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This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

Goodheart-Willcox

Automotive

Encyclopedia

Toboldt

Johnson

Gauthier

Automotive Encyclopedia Toboldt Johnson Gauthier Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. Tinley Park,

Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois www.g-w.com

2 Automotive Encyclopedia

The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. Brand Disclaimer: Brand names, company names, and illustrations for products and services included in this text are provided for educational purposes only and do not represent or imply endorsement or recommendation by the author or the publisher.

The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. Safety Notice: The reader is expressly advised to carefully read, understand, and apply all safety precautions and warnings described in this book or that might also be indicated in undertaking the activities and exercises described herein to minimize risk of personal injury or injury to others. Common sense and good judgment should also be exercised and applied to help avoid all potential hazards. The reader should always refer to the appropriate manufacturer’s technical information, directions, and recommendations; then proceed with care to follow specific equipment operating instructions.The reader should understand these notices and cautions are not exhaustive.

The publisher makes no warranty or representation whatsoever, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to equipment, procedures, and applications described or referred to herein, their quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any changes, errors, or omissions in this book. The publisher specifically disclaims any liability whatsoever, including any direct, indirect, incidental, consequential, special, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the reader’s use or reliance upon the information, instructions, procedures, warnings, cautions, applications, or other matter contained in this book. The publisher assumes no responsibility for the activities of the reader.

2006 Edition

Copyright © 2006 by The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.

Previous editions copyright 2000, 1995, 1989, 1983, 1981, 1979, 1977, 1972, 1970, 1968

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be repro- duced, stored, or transmitted in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without the prior written permission of The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.

Manufactured in the United States of America

ISSN 1080-627-X

International Standard Book Number 1-59070-422-3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—06—10 09 08 07 06 05

This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Introduction
3
Introduction

In recent years, there have been significant changes in the design and construction of automobiles. Although these changes have increased dependability, improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, and enhanced safety, they have made it more difficult to troubleshoot and repair late-model vehicles. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the fundamentals of vehicle construction, operation, and service is more important than ever before. Automotive Encyclopedia is a book of fundamen- tals. It explores the many sciences involved in vehicle operation: electricity and electronics, computers, hydrau- lics, pneumatics, internal combustion, power trans- mission, and steering and suspension geometry. Automotive Encyclopedia also covers vehicle design, operation, troubleshooting, service, and repair. This infor- mation establishes the foundation on which a thorough knowledge of automotive technology is based. Once these fundamentals are mastered, knowledge gained through experience will enable you to troubleshoot and service late-model vehicles. Each chapter of Automotive Encyclopedia opens with a list of learning objectives. These objectives identify the skills you should be able to master after completing

the chapter. Important technical terms are listed at the beginning of each chapter and are printed in bold italic type when introduced in the body of the text. Additionally, safety is stressed in the appropriate sections. Review questions are provided at the end of each chapter to help you evaluate your understanding of important concepts. The 2006 edition of Automotive Encyclopedia has been updated to reflect the most recent changes in the automotive field. It includes information on the latest developments in automotive technology, such as OBD II diagnostics, antilock brakes, side air bags, refrigerant recovery and recycling, and automotive waste disposal. Full color has been used throughout this edition of Automotive Encyclopedia to enhance illustrations and highlight important information. Automotive Encyclopedia is designed to be used by students interested in entering the field of automotive technology. It can also be used by technicians preparing for ASE certification or who need to brush up on certain topics. William K. Toboldt Larry Johnson W. Scott Gauthier

4 Automotive Encyclopedia

The publication of a book of this nature would not be possible without the assistance of many segments of the automotive industry. The authors and the publisher would like to thank the following companies, organiza- tions, and agencies for their contributions to Automotive Encyclopedia.

AC-Rochester Accurate Instruments AC-Delco Alfred Teves Corp. Allen Test Products Div., Allen Group Ammco Tools, Inc. Audi of America, Inc. Auto-Test Battery Council International BMW Brake Systems, Inc. Buick Cadillac Carter Central Foundry Div., General Motors Corp. Central Tools Century Mfg. Co. Champion Spark Plug Co. Chevrolet Chilton’s Motor/Age Christie Electric Corp. C-R Industries Curtis-Wright DaimlerChrysler Dayco Corp. Deere & Co. Delco-Remy Div., General Motors Corp. Detroit Diesel Corp. DeVilbiss Dodge ESB Incorporated Everco Federal Mogul Fel-Pro, Inc. Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. Fisher Body Div., General Motors Corp. Ford Motor Co. Gates Rubber Co. General Electric Corp. General Motors Corp.* Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. Hein-Werner Hercules Motor

Acknowledgments

Hofmann Corp. Honda Hunter Engineering Co. Huth Mfg. Co. Jeep Kwik-Way Lexus Lincoln Div. of McNeil Corp. Linde Div. of Union Carbide Lisle Co. LORS Machinery, Inc. L.S. Starrett Co. Marson Corp. Mazda Nilfisk of America, Inc. Nissan Oatey Co. OTC Tools and Equipment Peerless Instrument Co. Perfect Circle Peugeot, Inc. Pontiac Porsche PPG Industries, Inc. Robert Bosch Corporation Robinair Div., SPX Corp. Rochester Rubber Manufacturers Association Safety-Kleen Sealed Power Sioux S-K Tools Snap-on Tools Corp. Star Machine and Tool Co. Sun Electric Corp. Sunnen Co. Tecumseh Products Co. 3M Co. Tire Guides, Inc., Boca Raton, FL 2005 Tire Guide-www.tireguides.com Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A. Inc. Triad U.S. Sales Co. VICA Volkswagen of America, Inc. Winona Van Norman * Portions of the materials contained in this text have been reprinted with the permission of General Motors Corporation, Service Technology Group.

This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

5 Table of Contents
5
Table of Contents

1 Automotive Safety

Safety

13

Right-to-Know Laws

15

13

4

Fasteners, Seals, and Gaskets

Fasteners

47

Threaded Fasteners

47

47

 

Proper Disposal of Automotive Wastes

15

Keys and Pins

52

52

 

Fire Prevention

16

Snap Rings

Ventilation 16

Rivets

52

Jacks and Lifts

16

Adhesives

53

Tool Safety

16

Sealants

53

Dress Properly

18

Seals

53

Lift Properly

19

Gaskets

55

Welding Safety 19

 
 

5

Measuring Instruments

59

2

Owner’s Manuals, Service

 

Measuring Instruments

59

Manuals, and Repair Manuals

 

21

Micrometers 59

Introduction 21

 

Telescoping Gauges and Small Hole Gauges

 

Owner’s Manuals

21

Vernier Calipers

61

 

Service Manuals and Repair Manuals

22

Dial Gauges

62

Technical Service Bulletins

22

Feeler Gauge

62

Flat Rate Manual

24

Computerized Service Information

On-line Services

Technical Assistance Hotlines

25

25

3 Automotive Tools

Tools

29

25

29

Wrenches 29 Sockets and Ratchets

31

Specialty Wrenches Pliers 33 Screwdrivers 34 Hammers 35

32

Electric Drills

38

Impact Wrenches

38

Files 39 Retrieving Tools

40

Soldering Tools

40

Hacksaws 41 Taps and Dies

42

Cleaning Equipment

43

6

Meters, Testers, and Analyzers

Automotive Meters, Testers, and Analyzers

Analog and Digital Meters Multimeters 66

Test Light

Tachometers 67

Dwell Meters

Battery/Starter Testers

Timing Light

Oil Pressure Gauge Fuel Pressure Gauge Compression Gauge

Vacuum Gauge

Vacuum Tester

Exhaust Gas Analyzers Oscilloscopes 70

Scan Tools

Engine Analyzers

69

67

67

68

67

69

69

71

68

69

69

71

65

65

6 Automotive Encyclopedia

7 Engine Fundamentals

73

Engine Fundamentals

73

Engine Fuels

73

Engine Design

73

Reciprocating Engines

Engine Components

74

74

Combustion Chamber Design

79

Engine Operating Sequence

81

8

Measuring Engine Performance

85

Engine Performance

85

 

Bore, Stroke, Displacement

88

Compression Ratio

88

Engine Efficiency

88

Brake Horsepower

89

 

Engine Torque

90

Rated Horsepower

90

 

Indicated Horsepower

90

Friction Horsepower

91

9

Engine Top End Construction

93

Engine Top End Cylinder Heads

Intake Manifolds

Exhaust Manifolds

Valve Trains

94

93

93

94

94

97

 

Cam Functions

95

61

Camshafts 96

65

Camshaft Bearings

Camshaft Drive Mechanisms Valves 98

97

Valve Springs

102

Valve Lifters

102

Valve Seals

104

Valve Retainers and Keepers

104

Rocker Arms

Push Rods

104

104

10 Engine Bottom End

Construction

Engine Bottom End

Engine Block Construction Crankshafts 108 Vibration Dampers

107

107

111

107

Connecting Rods

Piston Construction

Piston Rings

113

112

112

Compression Rings

113

Oil Control Rings

114

Piston Pins

Flywheels

Balance Shafts

Bearings 118 Main Bearing Caps and Seals

115

116

116

120

Bearings 118 Main Bearing Caps and Seals 115 116 116 120 11 Engine Removal, Disassembly, and

11 Engine Removal,

Disassembly, and Cleaning

Engine Removal

Engine Disassembly

Cleaning 127 Inspection and Measurement

123

124

128

12 Engine Top End Service

123

131

Engine Top End Service

131

Cylinder Head Service

131

Valve Seat Reconditioning

133

Valve Guide Service

134

Valve Service

137

Valve Spring Service

139

Valve Operating Mechanisms

142

Push Rod Service

143

Rocker Arm Service

143

Lifter Service

143

Camshaft Service

145

Camshaft Bearings

146

Timing Belt Service

147

Timing Chain Service

147

Timing Gear Service

148

Head Bolt Torque

148

13

Engine Bottom End Service

151

Engine Bottom End Service

151

Engine Block Service

151

Cylinder Reconditioning

153

Crankshaft Service

156

Bearing Clearance

158

Bearing Removal

159

 

Replacement of Inserts

159

Piston Service

165

Piston Ring Service

166

 

Connecting Rod Service

170

Piston Pin Service

171

Balancing Engines

173

This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

14 Engine Lubrication

Oil

177

177

Table of Contents

7

19 Fuel Supply Systems, Intake

Systems, Superchargers, and

 

Properties of Engine Oil

177

Turbochargers

 

243

 

Selecting Viscosities

178

 

Oil Service Classifications

178

Fuel Pumps

243

 

Oil Changes

180

Mechanical Fuel Pump

243

 

Oil Filters

180

Electric Fuel Pumps

244

Lubricating Methods

180

 

Fuel Filters

245

Fuel Gauges

246

15

Engine Cooling Systems

187

Intake Systems

248

 
 

Air Filters

248

Cooling Systems

187

Intake Manifold

249

 

Water Pumps

189

Superchargers 251

Belts 189

191

 

Turbochargers 254

Hoses and Clamps Radiators 192

20

Fuel Injection Systems

259

Automatic Transmission Fluid Cooler

193

Closed Cooling Systems

193

Fuel Injection

259

Radiator Caps

193

 

Classifying Gasoline Injection Systems

259

Cooling Fans

194

Servicing Fuel Injection Systems

264

Thermostats 196

 

On-Board Diagnostic Systems

265

Heater Core

197

Verifying Fuel Injector Operation

265

Antifreeze Solutions

197

 

Checking Fuel Pressure

266

Air-cooled Engines

199

 

Injector Balance Test

266

Cooling System Testing

200

Relieving EFI System Pressure

266

Cooling System Troubleshooting

202

 

Servicing Fuel Injectors

268

Cooling System Flush

203

 

270

   

Rebuilding a Throttle Body Methods of Diesel Injection

270

 

16

Diesel and Other Engines

207

Diesel Engines

Truck Engines

207

209

21

and Service

Carburetor Fundamentals

275

Racing Engines

210

Carburetors

275

Rotary Engines

210

Carburetor Circuits

277

Miller-Cycle Engines

214

Air/Fuel Mixture

287

Variable-Compression Engines

215

Stoichiometric Mixture

288

Hybrid Vehicles

215

Computerized Systems

288

Fuel Cell Vehicles

216

Electro-Mechanical Carburetors

288

17 Fundamentals of Electricity,

Magnetism, and Electronics

219

Electricity

219

Insulators

221

Conductors

221

Volts, Amperes, Ohms

Types of Electrical Circuits

221

Magnetism

Electronics

223

227

222

18 Automotive Fuels

235

Automotive Fuels

235

Volatility 235

Combustion of Gasoline

237

Antiknock Qualities

239

Fuel Additives

240

Lead-free Gasoline

240

Alcohol as a Fuel

240

Diesel Fuels

241

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

241

Carburetor Service

290

241 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) 241 Carburetor Service 290 8 Automotive Encyclopedia 22 Ignition System Fundamentals

8

Automotive Encyclopedia

22 Ignition System Fundamentals

and Service

301

Ignition System Operation

Ignition Coils

Distributor Cap

Rotor 302 Spark Plug Wires

302

302

303

301

Spark Plugs

303

Ignition Timing

306

Specific Ignition Systems

307

Breaker Point Ignition

307

Electronic Ignition

309

 

Computerized Ignition Systems

312

Distributorless Ignition

312

Direct Ignition

314

Ignition System Service

315

Performing a Spark Test

315

 

Ignition Coil Service

315

Distributor Cap and Rotor Service

316

Spark Plug Service

316

Spark Plug Wire Service

319

Pickup Coil Service

319

Contact Point and Condenser Service

Adjusting Ignition Timing

Testing Centrifugal and Vacuum Distributor Advance

Systems 322 Ignition Control Module Service

Distributors and Direct Ignition System Service

320

321

322

322

23 Batteries and Battery

Service

Batteries

325

325

24 Starting System Fundamentals

and Service

339

Starting System Fundamentals

339

Starting Motor Operating Principles

Starting Motor Types

Starting Motor Internal Circuits

Neutral Safety Switch

343

347

343

339

Troubleshooting the Starting System

Starter Maintenance Starting Motor Tests

348

348

347

25 Charging System

Fundamentals

353

Charging Systems

353

Alternator Construction

Alternator Operation

356

357

Voltage Regulators

359

Voltage Regulator Types

Computer-Controlled Voltage Regulation

359

42-Volt Electrical Systems

364

26

Charging System Service

Charging System Testing and Service

370

369

370

367

367

Charging System Inspection

Charging System Precautions and Tests

Alternator Removal

Alternator Disassembly

Bench Tests

Repairs/Replacement 372

364

367

368

Alternator Reassembly

372

Alternator Reinstallation

372

Battery Construction

325

 

27 Computer System Fundamentals

Maintenence-free Batteries Battery Voltage and Capacity

327

329

and Service

375

Battery Ratings

329

Computer Control Systems

375

Battery Inspection

330

Components of a Computer Control System

377

Battery Testing

330

Sensors 377

Jump Starting an Engine

336

382

 

Electronic Control Module Operation Actuators 384 Computer Control System Troubleshooting

386

Actuators 384 Computer Control System Troubleshooting 386 On-Board Diagnostic Systems Diagnostic Trouble Codes

On-Board Diagnostic Systems

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

Activating Self-Diagnostic Systems

389

Using Diagnostic Information

Sensor Service

Actuator Service

Electronic Control Module Troubleshooting

394

386

386

387

390

28 Exhaust Systems

397

Exhaust Systems

397

Exhaust Manifold

Mufflers

Catalytic Converters

397

398

399

Exhaust System Corrosion Servicing Exhaust Systems

400

402

394

This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

29 Emission Controls

Introduction 405 Automotive Emission Standards

405

405

Positive Crankcase Ventilation

Exhaust Emission Controls

406

408

 

Precombustion Controls

408

Post-combustion Controls

413

30

Engine Troubleshooting

421

Engine Troubleshooting

421

 

Test Equipment

421

Effect of Emission Controls

421

422

 

Strategy-Based Diagnostics Self-diagnosis 422

Troubleshooting Charts

422

31

Driveability and Tune-up

433

Driveability and Tune-up

433

Tune-up Test Procedure

435

Checking Compression Pressure

440

Using a Vacuum Gauge

440

Tuning Emission Controls

441

32

Clutches

443

Purpose of the Clutch

443

Design and Construction

443

Parts Location and Relationship

443

Clutch Service

451

Clutch Adjustment

453

Clutch Troubleshooting

Clutch Overhaul

452

454

33 Manual Transmission

Fundamentals

Manual Transmissions

457

457

Application of Torque

Gear Usage

Three-speed Manual Transmission

Helical Gears

Synchronizing Clutch

Four-speed Manual Transmission

457

460

457

459

458

460

Overdrive Revival

460

Planetary Gear Systems

461

Transmission Overdrives

463

Five-speed Overdrive Transmission

464

Table of Contents

34

Service

Manual Transmission

469

Manual Transmission Maintenance Check Fluid Level 470

Replace the Rear Seal

Test the Gearshift Operation

Check Clutch Pedal Free Play

Manual Transmission Troubleshooting

Manual Transmission Service

469

470

470

472

470

470

9

Removal of Transmission From Car 472

Disassembly: Three-speed Manual

Transmission

473

Clean and Check: Three-speed Manual

Transmission

473

Reassembly: Three-speed Manual

Transmission

475

Disassembly: Four-speed Manual

Transmission

477

Clean and Check: Four-speed Manual

Transmission

479

Reassembly: Four-speed Manual

Transmission

479

Disassembly: Five-speed Manual

Transmission

480

Clean and Check: Five-speed Manual

Transmission

483

Reassembly: Five-speed Manual

Transmission

483

Reinstallation of the Transmission in the Car 484

483 Reinstallation of the Transmission in the Car 484 10 Automotive Encyclopedia 35 Fundamentals Automatic

10

Automotive Encyclopedia

35

Fundamentals

Automatic Transmissions

Automatic Transmission

487

487

Fluid Couplings

Torque Converters

487

488

Automatic Transmission Operation

490

Actions of Key Elements

Automatic Transmission Operation

491

497

Other Automatic Transmissions

500

Electronic Transmission Control

500

Continuously Variable Transmissions

36 Automatic Transmission

Service

507

500

Automatic Transmission Maintenance and Service

507

Check ATF Level

508

 

Check ATF Condition

508

Inspect for ATF Leaks

509

Test for Broken Transmission Mount

510

Changing Automatic Transmission Fluid

511

Adjust Bands

512

Adjust Engine Curb Idle Speed

513

 

Throttle Linkage Adjustment

514

Gearshift Linkage Adjustment

515

Troubleshooting Tips

515

 

Road Testing

516

Stall Testing

516

Air Pressure Testing

517

Testing Electronically Controlled Transmissions

518

37 Transaxles

521

Transaxles

521

Transaxle Construction

521

Transaxle Operation

523

Manual Transaxle Troubleshooting

Manual Transaxle Maintenance

Automatic Transaxle Troubleshooting

Automatic Transaxle Maintenance

528

529

531

532

38 Driveline, Universal Joints,

Differentials, and Driving Axles

Drivelines

537

Universal Joints

538

Drive Shaft

538

Differential 538

 

Driving Axles

539

 

Torque Transfer or Drive

541

Hotchkiss Drive

541

Torque Tube Drive

542

Control Arm Drive

542

Slip Joints

542

Constant Velocity Joints

543

Transfer Cases

543

Center Bearings

543

Differentials and Axles Limited-Slip Differentials

Front-wheel Drive Driveline

543

547

548

537

39

Driveline Service

553

Driveline Service

553

Drive Shaft

Universal Joint Service Center Bearing Service Differentials 555 Transaxle Lubrication

Wheel Bearing Lubrication

Driving Axles

553

554

555

558

559

560

40 Four-wheel Drive Systems

569

Four-wheel Drive/All-wheel Drive

569

Four-wheel Drive Systems

570

Four-wheel Drive Componenets

Four-wheel Drive Service

576

570

41 Suspension and Steering

Systems

579

Suspension and Steering Systems

Front Suspension Systems Rear Suspension Systems

584

585

579

Steering Systems

Suspension and Steering Service

Troubleshooting Suspension

Troubleshooting Manual Steering Troubleshooting Power Steering

588

596

597

598

599

Service Troubleshooting Suspension Troubleshooting Manual Steering Troubleshooting Power Steering 588 596 597 598 599

This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

42 Tires and Tire Service

Tires

601

Tire Types and Basic Structure

Tread Patterns

603

Tire Markings

603

Tire Service

Improvements and Advances

607

43 Wheel Alignment

Wheel Alignment

615

Wheel Balance and Unbalance

Car Weight Balance

Wheelbase—Tread Width

617

617

601

612

615

616

Rear-wheel Track

618

Springs 619

Suspension Height

619

601

Shock Absorber Action

619

Front-wheel Angularity

620

44 Wheel Alignment

Correction

625

Wheel Alignment Correction

625

Rear-wheel Drive/Front-wheel Drive Alignment 625 Front-Wheel Drive—Alignment 632 Rear Wheel Alignment 632 Alignment Troubleshooting 634

45 Hydraulics and Pneumatics

Hydraulics

637

637

Transmission of Forces 638 Movement of Liquid 640 Application of Hydraulic Principles 640 Pneumatics 641 Effect of Atmospheric Pressure 642 Effect of Vacuum 642 Compressed Air 643 Principle of the Siphon 643 Venturi Tube 644 Boyle’s Law 644 Charles’ Law 645

Table of Contents

11

12

48

Safety Systems

Automotive Encyclopedia

Safety Systems

709

710

712

717

Automotive Encyclopedia Safety Systems 709 710 712 717 709 51 Body Repairing and Refinishing 757 Seat

709

51 Body Repairing and

Refinishing

757

Seat Belt Systems Air Bag Systems

Energy Absorbing Bumper Systems

Other Safety Features

Body Work

757

Hammers, Spoons, and Dolly Blocks

758

Using Pull Rods and Slide Hammers

759

Body Filler

Filing and Sanding

Patching Rusted Areas

Replacing Panels

Welding

768

Masking

Spray Guns

Tips on Spraying

Refinishing Materials

Matching Colors

Preparing Old Finishes for Paint

778

770

759

764

769

761

763

763

770

774

772

775

778

779

785

789

790

783

715

49 Lamps, Lighting Circuits, Wiring,

Horns, Wipers, and Washers

723

Lamps and Lighting Circuits Fuses and Circuit Breakers

723

724

Headlamp Types

Daytime Running Lamps

Lamp Switches

Fog Lamps

Direction Signal Switch

724

725

728

724

728

Wiring Harnesses and Connectors Horns 737

Horn Troubleshooting

739

Principles of a Direct Current (DC) Motor

Wiper Motor Construction Troubleshooting 741

Windshield Washers

741

739

745

745

Painting

 

Stoplight Switch

728

Lamp Service

728

46

Automotive Brakes

647

Wires and Cables

734

Fundamentals of Automotive Brake Systems

Braking System Operation

649

647

Brake Lining Materials

650

Disc Brakes

651

Drum Brakes

653

Brake Hydraulic System

656

Disc Brake Calipers

Wheel Cylinders

Brake Lines, Hoses, and Fittings

Power Brakes

Anti-lock Brake Systems

668

Hydraulic System Service

Disc Brake Service Drum Brake Service

Power Brake System Service

Troubleshooting and Servicing Anti-lock

662

662

663

663

666

668

680

Brake Service

670

673

Brake Systems

682

47 Automotive Air Conditioning

685

Lighting Wire Sizes

Resistor Ignition Cable

734

736

Soft Body Parts

Identifying Plastics

780

Repairing Water and Dust Leaks

Drain Locations

736

739

52 Career Opportunities and

Technician Certification

Automotive Careers The Job Market Job Descriptions

783

784

Entrepreneurship

Technician Certification

Appendix

793

50 Speedometers and Cruise

Control Systems

Analog Speedometers

Speedometer Operation

745

Dictionary of

 

Inspection and Lubrication

747

Speedometer Cable

747

Automotive Terms

797

Digital Speedometers

748

Light Emitting Diode

748

Liquid Crystal Display

750

Index

815

Vacuum Fluorescent Display

750

Automobile Air Conditioning

685

Cathode Ray Tube

750

Principles of Air Conditioning

686

Digital Odometers

750

Automobile Heating Systems

688

Troubleshooting 750

Types of Refrigerant

694

Cruise Control Systems

751

The Need for Refrigerant Oil

700

Cruise Control System Service

753

Air Conditioning Service Tools and Equipment

Servicing the Air Conditioning System

702

701

Discharging and Recovering Refrigerant

703

Evacuating the Air Conditioning System

703

Charging the Air Conditioning System

703

Retrofitting R-12 Air Conditioning Systems

704

Troubleshooting Heating Systems

704

Troubleshooting Air Conditioning Systems

704

Automatic Temperature Control

705

Heating Systems 704 Troubleshooting Air Conditioning Systems 704 Automatic Temperature Control 705