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Analize Bio Chi Mice Glicemie, Lipide

Analize Bio Chi Mice Glicemie, Lipide

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Analize biochimice (analiza zaharului din sange - glicemia si din urina - glicozuria

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skdookheea@yahoo.com Zaharurile din sange Exista mai multe felui de zaharuri in organismul omului: glucoza, fructoza, lactoza etc. Glucoza este cea mai importanta zaharida care se gaseste in mod normal in organele si sangele omului si constituie combustibilul cel mai pretios pentru obtinerea energiei necesare activitatii omului. Din arderea unui gram de glucoza, de catre organism, rezulta 4 calorii. Glucoza in organism provine din alimentele consumate de catre om. Cele mai bogate alimente in glucoza sunt dulciurile (zaharul, produsele zaharoase, mierea), precum si alimentele care contin amidon (faina de cereale si produsele cerealifere, cartofii etc.) care in organism se transforma prin actiunea enzimelor hidrolitice in glucoza. Dar organismul poate fabrica zahar din orice nutriment, chiar din proteine si grasimi prin procesul de gluconeogeneza. Pentru aprecierea cantitatii de zahar din organism, in laborator se analizeaza zaharul din sangele total ori din ser sau plasma. Valori normale ale glucozei din sange: 65-110 mg la 100 ml sange. La persoanele de peste 40-50 ani, valorile medii ale glicemiei sunt mai crescute decat la tineri, deoarece la ele si consumul de glucoza in organism este mai redus. Scaderea sau cresterea glicemiei in afara acestor valori produce perturbari grave organismului. Hipoglicemia Astfel, scaderea glicemiei prea mult sub valorile normale (hipoglicemie) poate produce ca simptome: slabiciune, tremuraturi, transpiratii si chiar pierderea constientei (coma hipoglicemica). Acest lucru se intampla cand organismul este subalimentat cu alimente ce contin glucoza (glucide) sau in caz de infometare (inanitie). Eforturile fizice mari, mai ales pe munte, care consuma rezervele de glucide din ficat (in special la bolnavii de ficat) pot predispune la hipoglicemie. Hipoglicemia se intalneste mai rar in bolile unor

glande endocrine care secreta hormoni insuficienti (hipofiza, tiroida, suprarenale), precum si la bolavii de diabet care se trateaza cu doze prea mari de insulina sau alte medicamente antidiabetice. Hiperglicemia Cresterea glicemiei (hiperglicemie) se intalneste si la persoanele sanatoase daca analiza sangelui se face dupa un consum crescut de dulciuri. De asemenea, persoanele care au avut un traumatism fizic sau psihic (stres) sau care s-au tratat cu anumite medicamente, pot avea o glicemie crescuta, fara a fi bolnavi de diabet. In aceste situatii glicemia revine la normal dupa ce a disparut si cauza care i-a provocat cresterea. O glicemie marita se intalneste in bolile glandelor endocrine care au rolul de a regla concentratia glucozei in sange. Astfel, secretia in exces a hormonilor unor glande (hiopofiza, tiroida, suprarenalele) produce hiperglicemie. Dar cea mai mare crestere a glicemiei se intalneste in diabetul zaharat sau diabetul pancreatic. Pancreasul este o glanda mixta, cu secretie endocrina de insulina si exocrina de enzime digestive ce se elimina in duoden. Insulina este un hormon ce are rolul de a ajuta la consumul si la arderea glucozei din sange si celule. In unele boli ale pancreasului acesta secreta mai putina insulina sau nu mai secreta deloc si din aceasta cauza glucoza, in loc sa se consume, sa se arda, se acumuleaza in sange, crescand glicemia. Astfel, glicemia poate ajunge la 200-300 mg% si chiar mai mult, ceea ce duce la coma diabetica (coma hiperglicemica) mai ales la acele persoane care nu stiu ca au diabet. De aceea, pentru depistarea persoanelor cu diabet se fac analize care dozeaza cantitatea de glocoza in sange si depisteaza prezenta ei in urina. Dozarea glucozei din sange - glicemia Analiza zaharului din sange (glicemia) nu este obligatorie pentru persoanele tinere considerate sanatoase. Dar dupa 30-40 ani varsta cand apare de obicei diabetul, este bine ca, cel putin odata pe an sa se dozeze glicemia in special la unele categorii de persoane, cum sunt: - persoanele care au parinti sau frati cu diabet - persoanele care sunt predispuse la obezitate

- persoanele care observa ca de la un timp au o pofta prea mare de mancare si care mananca mai mult ca de obicei - persoanele care au o sete nepotolita si beau cantitati mari de apa, peste 3-4 litri chiar si in sezonul rece - persoanele care urineaza cantitati prea mari de urina, peste 2-3 litri in 24 de ore. In prezenta acestor simptome cronice trebuie consultat un medic care va indica si efectuarea unei glicemii. De mentionat ca persoanele care isi analizeaza glicemia trebuie sa vina nemancate la laborator, sa anunte daca urmeaza un tratament antidiabetic si sa intrerupa timp de 24 de ore orice tratament cu hormoni, care pot modifica rezultatele de laborator. Testul de toleranta la glucoza Hiperglicemia provocata se face la unele persoane pentru a preciza daca glicemia crescuta se datoreaza diabetului zaharat sau altor cauze. In acest scop, i se da bolnavului glucoza fie pe gura, fie injectata intravenos si la intervale de cate 30 de minute se recolteaza mai multe probe de sange pentru dozarea glicemiei. In mod normal dupa consumul de glucoza, zaharul din sange creste si la oamenii sanatosi, dar nu mult si revine la normal dupa 2 ore. Dar la persoanele diabetice glicemia creste foarte mult, caci zaharul din sange nu se consuma si revenirea la normal, la valorile initiale se face mai tarziu de 2 ore. Persoanele care isi fac "hiperglicemie provocata" nu vor tine un regim strict, de infometare, in speranta ca analiza le va iesi normala. Din contra, datorita perturbarii produsa de foame, analiza poate sa fie chiar mai "anormala" ducand astfel la concluzii gresite privind gravitatea diabetului. De aceea, se recomanda ca in zilele dinaintea efectuarii analizei aceste persoane sa manance normal, dar in dimineata in care se executa analiza sa vina la laborator nemancate. De asemena, tratamentul cu medicamente antidiabetice inainte efectuarii analizei, poate induce medicul in eroare.

Determinarea glucozei in urina - glicozuria Prezenta zaharului in urina se numeste glicozurie. In mod normal urina nu contine glucoza. Dar cand glicemia a depasit 150-200 mg% atunci glucoza trece din sange prin rinichi si se varsa in urina de unde se poate analiza. Pentru dozarea glicozuriei se va strange urina din 24 de ore. Alte analizeSus In afara de modificarile valorilor glucozei, in diabet sunt perturbate si alte componente ale sangelui. Astfel ca si in cazul subnutritiei, pentru a face fata cheltuielilor de energie organismul recurge la rezervele de grasime, pe care le mobilizeaza din depozite si le trece in sange spre a le utiliza in locul glucozei. De aceea, sangele diabeticilor este gras, laptos si analiza arata valori crescute ale grasimilor totale si ale colesterolului sanguin. Dar acest efort al organismului de a suplini prin grasimi lipsa glucozei este sortit esecului caci grasimile nu se ard pentru a da energia necesara decat in prezenta zaharului, a glucozei. Se spune ca "grasimile ard in flacara produsa de glucoza" drept urmare grasimile sunt arse incomplet rezultand substante toxice pentru organism (corpi cetonici, acetona). Prezenta acestor substante in sangele si urina unei persoane arata aproape sigur ca este vorba de un diabet grav, nedescoperit sau netratat corect. Intoxicatia organismului cu acetona si alte substante cetonice poate duce la coma diabetica. De notat ca acetona din sange creste asa de mult incat se elimina pe cale respiratorie, astfel ca aerul expirat de un bolnav de diabet in aceasta faza sau de un bolnav in coma diabetica miroase a acetona sau a mere coapte. In aceasta situatie analiza corpilor cetonici din sange si urina are o mare importanta pentru diagnosticul de diabet. In diabetul grav, pentru a face rost de glucoza organismul mobilizeaza nu numai grasimile ci si proteinele corpului. Din aceasta cauza, cu toate ca mananca mult diabeticul slabeste, caci isi consuma propriile lui proteine (diabetul cu slabire). Drept urmare, cresc si deseurile proteinice din sange: acidul uric, ureea, creatinina. Datorita iritatiei cronice a rinichiului de

catre glucoza crescuta ce ajunge la acel nivel, se produce alterarea filtrului renal, care lasa sa treaca albumina din sange in urina (albuminurie). Masurarea volumului de urina din 24 de ore care este foarte mare ca si determinarea densitatii urinei care datorita glucozei creste foarte mult sunt analize complementare foarte utile pentru diagnosticul de diabet si usor de executat chiar si la domiciliu. Biochemical analysis (analysis of blood sugar - glucose and in urine glycosuria) Blood sugars There are several felu of sugars in the human body: glucose, fructose, lactose, etc.. Glucose is the most important saccharide that is found normally in human blood and organs and is the most precious fuel energy required for obtaining human activity. The combustion of a gram of glucose by the body, resulting 4 calories. Glucose in the body comes from food consumed by humans. The glucose-rich foods are sweets (sugar, sugar products, honey), and foods that contain starch (flour cerealifere grain products, potatoes, etc..) Which transforms into the body by the action of hydrolytic enzymes into glucose. But the body can manufacture sugar in any nutrient, even in protein and fats through the process of gluconeogenesis. In assessing the amount of sugar in the body in the laboratory analyzes total blood sugar or serum or plasma. Normal levels of blood glucose: 65-110 mg per 100 ml of blood. In people over 40-50 years, mean glucose levels are higher than in young people, because to them, and consumption of glucose in the body is lower. The decrease or increase blood glucose levels outside of these serious disturbances of the body. Hypoglycaemia Thus, blood glucose decreased too far below normal (hypoglycemia) can cause the symptoms: weakness, tremors, sweating and even loss of consciousness (hypoglycaemic coma). This happens when the body is underfeed with foods containing glucose (carbohydrates) or in case of starvation (fasting). Great physical effort, especially in the mountains, consuming carbohydrate reserves in the liver (especially in patients of liver) may predispose to hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia meets less frequently in diseases of insufficient glands that secrete hormones (pituitary, thyroid,

adrenal), as well as diabetes bolavii which is treated with large doses of insulin or other antidiabetic medicines. Hyperglycaemia Increased blood sugar (hyperglycemia) meets and healthy people if the blood analysis is done by a high consumption of sweets. Also, people who have a physical or psychological injury (stress) or were treated with certain medications, can have a high blood sugar, without being diabetic. In these situations blood sugar returned to normal after he disappeared and because of who caused the increase. An increased blood glucose meets on diseases of endocrine organs that are designed to regulate blood glucose concentration. Thus, excess secretion of hormones of the glands (hiopofiza, thyroid, suprarenalele) produces hyperglycemia. But the biggest increase in blood glucose meets pancreatic diabetes or diabetes. The pancreas is a gland mixed with insulin endocrine and exocrine secretion of digestive enzymes that eliminate in the duodenum. Insulin is a hormone that is designed to help consumption and the burning of glucose in the blood and cells. In some diseases of the pancreas that secrete insulin less or no secret at all and because of that glucose, rather than consume, to burn, accumulates in the blood, increasing blood sugar. Thus, glucose can reach 200-300 mg% and even more, leading to diabetic coma (hyperglycemia coma) especially to people who do not know they have diabetes. Therefore, to detect people with diabetes are dozeaza analysis that the amount of blood and glocoza detected its presence in urine. Determination of blood glucose - glicemia Analysis of blood sugar (glucose) is not compulsory for young people considered healthy. But after the 30-40 years age when diabetes usually occurs, it is good that, at least once a year to dozeze glucose especially to some people, such as: - People who have parents or siblings with diabetes - People who are prone to obesity - People notice that the time had an excessive desire to eat and that eating more than usual - People who have an insatiable thirst and drinking large quantities of water, more than 3.4 liters, even in winter - People who urinate too much urine, 2-3 liters in 24 hours. With these chronic symptoms should consult a doctor who will perform a show and glucose. It mentioned that people who analyze blood glucose to come hungry to the laboratory, announce if you are a diabetic and discontinue treatment for any 24-hour treatment with hormones, which can

alter laboratory results. Tolerance test glucoza Hyperglycaemia caused to some people is to clarify whether high glucose is due to diabetes or other causes. To this end, the patient is given glucose either by mouth or injected intravenously and at intervals of 30 minutes is harvested several blood samples for glucose determination. Normally after consumption of glucose, blood sugar increases and healthy people, but not much and returned to normal after 2 o'clock. But in diabetic persons blood sugar too much, because blood sugar is consumed and not return to normal baseline is later than 2 o'clock. Persons who are "caused hyperglycaemia" will not keep a strict, by starvation, in the hope that analysis will come out normal. On the contrary, due to disruption caused by hunger, the analysis can be even more "abnormal" thus leading to wrong conclusions on the seriousness of diabetes. It is therefore recommended that in the days before the test the person to eat normally, but this morning in which to run the laboratory analysis to come hungry. Also, treatment with hypoglycemic drugs before the test, your doctor may induce in error. Determination of glucose in urine - glicozuriaSus The sugar in the urine is called glycosuria. Normally urine contains no glucose. But when blood sugar 150-200 mg% then surpassed blood glucose passes through the kidneys and flows into the urine where it can analyze. For determination of glucose in urine will collect urine over 24 hours. Other analizeSus In addition to changes in glucose levels in diabetes are disturbed and other components of blood. Such as in the case of malnutrition, to meet the costs of energy use body fat reserves, it mobilizes in storage for them in the blood to use them instead of glucose. Therefore, diabetes is the blood fat, milk and fat analysis shows elevated total cholesterol and blood. But this effort to replace the fat body is doomed to failure because the lack of glucose does not burn fat for energy needed to give than this sugar, glucose. It is said that "fats burn in the flame produced by glucose" consequently resulting fats are incompletely burned substances toxic to the body (ketones, acetone). The presence of these substances in the blood and urine of a person looks almost certain that it is a serious diabetes, undiscovered or not treated properly. Poisoning the body with acetone and other substances ketones can lead to diabetic coma. Note that acetone in the blood increases so much that it eliminates the airway, such as exhaled air of a diabetes patient in this phase or a sick smell of acetone in diabetic coma or baked apples. In this

situation analysis of blood and urine ketone bodies is of great importance for the diagnosis of diabetes. In severe diabetes, glucose to get not only mobilizes body fat but body protein. Because of this, although diabetic eat much weakened, because they consume its own protein (diabetes with weight loss). As a result, increased protein in the blood and waste: uric acid, urea, creatinine. Due to chronic irritation of the kidney by high glucose that reach that level occurs altering kidney filter, which let you pass blood in urine albumin (albuminuria). Measuring the volume of urine in 24 hours is very high as determining the density of urine due to increased glucose are highly complementary analysis very useful for diagnosis of diabetes and easily performed even at home.

Analize biochimice - analiza bilirubinei si a grasimilor sanguine (colesterol, lipide totale, trigliceride, lipoproteine)
Importanta lipidelor (grasimilor) in organism Grasimile sau lipidele sunt substante organice grase, care constituie cea mai mare sursa de energie pentru organism, deoarece prin "arderea" unui gram de grasimi se elibereaza 9 calorii. Aproximativ 15% din greutatea corpului uman este constituita, in mod normal, din grasimi. Marea majoritate a grasimilor sunt depozitate sub forma solida in diferite organe sau piele, iar o mica parte circula in sange sub forma lichida. Grasimile depozitate constituie rezerve de energie

pentru cazurile in care omul este subalimentat din diferite cauze si sursa de energie pentru eforturile fizice. In aceste situatii grasimile stocate se mobilizeaza, intra in sange si prin arderea lor contribuie la eliberarea de energie, necesara pentru activitatea vitala a organismului. Cand depozitarea de grasimi se face in cantitati mult mai mari decat necesitatile organismului apare obezitatea de diferite tipuri si grade, iar cand cantitatea de lipide din sange creste peste limitele normale se vorbeste de hiperlipidemie. Grasimile corpului provin din consumul alimentelor grase ca: unt, untura, slanina, ulei sau a dulciurilor, fainoaselor, carnii etc. care se pot transforma in grasimi. Cand lipidele depasesc concentratiile normale din sange ele se pot depune in peretii arterelor rezultand ateroscleroza. Cu timpul arterele se ingroasa, iar interiorul lor se stramteaza in unele cazuri pana la obstructie (astupare). Din aceasta cauza sangele nu mai poate circula si iriga organele importante ca inima, creierul etc. Astfel, prin obstructia arterei coronare, care iriga inima se produce angina pectorala si infarctul miocardic. Datorita cresterii rigiditatii (sclerozarii) arterelor (ateroscleroza), acestea se pot rupe producand hemoragii in creier sau in alte organe. Pentru scopuri medicale, se analizeaza numai grasimile din sange, care sunt de mai multe tipuri: lipide totale, trigliceride, acizi grasi, colesterol, lipoproteine si altele. Cuprins articol Importanta lipidelor (grasimilor) in organism Lipide totale">Lipide totale Trigliceride">Trigliceride Acizi grasi">Acizi grasi Colesterolul">Colesterolul Lipoproteine">Lipoproteine Grasimile din scaun (steatoree)">Grasimile din scaun (steatoree) 8. Greutatea corporala">Greutatea corporala
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

9. Bilirubinemia (bilirubina sanguina)">Bilirubinemia (bilirubina

sanguina) Lipide totale Reprezinta toate substantele grase care circula in sange exprimate la 100 ml ser. Valori normale ale lipidelor totale: 550-750 ml/100 ml. Scaderea lipidelor sub 500 mg% se intalneste in subalimentatie, in bolile ficatului, in boala Basedow (hiperfunctia glandei tiroide), in afectiunile acute, dupa eforturi fizice. Dar scaderea lipidemiei nu are semnificatie patologica deosebita. Mai daunatoare pentru sanatate este insa cresterea lipidelor totale serice peste valorile de 1000 mg% (hiperlipidemie). Atunci sangele devine albicios, circula mai greu, mai ales la inima si creier. Prin actiunea cronica, indelungata a hiperlipidemiei asupra vaselor sanguine se favorizeaza aparitia precoce a arterosclerozei. Cresterea lipidelor totale se intalneste in: - supraalimentatie in special cu grasimi - in unele boli ereditare, constitutionale, in care cresterea lipidemiei nu este in legatura cu alimentatia, ci cu sinteza crescuta de lipide in ficat - in unele boli de ficat si de rinichi - in insuficienta glandei tiroide - in diabetul zaharat netratat, in inanitie cand lipidele sunt mobilizate in sange - in intoxicatia cu alcool si alte substante toxice - in stresul psihic puternic (teama emotii, suparari), situatii care mobilizeaza grasimile din depozitele corpului si le trec in sange. La 4-8 ore dupa masa, lipidele totale cresc la toti oamenii de aceea este necesar ca analizele lipidelor sa se faca dupa 12 ore de la ultima masa. Hiperlipidemia de origine alimentara dispare dupa o zi in care nu se consuma grasimi, pe cand cea de origine nealimentara nu numai ca nu dispare dar se si accentueaza. Trigliceride

Sunt lipide mai simple care intra in compozitia grasimilor si au rol energetic. Cresterea lor este produsa de aceleasi cauze care produc si cresterea lipidelor totale, dar trigliceridele in exces prezinta un risc mult mai mare pentru screlozarea arterelor. Valorile normale ale trigliceridelor se incadreaza intre 50-150mg/100 ml. Acizi grasi Sunt lipide si mai simple pentru ca din ei se sintetizeaza trigliceridele. Sunt de doua tipuri: acizi grasi saturati (palmitic, stearic, etc.) care se gasesc mai mult in grasimile animale si acizi grasi nesaturati (olei, linoleic, etc.) care se gasesc mai mult in grasimile vegetale. Un consum prea mare de acizi grasi saturati in dauna celor nesaturati duce la ateroscreloza si implicit la boli cardiovasculare. Eschimosii care consuma mult ulei de foca bogat in acizi grasi nesaturati fac rar ateroscleroza. Concentratia acizilor grasi din sange variaza mult in raport cu alimentatia. De obicei, acesti acizi cresc in sange odata cu cresterea lipidelor totale si a trigliceridelor. Valori normale ale acizilor grasi: 200-450 mg/100 ml. Colesterolul Face parte din lipidele mai complexe. Pe langa rolul sau fiziologic foarte important in buna functionare a celulelor organismului, el poate contribui atunci cand este in exces la sclerozarea arterelor. Colesterolul sau colesterina din organe si sange provine din alimentele bogate in colesterol ca: oua, unt, lapte, icre, creier etc. Interesant este ca ficatul are proprietatea de a-l sintetiza din unele alimente care nu contin colesterol cum sunt grasimile, proteinele si glucidele. In general, scaderea colesterolului nu are importanta mare pentru organism. Acest lucru se intampla in cazul subnutritiei si dupa eforturi fizice intense care consuma o parte din colesterol. In bolile ficatului, organ care sintetizeaza colesterolul, scaderea acestuia este un indiciu de reducere a functiei ficatului (insuficienta hepatica, ciroza

hepatica). Cresterea colesterolului seric se datoreaza unui consum exagerat de alimente care contin colesterol, unei supraalimentatii, vietii sedentare etc. Cea mai frecventa cauza a cresterii colesterolului (hipercolesterolemia) insa este sinteza foarte crescuta a acestuia de catre organism. Colesterolul mai poate creste si in insuficienta glandei tiroide, glanda a carei hormon are rolul de a "arde" substantele grase. Daca colesterolul crescut apare la o varsta mai tanara si ramane permanent crescut, riscul de a produce modificari cardiovasculare este mare. De aceea prevenirea cresterii colesterolului sanguin trebuie facuta la o varsta tanara, nu dupa ce s-au produs modificari mai mult sau mai putin irevesibile in artere. Excesul de colesterol din sange se depune pe peretii arterelor contribuind la formarea aterosclerozei. La unele persoane colesterolul se depune si sub piele, mai ales la fata sub forma de pete galbui (xantom). Multe persoane confunda starea de obezitate cu un colesterol mare nestiind ca acesta nu se gaseste in grasimea corpului, ci in sange si in unele organe. Valorile normale ale colesterolului depind si de varsta omului, astfel, colesterolul creste cu varsta pana 50-60 ani. Dupa varsta de 60 ani, valorile colesterolului nu mai cresc mult, ramanand stationare. Un colesterol de 2,50-3,00g/l este un semnal de alarma, in timp ce un colesterol de peste 3g/l pune urgent problema unor masuri de tratament. Ateroscleroza Desigur ca exista si persoane cu hipercolesterolemie, care nu fac ateroscleroza si nici accidente vasculare (cardiace sau cerebrale), dupa cum exista persoane cu valori normale ale colesterolului care prezinta semne de ateroscleroza. Acest fapt arata ca la producerea ateroscrelozei mai contribuie si alti factori printre care: - alimentatia nerationala, bogata in grasimi, care depasesc 30% din

totalul caloriilor sau cu un aport excesiv de dulciuri - suprasolicitarea psihica, care duce la surmenaj, la oboseala nervoasa - sexul, legat de factorul hormonal; femeile desi consuma aceleasi alimente ca si barbatii au colesterolul mai scazut si ele fac mai rar boli cardiovasculare - factorul genetic, care contribuie la sinteza crescuta de colesterol din orice aliment; sunt pareri care arata ca nu atat colesterolul alimentar este daunator cat cel sintetizat in organism, care ar fi de 3-4 ori mai mare decat colesterolul provenit din alimente. Cercetarile recente au aratat ca exista doua feluri de colesterol: bun si rau. Persoanele care au o cantitate mai mare de colesterol "bun" prezinta un risc mai mic de a face ateroscleroza decat persoanele care au in sange o proportie mai mare de colesterol "rau". Se admite ca valorile normale ale colesterolului sanguin variaza intre 1,202,6g/l. Dar exista mari variatii individuale ale acestor valori, in raport de varsta si sex, asa cum rezulta urmatoarea statistica: Valori normale ale colesterolului:

Pentru scaderea colesterolului sanguin se va urma regimul alimentar recomandat de medic, la care se vor asocia exercitii fizice in vederea consumari excesului de colesterol. La persoanele obeze, scaderea in greutate poate duce si la scaderea colesterolului sanguin. Evitarea stresului psihic, a oboselii deconectarea nervoasa, renuntarea la fumat pot contribui la scaderea colesterolului. Daca prin aceste metode colesterolul nu scade in mod semnificativ, probabil ca este vorba de o sinteza crescuta in organism si in acest caz medicul curant va indica si un tratament medicamentos. Lipoproteine Sunt lipide legate de proteine. Ele ajuta la dizolvarea si transportul grasimilor mai grele spre celule unde sunt arse. Concentratia lipoproteinelor sanguine se exprima in mg la 100 ml/sange.

Valori normale ale lipoproteinelor:150-250 mg/100 ml. Lipidograma, daca printr-o hartie de filtru pe care s-a pus o picatura de ser se trece un curent continuu, lipoproteinele din ser se separa in mai multe fractiuni. Ultimele trei fractiuni ale lipidogramei au o valoare foarte importanta in aprecierea predispozitiei spre ateroscleroza si boli cardiovasculare. Trebuie retinut ca o crestere a beta-lipoproteinelor peste 80% inseamna o perturbare a repartitiei grasimilor in corp, care favorizeaza depunerea de grasimi in artere. De obicei persoanele care au un colesterol crescut, au si beta-lipoproteinele crescute. Prin cresterea procentului de beta-lipoproteine, scade procentul de alfalipoproteine care au un rol de prevenire a aterosclerozei si astfel creste raportul dintre beta-lipoproteine de alfa-lipoproteine care in mod normal este de 2,3-3,0. In mod normal grasimile din alimente sunt absorbite in intestin si nu trec in fecale sau trec in cantitati foarte mici. Dar in tulburarile de digestie ale grasimilor, asa cum se intampla in bolile de ficat si cele ale vezicii biliare sau in bolile de pancreas (care nu mai produce suficienti fermenti pentru digestia grasimilor), acestea nu se mai absorb din tubul digestiv ci trec in cantitati mari in fecale. Acelasi lucru se intampla si dupa operatii pe intestin. Punerea in evidenta cu ajutorul microscopului, a grasimilor din fecale poate aduce date indirecte despre felul cum functioneaza ficatul si pancreasul bolnavilor. De altfel, scaunul acestor bolnavi este mai decolorat, albicios, unsuros si diareic. Grasimile din scaun (steatoree) In mod normal grasimile din alimente sunt absorbite in intestin si nu trec in fecale sau trec in cantitati foarte mici. Dar in tulburarile de digestie ale grasimilor, asa cum se intampla in bolile de ficat si cele ale vezicii biliare sau in bolile de pancreas (care nu mai produce suficienti fermenti pentru digestia grasimilor), acestea nu se mai absorb din tubul digestiv ci trec in cantitati mari in fecale (steatoree).

Acelasi lucru se intampla si dupa operatii pe intestin. Punerea in evidenta cu ajutorul microscopului, a grasimilor din fecalepoate aduce date indirecte despre felul cum functioneaza ficatul si pancreasul bolnavilor. De altfel, scaunul acestor bolnavi este mai decolorat, albicios, unsuros si diareic. Greutatea corporalaSus Mai trebuie mentionata o metoda de analiza indirecta a grasimilor corpului pe care o poate face oricine la domiciliu si anume cantarirea periodica. Cunoscand greutatea si inaltimea se poate stabili gradul de incarcare cu grasimi a unei persoane. Un criteriu simplu de apreciere a greutatii corporale normale este indicele Broca. Dupa acest indice: greutatea ideala (in kg) =inaltimea (in cm) minus 100. De exemplu o persoana care are inaltimea de 170 cm, trebuie sa aiba greutatea ideala de 170-100=70 kg. O crestere a greutatii peste aceasta cifra cu 10-20 % (7-14 kg) indica obezitata de gradul intai sau usoara. Cand depasirea greutatii normale este de 20-30% (14-21 kg) se vorbeste de o obezitatea mijlocie sau de gradul doi. Iar cand greutatea corpului depaseste 30% din greutatea ideala se considera ca este o obezitatea mare, de gradul trei. Bilirubinemia (bilirubina sanguina) Bilirubina este o substanta colorata in verde-galbui, pe care o fabrica ficatul si care intra in compozitia bilei. In mod normal, bilirubina nu se gaseste in sange decat in cantitati foarte mici. Insa cu ocazia bolilor de ficat (hepatita infectioasa sau toxica), cand seobstrueaza canalul biliar (calculi ai vezicii biliare) atunci cand bila nu se mai poate scurge spre intestin, intra in circulatia sanguina, colorand pielea bolnavului (icter) si serul sanguin. Cresterea bilirubinei sanguine are aceeasi valoare pentru

diagnosticul bolilor ca si cresterea pigmentilor biliari si a urobilinogenului din urina. Valori normale ale bilirubinei sanguine: Bilirubina directa = 0-0,2 mg% Bilirubina indirecta=0,8-1 mg% Bilirubina totala=1-1,2 mg%.

The advice - of a doctor and blood fats (cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides, lipoproteins) The importance of lipids (fats) in the body Fats or lipids are fatty organic substances, which constitute the largest source of energy for the body as the "burning" a gram of fat is 9 calories releases. Approximately 15% of body weight consists, usually, of fat. Most fat is stored in solid form in various organs or skin, and a small part of circulating blood in liquid form. Fats stored energy reserves for cases in which man is underfeed different reasons and source of energy for the physical. In these situations mobilizes stored fat, enters the blood and by their combustion contributes to the release of energy necessary for vital activity of the body. When fat is stored in much larger quantities than obesity is the body needs different kinds and degrees, and when the amount of fat in the blood increases above the normal speaking of hyperlipidaemia. Body fat from fatty food consumption as: butter, lard, lard, oil or confectionery fainoaselor, meat, etc.. that can turn into fat. When concentrations exceed normal blood lipids they can lodge in arteries resulting in atherosclerosis. In time the arteries thicken and inside them narrows in some cases to blockage (occlusion). Because of this blood can not circulate and irrigate major organs like heart, brain, etc.. Thus, by coronary artery blockage, which irrigate the heart produces angina and myocardial infarction. Due to higher rigidity (sclerozarii) arteries (atherosclerosis), they may break causing bleeding in the brain or other organs. For medical purposes, is analyzed only in blood fats, which are of several types: total lipids, triglycerides, fatty acids, cholesterol, lipoproteins and others.

Article Contents 1. The importance of lipids (fats) in the body 2. Total fat "> Total Fat 3. Triglycerides "> Triglycerides 4. Fatty acids "> fatty acids 5. Cholesterol "> Cholesterol 6. Lipoprotein "> lipoprotein 7. Fat in the stool (steatoree) "> fat seat (steatoree) 8. Body weight "> body weight 9. Bilirubin (bilirubin blood) "> bilirubin (bilirubin blood) Total Fat Represents all fatty substances that circulate in the blood expressed per 100 ml serum. Normal levels of total lipids: 550-750 ml/100 ml. Lowering lipids in 500 mg% in subalimentatie meets in liver diseases in Basedow disease (hiperfunctia thyroid gland), in acute, after physical effort. But the decrease has lipidemiei great pathological significance. May be harmful to health but increase total serum lipid values over 1000 mg % (hyperlipidaemia). When blood is white, hard run, especially the heart and brain. The action of chronic, long the blood vessels favors hiperlipidemiei the early appearance of arteriosclerosis. Increasing the total lipid meets on: - Overnutrition, especially with fat - In some hereditary diseases, constitutional, in which growth is lipidemiei about nutrition, but with increased synthesis of fat in the liver - In some liver and kidney - In the thyroid gland failure - In untreated diabetes in fasting when blood lipids are mobilized - To intoxication with alcohol and other toxic substances - In strong psychological stress (fear of emotions, anger), situations that mobilizes fat stores them in body and blood. At 4-8 hours after meals, total lipids increase to all people therefore it is necessary for lipid analysis are made in 12 hours after last meal. Hyperlipidemia of food origin disappeared after a day in which fat is consumed, while the non-food origin not only disappears but is and emphasizes. Triglycerides Simple lipids are contained in fat and energy serve. Their growth is produced by the same causes that produce and increase the total lipids, but excess triglycerides show a much higher risk for screlozarea arteries.

Normal values of triglycerides are covered by 50-150mg/100 ml. Fatty acids I am fat and easier because of them synthesize triglycerides. There are two types: saturated fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, etc..) Which are found in animal fats and more unsaturated fatty acids (Olei, linoleic, etc..) Which are found more in vegetable fats. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids in the unsaturated damage and lead to default ateroscreloza cardiovascular diseases. Eskimos consuming seal oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids are rarely atherosclerosis. The concentration of fatty acids in the blood varies greatly in relation to diet. Typically, these acids in the blood increase with the increasing total lipid and triglyceride levels. Normal levels of fatty acids: 200-450 mg/100 ml. Cholesterol Part of complex lipids. Besides the very important physiological role in smooth functioning of body cells, it can help when in excess sclerozarea arteries. Cholesterol or offal and blood cholesterol comes from foods high in cholesterol such as: eggs, butter, milk, eggs, brain, etc.. Interestingly, the liver is the property of some foods that do not synthesize cholesterol as fats, proteins and carbohydrates. In general, lower cholesterol has great importance for the body. This happens in case of malnutrition and after strenuous efforts that consume a portion of cholesterol. In liver disease, organ that synthesizes cholesterol, decreased it is an indication of reduced liver function (liver failure, liver cirrhosis). Increased serum cholesterol is due to excessive consumption of foods that contain cholesterol, a supraalimentatii, etc. sedentary life. The most common cause of the increase of cholesterol (hypercholesterolaemia) but is very high its synthesis by the body. Cholesterol can increase in renal gland and thyroid gland whose hormone is to "burn" fat substances. If high cholesterol is at a younger age and stays increased risk of cardiovascular changes occur is high. Therefore prevention of blood cholesterol increase should be made at an early age, not after the changes occurred more or less irevesibile artery. Excess blood cholesterol deposited on artery walls contribute to the formation of atherosclerosis. Cholesterol in some people and is filed under the skin, especially in front of the form of yellow spots (xantom). Many people confuse the state of obesity with a high cholesterol knowing that it is not in the fat body, but blood and some organs.

Normal cholesterol values depend on age and human, thus, cholesterol increases with age until 50-60 years. After the age of 60 years, cholesterol not grow much, remaining stationary. A cholesterol 2,50-3,00 g / l is an alarm, while a cholesterol of over 3g / l put urgent problem of treatment measures. Atherosclerosis Of course there are people with hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis and do not even strokes (heart or brain), as there are people with normal cholesterol levels with signs of atherosclerosis. This shows that the production of other factors contribute May ateroscrelozei including: - Irrational diet rich in fat, which exceed 30% of total calories or an excessive intake of sweets - Over-physical, leading to breakdown, nervous fatigue - Sex-related hormonal factor, although women eat the same food as men have lower cholesterol and they are less cardiovascular disease - Genetic factors that contribute to increased synthesis of cholesterol in any food, are currently showing that food is not as harmful as the cholesterol synthesized in the body, which is 3-4 times higher than cholesterol derived from food. Recent research has shown that there are two kinds of cholesterol: good and evil. People who have a larger amount of "good" cholesterol presents a lower risk of atherosclerosis than do those in the blood have a greater proportion of "bad" cholesterol. It is recognized that normal values of blood cholesterol varies between 1,20-2,6 g / l. But there are large individual variations of these values in relation to age and sex, as evidenced by the following statistics: Normal levels of cholesterol: To lower blood cholesterol is to follow the diet recommended by your doctor, who will join the exercise in excess consumption of cholesterol. In obese people, weight loss can lead to lower blood cholesterol. Avoid mental stress, fatigue disconnect nervous, quitting smoking can help lower cholesterol. If by these methods cholesterol does not decrease significantly, it is likely that an increased synthesis in the body and in this case will show doctors and medication. Lipoprotein They are fat-related proteins. They help dissolve fat and heavy transport to

cells which are burned. Blood lipoprotein concentration is expressed in mg per 100 ml / blood. Normal levels of lipoproteins :150-250 mg/100 ml. Lypidogram, if a filter paper which was placed a drop of serum is passed a current, separate serum lipoproteins into several factions. The last three fractions Lypidogram have a very important value in assessing predisposition to atherosclerosis and heart disease. It should be noted that an increase in beta-lipoprotein than 80% means a disruption of the distribution of fats in the body, which favors the deposition of fat in arteries. Usually people who have high cholesterol, and betalipoproteins were elevated. By increasing the percentage of beta-lipoprotein, decreased the percentage of alpha-lipoprotein with a role in preventing atherosclerosis and thereby increases the ratio of beta-lipoprotein alphalipoprotein, which normally is 2,3-3,0. Normally fats from food are absorbed in the intestine and pass in the feces or go in very small quantities. But in disorders of fat digestion, as happens in the liver and the gall bladder or pancreatic disease (which no longer produce enough yeast to digest fats), they no longer absorb the digestive tract but passes in amounts children in the feces. The same thing happens after operations on the intestine. Highlighting using microscope, the fat in faeces can provide indirect information about how work ill liver and pancreas. Moreover, the seat of these patients is bleached, white, sticky and diarrhea. Fat in the stool (steatoree) Normally fats from food are absorbed in the intestine and pass in the feces or go in very small quantities. But in disorders of fat digestion, as happens in the liver and the gall bladder or pancreatic disease (which no longer produce enough yeast to digest fats), they no longer absorb the digestive tract but passes in amounts children in the feces (steatoree). The same thing happens after operations on the intestine. Highlighting using microscope, the fat of fecalepoate bring indirect data about how work ill liver and pancreas. Moreover, the seat of these patients is bleached, white, sticky and diarrhea. Weight corporalaSus May be mentioned a method of indirect analysis of body fat that can make everyone at home and that is weighing Periodicals. Knowing the weight and height can determine the load of fat a person. A simple criterion for assessing the normal body weight is the index of Broca. After this show:

ideal weight (in kg) = height (in cm) minus 100. For example a person who has a height of 170 cm, must have the ideal weight of 170-100 = 70 kg. A weight increase over that figure by 10-20% (7-14 kg) indicates the degree obezitata first or easy. The excess is 20-30% of normal weight (14-21 kg) is spoken by a middle or second degree obesity. And when body weight exceeds 30% of ideal weight is considered obesity a high level three. Bilirubin (bilirubin blood) Bilirubin is a green-yellow dye, a factory that contained in liver and bile. Normally, bilirubin is not found in blood only in very small quantities. But when liver disease (hepatitis, infectious or toxic), when seobstrueaza bile (gall bladder calculi of) when the ball is no longer flows to the intestine, enter blood circulation, skin colorand patient (jaundice) and blood serum. Increased blood bilirubin has the same value for diagnosis of diseases that increase bile pigments and urobilinogen in urine. Normal levels of blood bilirubin: Direct bilirubin = 0-0,2 mg% Indirect bilirubin = 0,8-1 mg% Total bilirubin = 1-1,2 mg%.

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