grammar and Vocabulary
for First Certificate, Longman, 2001
5. http://granturi.ubbcluj.ro/autodidact
6. http://www.psychologyabout.com
Lucrările menţionate la bibliografia obligatorie se găsesc şi pot fi împrumutate de la
Biblioteca British Council si Biblioteca Departamentului de LSS, sau pot fi accesate pe
internet la adresele indicate.

1.7. Materiale şi instrumente necesare pentru curs


Derularea activităţilor prevăzute necesită accesul studenţilor la următoarele resurse:
- calculator conectat la internet (pentru a putea accesa bazele de date si resursele electronice
suplimentare dar şi pentru a putea participa la secvenţele de formare interactivă on line)
- imprimantă (pentru tipărirea materialelor suport, a temelor redactate, a studiilor de caz)
- acces la resursele bibliografice (ex: abonament la Biblioteca British Council)
- acces la echipamente de fotocopiere

1.8. Calendarul cursului


Pe parcursul semestrelor 1 si 2, în care se studiază disciplina de faţă, sunt programate
patrusprezece întâlniri/ semestru faţă în faţă cu toţi studenţii; ele sunt destinate soluţionării,
nemediate, a oricăror nelămuriri de conţinut sau a celor privind sarcinile individuale.

1.9. Politica de evaluare şi notare


Evaluarea finală se va realiza pe baza unui examen scris desfăşurat în sesiunea de la
finele semestrului 1, respectiv 2. Nota finală se compune din: a. punctajul obţinut la acest
examen în proporţie de 70% (7 puncte) b. evaluarea proiectului de semestru 30% (3 puncte).
academicăă
1.10. Elemente de deontologie academic
În caz de fraudă sau plagiat, vezi poziţia UBB.

Studenţţi cu dizabilit
1.11. Studen ăţ
dizabilităţ i:
ăţi:
Titularul cursului îşi exprima disponibilitatea, în limita constrângerilor tehnice si de timp, de a
adapta conţinutul şi metodelor de transmitere a informaţiilor precum şi modalităţile de
evaluare (examen oral, examen on line etc) în funcţie de tipul dizabilităţii cursantului. Altfel
spus, avem în vedere, ca o prioritate, facilitarea accesului egal al tuturor cursanţilor la
activităţile didactice si de evaluare.
1.12. Strategii de studiu recomandate:

3
Se recomandă studenţilor o planificare foarte riguroasă a secvenţelor de studiu
individual, coroborată cu secvenţe de dialog, mediate de reţeaua net, cu titularul de disciplină.
Lectura fiecărui modul şi rezolvarea la timp a lucrărilor de evaluare garantează nivele înalte
de înţelegere a conţinutului tematic şi totodată sporesc şansele promovării cu succes a acestei
discipline.

Modulul 1 si 2

• Scopul şi obiectivele
Obiective
Obiective: formarea şi dezvoltarea competenţelor de comunicare orală şi scrisă ale studenţilor
(limbaj general şi de specialitate) precum şi a deprinderilor de studiu academic, informare şi
comunicare de profil.
Aceste obiective se vor atinge prin:
- exploatarea textelor de interes general şi de specialitate prin formarea de deprinderi şi
strategii de lectură, de dezbatere/comentariu academic, şi dezvoltarea şi fixarea limbajului de
specialitate;
- abordarea gramaticii limbii engleze, insistînd asupra categoriile gramaticale şi structurilor
preponderent folosite în limbajul de specialitate şi asupra sintaxei propoziţiei şi a frazei, în
contextul comunicării generale şi de specialitate (scrise şi orale);
- traduceri/retroversiuni în vederea exersării limbajului fundamental şi de specialitate,
punerea în practică a competenţei/performanţei de comunicare;
redactăări - genuri ale scrisului academic: fişa de lectură, rezumat, recenzie, eseu
- redact
descriptiv/argumentativ, interpretare de date.

4
MODULE I
INTRODUCTION
THE SKILL AND PRACTICE OF READING
1. The reading process
Though reading is often considered a passive skill, research in the field of psycholinguistics has
demonstrated that it is actually a highly complex process of interaction between the reader and text.
For example, it has been shown that the reader does not decode the text in his first language in an
orderly, linear fashion, word after word, but rather his eyes move rapidly over the page, going forward
and backward as he perceives meaningful groups of words and relates these to the non-verbal
information at his disposal (that is, to his knowledge of the world and topic of the written text),
thereby deriving meaning from the text.
Reading thus can be seen as the processing of information. The reader brings to the text his own
store of information deriving from his native culture, education, personal experience, and, normally
some specific knowledge of the written text. At the same time, the reader possesses a linguistic
competence, including knowledge of words, of how these words are deployed according to the
linguistic system in order to form sentences, and the rhetorical pattern and linguistic conventions
which characterize different types of text.
Furthermore, in an ideal situation, the reader approaches a text with a genuine motivation to read and
a reading purpose. Whatever the text, he will also have some expectations or predictions regarding its
content and how the text is likely to be organized depending on its genre. As he reads, these
predictions are confirmed or not confirmed by the text. Depending of his reason for reading, he will
use one or more specific strategies.

2. Reading strategies
When we read in our own language we use – often unconsciously – a variety of reading strategies
and techniques depending on the text and our reason for reading. There are four principal “styles” of
reading:
Skimming involves moving your eyes rapidly over the page or pages in order to get a general idea
of what the text is about, focusing on certain key words or phrases.
Scanning, instead, is a strategy we use when we seek specific pieces of information in a text, such
Scanning
as names, dates, statistics, or whether a particular topic is treated. Here our expectations are
heightened by our awareness of certain lexical fields or other textural features which are likely to
signal the presence of the information we are looking for.
Intensive reading is the style we use when we wish to have a very clear and complete
understanding of the written text. This implies a careful de-codification of the writer’s discourse,
usually with the aim of comprehending not only the literal meaning of the text, but also the writer’s
deeper purpose, his position or other eventual text subtleties.
Extensive reading is the term we use to describe the strategies called into play when we read longer
texts either for pleasure or for information, and may involve all the strategies previously mentioned,
which the reader applies according to the individual text and his interest in its various parts.
Thus, the reading style we apply to any given text should be a function of the type and content of the
text on the one hand, and our reading purpose on the other. It is important to use these strategies
appropriately and flexibly: obviously not all texts need to be read intensively, though language
learners often apply only this strategy to texts in foreign languages. In reading English for academic
purposes, for example, it will often suffice to have a general idea of whether certain information is
contained in an article and, if so, where, so that it might be consulted at a later date. On the other
hand, information which is of interest may be located quickly and selected passages focused upon for
the purpose of extracting and annotating specific information.
(Source: Jordan, R.R, Academic Writing Course, Collins, London 1993)

5
Unit 1: Get a Glimpse on Psychology
If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn't.
Emerson M. Pugh

Psychology is the study of the mind, along with such aspects


of mind as perception, cognition, emotion, and behaviour. In some ways,
it has only been around since the late 1800's, when people like Wilhelm
Wundt, William James, and Sigmund Freud separated it from its various
mother disciplines such as biology, philosophy, and medicine. But in
other ways, it has been around as long as human beings have been Specialist
discussing human beings. I suspect that cavemen and cavewomen Vocabulary
behaviour
probably sat around the fire talking about the same things we do: How cognition
come their kids are weird, why can't men and women get along better, discipline
what's with those folks from the next valley, how come old Zook hasn't emotion
been the same since that rock hit him, and what do dreams really mean. empirical
Today, psychology tries to be a science. Science is the effort to study a experiment
subject with an explicit promise to think as logically and stick to the lobotomize
empirical facts as tightly as is humanly possible. Other sciences --
chemistry, physics, biology, and so on -- have had great success this
way. Our cave-person ancestors would be astounded at our understanding
of the world around us! But the subject matter of psychology (and the
other human sciences) is harder to pin down. We human beings are not as
cooperative as some green goo in a test tube! It is a nearly impossible
situation: To study the very thing that studies, to research the researcher,
to psychoanalyse the psychoanalyst.
So, as you will see, we still have a long way to go in psychology. We have mind
a large collection of theories about this part of being human or that perception
part; we have a lot of experiments and other studies about one particular psychology
detail of life or another; we have many therapeutic techniques that research
sometimes work, and sometimes don't. But there is a steady progress that science
is easy to see for those of us with, say, a half century of life behind theory
us. We are a bit like medicine in that regard: Don't forget that it wasn't therapeutic
techniques
really that long ago when we didn't have vaccines for simple childhood
diseases, or anaesthesia for operations; heart attacks and cancer were
Phrases
things people simply died of, as opposed to things that many people to be astounded at
survive; and mental patients were people we just locked away or to die of
lobotomized! to lock away
Some day -- sooner rather than later, I think -- we will have the same to pin down
kinds of understanding of the human mind as we are quickly developing to stick to
of the human body. The nice thing is you and I can participate in this
process! Unusual words
Source: Adapted from: General Psychology by Dr. C. George Boeree Shippensburg University Zook
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/genpsy.html
goo

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


6
Word charts, like the oval diagram below, help students condense and organize data about multiple
traits, facts or attributes associated to a single topic.
A. These definitions, as they appear in the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, fit the words in
the chart below. Match them with the words by writing the corresponding letter next to them, according
to the model.

Model: EMOTION = J. a strong human feeling such as love, hate or anger


A. the process of knowing, understanding, and learning something
B. an area of knowledge or teaching that is studied at a university
C. the thing that a person or an animal does
D. based on scientific testing or practical experience, not on ideas
E. a scientific test done to find out how something reacts under certain conditions, or to find out if a
particular idea is true; a process in which you test a new idea or method to see if it is useful or
effective
F. serious study of a subject, in order to discover new facts or test new ideas
G. knowledge about the world, especially based on examining, testing, and proving facts
H. an idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain something about life or the world, especially an
idea that has not yet been proven to be true
I. to remove surgically part of someone’s brain in order to treat their mental problems
J. a strong human feeling such as love, hate or anger

COGNITION
EXPERIMENT RESEARCH

LOBOTOMIZE EMOTION=J

PSYCHOLOGY
Ψ
EMPIRICAL SCIENCE

DISCIPLINE BEHAVIOUR
THEORY

B. Use your dictionary to translate the following phrases:

to be astounded at =
to die of =
to lock away =
to pin down =
to stick to =

SECTION II: Language Focus

7
Academic textual functions, such as reporting, are signalled by characteristic language uses of tense
aspect. When reporting findings or significant aspects of people’s work, we use The Present
and aspect
Simple. The Past Simple is used when referring to the procedures used in individual studies.
Simple
A. Read the following excerpts from two research reports and fill in with the appropriate form of the verb
in brackets, according to the academic textual functions used in each of them.
1. Mood disorders (to affect _1) around forty four million Americans each year. The two most
common mental disorders (to be _2) depression and bipolar disease. There are several factors which
researchers (to believe_3) contribute to mental disorders. Some researchers (to think _4) that the most
severe mood disorders (to be caused_5) by imbalances in the brain’s chemical activity. Researchers
also (to assume _6) the environment can play a part in mood disorders and it may run in families.
Some mood disorders (to prove _7) to be easier to diagnose due to the symptoms that the patient (to
display _8), while others may be a little more difficult and (to require_9) more testing due to the mood
disorder going unrecognized. The good news (to be_10) that with the proper medication and
psychotherapy a person afflicted with a mood disorder can go on and live a productive life.
(Source: Adapted from: http://www.freeonlineresearchpapers.com/diagnosing-mental-disorders)

2. The most famous experiment Milgram (to conduct _1) was also his most controversial. The issue
(to deal _2) with the people's right to know on what he/she is being studied. On the surface, the
experiment (to look _3) legit and totally scientific. Two people (to be brought _4) in at a time and each
would draw from a hat. One would be the teacher, one the learner. After going over exactly how the
shock treatment (to work _5), the teacher (to go _6) to his control panel and the learner (to be hooked
up _7) to electrodes. The teacher would first read lists of paired words then (to ask _8) the learner to
pair up the now separated words. For each wrong answer the learner (to give _9), an increasing dose
of electricity (to be given _10).
(Source: Adapted from: http://www.free-researchpapers.com/dbs/b11/smu317.shtml)

B. Identify the tenses of the verbs underlined in the following fragment and match them to the uses
suggested in the table below:
The research of consciousness, or states of awareness, has provided numerous interesting and
influential studies. Sleep, dreams, and hypnosis are states of awareness that have intrigued
psychologists because they relate to the quality of psychological interaction with the environment.
States of awareness change constantly, which produces changes in behavior. Studies in this area have
made great contributions to the understanding of psychology. Researchers pursuing answers about
states of awareness discovered Rapid Eye Movement sleep and how it relates to dreaming. Rosalind
Cartwright, a leading researcher in this area, takes the study of consciousness to another level by
suggesting that people may be able to control what they dream about. Many psychologists have
theorized about why people dream. Sigmund Freud believed that dreams were windows to your
unconscious; that your greatest unfulfilled wishes and fears would be expressed symbolically in your
dreams. Freud's view has been highly influential, and psychotherapists still use dream interpretation
during therapy.
(Source: Adapted from: http://www.free-researchpapers.com/dbs/b6/pnl224.shtml)

VERBS TENSE USE


An action that was begun in the
past and continues into the present/
An action that happened in the
unspecified past/ A recent action
that has a present effect.
Actions that happened at a defined
moment in the past.
Habitual activities - States

SECTION III: Text Structure

8
Researchers communicate their results and help accumulate knowledge through conference
papers, reports, on-line journals and print journals. A research paper is a true academic
writing that requires inquiry into the existing literature on the topic of study and personal
thoughts as compared to the established experts in the field. A research report has several
Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion and References
sections (Title, References) and
each section provides information about the process of elaboration.

Research Report
Title – The title of the report must be short and descriptive. Try to use around 15 words.
Abstract – The abstract is a very important section of a research paper because it may be the only part
people read. Therefore, it should help a person decide whether to read the paper or not. The purpose of
this section is to provide a brief and comprehensive summary of the study. It should include a brief
description of the problem being investigated, the methods used, the results and their implications,
written in a concise, specific and accurate manner

B. The information in the following paragraph has been jumbled. Listen to the recording, rearrange it, and
rewrite it in order to provide a coherent abstract. �
Attitudes toward the Use of Animals in Psychological Research and Education:
Results from a National Survey of Psychologists
by S.Plous – Wesleyan University

Abstract:
In general, the attitudes of psychology majors closely resembled the attitudes of practicing
psychologists.
This article reports the results of a national survey in which psychology majors were asked
about the use of animals in psychological research and teaching.
Opposition to the use of animals was greatest among women, among students at selective
schools, and among students living in the Northeast/ Mid-Atlantic region of the country.
Students tended to (a) support animal experiments involving observation or confinement, but
disapprove of studies involving pain or death; (b) support mandatory pain assessments and the federal
protection of rats, mice, pigeons and reptiles; and (c) support the use of animals in teaching, but
oppose an animal laboratory requirement for the psychology major.

…………………………………………………………………...............................................

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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9
Unit 2: Pestalozzi, Father of Modern Pedagogy
The principal goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things, not simply of
repeating what other generations have done. Jean Piaget

SECTION I: VOCABULARY ACTIVITIES


Born in Zurich, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746 - 1827) took up Rousseau's ideas
and explored how they might be developed and implemented. His early experiments in
education ran into difficulties but he persisted and what became known as the
'Pestalozzi Method' came to fruition in his school at Yverdon.. Instead of dealing with New Vocabulary
words, he argued, children should learn through activity and through things. They doddering
should be free to pursue their own interests and draw their own conclusions. flogging
I wish to wrest education from the outworn order of doddering old teaching hacks as everlasting
well as from the new-fangled order of cheap, artificial teaching tricks, and entrust it to hacks
the eternal powers of nature herself, to the light which God has kindled and kept alive to kindle
in the hearts of fathers and mothers, to the interests of parents who desire their children outworn
grow up in favour with God and with men. (Pestalozzi quoted in Silber 1965: 134) to pursue
Pestalozzi goes beyond Rousseau in that he sets out some concrete ways forward - sole
based on research. He tried to reconcile the tension, recognized by Rousseau, between untoward
the education of the individual (for freedom) and that of the citizen (for responsibility verbosity
and use). to wrest
His initial influence on the development of thinking about pedagogy owes much to a Phrasal verbs
book he published in 1801: How Gertrude Teaches Her Children. He wanted to to set out
establish a 'psychological method of instruction' that was in line with the 'laws of to run into
human nature. As a result he placed a special emphasis on spontaneity and self-activity. to run through
Children should not be given ready-made answers but should arrive at answers to take up
themselves. To do this their own powers of seeing, judging and reasoning should be Phrases
cultivated, their self-activity encouraged (Silber 1965: 140). The aim is to educate the to come to fruition
whole child - intellectual education is only part of a wider plan. He looked to balance, to draw
or keep in equilibrium, three elements - hands, heart and head. conclusions
William H. Kilpatrick in his introduction to Heinrich Pestalozzi (1951) The Education to get rid of smth.
of Man - Aphorism has summarized six principles that run through Pestalozzi's efforts to grow up in
around schooling. favour with
Personality is sacred. This constitutes the inner dignity of each individual. Compound
As 'a little seed... contains the design of the tree', so in each child is the promise of his words
potentiality. 'The educator only takes care that no untoward influence shall disturb new-fangled
nature's march of developments'. ready-made
Love of those we would educate is 'the sole and everlasting foundation' in which to self-activity
work. 'Without love, neither the physical nor the intellectual powers will develop Prefixes
naturally'. So kindness ruled in Pestalozzi's schools: he abolished flogging - much to reconcile
the amazement of outsiders. implement
To get rid of the 'verbosity' of meaningless words Pestalozzi developed his doctrine of inadequately
Anschauung - direct concrete observation, often inadequately called 'sense perception' entrust
or 'object lessons'. No word was to be used for any purpose until adequate Anschauung outsiders
had preceded. The thing or distinction must be felt or observed in the concrete. Suffixes
Pestalozzi's followers developed various sayings from this: from the known to the education
unknown, from the simple to the complex, from the concrete to the abstract. responsibility
To perfect the perception got by the Anschauung the thing that must be named, an achievement
appropriate action must follow. 'A man learns by action'. psychological
Out of this demand for action came an emphasis on repetition - not blind repetition, but spontaneity
repetition of action following the Anschauung. kindness
Source: Adapted from http://www.pestalozziworld.com/pestalozzi/pestalozzi2.html meaningless
10
A. Use your dictionary to look up the underlined word or phrase in each of the following sentences. Find
the definition that best fits the context and write it next to each sentence.

Model:
His early experiments in education ran into difficulties.
to run into = to start to experience a difficult situation
1. The 'Pestalozzi Method' came to fruition in his school at Yverdon.
to come to fruition =
2. They should be free to pursue their own interests and draw their own conclusions.
to pursue =
3. The educator only takes care that no untoward influence shall disturb nature's march of developments.
untoward =
4. To get rid of the 'verbosity' of meaningless words Pestalozzi developed his doctrine of Anschauung.
verbosity =
5. Love of those we would educate is 'the sole and everlasting foundation' in which to work.
sole =

B. Adding a suffix to a noun, verb or an adjective we can obtain new nouns or adjectives. In the table
below there are several adjectives and nouns which were obtained like this. Mention the word formation
process, according to the model:

Original Word Category Suffix New Word Category


develop VERB -ment development NOUN
education
fruition
responsibility
achievement
psychological
spontaneity
kindness
meaningless
intellectual
activity

C. There are three forms of compound words: the closed form (headquarters), the hyphenated form (sit-in) and
the open form (post office). Match the words in column A with those in column B to form a new word.

A. eye distance middle full real half life child else fore
throw heart president single freeze check

B. estate stopping elect minded shadow dry like in where


class back learning moon sister time catching

Model:
eye + catching = eye-catching
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

SECTION II: Language Focus


11
Reported Speech When we report statements that were made in the past we change the tense of the
original (direct) speech. When we report things that are timeless, such as scientific theories, we can
keep the verb in the Present Simple. There are some verbs which introduce the Reported Speech: said,
told, affirmed, admit, allege, etc.

A. Reformulate these sentences. Use the reporting verbs given and make all the necessary changes.
Model Pestalozzi’s early experiments ran into difficulties.
It is said that Pestalozzi’s early experiments had run into difficulties.
1. “A man learns by action”.
Pestalozzi affirmed ………………………………………………………………………………………
2. He tried to reconcile the tension between the education of the individual and that of the citizen.
It is asserted ……………………………………………………………………………………………...
3. Kilpatrick has summarised six principles of Pestalozzi’s theory of education.
The author stated …………………………………………………………………………………………
4. “Without love, neither the physical nor the intellectual powers will develop naturally”.
Pestalozzi alleged ………………………………………………………………………………………...
5. The educator must encourage children’s self-activities.
He argued ………………………………………………………………………………………………...
When reporting, we may also use clauses: a “that” clause – reporting a statement, a “wh” clause –
reporting a “wh” question or exclamation, a clause with “if” or “whether” – reporting a polar question,
or an infinitive clause – reporting a directive.

B. Rearrange the jumbled words to make coherent sentences inside the first and last words given.
Model constitutes infers personality that inner dignity the each of
He infers that personality constitutes the inner dignity of each individual.
1. children whether special or attention wondered be should given
She …….……………………………………………………………………………………………. not not.
2. what noticed change an had their in extraordinary occurred
They …………………………………………………………………………………..……. behaviour behaviour.
3. Pesatlozzi’s when asked learn we about would
We ……………………………………………………………………………………………. method method.
4. they meaningless insisted not use should
He ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. words words.
5. was that of method observation admitted direct the
I ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. useful useful.
C. Read the text below and insert the word which best fits each space. Choose from the list below:
report education assigned attend choice standards range conducted satisfaction private
Parents of children who _____(1) private schools are more satisfied with their schools than parents of
children in public _____(2) settings, according to a new report from the National Center for Education
Statistics, while parents whose children attend the public school of their _____(3) are more satisfied
than those whose children attend an _____(4) public school.
Released in August, the _____(5) is based on telephone interviews with parents _____(6) in the first
half of 2007 on a wide _____(7) of topics: school satisfaction, parental involvement in schools,
school-parent communication, _____(8) with teachers, discipline and homework levels. While the
specific numbers varied, more _____(9) school parents than public school parents were very satisfied
with teachers, academic _____(10), discipline, and school/parent interaction.
(Source: Adapted from http://www.educationreport.org, Parent satisfaction higher in private schools, September 16, 2008)

SECTION III: Text Structure


12
Research Report – Introduction and Method
Introduction – The main purpose of this section is to tell your reader why you performed the study. In
other words, you have to inform the reader of the research question and indicate why it is important
and how it is unique when compared to previous studies.
Method – This section includes detailed descriptions of the sample, the materials, instruments, and the
procedures so that the reader understands that the information provided is valid and reliable.
A. You will read an excerpt from a research report. Six sentences have been removed from this text.
Choose from the sentences A-G the one which fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0)
ntroduction
Introduction
Stress is a part of everyday life (Weiten, 2001). 0 D. Without stress life would be dull; however, we must
learn to cope with all forms of stress to prevent it affecting our psychological and physical health (Weiten, 2001).
Kohn, Lafreniere & Gurevich (as cited in Weiten, 2001) found that routine daily hassles can have a
significant effect on our mental health. 1 ___. Also, Holmes & Rahe (as cited in Weiten, 2001) and others have
found that changes in life, positive or negative, require adjustment. During this time of adjustment, one may be
more susceptible to stress. More changes in one's life may increase one's susceptibility to stress. However, not all
life experiences are stressful. Social support is very important to reducing stress (House, Landis & Umberson,
1988). 2 ___. According to Davis, Morris & Kraus (1998), there is an inverse correlation between social support
and mental health.
3___. Exercise provides an opportunity to release frustrations and increases resistance to stress, while sleep
deprivation decreases it. When deprived of sleep, one might under-perform on cognitive tasks, which itself may
increase stress levels (Weiten, 2001).
Work stress is another important factor that has been the subject of much research. Weiten (2001) noted that
"pressure has turned out to be more strongly related to measures of mental health than the SSRS" (p. 534), a
measure of life change. A heavy workload, a hectic work schedule, a poor work environment, and low job
security are all factors that can cause stress at work (Weiten, 2001). 4 ___.
This study was designed to replicate past research and investigate the correlations between stress and daily
hassles; social support; life experiences; exercise; sleep; and work levels.
Method
Participants
There were 30 participants in this study, 15 men and 15 women. 5 ___. The mean age was 30.4. Participants
were attending school, work, or both.
Materials
Information was gathered using the Hassles Scale (Delongis, Folkman, & Lazarus, 1988), Life Experiences
Survey (Sarason, Johnson, & Siegel, 1978), Stress Test (Weiten, 2001), and Social Support Scale (Weiten, 2001)
Participants were also asked to report their average hours of work or school per week,
average hours of sleep per night, and average hours of exercise per week.
Procedure
Each participant was asked to complete the questionnaire package. Confidentiality was
emphasized and participants were asked not to include their names. 6 ___
Source: Adapted from: http://www.capilanou.ca
The Effects of Daily Life on Stress Levels by Chad Clippingdale & Shannon Birk

A. The researchers then scored the tests and correlated the results using the Pearson product-moment correlation.
B. When one spends longer hours exposed to these factors, stress levels may become greater.
C. Having someone to listen and give empathy helps to justify our feelings and makes us feel better.
D. We experience stress each day, sometimes positively and sometimes negatively.
E. Although minor hassles alone may not be stressful, many hassles may build up and overwhelm an individual,
causing stress.
F. Exercise and getting a good night sleep are also very important to coping with stress.
G. Ages ranged from 13 to 59.

Unit 3: Autism and Communication


13
To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world
and use this understanding as a guide in our communication with others. Anthony Robbins
Specialist
Vocabulary
Autism is a complex neurobiological disorder that typically lasts
acquire
throughout a person's lifetime. It is part of a group of disorders known as
communication
autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Today, 1 in 150 individuals are
impair
diagnosed with autism, making it more common than paediatric cancer,
occur
diabetes, and AIDS combined. It occurs in all racial, ethnic, and social
phonology
groups and is four times more likely to strike boys than girls.
pragmatics
Autism was first identified in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner of Johns Hopkins
repetitive behaviour
Hospital. At the same time, a German scientist, Dr. Hans Asperger,
relate
described a milder form of the disorder that is now known as Asperger rigid routines
Syndrome. These two disorders are listed in the DSM IV as two of the five semantics
developmental disorders that fall under the autism spectrum disorders. The
spectrum
others are Rett Syndrome, PDD-NOS, and Childhood Disintegrative
strike
Disorder. All of these disorders are associated with rigid routines and syntax
repetitive behaviours, such as obsessively arranging objects or following vocalise
very specific routines, but the most important characteristic is that they
impair a person's ability to communicate and relate to others. Acronyms
The capacity to acquire and use language is a key aspect that distinguishes AIDS
humans from other organisms. Language acquisition starts in infancy and it ASD
is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce DSM
and use words to understand and communicate. PDD-NOS
A child's acquisition of language can be broken down into different
segments: phonology, which is a person's use of speech sounds; syntax - the Antonyms
rules of grammar; semantics, which refers to a person's ability to pair ≠ impair
understand and create the meaning of language; pragmatics - the ability to integrate ≠
use language for the purpose of communication. disintegrate
Breaking down language into these different segments allows professionals order ≠ disorder
to clarify to what extent and which aspects of the language and
communication of a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is Compounds
impaired. eye-contact
Children with an ASD often fail to communicate using speech or any other lifetime
type of language, for example eye-contact, hand gestures, body language. If neurobiological
a child does not wish to communicate intentionally, they will not explore Phrases
their ability to vocalise, learn new sounds or listen to the language spoken to break down into
around them. This will ultimately result in a delay in their language to fall under
acquisition. Without this means of communication, a child will find it
difficult to express themselves. A child with an ASD may not see any Word family
reason to communicate with other people and, consequently, without a integrate
reason there is no point in communicating or no need to communicate. integral
Children with an ASD may also remove themselves from situations that integration
require communication, limiting their opportunities to communicate. integrative
Without opportunities there cannot be a development in communication. disintegrate
Source: Adapted from http://www.autismspeaks.org/, http://www.nas.org.uk The National Autistic disintegration
Society – Speech and Language Therapy
disintegrative

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities

14
A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning. dis- shows an apposite
or negative and, in verbs, it shows the stopping or removing of a condition.
A. Add the prefix dis- to the following words. Use a dictionary to find their meaning.
Model
Model:
appear disappear to become impossible to see any longer

ability approval associate believe compose graceful integrate junction order


pleased qualify regard reputable satisfaction trust

…………………………………………………………………...............................................

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
B. Match the following words with the most suitable definition.
Model: 0. explore = K

0. explore = K A. to damage something or make it not as good as


it should be
1. capacity B. someone’s ability to do something
C. to happen or exist in a particular place or
2. vocalize situation
3. delay D. the process by which you gain knowledge or
learn a skill
E. when something does not happen or start when
4. strike
it should do
5. spectrum
F. to break up, or make something break up, into
6. occur very small pieces
7. disintegrate G. to make a sound or sounds with your voice
H. to damage or harm someone or something
8. routine I. the usual order in which you do things, or the
9. impair things you regularly do
J. a complete range of opinions, people,
10. acquisition situations, etc. going from one extreme to its
opposite
K. to discuss or think about something carefully

C. Follow the link http://www.all-acronyms.com/ to find what these acronyms stand for. Choose the ones
that are the most suitable to the text above.
Model: ASD = autism spectrum disorders
AIDS =
CDD =
DSM =
PDD-NOS =

SECTION II: Language Focus

15
Reported Speech Other ways of reporting include using nouns such as: argument, assertion,
comment, denial, explanation, observation, remark, statement, etc.
A. The words in the following sentences have been jumbled. Rearrange them within the first and last
words given, in order to make coherent sentences. All the sentences contain reporting nouns.
Charles Aussilloux, Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Montpellier,
and his team studied the patterns of autism in the population of Languedoc, France.
Below, there are reported some of the results of his research.
Model: was a to clearer of provide argument study major the picture
Model
The major argument of the study was to provide a clearer picture of autism
autism.
1. first his of that observations the was evolutions autistic of were persons
One ………………………………………………………………………………….……… different different.
2. about remark the autistic possibility of to autonomously was people live
His ……………………………………………………………………………………….. encouraging.
3. was great of comment the importance on the environmental influence
Of ………………………………………………………………………………………………. factors factors.
4. autism related the was important similarities statement to Asperger’s and between
Another …………………………………………………………………………………….. Syndrome Syndrome.
5. of the emphasized major autistic role normal assertion the in contact development of human
Aussilloux’’s …………………………………………………………………….……………. children
Aussilloux children.
(Source: Adapted from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s21141.htm)

B. Complete the second sentence so that it has the similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word
given. You must use between two and five words. Do not change the word given.
Model “You should focus more on the topic”, the teacher told me. advised
The teacher … advised me to focus … more on the topic.
1. “Reading more articles in a foreign language is good for you too”, she said. recommended
She ………………………………………………………………… more articles in a foreign language.
2. “You wrote a very good research report!” the professor told her. congratulated
The professor ……………… …………………………………………...…a very good research report.
3. “Don’t leave your room after dark. This is not a safe area”, our instructor told us. warned
Our instructor ……………………………………………………………….....……our room after dark.
4. “If you copy the review, you will be accused of plagiarism”, said the lecturer. threatened
The lecturer ……………………………………………………………………… if I copied the review.
5. “Don’t forget to bring your project”, my colleague told me. reminded
My colleague…………………………………………………………………………….….. my project.
When reporting emotions or impressions we may use certain adjectives
adjectives.
C. Match the adjectives (A-F) with the faces (1-6) Model: 6 – F
A. concerned; worried; alarmed; afraid; uneasy
B. angry; infuriated; outraged; annoyed; irritated
C. bored; uninterested; fed up; jaded
1 2 3
D. content; blissful; cheerful; joyful; delighted
E. depressed; miserable; unhappy; disheartened
F. surprised; astonished; amazed; taken aback
4 5 6

SECTION III: Text Structure

16
Research Report – Results, Discussion and References
Results– The main purpose of this section is to offer your readers a summary of what you found and to
give a description of the techniques used in the research, of each analysis and the results obtained
Discussion – In this section you must discuss and interpret your data for the reader, tell them about the
implications of your findings and make recommendations
References – This section is at the end of your paper and contains the information necessary for your
reader to find any source that you cite in the report.
Social Sciences use the APA formatting and style to cite sources.
A. Read the information contained in this section of a research report and fill in with the missing figures.
Results
Pearson product-moment correlations were computed to measure the relationship between stress levels
and the other factors studied. The following table presents the findings.
Table 1 n = 30
Correlations between Stress & Various Stress Factors Daily hassles, life experiences, and hours of
Factors Stress work were all significantly correlated with
Daily Hassles .47** stress. This indicates significant positive
Social support relationships exist between these factors and
Life experiences .42* stress levels. As hassles, life experiences or
Weekly exercise work hours increase, so does stress.
Hrs of sleep The correlation between social support and
Hrs of work .39* stress was r = -.35 (p<.05), indicating a
** p <.01, * p <.05 significant negative relationship between the
two. (That is, lower levels of social support
are associated with higher levels of stress, and
vice versa).
However, the correlations between exercise
Source: Adapted from http://www.capilanou.ca The Effects of Daily Life and stress (r= -.08) and between sleep and
on Stress Levels by Chad Clippingdale & Shannon Birk stress (r = -.21) were not significant.

B. You will now listen to the Discussion section of the report above. Mark the following statements true (T)
or false (F). You will hear the recording twice. �
Source: Adapted from http://www.capilanou.ca The Effects of Daily Life on Stress Levels by Chad Clippingdale & Shannon Birk

1. The author suggests that even one hassle is extremely harmful. ___
2. Social support helps people to reduce stress. ___
3. If the work environment is stressful, people want to spend more time there. ___
4. The participants did not report the amount of exercise they did. ___
5. The results show that sleep is an essential factor to reduce stress. ___

C. The information below belongs to the last section of a research paper. The resources have
been wrongly cited. Follow the link http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ to find the
correct way and make all the necessary changes.
References
Brown, J. D. (1991). Journal of Psychology and Social Psychology, 60, 555-561. Staying fit and
staying well: Physical fitness as a moderator of life stress [Abstract].
Davis, M. H., Morris, M. M., & Kraus, L. A. Journal of Psychology and Social Psychology, 74, 468-
481Relationship-specific and global perception of social support: Associations with well-being and
attachments (1998).
Assessing the impact of life changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 943-946. Sarason, I. G., Johnson, J. H., Siegel, J. M. (1978).
Source: Adapted from http://www.capilanou.ca The Effects of Daily Life on Stress Levels by Chad Clippingdale & Shannon Birk

Unit 4: Psychology of Advertising


17
Advertising is making whole lies out of half truths. Edgar A. Shoaff

Advertising has been a form of glorifying or gaining publicity for goods and
merchandise since very early times. In fact, advertising has been around as an informal
concept since the beginning of civilizations and former methods were oral advertising
or claiming the benefits of products verbally when merchants sold goods to people
directly on the streets. However with the advent of paper and writing, advertising took a
more formal shape.
Egyptians and Ancient Greeks used the papyrus for advertising and rock painting was
also used. Advertising in English in magazines as we know today dates back to the end
of the 17th century and newspaper advertising in America began during the first part of
the 18th century with advertisements for estates. With the growth of mass media and
different forms and avenues of communication like radio, TV, newspapers, magazines,
and of course the internet in the 20th century, advertising started becoming an
important aspect for commercialization of products. People started understanding the
potential of advertisements and it became a business with the establishment of
New Vocabulary
advertising agencies with the first advertising agency in US opened in 1841.
advent
With advertising becoming a business in itself, the methods of using advertisements
appeal
became even more formalized, controlled and systematic and the advertisements for billboard
products started appearing as newspaper ads, on billboards, hoardings, as handbills, commercial
leaflets, on magazines, newspapers, on TV and radio as commercials and more recently
estate
on the internet. Web advertising is now a very powerful means to take the message
handbill
across to the customers. However to actually appeal to customers, advertising will have hoarding
to work in accordance with the principles of psychology and sociology. Thus an glaring
advertiser or an advertising professional will also have to be a sociologist and a leaflet
psychologist to really have an impact on the minds of consumers. merchandise
The principles of advertising are largely based on cognitive psychology and the novelty
psychological processes of attention, perception, association and memory to bring out
the complete impact or uses of a product or 'brand'. Any advertisement will have to first Synonyms
focus on the attention that it is able to capture of the consumers. Strong messages, memory = retention
strong visuals and glaring colours are sometimes used on hoardings and billboards. For
commercials, attention catching clothes and attractive models are sometimes used. Word families
Once the attention is drawn with the colours and the sounds or words, the focus is on ad
retaining consumer interests by using 'association'. Themes or products which a advertisement
particular segment of customers could associate with are used. Thus for baby food, advertiser
mothers and babies are featured so association would have more to do with relevance advertising
or context of the advertisement. Certain colours also have associative value and certain
brands and companies use a specific colour to promote their products. The company Phrases
logo or symbol is also a part of developing a brand and helps in giving identity to a to bring out
brand and has a strong associative value. to draw attention
The association should be such that it not only serves the purpose of quick to give identity
understanding and perception of the consumers but is also retained in their memory for to serve a purpose
to take the message
a long time. Thus memory or retention is an important aspect of the psychology of
across
advertising as only an advertisement that consumers can easily remember for a long
time for its novelty or use of words, colours and figures will be the most effective. to work in accordance
with
Source: Adapted from http://ezinearticles.com/The-Psychology-of-Advertising

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities

18
Synonyms are different words with identical or very similar meaning. They can be any part of speech
(nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) as long as both members of the pair are the same part of speech.
E.g. car and automobile; sick and ill
A. Read the article again and match the following words with their synonyms.
Model: 1. to appeal = to attract
Model
to claim; novelty; hoarding; advent; glaring; to attract; beginning; innovation; to declare; poster;
to appeal brilliant

B. Use your dictionary to translate the following phrases:


to bring out; to draw attention; to give identity; to serve a purpose; to take the message across
Simple Definitions and Academic/ Extended Definitions
We use definitions to describe things. In academic writing, definitions must be complex and may be
extended in order to be more specific and offer more information.

C. Memory and retention are synonyms, but there Choose ten of the synonyms and make sentences
are also other words that have a similar meaning. If of your own
own.
you follow the link http://thesaurus.reference.com/
and search for the word memory, you will obtain the
following information:
Main Entry: memory ……………………………………..
Part of Speech: noun …………………………………………………
Definition: ability to hold in the mind
Definition …………………………………………………
Synonyms: …………………………………………………
anamnesis, awareness, camera-eye, cognizance, …………………………………………………
consciousness, dead-eye, flashback, memorization, ………………………………………………….
mind, mind's eye, mindfulness, recall, recapture, …………………………………………………
recognition, recollection, reflection, remembrance, …………………………………………………
reminiscence, retention
retention, retentiveness, …………………………………………………
retrospection, subconsciousness, thought …………………………………………………
(Source: Adapted from http://thesaurus.reference.com/) …………………………………………………
D. Study the following extended definition of and notice the afterimage; associative; autobiographical;
words marked in the text. Next there is a list of words that biological; colour; declarative; drum;
collocate with memory. Form new words( some precede and echoic; episodic; explicit; fact; false;
others follow memory) and look them up in the Penguin flashbulb; genetic; holographic; iconic;
Dictionary of Psychology by Arthur S. Reber immediate; implicit; inaccessible; lexical;
Memory, the ability to retain information or to recover long-term; operating characteristics;
information about previous experiences, is a function of the
brain. When we remember something, a process takes place in
which our brains recover and reconstruct information about memory
things we've done or learned. There are two types of memory:
short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM).
Short term is memory of recent knowledge and happenings,
procedural; racial; reconstructive;
while long-term memory helps us recall events and
recovered; reproductive; semantic;
knowledge from our pasts.
Source Adapted from http://www.aarp.org/health/brain/works/what_is_memory.html
source; span; trace; unconscious;
working

SECTION II: Language Focus

19
We may emphasise in English in several ways, such as using passives, inversion, fronting or cleft
sentences.
A. Rephrase the following sentences, beginning with the words given.
Model: I had never seen so many people queuing at the door of the supermarket.
Model
Never had I seen so many people queuing at the door of the supermarket.
1. You must never associate this colour with our product again.
On no account …………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. They did not realise much about the impact of their billboard.
Little ………………………………………………………………………………………..……………
3. You will not find a better advertising manager in the whole country.
Nowhere ………………………………………………………………………………….……………...
4. She used strong visuals and messages in the advertisement.
Strong ………………………………………………………………………………..…………………..
5. People started calling soon after they had posted the advertisement.
Hardly ………………..……………when when ……………………………………………………………...
6. I did not say you can use my name on the hoarding.
At no time …………………………..…………………………...………………………………………
7. The merchant did not say anything about the sales action.
Not ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
8. I understood the associative value of this colour only at the end of the presentation.
then………… ……………..………………………………………………………………………
Only then
9. Egyptians used the papyrus and rock painting for advertising.
Papyrus
Papyrus………………………………………………………..…………………………………………
10. Advertisement for baby food feature mothers and babies.
Mothers and babies …………………………………………………………………………………….
B. Rearrange the words to make coherent sentences using the words given. They are all examples of
emphasis.
Model: this it does an make like ad you products the buy
Model
Rarely does an ad like this make you buy the products it presents.
1. eyes was impressive the with brought the to my babies tears commercial it
So ………………………………………….. that…………………………………………………..eyes.
2. ad these quality have visuals the improved the of sent they also powerful a have
Not only……………………………..………but ……………………………………………... message.
3. advertisement I most their the new was the and music liked about
What …………………………………………………………………………………………..…colours.
4. who Annie leaflets came up was the with idea of brilliant the spreading at
It……………………………………………………………………………………………..….entrance.
5. was the new social psychologist who wrote this powerful logo for our
It ……………………………………………………………………………….…………………. brand.
6. agent the displayed his claimed had customers for goods
No sooner …………………………………….than………………………………………………..more.
7. the value gave of was associative our symbol the identity to that
It ………………………………………………………………………………………………..products.
8. sounds is with drawn colours, and attention
Customers’……………………………………….………………………………………………..words.

SECTION III: Text Structure

20
Quoting A quotation is the repetition of one expression as part of another one and it is generally
punctuated by quotation marks.
A. You are going to listen to an APA style set of rules used for quoting. Fill in the blanks with the missing
information. You will listen to the recording twice. �
Quotations
- Fewer than 40 words: Include in the text, ______________ (1) by double quotation marks
- 40 words or more: Set off from the text in indented block form without quotation marks. If the quotation
contains _______________ (2) paragraphs, indent the start of each one 0.5".
- To indicate errors in the original source, use sic, __________ (3) and bracketed: “. . . biolgical [sic]”
- To indicate changes in the original source:
a. Use an_________ (4) to indicate omission. Add a period if the omission comes between sentences.
b. Use brackets to insert material.
c. If someone other than the original author has italicized words for ___________ (5), add the words [italics
added] in brackets after the words.
- Cite quotations in the following ways (depending on quote ________ (6) and use of author name):
Horner (1967) found that “Children raised in stable two-parent families . . .” (p. 438).
He found that “Children raised . . . ” (Horner, 1967, p. 438).
Horner (1967) found the following: Children raised . . . [assuming quotation is 40 or more words long]. (p.
438)
You may need to obtain copyright permission for long _____________ (7).
Source: Adapted from http://sparkcharts.sparknotes.com/study/researchstyleapamla/section4.php

B. You will read an excerpt from an article. Five sentences have been removed from this text. Choose
from sentences A-E the one which fits each gap. All contain examples of quoting.
GALE AND THE NEW SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY
These rapid changes in advertising were noticed by Harlow Gale, who was uniquely qualified to recognize and
study the effects of these newly emerging attention structures in the mass media. In 1883, while a sophomore at
Yale, a chance reading of a copy of the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research called Gale's attention
to empirical studies of mental life and reasoning (Gale 1900). _____ (1)
Gale credits Professor Wilhelm Wundt for providing him with three and a half years of "inestimable profit"
working in the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig (Gale 1900). Letters in the
archival files reveal that Gale and the progressive journalist Lincoln Steffens became friends in Germany,
studied together taking courses from Wundt, and enjoyed a lifelong correspondence. _____ (2) Steffens reported,
"[T]he laboratory where we sought the facts and measured them by machinery was a graveyard where the old
idealism walked as a dreadful ghost" (1931, p. 149).
In 1894, prepared as an experimental psychologist, a 32-year-old Harlow Gale returned to his boyhood home in
Minneapolis. At that time there were no psychology departments in American universities. _____ (3) He was
hired as an instructor of "physiological psychology" and given responsibility for the university's laboratory for
experimental psychology. ____ (4) It was there, until 1903, that Gale taught a series of courses in psychology,
including a seminar that involved students in conducting studies on "the psychology of advertising" (Gale 1904).
_____ (5) Up until that time, the subject of human attention had received scant experimental attention in the
laboratories of the new psychologists (Scripture 1895, p. 94).
Source: Adapted from http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-172907089/harlow-gale-and-origins.html

A. The laboratory consisted of "a few pieces of psychological apparatus" gathered by the university's previous instructor in
experimental psychology.
B. Steffens quoted Professor Wundt as saying, "We want facts, nothing but facts," and that theories were only aids to
experimentation, which was the test of theory.
C. In 1895, in the midst of the increasing visibility of consumer advertising, Harlow Gale became interested in "people's
commercial actions as influenced by street car and magazine advertising" as an application of his training in the emerging
field of experimental psychology (Gale 1900).
D. After completing his B.A. in 1885, he undertook postgraduate studies in economics at the University of Minnesota,
philosophy at Yale and Cambridge, and experimental psychology at Leipzig (Kuna 1976a).
E. In the spring of 1895, Gale joined the faculty of the University of Minnesota as a member of the Philosophy Department
(Gale 1904, p. 9).
Unit 5: Secret Lives
21
In all secrets there is a kind of guilt, however beautiful or joyful they may be, or for what good end they may be
set to serve. Secrecy means evasion, and evasion means a problem to the moral mind. Gilbert Parker

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


A. The following words belong to the new vocabulary. Read the text again and, aided by the context, try
to understand their meaning. Match the words with the most suitable definition.
One mislaid credit card bill or a single dangling e-mail message on the home computer New Vocabulary
would have ended everything: the marriage, the big-time career, the reputation for
anguish
decency he had built over a lifetime.
brothel
So for more than 10 years, he ruthlessly kept his two identities apart: one lived in a
to cleave
Westchester hamlet and worked in a New York office, and the other operated mainly in
covert
clubs, airport bars and brothels. One warmly greeted clients and waved to neighbours,
distress
sometimes only hours after the other had stumbled back from a "work" meeting with
earnest
prostitutes or cocaine dealers.
to enhance
In the end, it was a harmless computer pop-up advertisement for security software,
to gamble
claiming that his online life was being "continually monitored," that sent this New York
hamlet
real estate developer into a panic and to a therapist.
mischief
The man's double life is an extreme example of how mental anguish can cleave an persona
identity into pieces, said his psychologist, Dr. Jay S. Kwawer, director of clinical ruthlessly
education at the William Alanson White Institute in New York, who discussed the case tug
at a recent conference.
But psychologists say that most normal adults are well equipped to start a secret life, if Compounds
not to sustain it. The ability to hold a secret is fundamental to healthy social development, best-known
they say, and the desire to sample other identities (to reinvent oneself, to pretend) can last big-time
well into adulthood. And in recent years researchers have found that some of the same pop-up
psychological skills that help many people avoid mental distress can also put them at soul-searching
heightened risk for prolonging covert activities.
"In a very deep sense, you don't have a self unless you have a secret, and we all have Prefixes
moments throughout our lives when we feel we're losing ourselves in our social group, or distress
work or marriage, and it feels good to grab for a secret, or some subterfuge, to reassert heterosexual
our identity as somebody apart," said Dr. Daniel M. Wegner, a professor of psychology mislaid
at Harvard. He added, "And we are now learning that some people are better at doing this reassert
than others."
Although the best-known covert lives are the most spectacular - the architect Louis Kahn Suffixes
had three lives; Charles Lindbergh reportedly had two - these are exaggerated examples adolescence
of a far more common and various behaviour, psychologists say. Some people gamble adulthood
on the sly, or sample drugs. Others try music lessons. Still others join a religious group. delightful
And there are thousands of people - gay men and women who stay in heterosexual elemental
marriages, for example - whose shame over or denial of their elemental needs has set reportedly
them up for secretive excursions into other worlds. Whether a secret life is ultimately reputation
destructive, experts find, depends both on the nature of the secret and on the spectacular
psychological makeup of the individual. Word family
Psychologists have long considered the ability to keep secrets as central to healthy secret
development. Children as young as 6 or 7 learn to stay quiet about their mother's birthday secretive
present. In adolescence and adulthood, fluency with small social lies is associated with secrecy
good mental health. And researchers have confirmed that secrecy can enhance attraction,
or as Oscar Wilde put it, "The commonest thing is delightful if only one hides it." Phrases
The urge to act out an entirely different persona is widely shared across cultures as well, to act out
social scientists say, and may be motivated by curiosity, mischief or earnest soul- to grab for a secret
searching. Certainly, it is a familiar tug in the breast of almost anyone who has stepped on the sly
out of his or her daily life for a time, whether for vacation, for business or to live in to sample drugs
another country.
Source: Adapted from The Secret Lives of Just About Everybody by Benedict Carey, http:/www.nytimes.com

22
Model: 0. earnest = K
0. earnest = K A. a feeling of extreme unhappiness
B. to risk money or possessions on the result of
1. anguish something such as a card game or a race, when you do
not know for certain what the result will be
2. to cleave C. to divide something into two completely separate
3. covert parts
D. a very small village
4. distress E. to improve something
5. to tug F. the way you behave when you are with other people
6. hamlet or in a particular situation, which gives people a
7. persona particular idea about your character
G. bad behaviour, especially by children, that causes
8. to gamble trouble or damage, but no serious harm
9. mischief H. to pull with one or more short, quick pulls
I. mental or physical suffering caused by extreme pain
10. to enhance or worry
J. secret or hidden
K. very serious and sincere

Boys’’ song on http://www.last.fm/music/ and fill in the blanks with the missing
B. Listen to Pet Shop Boys
information:
Chorus The urban …..............................…………… - never at home
I sometimes think that I'm too many people Or the country recluse - just leave me alone
Too many people, too many people Extrovert or ….....................................................……………
I sometimes think that I'm too many people Love is kind, and love hurts
Too many people, too many people at once Rebellion or ……….....................................................……..
The husband or the …………………................ What is my identity?
The …….........………… or the communist Chorus
The artist or the showbiz ............................… The intellectual and ……....................................……………
The lover or the .…...............................................….… geek Or the naive……………….............................., so immature
The question of identity is one that's always ….............. me A ……………..................................….. son and family man
…...................…. I decide to be depends on who is with me Or the wicked uncle who doesn't …….............……………….
Chorus How often these have tempted me
The …..............................…………. twit putting his foot in it The question of ……...….. depends on what I'm meant to be
Or the sensitive soul who's a ………...............................….. Chorus

C. Match the words in column A with the correct definition in column B. All the concepts below are
related to identity and behaviour.
A B
1. role model a. troubled, disturbed
2. jet setter b. someone who enjoys good food and wine
3. creep c. rich people who travel to a lot of different parts of the world and have exciting lives
4. identity d. a person who is not very intelligent and can be tricked easily
5. haunted e. behaviour that is acceptable because it is similar to the behaviour of everyone else
6. introvert f. someone whose behaviour is considered to be a good example for other people to copy
7. hedonist g. someone who believes that pleasure is very important and who tries to spend all their time
doing things that they enjoy
8. simpleton h. an unpleasant person, especially someone who tries to please or impress people in authority
9.conformity i. the qualities that make someone what they are and different from other people
10.bon-viveur j. someone who tends to concentrate on their thoughts and feelings rather than communicating
with other people

SECTION II: Language Focus

23
Cohesion refers to the grammatical and lexical means by which written sentences are joined together
to make texts. Grammatical cohesion in English is made through reference ellipsis, substitution or
reference, ellipsis
conjunctions
conjunctions.
A. Study the following sentences and mention which of the procedures mentioned above was used to
give cohesion to the text. The first is done for you.

Model:
1. But psychologists say that most normal adults are conjunctions
well equipped to start a secret life, if not to sustain it.
2. Whether a secret life is ultimately destructive,
experts find, depends both on the nature of the secret
and on the psychological makeup of the individual.
3. “I’m thinking of sharing my secret with my
family.”
“So am I.”
4. “Got a pen?”
“Sorry, don’t use.”
5. “I want to change my workplace.”
“I don’t. My colleagues are generally very
supportive and I hope they will understand me.”
6. A remark so harmless it could have been
ignored had actually reached its purpose when
heard by his colleagues. The softly whispered
words confirmed the earlier rumours about his
having two secret lives.

B. The order of the following sentences has been changed. Read them carefully paying attention to the
grammatical means of cohesion and establish the correct order so that you obtain a coherent paragraph.
A. Each evening on his commute home, John sees a beautiful woman, staring with a lost expression
through the window of a dance studio.
B. John Clark is a man with a wonderful job, a charming wife and a loving family, who nevertheless
feels that something is missing as he makes his way every day through the city.
C. But, as his lessons continue, John falls in love with dancing.
D. Haunted by her gaze, John impulsively jumps off the train one night, and signs up for dance lessons,
hoping to meet her.
E. Even worse, when he does meet Paulina, she icily tells John she hopes he has come to the studio to
seriously study dance and not to look for a date.
F. His friendship with Paulina blossoms, as his enthusiasm rekindles her lost passion for dance.
G. At first, it seems like a mistake: his teacher turns out to be not Paulina, but the older Miss Mitzi,
and John proves just as clumsy as his equally clueless classmates on the dance-floor.
H. With his secret about to be revealed, John will have to do some fancy footwork to keep his dream
going and realize what it is he really yearns for.
I. But the more time John spends away from home, the more his wife becomes suspicious.
J. Keeping his new obsession from his family and co-workers, John feverishly trains for Chicago's
biggest dance competition.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

SECTION III: Text Structure

24
A paraphrase is: your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else,
presented in a new form; one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to
borrow from a source; a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a
single main idea.

A. Study the following examples and notice the changes that occurred:
Original passage Paraphrase
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in In research papers students often quote
taking notes, and as a result they overuse excessively, failing to keep quoted material down
quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably to a desirable level. Since the problem usually
only about 10% of your final manuscript should originates during note taking, it is essential to
appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester
should strive to limit the amount of exact 46-47).
transcribing of source materials while taking
notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers.
2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/1/

B. The following fragments belong to the text The Secret Lives of Just About Everybody. Paraphrase
them in the same way as above.
But psychologists say that most normal adults are well equipped to start a secret life, if not to sustain it. The
ability to hold a secret is fundamental to healthy social development, they say, and the desire to sample other
identities (to reinvent oneself, to pretend) can last well into adulthood. And in recent years researchers have
found that some of the same psychological skills that help many people avoid mental distress can also put them
at heightened risk for prolonging covert activities.

…………………………………………………………………...............................................

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Although the best-known covert lives are the most spectacular - the architect Louis Kahn had three lives; Charles
Lindbergh reportedly had two - these are exaggerated examples of a far more common and various behaviour,
psychologists say. Some people gamble on the sly, or sample drugs. Others try music lessons. Still others join a
religious group.
And there are thousands of people - gay men and women who stay in heterosexual marriages, for example -
whose shame over or denial of their elemental needs has set them up for secretive excursions into other worlds.
Whether a secret life is ultimately destructive, experts find, depends both on the nature of the secret and on the
psychological makeup of the individual.

…………………………………………………………………...............................................

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

MODULE II
Unit 1: Anger Fuels Better Decisions
25
Recent studies suggest that anger can transform even those people who are, by disposition, not very
analytical into more careful thinkers.

Despite its reputation as an impetus to rash behaviour, anger actually seems to help people
make better choices - even aiding those who are usually very poor at thinking rationally. This
could be because angry people base their decisions on the cues that "really matter" rather than
things that can be called irrelevant or a distraction. Previous research has shown that anger
biases people’s thinking - turning them into bigger risk-takers and making them less trusting
and more prejudiced, for instance. But little has been done to study how anger affects a
person’s thinking. So Wesley Moons, a psychologist at the University of California at Santa New Vocabulary
Barbara, and his colleague Diana Mackie designed three experiments to determine how anger appropriately
influences thinking - whether it makes people more analytical or careful about their decisions, bias
or whether it leads people to make faster, rasher decisions. In the first experiment, the compelling
researchers induced anger in a group of college students by either asking them to write about a cue
past experience that had made them very angry, or by having their stated hopes and dreams discriminate
harshly criticized by another participant. In a second group of students, anger was not expertise
induced. The researchers later checked to be sure that the subjects were as riled up as they impetus
were supposed to be. The two groups were then asked to read either compelling or weak prejudiced
arguments designed to convince them that college students have good financial habits. The rash
strong argument cited research from numerous scientific studies, whereas the weak argument Prefixes
contained largely unsupported statements. The subjects were asked to logically evaluate the irrelevant
strength of the arguments they read and indicate how convinced they were by them. The unsupported
researchers repeated the experiment with a second group of students, this time giving the Suffixes
subjects an additional piece of information: who had made the arguments. Some students behaviour
were told that the argument was made by an organization with relevant expertise in financial distraction
matters; others were told that the argument was made by a medical organization whose logically
expertise was irrelevant to the financial topic being considered. In both studies, the researchers Compound
found that the angry subjects were better at discriminating between strong and weak words
arguments and were more convinced by the stronger arguments. Those who were not made to risk-takers
feel angry tended to be equally convinced by both arguments, indicating that they were not as university-wide
analytical in their assessments. The angry students were also better at weighing the arguments decision-making
appropriately depending on which organization had made them. Synonyms
The researchers repeated the experiment a third time using a different argument - one that aid = help
supported the implementation of a university-wide requirement for graduating seniors to take anger = rile
comprehensive exams. This time, they tested only those subjects who were the least Antonyms
analytical, or in other words, those who were the least likely to make logical decisions. This strong ≠ weak
way, the researchers would be able to see whether anger also makes typically non-analytical relevant ≠
thinkers more analytical. irrelevant
Once again, they found that the angry subjects were better able to discriminate between strong False friends
and weak arguments than the ones who were not angry - suggesting that anger can transform distraction=
even those people who are, by disposition, not very analytical into more careful thinkers. interruption,
Their findings, detailed in this month’s issue of the Personality and Social Psychology disturbance
Bulletin, suggest that anger helps people focus on the cues that matter most to making a distraction=
rational decision and ignore cues that are irrelevant to the task of decision-making. This could amusement
be because anger is designed to motivate people to take action - and that it actually helps Phrases
people to take the right action, the authors wrote. to be likely
(Source: Adapted from http://news.yahoo.com/s/livescience) to be riled up

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


A. Read the relevant parts of the article again and match the following words with their meaning.
Model
Model: 1. additional – j. extra
1. additional a. settled

26
2. appropriate b. unfair
3. to bias c. to distinguish
4. compelling d. impulsion
5. cue e. knowledge
6. to discriminate f. to unfairly influence attitudes
7. expertise g. sign
8. impetus h. convincing
9. prejudiced i. suitable
10.stated j. extra
Adverbs are generally formed by adding the suffix –ly to an adjective.
B. Put the word in capitals in the correct form, adding the necessary suffix.
Model: additional + -ly = additionally
Model
1. They were not able to weigh the arguments ……………………………………... (APPROPRIATE).
2. The researchers selected ……………………………. the students in the control group (CAREFUL).
3. This statement was ……………………………………...criticised by other psychologists (HARSH).
4. ………………….. she could not …………………. evaluate the strength of his argument
(UNFORTUNATE, LOGICAL).
5. Some people are very poor at ………………………………………………. thinking (RATIONAL).
A compound noun is a fixed expression made up of more than one word which functions as a noun.
In academic English we often use compound nouns to express new, longer concepts.
C. Complete the spaces with an appropriate noun to obtain a new word and then, using a dictionary, try
to explain their meaning.
reader, esteem, start, gap, human, board.
Model: key ………. keyboard = the set of keys for operating a computer or a typewriter
1. self- .............................. = ……………………………………………………………………………
2. generation …………… = ……………………..………………………………………………………
3. mind- ……………….. = ………………………………………………………………………………
4. ……………….. being = ………………………………………………………………………………
5. key …………………….... = …………………..………………………………………………………………………….
6. head ……………….. = ………………………………………………………………………………..
Prefixes like in-, im-, il-, ir-, un-, dis- are often used to give adjectives a negative or opposite meaning.
In the fragment above you have the word irrelevant which was formed by using the prefix ir- in front
of the word relevant.
D. Use the same method of word formation to give the negative or opposite meaning of the following
words:
1. appropriate …………………………………………………………………………………………...
2. reversible …………………………………………………………………………………………….
3. mature ………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. adequate ……………………………………………………………………………………………...
5. approving …………………………………………………………………………………………….
6. comfortable …………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. advantageous ………………………………………………………………………………………...
8. legal ………………………………………………………………………………………………….
9. fair …………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. replaceable ………………………………………………………………………………………….

27
SECTION II: Language Focus
Passives can be used in all tenses and with modal verbs. Study the Passive constructions in these
examples from the text and then do the exercise.
But little has been done to study how anger affects a person’s thinking.
The two groups were then asked to read either compelling or weak arguments…
Those who were not made to feel angry tended to be equally convinced by both arguments…
This could be because anger is designed to motivate people to take action…
A. Rephrase the following sentences, beginning with the words given. Remember that it is not always
necessary to mention the agent.
Model: They told the students that an organization made the argument.
Model
The students were told that the argument was made by an organization.
1. The students in group A criticised the goals of those in group B.
The goals ………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Nobody has studied the role of anger in taking better decisions before.
The role …………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Anger can improve analytical thinking.
Analytical thinking ……………………………………………………………………………...
4. The researchers could not convince some of the subjects of the experiment.
Some of the ……………………………………………………………………………………..
5. We must inform you about the results of the experiment.
You ……………………………………………………………………………………………...
6. The psychologists will publish the results of their research in a journal.
The results ………………………………………………………………………………………
7. Generally, scientists design experiments for their research.
Experiments …………………………………………………………………………………….
8. Some psychologists will contest this new theory.
This new theory …………………………………………………………………………………
9. The two researchers did not induce anger in the second group of students.
Anger ……………………………………………………………………………………………
10. They gave the subjects some additional piece of information.
The subjects …………………………………………………………………………………….
B. Rearrange the words to make coherent sentences inside the first and last words given. All sentences
contain Passive constructions.

Model: were feel not to made


Model
They …………………………... angry. They were not made to feel angry.

1. logically to asked evaluate subjects arguments of strength the were


The ……………………………………………………………………. arguments.
2. that by told argument made an were the was
Students ………………………………………………………………. organization.
3. be a irrelevant can or things called
Certain ………………………………………………………………… distraction.
4. organization told the were argument that was by made medical a
Others ………………………………………………………………… irrelevant.
5. that to designed is motivate to take anger people seems
It ………………………………………………………………………. action.

SECTION III: Text Structure


28
The ability to summarise and paraphrase is an essential academic skill all students must develop.
What is a summary
summary? A summary is a condensed version of the main ideas of all or part of a source
written in your own words.
Why do we write summaries? The goal of writing a summary is to offer as accurately as possible the
full sense of the original, but in a more condensed form.
How do we write summaries?
A. You are going to listen to a set of instructions for writing a good summary and then fill in the blanks
with the missing information. You will listen to the recording twice. �
Writing an effective summary requires that you:
Read with the Writer's Purpose in Mind
Read the article……… (1), making ………(2) notes or marks and looking only for what the ………(3)
is saying.
After you've finished………(4), write down in one ………(5) the point that is made about the subject.
Then look for the writer's ………(6) and underline it.
Underline with Summarizing in Mind
Once you clearly ………(7) the writer's major point (or purpose) for writing, read the article again.
Underline the ………(8) supporting the thesis; these should be words or phrases here and there rather
than complete sentences.
In addition, underline ………(9)transitional elements which show how parts are connected. Omit
specific details, examples, description, and ………(10) explanations.
Write, Revise, and Edit to Ensure the Accuracy and Correctness of Your Summary
Writing Your Summary
Now begin writing your summary. ………(11) with a sentence naming the writer and article title
and ………(12) the essay's main idea. Then write your summary, omitting nothing important and
striving for overall ………(13) through appropriate transitions.
Be concise, using coordination and subordination to compress ideas.
Conclude with a final ……….(14) reflecting the significance of the article - not from your own point of
view but from the writer's.
Throughout the summary, do not ……(15) your own opinions or thoughts; instead summarise what the
writer has to say about the subject.
Revising Your Summary
After you've completed a draft, read your summary and check for ……….(16).
Keep in mind that a ………(17) should generally be no more than one-fourth the length of the original.
If your summary is too long, cut out words rather than ideas. Then look for non-………(18)
information and delete it.
Write another draft -- still a draft for revision - and ask someone to read it ………(19).
Editing Your Summary
Correct grammar, spelling, and ………(20) errors, looking particularly for those common in your
writing.
Write a clean draft and proofread for copying errors.
(Source: Adapted from http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/aca)

B. Now summarise the article Anger Fuels Better Decisions in your own words,
following the steps you were given in the brief guide above. The original number of words is 598.

Unit 2: Beginning Reading


29
Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body. Richard Steele
Just as your little one develops language skills long before being able to speak, she
also develops literacy skills long before being able to read. What you do, or don't do,
has a lasting impact on your child's reading skill and literacy.
Children develop much of their capacity for learning in the first three years of life,
when their brains grow to 90 percent of their eventual adult weight. When you talk,
sing, and read to your child, links among his brain cells are strengthened and new
cells and links are formed. New
Play is the work of your young children. From the first lullaby to dramatization of a Vocabulary
favorite story, music and other creative arts can stimulate language and literacy lullaby
development. You can help build pre-literacy skills through dramatic play and one- pace
on-one interaction. reinforced
Many pediatricians believe that a child who has never held a book or listened to a rote
story is not a fully healthy child. Reading aloud to young children is so critical that strengthen
the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that doctors prescribe reading toddler
activities along with other advice given to parents at regular check-ups. Antonyms
Despite the considerable evidence of a relationship between reading regularly to a context ≠
child and that child's later reading development, six in ten babies and five in ten isolation
toddlers are not read to regularly by parents or family members. Parents are truly Compounds
their children's first and most important teachers and they should not leave to schools check-ups
alone the important tasks of language and literacy development. one-on-one
Children cannot learn to read without an understanding of phonics. All children pre-literacy
must know their ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order to communicate Key words
verbally. The question in early childhood programs is not whether to teach "phonics" reading
or "whole language learning," but how to teach phonics in context - rather than in letters
isolation - so that children make connections between letters, sounds, and meaning. sounds
Phonics should not be taught as a separate "subject" with emphasis on drills and rote meaning
memorization. The key is a balanced approach and attention to each child's individual memorization
needs. Many children's understanding of phonics will arise from their interest, drills
knowledge, and ideas. Others will benefit from more formal instruction. language
There are many opportunities to teach the sound a letter makes when children have linguistics
reason to know. For example, the first letter a child learns typically is the first letter phonics
of her name. verbal
Some teachers worry that encouraging children to learn through experience and communication
invent their own spellings will not provide them with adequate language skills. But connections
literacy is not so much a skill as a complex activity that involves reading, writing and individual needs
oral language. Ideally, children should develop literacy through real life settings as literacy
they read together with parents or other caring adults. Children begin to make skills
connections between printed words and their representations in the world. Am. English
Adults should keep in mind that children may learn to read at different paces during vs.Br. English
kindergarten and first grade. This is true for all children, including those with special favorite vs.
needs and those from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. favourite
Source: Adapted from National Association for the Education of Young Children,
pediatrician vs.
http://school.familyeducation.com/reading/cognitive-development/ paediatrician
program vs.
programme

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


A. Read the article again and match the following words with their antonyms.
30
Model: 1. context – f. isolation
1. context a. temporary
2. lasting b. inability
3. critical c. decrease
4. development d. misunderstand
5. comprehend e. insignificant
6. capacity f. isolation
B. All the concepts listed below are related to the process of reading. Use the words to fill in the spaces.

phonics
letters drills

sounds memorization

Reading
literacy linguistic

verbal language
connections

1. Many teachers suggest that ……………………………. should be taught in context, not in isolation.
2. Children develop …………………………………………………. skills before they are able to read.
3. They have to be taught the sounds the ……………………………………………………...…. make.
4. This is the first step in the development of …………………………………….…….communication.
5. Specialists consider that, when teaching phonics, we should not emphasise the ……………….…….
6. Rote ……………………………………………….…. is another aspect that must not be insisted on.
7. Children must understand the connection between letters,………….…………………. and meaning.
8. As they progress, children begin to make …..……………. between words and their representations.
9. Not all the children can develop adequate ………………………………………………….…. skills.
10. Children read at their pace, according to their ……………………...……. and cultural background.
C. Certain words may differ in spelling in American and British English, as favorite vs. favourite, which
appeared in the text. Fill in the chart below with other words that correspond to each category. Use a
dictionary if necessary.
Am E vs. Br E words
-or -our favorite/ favourite; color/ colour; behavior/ behaviour;
-ze -se
-ll -l
-og -ogue
-er -re
-e -oe or -ae
-ck or –k -que
-dg -dge
-ense -ence
other program/ programme;
SECTION II: Language Focus
Prepositions after Passives There are only a few prepositions that can follow the passive
verbs. The most common is by. Other prepositions are with, and in. We use other prepositions
when the meaning requires them. e.g. Emphasis is placed on rote memorization.
31
A. Choose the preposition that best completes each sentence. Tick (√) the correct answer.
Model Five in ten toddlers are not read ………. regularly.
a for b by c to √ d with
1. The argument is centred ………. whether or not to encourage children to learn through experience.
a on b towards c of d about
2. The essay must be divided ………. three parts: introduction, body and conclusion.
a to b for c into d with
3. My attention was drawn ………. the pale little boy in the corner.
a with b to c for d on
4. The reading test was prepared ………. great patience.
a by b with c for d from
5. A storm of criticism has been levelled ………. the board of the school.
a against b towards c by d for

B. For each of the sentences below, write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to
the original sentence, using the word given, which must not be altered in any way.
Model According to the protocol, we must call the president “Mr. President”.
addressed According to the protocol, the president must be addressed as “Mr. President”.
1. They will deduct points if you do not solve all the tasks on the answer sheet.
penalised
2. All of a sudden the dyslexic child became very emotional.
overcome
3. The researcher was given an honorary doctorate in education by Cambridge University.
conferred
4. There were hundreds of children in the school yard.
packed
5. The results of her study came as a complete surprise to us.
aback

Structures with get and have – passive patterns The passive pattern means “arrange for
somebody else to do something” e.g. I’ll get the book brought to you, or “things that happen
to you” e.g. She’s had her computer stolen.
C. Rearrange the words to make coherent sentences inside the first and last words given.
Model has bibliography be just to That ……………….. compiled.
That bibliography just has to be compiled.
1. article has Journal published Special of the had his in
John …………………………………………………………. Education.
2. get the teachers have to children their reading prepared for
The ……………………………………………………………….. test.
3. her had a application has for turned scholarship
Jenny ……………………………………………………. down.
4. my have our photo had for class taken just
I …………………………………………………... album.
5. car his had into broken ago a and days the few CD player
George …………………………………………………………… stolen.

SECTION III: Text Structure


Punctuation marks If in speaking we can pause, stop or change our tone of voice, in writing we need
the following punctuation marks (as signals for the readers) to emphasize and clarify what we mean:
’ (apostrophe) : (colon) , (comma) – (dash) - (hyphen) “” (quotation marks) ; (semicolon)
A. Read the following sentences and select the correctly punctuated one.

32
Model
○ a Dr. Bernstein recommends approaching teens “at the right time” and not when they’re angry busy or tired.
○ b Dr. Bernstein recommends approaching teens at the right time and not when they're angry, busy, or tired.
● c Dr. Bernstein recommends approaching teens “at the right time,” and not when they're angry, busy, or tired.
○ d Dr. Bernstein recommends approaching teens at the right time and not when they're angry, busy, or tired.
1.○ a Once they're teens you cant just say because I said so – they won't listen.
○ b “Once they're teens, you can't just say 'because I said so' – they won't listen.”
○ c “Once they're teens, you can't just say because I said so – they won't listen.”
○ d Once they're teens, you can't just say because I said so they won't listen.
2. ○ a Here's how to get things moving in a positive direction set limits, stick to what you say, be reasonable.
○ b Here’s how to get things moving in a positive direction set limits stick to what you say be reasonable
○ c Here's how to get things moving in a positive direction set limits stick to what you say, be reasonable.
○ d Here's how to get things moving in a positive direction: set limits, stick to what you say, be reasonable.
3.○ a What you do or don't do has a lasting impact on your child's reading skill and literacy.
○ b What you do or dont do, has a lasting impact on your childs reading skill and literacy.
○ c What you do, or don't do has a lasting impact on your childs reading skill and literacy.
○ d What you do, or don't do, has a lasting impact on your child's reading skill and literacy.
4.○ a Many childrens understanding of phonics will arise from their interest, knowledge, and ideas.
○ b Many children's understanding of phonics will arise from their interest, knowledge, and ideas.
○ c Many children's understanding of phonics will arise from their interest knowledge and ideas.
○ d Many childrens understanding of phonics will arise from their interest knowledge and ideas.
5.○ a Parent’s are their childrens first teacher’s.
○ b Parents are their children’s first teachers.
○ c Parents are they’re children’s first teachers.
○ d Parent’s are their children’s first teachers.
B. You are going to listen twice to a short audio file. Pay attention to the intonation, pause or stop, so that
you can fill in with the appropriate missing punctuation marks in the fragment below. Use a coloured pen.
� Keeping Your Teen Out of Trouble by Rose Garrett
Teens and trouble think they go together like bread and butter Well you may be wrong. While
teenagers do tend towards “risk seeking” behaviour and seem to enjoy pushing boundaries and parents'
buttons troublesome behaviour can be anything but typical.
According to Neil Bernstein a clinical psychologist and author of How to Keep Your Teen out of
Trouble and What to Do If You Can't moodiness self-absorption and obsession with peer approval are
all run of the teenage mill. However if you notice your teenager getting out of control experimenting
with drugs or abusing alcohol, it may be time for a wake up call for both of you. Dont expect
lightening to strike some sense into your teen. Although parents may feel that they are being pushed
away during the teen years its your responsibility to firmly push back.
(Source: Adapted from http://www.education.com)

Unit 3: Not ADHD? Think Dyslexia


Although dyslexia is a slight disorder of the brain, it is not an intellectual disability and it has been
diagnosed in people of all levels of intelligence.
Although as many as one in 10 people have dyslexia, it's one of the most commonly
33
misdiagnosed learning issues for school-age children, according to Drs. Brock and New Vocabulary
Fernette Eide, physicians and co-authors of the book The Mislabelled Child. That's assessment
because ADHD often acts as a red herring, throwing evaluators off the scent. "If you talk checklist
to most parents or teachers, ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is the first mislabelled
thing on people's minds when a student's falling behind in class or is struggling in to overlook
school," says Dr. Brock Eide. "But what they should be doing is thinking about dyslexia. pattern
The dyslexic child is often a mislabelled child." Children with unrecognized dyslexia are remediation
often seen as inattentive, careless, or slow, but, the Eides say, often nothing could be to sequence
farther from the truth. "Dyslexics are overrepresented in creative and inventive fields like struggle
art and architecture or computers and engineering," according to Dr. Fernette Eide. "As trait
young people, their gifts and talents may be overlooked because society only sees their urge
weakest link." Although dyslexia is one of the most common specific learning Phrases
disabilities, it's not always identified in school. Many parents and professionals are more to be aware of
aware of attention deficit disorder checklists than ones for dyslexia. That's exactly why to be due to
parents need to be on the lookout, says Dr. Fernette Eide. "Parents need to be alert to the to be on the lookout
possibility of dyslexia, because they may be the only one who recognizes their child's to be presumed to
pattern of difficulties, so they can help get them the proper assessments, to fall behind
accommodations, and remediation they need." That's all well and good. But what exactly to throw smb. off the
should you look for? The authors say the following traits are red flags for possible scent
dyslexia: reading is slow and effortful (especially reading aloud); tendency to make wild wild guesses
guesses with new words; trouble appreciating rhymes; may skip over small words (like False friends
a, an, the) while reading; mixes up order of letters; avoids reading aloud; listening physician ≠
comprehension much better than reading comprehension; letter reversals, unusual physicist
spelling errors (may look like wild guesses); may avoid writing by hand; "careless" errors Compound words
in math or with reading test instructions; does much better with oral testing. If your child age-appropriate
shows these signs, the Eides urge, don't just assume they're being lazy. There may be school-age
something else at work. ADHD might be a big buzz word in the media, but dyslexia is Prefixes
far more common. And the earlier it's diagnosed, the sooner help can arrive. dyscalculia
A glossary of important terms related to learning disabilities is necessary for parents to dyslexia
identify signs in their children. hyperactive
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) = A severe difficulty in focusing and maintaining inattentive
attention. Often leads to learning and behaviour problems at home, school, and work. It is misdiagnosed
also called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Developmental Aphasia mislabelled
= A severe language disorder that is presumed to be due to brain injury rather than overlooked
because of a developmental delay in the normal acquisition of language;; Dyscalculia = unrecognized
A severe difficulty in understanding and using symbols or functions needed for success unusual
in mathematics; Dysgraphia = A severe difficulty in producing handwriting that is
Suffixes
legible and written at an age-appropriate speed; Dyslexia = A severe difficulty in
careless
understanding or using one or more areas of language, including listening, speaking,
developmental
reading, writing, and spelling; Dysnomia = A marked difficulty in remembering names
remediation
or recalling words needed for oral or written language; Dyspraxia = A severe difficulty
Word families
in performing drawing, writing, buttoning, and other tasks requiring fine motor skill, or in
disability
sequencing the necessary movements.
Source: Adapted from : http://www.education.com/magazine/article/ disabilities
http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/l.disabilities.glossary.html disabled

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


suffixes, particularly at the end of adjectives, have meaning: -less (without); - like;
Some suffixes
-able; - worthy; - ful; - proof; - tight.

A. Identify in the fragment above the adjectives that are formed with some of the suffixes with meaning
and note them down, indicating the process of formation.
34
Model: watertight = water + tight
Model
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
B. Check the meaning of the following suffixes, then choose the suitable one in order to form new words.

- less - like -able - worthy - ful - proof - tight

Model: I think it is going to rain, so you will probably use your new watertight jacket.
Model
1. The physicians needed trust ………………………………………persons for their research.
2. They have to pay consider…………………..... attention to the traits displayed by children.
3. Dealing with dyslexia may sometimes be a pain …………………………….…. experience.
4. Dyslexics must not feel hope …………………………...… as long as help can be provided.
5. People suffering from ADHD may display child ……………………………….. behaviour.
6. We should use error - ………………………….… tests in the assessment of these children.
WORD FAMILIES Noun – Verb - Adjective
C. Write the word forms for the following:
NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE
Model
Model: protect protection protect protective
agree
assess
avoid
behave
comprehend
consider
diagnose
develop
educate
evaluate
injure
persuade
represent
relieve
require
reverse
select
signify
symbolise

A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning.


D. Listen to the following fragment and note down all the words that contain prefixes. Than check their
meaning in the dictionary. You will listen to the recording twice.
twice.�
………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………..

SECTION II: Language Focus


The ten modal verbs are: can, may, must, will, should, could, might, ought to, shall, would.
A. Identify the modals in Not ADHD? Think Dyslexia. Look at the context in which each modal verb is
used and assign it to one of the categories listed below listed in the table below.
Model: Possibility
Model may

35
Meaning Modal Verb
Ability
Conditional
Future
Obligation/ Desirability
Obligation/ Necessity
Prediction
Probability/ Possibility
Prohibition

B. Write sentences of your own using some of the modal verbs listed above and the prompts given.

Model: Being on holiday, I could relax in the swimming pool all day long.
Model

1. ……………………………………………………………………………………………..…..

2. ………..……………………………………………………………………………....…….…

3. ……………………………………………… …………………...……………………..…..….

4. …………………………..………………………………………………..…………………

5. ………………………………………………………………………………………….……

6. ……………………………………………………………………………….………….…….

7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………

8. ……………………………………………………………………………..………………….

9…………………………………………………………………………………………….…..

10. …………………………………………………………………………………………..….

SECTION III: Text Structure


We use italics (characters set in type that slants to the right) and underlining to distinguish certain
words from others within the text. These typographical devices mean the same thing; therefore, it
would be unusual to use both within the same text and it would certainly be unwise to italicize an
underlined word.
Usage of italics or underlining
●To indicate titles of complete or major works such as magazines, books, newspapers, academic
journals, films, television programs, long poems, plays of three or more acts
36
Foreign words that are not commonly used in English
●Foreign
●Words used as words
●Words or phrases that you wish to emphasize

A. Look at the following examples and match each sentence to one of the usages above. Write the correct
answer next to each sentence.

Have you seen Minghella’s The English Patient?


You must remove the word nuance from this
sentence.
I simply do not care what you say!
The article was published in the Journal of Social
Work Education.
They all wished him bon voyage and left.

B. Write down the words that you would use into italics.

Model: My favourite book is Isabel Allende’s Portrait in Sepia.


Model
Portrait in Sepia
1. Jane loves to watch ER and Grey’s Anatomy because their plots are very interesting.
………………………………………………............................................................................................
2. The New York Times is where I read Benedict Carey’s An Active Purposeful Machine That Comes
Out at Night to Play.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….…...
3. Neil Genzlinger wrote the review of Lloyd Suh’s drama The Children of Vonderly.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….…...
4. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, the word dyslexia means: “a slight disorder
of the brain that causes difficulty in reading and speaking, but does not affect intelligence”.
………………………………………………………………………………………………….………...
5. I am not interested in your opinion!
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….……...
6. An au pair should be treated as a family member, not as a servant.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….……...
7. She said au revoir and disappeared in the night.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………....
8. The biggest tabloid in Europe, by circulation, is Germany’s Bild-Zeitung.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….…...
9. She is a mislabelled child, this is the problem!
…………………………………………………………………………………………………................
10. The word disorder appears too often in this short paragraph.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Unit 4: Williams Syndrome

37
SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities
Many nouns taken from other languages form their plurals by adding –s or –es to the singular..

If a person suffers the small genetic accident that creates Williams syndrome, New Vocabulary
he’ll live with not only some fairly conventional cognitive deficits, like trouble compelling
with space and numbers, but also a strange set of traits that researchers call the drive(s)
Williams social phenotype or, less formally, the “Williams personality”: a love helix
of company and conversation combined, often awkwardly, with a poor insight
understanding of social dynamics and a lack of social inhibition. meiosis
Williams syndrome rises from a genetic accident during meiosis, when DNA’s phenotype
double helix is divided into two separate strands, each strand then becoming the realm
genetic material in egg or sperm. Normally the two strands part cleanly, like a replicate
zipper’s two halves. But in Williams, about 25 teeth in one of the zippers — 25 savvy
genes out of 30,000 in egg or sperm — are torn loose during this parting. When stock phrasing
that strand joins another from the other parent to eventually form an embryo, strand
the segment of the DNA missing those 25 genes cannot do its work. urge
The resulting cognitive deficits lie mainly in the realm of abstract thought.
Many with Williams have so vague a concept of space, for instance, that even Prefixes
as adults they will fail at six-piece jigsaw puzzles, easily get lost, draw like a inability
preschooler and struggle to replicate a simple T or X shape built with a half- preschool
dozen building blocks. Few can balance a check book. These deficits generally uneasy
erase about 35 points from whatever I.Q. the person would have inherited Suffixes
without the deletion. Since the average I.Q. is 100, this leaves most people with conventional
Williams with I.Q. in the 60s. Though some can hold simple jobs, they require personality
assistance managing their lives. assistance
The low I.Q., however, ignores two traits that define Williams more distinctly heighten
than do its deficits: an exuberant gregariousness and near-normal language conversational
skills. Williams people talk a lot, and they talk with pretty much anyone. They deepen
appear to truly lack social fear. Indeed, functional brain scans have shown that
the brain’s main fear processor, the amygdala, which in most of us shows Nouns of
heightened activity when we see angry or worried faces, shows no reaction foreign origin
when a person with Williams views such faces. It’s as if they see all faces as amygdala
friendly. meiosis
People with Williams tend to lack not just social fear but also social savvy. Lost
on them are many meanings, machinations, ideas and intentions that most of us Compounds
infer from facial expression, body language, context and stock phrasings. If half-dozen (blocks)
you’re talking with someone with Williams syndrome and look at your watch near-normal (skills)
and say: “Oh, my, look at the time! Well it’s been awfully nice talking with six-piece (puzzle)
you . . . ,” your conversational partner may well smile brightly, agree that “this
Phrases
is nice” and ask if you’ve ever gone to Disney World. Because of this — and
to be torn loose
because many of us feel uneasy with people with cognitive disorders, or for that
to feel uneasy
matter with anyone profoundly unlike us — people with Williams can have
trouble deepening relationships. This paradox — the urge to connect, the Word families
inability to fully do so — sits at the centre of the Williams puzzle, whether gene(s)
considered as a picture of human need or, as a growing number of researchers genetic
are finding, a clue to the fundamental drives and tensions that shape social genetics
behaviour.
After being ignored for almost three decades, Williams has recently become one gregarious
of the most energetically researched neurodevelopmental disabilities after gregariousness
autism and it is producing more compelling insights.
Source: Adapted from David Dobbs, The Gregarious Brain www.newyorktimes.com

38
However, some have kept their foreign (Latin and Greek) plurals – thesis/theses; phenomenon/
phenomena, alga/algae, etc.

A. Fill in the correct plural form of the words in brackets.


Model Although extensively investigated, these phenomena still fascinate researchers (phenomenon)

1. Both the preliminary and final ……..……… revealed that 25 genes were missing (analysis)
2. The researchers collected a great deal of ……………...…………… for their report (datum)
3. There are several …………..…. that must be considered when calculating the IQ (criterion)
4. The brain scans revealed that there was a set of ……...to which the brain reacted (stimulus)
5. More ………………………..….are to be confirmed by the new experiments (hypothesis)
Word formation is one of the most useful methods to enrich your vocabulary. To the root word you
may add a prefix or a suffix to form a new word: misunderstanding.

B. Form new words using prefixes and/or suffixes to fill in the blanks with the aid of the words in capitals.
Model Many people suffering from Williams syndrome draw like a preschooler. SCHOOL

1. The cognitive deficit was ……….……. by the genetic accident that occurred during meiosis. HIGH
2. We were all surprised to see John behaving so ..……...….… in a new environment. GREGARIOUS
3. The brain’s main fear ………………………………………………..…. is the amygdala. PROCESS
4. Jena’s cognitive ……………………………….……. made impossible any human interaction. PAIR
5. His lack of social ……………………………………………………… puzzles everybody. INHIBIT

C. Each group of words written below has a root word which you must guess and write in column B; then
match it with the appropriate definition in column C. The first is done for you.

A B C
biodiversity; autobiographical; bio = life feel
biologist; biography; symbiosis
admittance; emitted; omit; bear; bring; carry
permitting; remittance;
unremitting; submitted;
transmitter
dictation; indicate; dictionary; send
predictable; verdict
infer; transfer; preferable; offer; speech; word; reason; study
confer; ferry
apathy; pathetic; pathology; pain
sympathy; telepathic; empathy;
antipathy
biological; psychologist; logic; form
philology
analgesia; nostalgic; analgesic; say; speak
neuralgia; nostalgia
anthropomorphism; life√
metamorphosis; amorphous;

SECTION II: Language Focus

39
Conditionals are clauses which begin most typically with if if. They go in several types and they are
used to express events which are possible, likely events in the future, unlikely situations in the present
or future or an event that did not happen in the past.
A. Study the following examples of first, second and third Conditional then fill in with the appropriate
form of the verbs in brackets.
a. If a person suffers the small genetic accident that creates Williams syndrome, he will live with some
fairly conventional cognitive deficits.
b. If we understood their condition, maybe we could help them.
c. I would have made other plans for the trip if you had told me about her disability.
1. Most likely they will leave sooner if they ………...……… (realise) that he has a cognitive disorder.
2. The DNA …………………..(not be affected) if a genetic accident had not occurred during meiosis.
3. If people with Williams syndrome had a concept of space they ……….. (not draw) as a preschooler.
4. His IQ …………………………………………... (be) higher if the deficits had not erased 35 points.
5. If we ……....(not feel) uneasy in the presence of people with Williams, they could deepen relations.
Conditional clauses may be introduced by other subordinators than if
if, for example: as/so long as,
unless, on condition that, only if, provided that, etc.
B. Match the clauses in column A with those in column B to form sentences. One is done for you. 11- A

1. If she had realised her report would be A. on condition that you take good care of it.
misinterpreted,
2. As long as you promise to behave yourself, B. provided that you have the suitable
programme.
3. Her latest article may be downloaded freely C. contact us immediately.
4. Supposing you met a Williams person, D. she would not have published it.
5. In the event of a gene deletion during meiosis, E. on condition that you feel comfortable with
her.
6. In case of a crisis, F. you would have understood his behaviour.
7. Humans begin to have hallucinations G. unless you apologise first.
8. She will deepen the relation H. the person will suffer from Williams syndrome
9. If you had paid more attention to John I. you can join us at the meeting
10. I m sure they will turn down your invitation J. if you keep them awake for more than 72 hours.
11. You can borrow my laptop for the project K. would you know how to talk to him?

Coldplay’’s song on http://www.last.fm/music/ and fill in the blanks with the missing
B. Listen to Coldplay
information:
What If? What if _____ (6)
What if there _____ (1) no lie That you don't want me there by your side
Nothing wrong, nothing right That you don't want me there in your life
What if there _____ (2) Ooh ooh-ooh, that's right
And no reason, or rhyme Let's take a breath, _____ (7) over the side
What if you _____ (3) Ooh ooh-ooh, that's right
That you don't want me there by your side How can you know it, if you _____ (8)
That you don't want me there in your life Ooh ooh-ooh, that's right
What if I _____ (4) it wrong Every step that you take
And no poem or song _____ (9) your biggest mistake
Could _____ (5) what I got wrong It could bend or it _____(10)
Or _____ (6) you feel I belong That's the risk that you take
SECTION III: Text Structure
Data refers to information which can be a measure or some observations of things.
40
Articles, research papers, reports, etc. use tables, charts or graphs to provide information. Some useful
verbs: increase, decrease, decline, climb, fluctuate, tend;
vocabulary in talking about data includes: verbs
adjectives: high, low, dramatic, gradual, slight, steep; nouns
adjectives nouns: fall, point, trend, average, level.
A. Read the fragment below and fill in with the most suitable word from the box. One is done for you.

miserable lower graph levels climbing tend slightly average progressively point start off

Happiness is smile shaped


Research into happiness suggests that our levels of happiness
change throughout our lives.
People were asked how satisfied they are with their lives.
Most people start off (0) happy and become __________ (1) less
happy as they grow older.
For many people, the most __________ (2) period in their life is
their 40s.
After that most people's __________ (3) of happiness climb.
This __________ (4) shows average life satisfaction based on
extensive research from the British Household Panel Survey
between 1991 and 2003.
It seems men are __________ (5) happier on average than women
in their teens, but women bounce back and overtake men later in life.
Women start with __________ (6) levels of average life satisfaction than men.
The low __________ (7) seems to last for longer for women - throughout their 30s and 40s, only
__________ (8) once women reach 50.
Then women __________ (9) to overtake men.
Men start slightly higher than women on __________ (10), and their lowest point is their 40s,
climbing again once they reach 50.
Graph source: British Household Panel Survey 1991-2003
Andrew Oswald, Department of Economics, University of Warwick and Nattavudh Powdthavee, Institute of Education, University of London.

Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/happiness_formula/4787558.stm

B. Obtain information from the following charts and write a data commentary in a similar style as
above.
Age-related changes in total amount of sleep and REM sleep

Source: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/sleep.html

Unit 5: The Psychology of Competition

41
The five S's of sports training are: stamina, speed, strength, skill, and spirit; but the greatest of these
is spirit. Ken Doherty

Training the body takes the right state of mind to excel in competition. New
A relatively new area in psychological research is sport psychology. However, the Vocabulary
principles involved are much older. Ever since the time of the ancient Greeks a
connection between the body and the mind has been recognized. For any professionals athlete
in the field of psychology it is considered scientific fact that the emotions and bearing
psychological health of an individual has a very significant bearing on their physical conscience
condition. Therefore, it stands to reason that for physical competitors searching for a excel
slight edge, this connection needs to be explored and used to its fullest extent. failure
State of mind There are numerous ways that athletes train their bodies. Weight harness
training, push-ups and running are just a few of the physical training activities utilized implement
by athletes regardless of the sport involved. There are also a variety of psychological
training exercises that can be used by athletes. At the time of competitions, numerous Phrases
elite competitors talk of being "in the zone". What this is referring to is the process of to stand to
focusing totally on the task at hand, blocking out any distracting thoughts and giving reason
the mind the ability to work through the task in a step-by-step fashion. Meditation is to search for a
somewhat of a similar process. In and of itself, meditative work is a tool that athletes slight edge
can utilize to train their minds. In the evening, prior to going to sleep, sit or lie down to have a
comfortably and allow your mind to become clear. Do not attempt to force this, as the competitive
very thought of forcing will break the meditation process. Instead, as thoughts come to edge
you, allow them to pass again. Do not concentrate on them, but allow them to go in and running
out of your brain. At the beginning of this process, some individuals find it to be helpful commentary
to concentrate on a single thought. If this technique works for you then try it, but keep to build
in mind that the final goal is complete freedom of thought. As time goes on, you will confidence
apply this state of meditation to competition to move on the
Your inner voice The difference between failure and success can be a matter of simply right track
self talk. Each of us has an inner voice that gives us a running commentary on the Antonyms
events in our daily lives. Learn to hear that inner voice. Literally speak out loud the failure #
word "stop" at any time that negative self talk starts, then implement positive success
conscience self talk, going through in a step-by-step method. When you are not in
training or competition is the best time to learn to control your inner voice. By the time Suffixes
that you go into competition itself, your interior dialogs should be totally encouraging affirmation
and supportive. Self talk and affirmations are related. The main difference between the comfortably
two is that affirmations are delivered into the conscious mind. Prior to going to bed, and confidence
again just prior to a competition, look into a mirror and affirm five best strengths you excitement
have for the sport you are in. This will have the effect of building confidence in your meditation
own abilities. Learn to control any stress you may have. Stress can be either negative or meditative
positive, primarily determined by any attitude you may have towards it. Your body does professional
not realize the difference between negative and positive stress, so it is your thoughts psychological
that must take over to establish that distinction. Instead of fear, learn to identify the regardless
feeling as excitement, and you will harness its power. There are numerous other supportive
psychological techniques that can be applied to competition. Nevertheless, the majority
of the other techniques are based on the concepts of self talk, meditation, and stress Compounds
management. If you can master these basic techniques you will begin to move forward self talk
on the right track towards having a competitive edge. step-by-step
Source: Adapted from : Korbin Newlyn http://www.buzzle.com/articles/the-psychology-of-competition.html push-ups

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


A. Look up the meaning of the following phrases and give their Romanian equivalents if possible.
42
to build confidence to gain self-assurance a căpăta/ câştiga încredere
to have a competitive edge
to give a running commentary
to stand to reason
to move on the right track
to search for a slight edge

B. All the concepts listed below are related to competition. Use the words to fill in the spaces.

A. inner voice
H. B. relaxation
affirmations

G. emotional C. self talk


control

Competition

psychological
E..psychological D. confidence
training

G. stress E. physical
management training
F. meditation

1. They should always listen to their ………..............…………….. when they do not know what to do.
2. Recent research shows that …………….…………….. helps athletes to recover faster from injuries.
3. The pressure of the competition requires a lot of ……………..…………...……….. to be successful.
4. …………………………………………….…... is a technique which can be used to reduce anxiety.
5. Researchers believe that self-confidence can be built with ………………...… and positive thinking.
6. Athletes need many hours of ……………………………………..……..…….. to stay in good shape.
7. One important step towards success is to build ………………..………...……. in your own abilities.
8. Freedom of thought is a stage of …………………..……………. that can be applied to competition.
9. Some psychological techniques are based on the concept of ……………...…….….………………. .
10. ……………………….…………….. makes sometimes the difference between failure and success.
C. Read the article again and match the following words with their antonyms.
Model: 1. success – g. failure

1. success a. weakness
2. prior b. similarity
3. excitement c. disconnect
4. distinction d. subsequent
5. strength e. unhelpful
6. supportive f. boredom
7. harness g. failure

SECTION II: Language Focus


The subjunctive has limited uses in English. The Present Subjunctive – short infinitive (all
persons) – I suggest he stop as soon as he becomes tired;
43
The Past Subjunctive – were (all persons) – I wish she weren’t so shy.
A. Fill in the blanks with one of these common phrases:

God forbid far be it from me come what may be that as it may suffice it to say so be it

Model: “Those stones burn my back!”


Be that as it may
may, they will reduce the tension in your muscles!

1. I don’t want to explain. _______________________, Susan will resume the psychological training.
2. If, _____________________________, you were to fall ill, who would take your place in the team?
3. If you really want to abandon the competition, then ______________________________________.
4. _________________________, I am determined to learn these new meditation techniques.
5. _________________ to tell you what to do, but you would be mad to compete against him.
B. The words in the following sentences have been jumbled. Rearrange them within the first and last
words given, in order to make coherent sentences.
Model: better were wish you
I wish you were better trained.
1. they essential control mental their emotional is that
It …………………………………………………………………………………………...…….. states states.
2. receive athlete insisted the new of should pair coach a
The ……………………………………………………………………………..……………... trainers trainers.
3. to conscience implement self talk is very decision positive
Their …………………………………………………………………………………………...…. good good.
4. stress learn to were manage the I would if
I …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. you you.
5. learn desirable you to inner hear that is
It ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. voice voice.
C. Choose one suitable word from the box below to fill in the gaps. Some words may be used more than
once.

were is found agree hadn’t understand wouldn’t be didn’t weren’t

Model: I would not argue with the coach if I _____ you.


I would not argue with the coach if I were you.
1. Whatever his physical training activities _________, they are insufficient to make him win a medal.
2. I’d rather you _______________________________ feel fear but excitement about the competition.
3. It’s time you ____________________________ the difference between positive and negative stress.
4. We recommend that the athletes ________________________ less anxious before the competition.
5. Imagine you _______________________ alone in this race. How would it affect your performance?
6. I wish they ____________________ so aggressive! It’s a competition and they need to be fair play!
7. If he ___________________________________ doped, he will be excluded from all competitions.
8. Whether they ______________________________ or not, our team is going to continue the match.
9. We know our coach is right, but we wish she __________________________ yell at us all the time.
10. If only I ____________________________ concentrated on my negative thoughts before the final!

SECTION III: Text Structure

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An article is a piece of writing which offers information in magazines, newspapers, academic journals,
the internet or other type of publication. In general, articles have five sections: headline, introduction,
main body, conclusion and bibliography.

http://www.donolsen.com http://www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/TimeMagazine http://www.biggerfasterstronger.com

A. Study the layout of the magazine articles printed above and rearrange the following jumbled text in
order to obtain a coherent article. Use the two or three column format.
Steven Pinker: How Our Minds Evolved
By Robert Wright, author of Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny Monday, Apr.26, 2004
Decades of social-science dogma depicted the human mind as having few built-in features--kind of
like a computer with no programs, a blank slate. Pinker, along with others in the young field of
evolutionary psychology, disagrees. For starters, he argued in The Language Instinct, we have a
genetically based word processor, engineered by natural selection. Among the other legacies of natural
selection, say the new Darwinians, are such impulses as jealousy and vengefulness. So Pinker draws
fire from those who ascribe all ills to the corruption of pristine souls. But evolutionary psychology has
a brighter side: love and compassion are also in our genes. Besides, Pinker notes, biology isn't destiny.
"Nature," he quotes Katharine Hepburn's character in The African Queen as saying, "is what we were
put in this world to rise above."
Every half-century, it seems, an eminent Harvard psychologist crystallizes an intellectual era. Near the
end of the 19th century, William James, writing in Darwin's wake, stressed how naturally functional
the mind is. In the mid--20th century, after a pendulum swing, B.F. Skinner depicted the mind as a
blank slate. Now the pendulum is swinging again. Harvard, which lured Pinker from the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology last year, seems poised to keep its tradition alive.
Britain's Financial Times once described Steven Pinker as "a handsome man" with a hairstyle that
"works equally well for Led Zeppelin front man Robert Plant." But even if the Harvard psychologist
didn't look like a rock star, he would still play to packed houses on the lecture circuit. He has
something rare among top-tier scholars, an ability to convey complex ideas with clarity, flair and wit.
That's one reason his books--most recently, The Blank Slate--make best-seller lists even as they make
waves in academia. The other reason is those waves in academia. Pinker is on the forefront of an
intellectual sea change.

Source: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/
Annex 1: Audio scripts
MODULE 1, UNIT 1, SECTION III, EXERCISE B

45
The information in the following paragraph has been jumbled. Listen to the recording,
rearrange it, and rewrite it in order to provide a coherent abstract. You will hear the recording
twice.
This article reports the results of a national survey in which psychology majors were asked about the
use of animals in psychological research and teaching. In general, the attitudes of psychology majors
closely resembled the attitudes of practicing psychologists. Students tended to (a) support animal
experiments involving observation or confinement, but disapprove of studies involving pain or death;
(b) support mandatory pain assessments and the federal protection of rats, mice, pigeons and reptiles;
and (c) support the use of animals in teaching, but oppose an animal laboratory requirement for the
psychology major. Opposition to the use of animals was greatest among women, among students at
selective schools, and among students living in the Northeast/ Mid-Atlantic region of the country.
UNIT 3, SECTION III, EXERCISE B
B. You will now listen to the Discussion section of the report above. Mark the following
statements true (T) or false (F). You will hear the recording twice.
Discussion
The finding of a significant positive correlation (r = +.47, p < .01) between daily hassles and
stress levels supports Kohn et al.'s research on the stress effects of daily hassles (as cited in Weiten,
2001). One hassle by itself may be small and insignificant, but when hassles start to build up they may
cause a great deal of stress. The finding of a negative correlation (r = -.35, p < .05) between social
support and stress also supports past research (Davis, Morris & Kraus, 1998; House, Landis &
Umberson, 1988). Social support can be very important in reducing stress because it allows people to
talk about, and have others listen to their problems.
The significant positive correlation (r = +.42, p < .05) between life experience and stress also
supports Holmes & Rahe's research (as cited in Weiten, 2001) that the more changes in life one has,
the more susceptible to stress one becomes.
The significant positive correlation (r = +.39, p < .05) between work hours and stress supports
Weiten's (2001) research on the subject. The work environment can be a very stressful place and the
more time one spends there, the higher their stress levels may become.
However, the absence of the expected inverse correlation between exercise (Brown, 1991) and
stress was unexpected. Brown has shown that exercise can be beneficial to reducing stress levels.
Perhaps more participants were needed in order to show an accurate correlation. Social desirability
bias (Weiten, 2001) may also have been a factor. The participants may have reported the amount of
exercise that they believed to be socially acceptable instead of the amount of exercise they actually did.
The negative correlation between sleep and stress was not significant (r = -.21). A stronger, more
significant correlation was expected. A good night's sleep is essential to resisting stress. One reason
for these results might be that hours of sleep in this survey were all around eight hours, while stress
levels were scattered over a much larger range. Again, the small sample size might be a factor; more
participants might increase the accuracy of the results.
UNIT 4, SECTION III, EXERCISE A
You are going to listen to an APA style set of rules used for quoting. Fill in the blanks with the
missing information. You will listen to the recording twice.
Quotations
- Fewer than 40 words: Include in the text, surrounded by double quotation marks
- 40 words or more: Set off from the text in indented block form without quotation marks. If the
quotation contains multiple paragraphs, indent the start of each one 0.5".
- To indicate errors in the original source, use sic, italicized and bracketed: “. . . biolgical [sic]
[sic]”
- To indicate changes in the original source:
a. Use an ellipsis to indicate omission. Add a period if the omission comes between sentences.
b. Use brackets to insert material.
c. If someone other than the original author has italicized words for emphasis, add the words [italics italics
added] in brackets after the words.
added
46
- Cite quotations in the following ways (depending on quote length and use of author name):
Horner (1967) found that “Children raised in stable two-parent families . . .” (p. 438).
He found that “Children raised . . . ” (Horner, 1967, p. 438).
Horner (1967) found the following: Children raised . . . [assuming quotation is 40 or more words
long]. (p. 438)
You may need to obtain copyright permission for long quotations.

MODULE 2, UNIT 1, SECTION III, EXERCISE A


You are going to listen to a set of instructions for writing a good summary and then fill in the
blanks with the missing information. You will listen to the recording twice.

Writing an effective summary requires that you:


Read with the Writer's Purpose in Mind
Read the article carefully, making no notes or marks and looking only for what the writer is saying.
After you've finished reading, write down in one sentence the point that is made about the subject.
Then look for the writer's thesis and underline it.
Underline with Summarizing in Mind
Once you clearly understand the writer's major point (or purpose) for writing, read the article again.
Underline the major points supporting the thesis; these should be words or phrases here and there
rather than complete sentences.
In addition, underline key transitional elements which show how parts are connected. Omit specific
details, examples, description, and unnecessary explanations.
Write, Revise, and Edit to Ensure the Accuracy and Correctness of Your Summary
Writing Your Summary
Now begin writing your summary. Start with a sentence naming the writer and article title and stating
the essay's main idea. Then write your summary, omitting nothing important and striving for overall
coherence through appropriate transitions.
Be concise, using coordination and subordination to compress ideas.
Conclude with a final statement reflecting the significance of the article -- not from your own point of
view but from the writer's.
Throughout the summary, do not insert your own opinions or thoughts; instead summarize what the
writer has to say about the subject.
Revising Your Summary
After you've completed a draft, read your summary and check for accuracy.
Keep in mind that a summary should generally be no more than one-fourth the length of the original.
If your summary is too long, cut out words rather than ideas. Then look for non-essential information
and delete it.
Write another draft -- still a draft for revision -- and ask someone to read it critically.
Editing Your Summary
Correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors, looking particularly for those common in your
writing.
Write a clean draft and proofread for copying errors.

UNIT 2, SECTION III, EXERCISE B


You are going to listen twice to a short audio file. Pay attention to the intonation, pause or stop,
so that you can fill in with the appropriate missing punctuation marks in the fragment below.
Use a coloured pen.

47
Keeping Your Teen Out of Trouble by Rose Garrett

Teens and trouble: think they go together like bread and butter? Well, you may be wrong. While
teenagers do tend towards “risk-seeking” behaviour, and seem to enjoy pushing boundaries – and
parents' buttons – troublesome behaviour can be anything but typical.
According to Neil Bernstein, a clinical psychologist and author of How to Keep Your Teen out of
Trouble and What to Do If You Can't, moodiness, self-absorption, and obsession with peer approval
are all run of the teenage mill. However, if you notice your teenager getting out of control,
experimenting with drugs, or abusing alcohol, it may be time for a wake-up call – for both of you.
Don't expect lightening to strike some sense into your teen. Although parents may feel that they are
being pushed away during the teen years, it's your responsibility to firmly push back.

UNIT 3, SECTION I, EXERCISE D


Listen to the following fragment and note down all the words that contain prefixes. Than check
their meaning in the dictionary. You will listen to the recording twice.

The dyslexic child is often a mislabelled child." Children with unrecognized dyslexia are often seen as
inattentive, careless, or slow, but, the Eides say, often nothing could be farther from the truth. "Dyslexics are
overrepresented in creative and inventive fields like art and architecture or computers and engineering,"
according to Dr. Fernette Eide. "As young people, their gifts and talents may be overlooked because society only
sees their weakest link."

Annex 2:

Europass Insert photograph.


Curriculum Vitae

48
Personal information
Surname(s) / First name(s) Surname(s) First name(s)
Address(es) House number, street name, postcode, city, country
Telephone(s) Mobile:
Fax(es)
E-mail
Nationality
Date of birth
Gender
Desired employment / Occupational field
Work experience
Dates Add separate entries for each relevant post occupied, starting from the most
recent.
Occupation or position held
Main activities and responsibilities
Name and address of employer
Type of business or sector
Education and training
Dates Add separate entries for each relevant course you have completed, starting from
the most recent.
Title of qualification awarded
Principal subjects/occupational skills covered
Name and type of organisation providing
education and training
Level in national or international classification
Personal skills and competences
Mother tongue(s) Specify mother tongue (if relevant add other mother tongue(s))
Other language(s)
Self-assessment Understanding Speaking Writing
European level * (*Common European Listening Reading Spoken Spoken
Framework of Reference for Languages) interaction production
Language
Language
Social skills and competences Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired.
Organisational skills and competences Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired.
Technical skills and competences Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired.
Computer skills and competences Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired.
Artistic skills and competences Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired.
Other skills and competences Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired.
Driving licence State here whether you hold a driving licence and if so for which categories of
vehicle.
Additional information Include here any other information that may be relevant, for example contact
persons, references, etc.
Annexes List any items attached.

Annex 3:

1. http://esl.about.com/c/ec/1.htm (curs gratuit prin corespondenţă pentru nivel intermediar, cu


lista subiectelor de parcurs).

49
2. http://esl.about.com/c/ec/2.htm (curs gratuit prin corespondenţă pentru nivel începător)
3. http://esl.about.com/od/grammarforbeginners/ (pentru aducere la nivel si consolidare
4. http://esl.about.com/od/grammarintermediate/ (pentru consolidare)
5. http://esl.about.com/library/writing/blwrite_usedictionary.htm (repere practice pentru
utilizarea dictionarelor, alte link/uri)
6. http://esl.about.com/library/beginner/blabsolute_intro.htm (20 de pasi pentru dezvoltarea
abilitatilor minime de comunicare)
7. http://esl.about.com/od/beginnerreadingskills/ (deprinderi de citire)
8. http://esl.about.com/od/readingintermediate/ (deprinderi de citire)
9. http://esl.about.com/od/listeningbeginners/ (exercitii de ascultare urmărind înţelegerea
vorbitorilor nativi - modele utile pt. propria exprimare)
10. http://esl.about.com/od/intermediatelistenin1/ (exercitii de ascultare urmărind înţelegerea
vorbitorilor nativi - modele utile pt. propria exprimare, dezvoltarea abilităţilor de ascultare în
situaţii mai complexe).
11. http://esl.about.com/od/listeningquizzes/ (listă cuprinzătoare cu actvităţi de ascultare).
12. http://esl.about.com/cs/vocabulary/ (modalităţi de organizare a vocabularului)
13. http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/aca (scriere academica)

50