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c

Tipuri de medii de viaţăc

Prin caracteristicile sale, mediul înconjurător poate oferi, sau nu, condiţii favorabile
desfăşurării activităţilor umane.c

Cele mai favorabile medii de viaţă sunt cele care se suprapun peste mediile temperate, de
tip mediteranean, temperat umed şi temperat uscat. Cu toate acestea mediul tropical umed
din Asia de Sud ± Est este foarte bine populat, aproximativ 2 miliarde de
oameni înfruntând musonul şi precipitaţiile bogate.c

Pentru a întelege mai bine distribuţia spaţială a diferitelor tipurii de medii, recomand
interpretarea hărţii de mai jos (Fig.1: Tipurii de medii pe Glob).c

Principalele tipurii de medii de viaţă şi caracteristicile lor sunt prezentate în tabelele


următoare:c
c MEDIILE INTERTROPICALEc
¦ 
 c  
    
  c

 
  c
Caracteristicic Lipsa anotimpurilor.c Există două Este caracteristic
anotimpuri: unul regiunilor deşertice şi
plois şu unul secetosc semideşertice.c
Temperaturi ridicate.c Apar concentrări Nu este favorabil
Precipitaţii bogate.c mari şi foarte mari desfăşurării activităţilor
Păduri ecuatoriale.c de populaţie.c umane.c
Râuri mari; ex: Amazonc
Soluri sărace.c
Este slab populat.c

cc c

cc MEDIILE TEMPERATEc
¦           
  c c    c   c 
 

 c
CaracteristicicCuprinde Cuprinde Apare în Estu Se întâlneşte în Se întâlneşte
spaţiul deşerturile şi Europei şi în vestul şi centrul în nordul
bazinului semideşerturile Asia Centrală.cc Europei, pe Europei,
Mării zonei temperate: coasta de est a Asiei
Mediterane.c Gobi, Takla-Makan Vegetaţia Americii de (Siberia) şi
etc.c caracteristică Nord şi a Asiei.c Amercii de
este stepa.c Nord.c
Însorit, cald, Prezintă mari Deficit de Diferenţele de Pădurea de
arid.c contraste termice umiditate.cc temperatură conifere.cc
între anotimpuri.c dintre iarnă şi
Diferenţe mari vară sunt mici.cc Ierni reci.c
de temperatură
între vară şi Precipitaţii Veri scurte.c
iarnă.c bogate.c
Mlaştini.c
Are două Populaţia este rară.cc Presiune Populaţie Nu oferă
anotimpuri: antropică mare.c numeroasă.cc condiţii
vara este Există păşuni care favorabile
secetoasă iar favorizează c desfăşurării
iarna ploiasă.ccreşterea animalelorc activităţilor
umane.cc

Slab populat.c

cc
c
cc MEDIILE RECIc
¦ 
 c    c
Caracteristicic În nordul Europei, Asiei şi Este situal la Nord de Cercul Polar de
Americii de Nord; la nord de Nord; în Groenlanda; în Antarctida.c
mediul forestier boreal.c
Precipitaţii reduse.cc Acoperit de calota glaciară.cc

Solul este permanent îngheţat.c Nu este favorabil activităţilor umane.c

Nu este favorabil activităţilor


umane.c
c

ccc 
 cc 
cc

Mediul geograficc  cc cccccc


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