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TIP_Kap_08_Engl 11.08.

2005 19:35 Uhr Seite C

Protection and Substation Control

chapter 8
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8 Protection and
Substation Control
General overview
Three trends have emerged in the
sphere of power automation: distrib- Network TCP/IP
uted intelligent electronic devices Power system
control center
(IED’s), open communication and HMI
Station unit IEC 60870-5-101 IEC 60870-5-104
PC-assisted HMI’s. Numerical relays “Full server“
and computerized substation control
are now state-of-the-art.
Station bus Ethernet TCP/IP
The multitude of conventional, indi-
vidual devices prevalent in the past Serial Hub
as well as comprehensive parallel
wiring are being replaced by a small IEC 61850
number of multifunctional devices
with serial connections.

One design for all applications

In this respect, Siemens offers a
uniform, universal technology for the Fig. 8/1 The digital SICAM substation control system implements all of the control,
entire functional scope of power au- measurement and automation functions of a substation. Protective relays
are connected serially.
tomation equipment, both in the con-
struction and connection of the de-
vices and in their operation and com-
munication. This results in uniformity
of design, coordinated interfaces and
the same operating concept being
established throughout, whether in
power system and generator protec-
tion, in measurement and recording
systems, in substation control and
protection or in telecontrol.
All devices are highly compact and
immune to interference, and are
therefore also suitable for direct in-
stallation in switchgear cells. Further-
more, all devices and systems are
self-monitoring, which means that
previously costly maintenance can
be reduced considerably.

Photo 8/1 Protection and control in medium-voltage substations

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Protection and Substation Control

Numerical measurement techniques

by means of SCADA-like control and ensure precise operation and require
Rationalization of operation high-performance PC terminals that less maintenance thanks to their
can all be operated in the same way
continuous self-monitoring capability.
Savings in terms of space by means of integration of many functions
and costs into one unit and compact equipment design The integration of additional protec-
tive and other functions, such as
Simplified planning by means of uniform design,
and operational coordinated interfaces and universally real-time operational measurements,
reliability identical operating software event and fault recording, all in one
unit economizes on space, configura-
Efficient parameterization thanks to PC terminals with uniform operator
interfaces tion and wiring costs.
and operation
High levels of reliability by means of type-tested system technology, complete Setting and programming of the de-
and availability self-monitoring and the use of proven technology vices can be performed through the
– 20 years of practical experience with digital protection, integral, plain-text, menu-guided op-
more than 350,00 devices in operation (in 2004)
– 15 years of practical experience with substation erator display or by using the com-
automation (SINAUT LSA and SICAM), over fortable DIGSI 4® PC software.
3,000 substations in operation (in 2004)
For communication at the telecontrol
or substation control level, devices of
the SIPROTEC 4 group can be equipped
Fig. 8/2 For the user, the “entire technology from one partner” has many advantages
with exchangeable communications
modules. Besides an optimal integra-
Entire technology from one This uniform technology ”from a single tion into the SICAM PAS substation
partner source“ saves the customer time and control system in compliance with
money in the planning, installation IEC 61850, the following protocols
The Siemens Power Transmission are supported: PROFIBUS FMS, IEC
and operation of his substations.
and Distribution Group supplies 60870-5-103, PROFIBUS DP, DNP
devices and systems for: V3.00 and Modbus.
SIPROTEC protective relays
C Power plant protection Thus, the on-line measurements and
Siemens offers a complete spectrum
C Substation control / power fault data recorded in the protective
of multifunctional, numerical relays
system control relays can be used for local and re-
for all applications in the field of
C Remote control (RTU’s) mote control or can be transmitted
power system and machine
C Current measurement and via telephone modem connections to
recording the workplace of the circuit engineer.
C Measurement and monitoring Uniform design and a metal-enclosed
of power quality construction with conventional con- Siemens supplies individual devices
nection terminals which is free from as well as complete protection sys-
This covers all of the measurement, tems in factory-assembled cabinets.
electromagnetic interference in ac-
control, automation and protection For complex applications, type and
cordance with public utility require-
functions for substations. design test facilities are available to-
ments assure simple system design
Furthermore, our activities cover: gether with extensive network mod-
and usage just as with conventional
C Consulting els using the most modern simula-
C Planning tion and evaluation techniques.
C Design
C Commissioning and Service

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Protection and substation



power automation substation protection power quality


power automation systems Feeder protection disturbance recorder
overcurrent/overload relays


SICAM miniRTU feeder protection power quality recorders
SICAM microRTU overcurrent/overload relays
Remote terminal units

7SD5 and 7SD610 SIMEAS T

power system protection, measuring transducers
differential protection and

transformer protection power meter

generator/motor protection

7SS60 and 7VH60

busbar protection

Fig. 8/3 Product range for protection and substation control systems by Siemens

Substation control SICAM PAS engineering tools are In contrast to conventional substation
based on Microsoft operating sys- control systems, digital technology
The digital substation control sys-
tems, and thanks to their Windows saves enormously on space and
tems of the SICAM family provide all
look & feel they are easy to use. The wiring. SICAM systems are subjected
control, measurement and automa-
PC-based SICAM PAS UI – Configura- to full factory tests and are delivered
tion functions (e.g. transformer tap
tion software is used for system ready for operation. Furthermore,
changing) required by a switching
configuration and parameterization. SICAM PAS has a system-wide time
station. They operate with distributed
SICAM PAS UI – Operation and resolution of 1 ms.
intelligence. Communication between
SICAM Value Viewer support the
devices in branch circuits and the Due to the special requirements of
user during configuration and com-
central unit is made via fiber-optic medium- and high-voltage systems,
missioning and provide diagnostic
connections which are immune to bay units and I/O modules withstand
functions for the system in operation.
interference. voltages up to 2 kV.
The operator interface is menu-
Devices are extremely compact and
guided, with SCADA-comparable
can be built directly into medium-
functions, that is, with a level of con-
and high-voltage switchgear.
venience which was previously only
available in a power system control
center. Optional telecontrol functions
can be added to allow coupling of the
system to one or more power sys-
tem control centers.

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Protection and Substation Control

Remote Terminal Units Switchgear interlocking measuring transducers with analog

and digital outputs.
Siemens RTU’s fulfill all the classic The distributed substation control
functions of remote measurement system SICAM PAS provides the
Advantages for the user
and control. Furthermore, they pro- option to implement bay-specific and
vide comprehensive data pre-pro- ‘inter-bay’ interlocking by means of The concept of the “entire technol-
cessing of operational and fault infor- on-screen graphic planning. The ogy from one partner” offers the
mation, and automating functions substation topology as well as in- user many advantages:
that are based on powerful micro- feed conditions are taken into C High-level security for his systems
processors. consideration. It prevents false and operational rationalization
switching, thus enhancing the possibilities
In the classic case, connections to
safety of operating personnel C Powerful system solutions with
the switchgear are made through
and equipment considerably. the most modern technology
coupling relays and transducers. This
C Compliance with international
method allows an economically favor-
Power quality standards
able solution when modernizing or
(measuring and recording) C Integration in the overall system
renewing control systems in older
installations. Alternatively, especially The SIMEAS® product range offers
C Space and cost savings
for new installations, direct connec- equipment for the monitoring of
C Integration of many functions into
tion is also possible. Digital protec- power supply quality (harmonic
one unit and compact equipment
tion devices can be connected by content, distortion factor, peak loads,
serial links through fiber-optic power factor, etc.), fault recorders
C Simple planning and safe operation
conductors or bus systems. (oscillostores), and measuring
C Homogeneous design, matched
interfaces and EMI security
Stored data can be transmitted throughout
manually or automatically to PC C Rationalized programming and
evaluation systems where they can handling
be analyzed by intelligent programs.
Expert systems are also applied here.
This leads to rapid fault analysis and
valuable indicators for the improve-
ment of network reliability.
For local bulk data storage and
transmission, the central processor
DAKON can be installed at substation
level. Data transmission circuits for
analog telephone or digital ISDN net-
works are incorporated as standard.
Connection to local or wide-area net-
works (LAN, WAN) is equally possi-
ble. We can also offer the SIMEAS T
series of compact and powerful

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C Windows-based PC tools and Reliable operation of the devices is

standardized displays not affected by the usual interference
C Fast, flexible mounting and from the switchgear, even when the
reduced wiring device is mounted directly in a low-
C Simple, fast commissioning voltage compartment of a medium-
C Efficient spare part stocking, voltage switchgear panel. It must,
high flexibility however, be ensured that the coils
C High-level operational safety of auxiliary relays located on the
and availability same panel, or in the same cubicle,
C Continuous self-monitoring and are fitted with suitable spike-quench-
proven technology: ing elements (e.g. free-wheeling
C 20 years of digital relay diodes).
experience (more than 350,000
When used in conjunction with
units in operation)
switchgear for up to 1 kV or above,
C 15 years of digital substation
all external connection cables should
control (more than 3,000
be fitted with a screen grounded at
systems in operation)
both ends and capable of carrying
C Rapid problem solving
currents. That means that the cross
C Comprehensive support and
section of the screen should be at
fast response from local sales
least 4 mm2 for a single cable and
and workshop facilities worldwide
2.5 mm2 for multiple cables in one Photo 8/2 Installation of the numerical pro-
cable duct. tection in the door of the low-volt-
Application notes age compartment of a medium-
All devices and systems for protec- All equipment proposed in this guide voltage switchgear panel
tion, metering and control mentioned is built up either in enclosures (type
herein are designed to be used in the 7XP20) or switchgear cabinets with
degree of protection IP51 according Climatic withstand features
arduous environment of electrical
substations, power plants and the to IEC 60529: C Permissible temperature
various industrial application areas. C Protected against access to during service –5 °C to +55 °C
dangerous parts with a wire storage –25 °C to +55 °C
When the devices were developed,
C Sealed against dust transport –25 °C to +70 °C
special emphasis was placed on the
C Protected against dripping water C Permissible humidity
design of electromechanical interfer-
Mean value per year ≤ 75% relative
ence (EMI). The devices are in accor-
humidity; on 56 days per year 95%
dance with IEC 60255 standards.
relative humidity; condensation not
Detailed information is contained in
the device manuals.
We recommend that units be in-
stalled in such a way that they are
not subjected to direct sunlight, nor
to large temperature variations which
may give rise to condensation.

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Protection and Substation Control

Mechanical stress Insulation tests C High-frequency electromagnetic

field, amplitude-modulated;
Vibration and shock during C Standards:
ENV 50140, class III
operation IEC 60255-5
– 10 V/m; 80 MHz to 1,000 MHz,
C Standards: – High-voltage test (routine test)
80%; 1 kHz; AM
IEC 60255-21 and IEC 60068-2 2 kV (rms), 50 Hz
C High-frequency electromagnetic
C Vibration – Impulse voltage withstand test
field, pulse-modulated;
– sinusoidal IEC 60255-21-1, class 1 (type test)
ENV 50140/ENV 50204, class III
10 Hz to 60 Hz: all circuits, class III
– 10 V/m; 900 MHz; repetition
± 0.035 mm amplitude; 5 kV (peak); 1.2/50 µs; 0.5 J;
frequency 200 Hz; duty cycle 50%
IEC 60068-2-6 3 positive and 3 negative shots
C Fast transients
60 Hz to 150 Hz: at intervals of 5 s
IEC 60255-22-4 and EN 61000-4-4,
0.5 g acceleration
class III
sweep rate 10 octaves/min Electromagnetic compatibility
– 2 kV; 5/50 ns; 5 kHz; burst
20 cycles in 3 orthogonal axes
EU conformity declaration length 15 ms; repetition rate
(CE mark) 300 ms; both polarities;
Vibration and shock during
All Siemens protection and control Ri = 50 ohm; duration 1 min
products recommended in this man- C Conducted disturbances induced
C Standards:
ual comply with the EMC Directive by radio-frequency fields HF,
IEC 60255-21 and IEC 60068-2
99/336/EEC of the Council of the amplitude-modulated ENV 50141,
C Vibration
European Community and further class III
– sinusoidal
relevant IEC 255 standards on – 10 V; 150 kHz to 80 MHz;
IEC 60255-21-1, class 2
electromagnetic compatibility. 80%; 1 kHz; AM
5 Hz to 8 Hz:
C Power-frequency magnetic field
± 7.5 mm amplitude; All products carry the CE mark.
EN 61000-4-8, class IV
IEC 60068-2-6
– 30 A/m continuous; 300 A/m
8 Hz to 150 Hz: EMC tests; immunity
for 3 s; 50 Hz
2 g acceleration (type tests)
sweep rate 1 octave/min
C Standards:
20 cycles in 3 orthogonal axes EMC tests; emission
IEC 60255-22 (product standard)
C Shock (type tests)
EN 50082-2 (generic standard)
IEC 60255-21-2, class 1
C High frequency C Standard:
IEC 60068-2-27
IEC 60255-22-1 class III EN 50081-2 (generic standard)
– 2.5 kV (peak); 1 MHz; τ = 15 µs; C Interference field strength CISPR
400 shots/s; duration 2 s 11, EN 55011, class A 30 MHz to
C Electrostatic discharge 100 MHz
IEC 60255-22-2 class III and C Conducted interference voltage,
EN 61000-4-2 class III aux. voltage CISPR 22, EN 55022,
– 4 kV contact discharge; 8 kV air class B
discharge; both polarities; – 150 kHz to 30 MHz
150 pF; Ri = 330 ohm
C High-frequency electromagnetic
field, non-modulated;
IEC 60255-22-3 (report) class III
– 10 V/m; 27 MHz to 500 MHz

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Instrument transformers The current transformer classification This results, as a rule, in rated accu-
code of IEC is used in the following: racy limiting factors of 10 or 20 de-
Instrument transformers must comply
pendent on the rated burden of the
with the applicable IEC recommenda- Measuring cores
current transformer in relation to the
tions IEC 60044, formerly IEC 60185 They are normally specified with
connected burden. A typical specifi-
(current transformers) and 186 0.5 % or 1.0 % accuracy (class 0.5 M
cation for protection cores for distri-
(potential transformers), ANSI/IEEE or 1.0 M), and an accuracy limiting
bution feeders is 5P10, 15 VA or
C57.13 or other comparable factor of 5 or 10. The required output
5P20, 10 VA.
standards. power (rated burden) must be higher
than the actually connected burden. The requirements for protective cur-
Potential transformers Typical values are 5, 10, 15 VA. rent transformers for transient per-
Higher values are normally not neces- formance are specified in IEC 60044-6.
Potential transformers (p.t.) in single
sary when only electronic meters and
or double-pole design for all primary In many practical cases, the current
recorders are connected.
voltages have single or dual second- transformers cannot be designed to
ary windings of 100, 110 or 120 V/KL 3, A typical specification could be: avoid saturation under all circum-
with output ratings between 10 and 0.5 M 10, 15 VA. stances because of cost and space
300 VA, and accuracies of 0.2, 0.5 or reasons, particularly with metal-en-
Cores revenue metering
1 % to suit the particular application. closed switchgear.
In this case, class 0.2 M is normally
required. The Siemens relays are therefore de-
Current transformers
signed to tolerate current transformer
Protection cores
Current transformers (c.t.) are usually saturation to a large extent. The nu-
The size of the protection core de-
of the single-ratio type with wound or merical relays proposed in this guide
pends mainly on the maximum short-
bar-type primaries of adequate ther- are particularly stable in this case due
circuit current and the total burden
mal rating. Single, dual or triple sec- to their integral saturation detection
(internal c.t. burden, plus burden of
ondary windings of 1 or 5 A are stan- function.
connecting leads, plus relay burden).
The required current transformer
Further, an overdimensioning factor
1 A rating, however, should be pre- accuracy- limiting factor K’ssc can be
has to be considered to cover the in-
ferred, particularly in HV and EHV sta- determined by calculation, as shown
fluence of the DC component in the
tions, to reduce the burden of the in Table 8/4.
short-circuit current.
connecting leads. Output power
The transient rated dimensioning
(rated burden in VA), accuracy and In general, an accuracy of 1% (class
factor Ktd depends on the type of
saturation characteristics (accuracy- 5 P) is specified. The accuracy limit-
relay and the primary DC time con-
limiting factor) of the cores and sec- ing factor KSSC should normally be
stant. For the normal case, with
ondary windings must meet the par- designed so that at least the maxi-
short-circuit time constants lower
ticular application. mum short-circuit current can be
than 100 ms, the necessary value for
transmitted without saturation
K’ssc can be taken from Table 8/1.
(DC component not considered).

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Protection and Substation Control

R’b + Rct Relay type Minimum K’ssc

Kssc > K’ssc
Rb + Rct
Kssc : Factor of the symmetrical rated Overcurrent protection
short-circuit current I>>-Setting
7SJ60, 61, 62, 63, 64 = , minimum is 20
K’ssc : Rms factor of the symmetrical Ipn
rated short-circuit current
Rb : Ohmic burden (rated)
R’b : Connected burden Transformer Iscc. max. (external fault)
Rct : Resistance of secondary winding protection ≥4 for Tp ≤ 100 ms
7UT6 Ipn
Issc. max. Iscc. max. (external fault)
K’ssc > Ktd
Ipn ≥5 for Tp > 100 ms
Issc. max. = Max. short-circuit current
Ipn = Rated primary current
Ktd = Transient dimensioning factor Optical waveguide Iscc. max. (external fault)
line differential = and K’ssc ≥ 30
protection 7SD52/610 Ipn
Table 8/1 Current transformer dimensioning
Line differential Iscc. max. (external fault) (K’ssc • Ipn) Line-end 1
(pilot wire) = and 3 ≤ ≤4
(Rb + Rct) • Isn • Kssc protection 7SD600 Ipn 4 (K’ssc • Ipn) Line-end 2 3
UK =
Isn = Nominal secondary current
Numerical busbar
Example: 1 Iscc. max. (external fault)
protection ≤ 100 Measuring range
IEC60044: 600/1, 15 VA, 5 P 10, Rct = 4 Ω 2 Ipn
(low-resistance) 7SS5
(15 + 4) • 1 • 10
BS: UK = V = 146 V
Rct = 4 Ω Distance protection Iscc. max. (close-in fault) Tp > 30 ms: Tp < 50 ms:
7SA522, 7SA6 = a
Table 8/2 Current transformer definition Ipn a=1 a=2
b=4 b=5

Kssc Iscc. max. (line-end fault) Tp < 200 ms:
Us.t. max = 20 • 5 A • Rb • = b
20 Ipn a=4

Rb = b and Isn = 5 A results in
Isn2 Tp : Primary time constant (system time constant)

Pb • Kssc Table 8/4 Current transformer requirements

Us.t. max =
IEC 60044: 600/5, 5 P 20, 25 VA
25 VA • 20
C57.13: Us.t. max = =
= 100 V corresponding
to Class C100

Table 8/3 ANSI definition of current


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Relay burden Burden of the connection leads Example: Stability test of the
The current transformer burdens of The resistance of the current loop 7SS52 numerical busbar protection
the numerical relays of Siemens are from the current transformer to the
below 0.1 VA and can therefore be relay has to be considered as fol- Assuming:
neglected for a practical estimation. lows:
Exceptions are the 7SS60 busbar
protection (2 VA) and the pilot wire
2 ρ l
relays, 7SD600 (4 VA). Rl = ohm
Normally, intermediate current trans-
formers needn't be used any more, l = Length of the single conductor
as the ratio adaptation for busbar and from the current transformer 600/1, l = 50 m
to the relay in m 7SS52
transformer protection is numerically 5 P 10, A = 6 mm2
performed in the relay. 15 VA,
Specific resistance
Rct = 4 Ohm
I scc.max. = 30 kA
Analog static relays in general also ρ = 0.0179 ohm mm2 (copper wire)
have burdens below about 1 VA. m
A = Conductor cross section in mm2
Mechanical relays, however, have a
much higher burden, up to the order
of 10 VA. This has to be considered Table 8/5 Resistance of current loop = 30,000 A = 50
when older relays are connected to Ipn 600 A
the same current transformer circuit.
According to Table 8/4
In any case, the relevant relay manu-
als should always be consulted for 1
K’ssc > 50 = 25
the actual burden values. 2

15 VA
Rb = = 15 Ω
1 A2

RRelais = 0.1 Ω

2 0.0179 50
Rl = = 0.3 Ω

R’b = Rl + RRelais =
= 0.3 Ω + 0.1 Ω = 0.4 Ω

Rct + Rb 4 Ω + 15 Ω
K’ssc = Kssc = =
Rct + R’b 4 Ω + 0.4 Ω
4 Ω + 15 Ω
= 10 = 43.2
4 Ω + 0.4 Ω

Rating factor K’ssc (43.2) is greater
than the calculated value (25). The
stability criterion has therefore been met.

Fig. 8/4 Example: stability verification

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Protection and Substation Control

8.1 Power System Meanwhile, the innovative SIPROTEC 4

series has been launched, incorporat-
Protection ing the many years of operational
experience with thousands of relays
Introduction as well as the awareness of user
requirements (power company rec-
Siemens is one of the world‘s leading
suppliers of protective equipment for
power systems. State of the art
Thousands of relays ensure first-class Mechanical and solid-state (static)
performance in the transmission and relays have been almost completely
distribution networks on all voltage phased out of our production be-
levels all over the world, in countries cause numerical relays are now
of tropical heat and arctic frost. preferred by the users.
For many years, Siemens has also
significantly influenced the develop-
Photo 8/3 SIPROTEC 4 numerical relays by
ment of protection technology. C Compact design and lower cost Siemens
due to the integration of many
In 1976, the first minicomputer
functions into one relay
(process-computer)-based protection C Easy and secure reading of
C High availability even with less
system was commissioned: A total information via serial interfaces
maintenance owing to integrated
of 10 systems for 110/20-kV substa- with a PC, locally or by remote
tions were supplied that are still access
C No drift (ageing) of the measuring
working at their customers' full C Possibility to communicate with
characteristics because of their
satisfaction today. higher-level control systems
complete digital processing
using standardized protocols
In 1985, we were the first to produce C High availability even with less
(open communication)
a series of fully numerically con- maintenance due to digital
trolled relays with standardized com- filtering and optimized measuring Modern protection management
munication interfaces. algorithms
All the functions, for example, of a
C Many integrated add-on functions,
Today, Siemens offers a complete power system protection scheme
for example for load monitoring
program of protective relays for all can be incorporated in one unit:
and event/fault recording
applications including numerical C Distance protection with associated
C Local operation keypad and display
busbar protection. add-on and monitoring functions
designed to modern ergonomic
C Universal teleprotection interface
To date, more than 350,000 numeri- criteria
C Auto-reclose and synchro-check
cal protection relays from Siemens
are providing successful service, as
stand-alone devices in traditional
systems or as components of coordi-
nated protection and substation

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21 67N FL 79 25 SM ER FR BM


Serial link to station – or personal computer

to remote line end kA,
ANSI-No.*) Hz, 01.10.93
52 Circuit-breaker MW,
21 Distance protection Load MVAr,
monitor MVA
67N Directional ground-fault protection
FL Distance-to-fault locator Fault report
79 Autoreclosure
Fault record
25 Synchro-check
85 Carrier interface (teleprotection) Relay monitor
SM Self-monitoring
ER Event recording monitor
FR Fault recording Supervisory
BM Breaker monitor control
*) see Table 8/6 cont.

Fig. 8/5 Numerical relays, increased availability of information

Protection-related information can be All relays can stand fully alone. Thus, has significantly lowered the costs of
called up on-line or off-line, such as: the traditional protection concept of engineering, assembly, panel wiring,
C Distance to fault separate main and alternate protec- testing and commissioning. The relia-
C Fault currents and voltages tion as well as the external connec- bility of the protection scheme has
C Relay operation and data tion to the outdoor switchyard remain been highly increased.
(fault-detector pickup, unchanged.
Engineering has moved from
operating times etc.)
schematic diagrams towards a pa-
C Set values “One feeder, one relay” concept
rameter definition procedure. The
C Line load data (kV, A, MW, kVAr)
Analog protection schemes have documentation is provided by the re-
been engineered and assembled lay itself. Free allocation of LED oper-
To fulfill vital protection redundancy
from individual relays. Interwiring ation indicators and output contacts
requirements, only those functions
between these relays and scheme provides more application design
which are interdependent and di-
testing have been carried out flexibility.
rectly associated with each other
manually in the workshop.
are integrated in the same unit. For
backup protection, one or more Data sharing now allows for the
additional units have to be provided. integration of several protection tasks
into one single numerical relay.
Only a small number of external de-
vices may be required for completion
of the overall design concept. This

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Protection and Substation Control

Measuring function included

The additional transducer was rather Personal computer Recording
used for protecting measuring instru- DIGSI
ments under system fault conditions.
Due to the low thermal withstand ca-
pability of the measuring instruments,
they could not be connected to the Assigning
protective current transformer directly.
When numerical protection technol-
ogy is employed, protective current
transformers are in many cases accu- Protection Laptop
rate enough to take operational
measurements. Consequently, addi-
tional transducers and measuring in- DIGSI
struments are now only necessary Recording and
where high accuracy is required, e.g. confirmation
for metering used for electricity bills.

Online remote data exchange

Fig. 8/6 PC-aided setting procedure of numerical protection relays
A powerful serial data link provides
for interrogation of digitized meas-
ured values and other information
stored in the protection units, for System level to remote control
printout and further processing at the
substation or system control level.
Substation level Coordinated
In the opposite direction, settings
protection and
may be altered or test routines initi- control
ated from a remote control center.
For greater distances, especially in ERTU RTU
outdoor switchyards, fiber-optic ca-
bles are preferably used. This tech- Data collection
nique has the advantage that it is to-
tally unaffected by electromagnetic Bay level
Offline communication with
numerical relays
Relay Control
A simple built-in operator keypad
which requires no special software
knowledge or code word tables is
used for parameter input and
Fig. 8/7 Communication options

8/13 8
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This allows operator dialog with the

protective relay. Answers appear Setpoints Relay operations
largely in plain text on the display of
the operator panel. Dialog is divided
into three main stages: 300 faults p. a.
10,000 1,200 approx. 6,000 km
C Input, alteration and readout of setpoints flags OHL (fault rate:
settings p. a. 5 p. a. and
1 100 km)
C Testing the functions of the system
protective device and 500 system
C Readout of relay operation data 200 relays
for the three last system faults setpoints
and the auto-reclose counter
Modern power system 1
20 bay 4
protection management setpoints flags

A notebook PC may be used for

upgraded protection management. 1 substation
OH line
The MS Windows-compatible relay
operation program DIGSI 4 is avail-
able for entering and readout of set-
Fig.8/8 System-wide setting and relay operation library
points and archiving of protection
The relays may be set in 2 steps.
First, all relay settings are prepared 1000 Parameter
in the office with the aid of a local PC D
1000 Parameter
and stored on a diskette or the hard Line data C
1000 Parameter
disk. On site, the settings can then 1100 Line data B
1200 O/C Phase settings
be downloaded from a PC into the 1000 Parameter
1100 Line data A
1200 O/C Phase
relay. The relay confirms the settings 1500settings
O/C Ground settings
1100 Line data
and thus provides an unquestionable O/C Phase
O/C Ground
280 settings
Fault recording
record. 1200 O/C phase
O/C Ground
280 settings
Fault recording
3900 Breaker fail
Vice versa, after a system fault, the 1500 O/C earth
Fault recording
relay memory can be uploaded to a Breaker fail
280 Fault recording
PC, and comprehensive fault analysis 3900 Breaker fail
can then take place in the engineer’s 3900 Breaker fail
Alternatively, the entire relay dialog
can be guided from any remote loca- Fig. 8/9 Alternate parameter groups
tion through a modem-telephone
connection (Fig. 8/7).

8/14 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Protection and Substation Control

Relay data management Adaptive relaying d) For auto-reclose programs, i.e.

instantaneous operation for first
Analog distribution-type relays have Numerical relays now offer secure,
trip and delayed operation after
some 20–30 setpoints. If we con- convenient and comprehensive ad-
unsuccessful reclosure.
sider a power system with about 500 justment to changing conditions.
relays, then the number adds up to Adjustments may be initiated either e) For cold load pickup problems
10,000 settings. This requires consid- by the relay’s own intelligence or where high starting currents may
erable expenditure in setting the from outside via contacts or serial cause relay operation.
relays and filing retrieval setpoints. telegrams. Modern numerical relays
f) For ”ring open“ or ”ring closed“
contain a number of parameter sets
A personal computer-aided man-ma- operation.
that can be pre-tested during com-
chine dialog and archiving program,
missioning of the scheme (Fig. 8/9).
e.g. DIGSI 4, assists the relay engi-
One set is normally operative. Trans-
neer in data filing and retrieval.
fer to the other sets can be con-
The program files all settings system- trolled via binary inputs or serial data
atically in substation-feeder-relay order. link. There are a number of applica-
tions for which multiple setting
Corrective rather than preventive
groups can upgrade the scheme
performance, for example:
Numerical relays monitor their own
a) For use as a voltage-dependent
hardware and software. Exhaustive
control of o/c relay pickup values
self-monitoring and failure diagnostic
to overcome alternator fault current
routines are not restricted to the pro-
decrement to below normal load
tective relay itself, but are methodi-
current when the AVR is not in
cally carried through from current
automatic operation.
transformer circuits to tripping relay
coils. b) For maintaining short operation
times with lower fault currents,
Equipment failures and faults in the
e.g. automatic change of settings
current transformer circuits are im-
if one supply transformer is taken
mediately recorded and signaled.
out of service.
Thus, the service personnel are now
c) For “switch-onto-fault” protection
able to correct the failure upon occur-
to provide shorter time settings
rence, resulting in a significantly up-
when energizing a circuit after
graded availability of the protection
maintenance. The normal settings
can be restored automatically after
a time delay.

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8.2 Relay Design and The protection principle is based on

a cyclic calculation algorithm, utilizing
C High measurement accuracy: The
high utilization of adaptive algo-
Operation the sampled current and voltage ana- rithms produce accurate results
log measured values. The fault detec- even during problematic conditions
Mode of operation tion determined by this process must C Good long-term stability: Due to
be established in several sequential the digital mode of operation, drift
Numerical protective relays operate
calculations before protection phenomena at components due to
on the basis of numerical measuring
reactions can follow. ageing do not lead to changes in
principles. The analog measured val-
accuracy of measurement or time
ues of current and voltage are decou- A trip command is transferred to the
pled electrically from the system's command relay by the processor, uti-
C Security against over- and under-
secondary circuits via input transduc- lizing a dual-channel control.
functioning: With this concept, the
ers (Fig. 8/10). After analog filtering,
The numerical protection concept of- danger of an undetected defect or
the sampling and the analog-to-digital
fers a multitude of advantages, espe- malfunction in the device causing
conversion take place. The sampling
cially with regard to higher security, protection failure in the event of a
rate is, depending on the different
reliability and user friendliness, such line fault is clearly reduced when
protection principles, between 12
as: compared to conventional protec-
and 20 samples per period. With cer-
tion technology. Cyclical and pre-
tain devices (e.g. generator protec-
ventive maintenance services have
tion) a continuous adjustment of the
therefore become largely obsolete.
sampling rate takes place depending
on the actual system frequency.

PC interface, substation control interface

Meas. Input V.24 FO Input/ Binary

inputs filter serial output inputs
interfaces ports

Current Amplifier
(100 x /N,
1 s)

Voltage A/D Processor Memory:
inputs converter system RAM Input/
(140 V LED
EEPROM output dis-
continuous) 0001 EPROM units plays

100 V/1 A, 10 V digital Input/output

5 A analog analog contacts

Fig. 8/10 Block diagram of numerical protection

8/16 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Protection and Substation Control

Plausibility check of input quantities

e. g.iL1 + iL2 + iL3 = iE
uL1 + uL2 + uL3 = uE

Check of analog-to-digital conversion

A by comparison with
converted reference quantities
The integrated self-monitoring
system (Fig. 8/11) encompasses
Hardware and software monitoring of
the following areas: Micro- the microprocessor system incl. memory,
C Analog inputs processor e.g. by watchdog and
system cyclic memory checks
C Microprocessor system
C Command relays
Implemented functions Monitoring of the tripping relays
Relay operated via dual channels
SIPROTEC relays are available with
a variety of protective functions (see
Tripping check or test reclosure by local
relay charts, page 25 cont.). The high or remote operation (not automatic)
processing power of modern numeri-
cal devices allow further integration
of non-protective add-on functions.
The question as to whether separate
or combined relays should be used
for protection and control cannot be
uniformly answered. In transmission- Fig. 8/11 Self-monitoring system
type substations, separation into
independent hardware units is still
preferred, whereas on the distribu-
tion level, a trend towards higher
function integration can be observed.
Here, combined feeder relays for
protection, monitoring and control
are gaining ground (Photo 8/4).
With the SIPROTEC 4 series (types
7SJ61, 62 and 63), Siemens supports
both stand-alone and combined solu-
tions on the basis of a single hard-
ware and software platform.
The user can decide within wide lim-
its on the configuration of the control
and protection functions in the
feeder, without compromising the
reliability of the protection functions
(Fig. 8/12).

Photo 8/4 Switchgear with numerical Switchgear with combined protection

relay (7SJ62) and traditional control and control relay (7SJ63)

8/17 8
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52 7SJ61/62/63/64 7SJ62/63/64
Local, remote control CFC logic Measurements during operation Synchronization
Command/checkback (only 7SJ64)
Limit values,
Motor mean values, U, f, P element
control min/max memory
(only Trip Final
7SJ63/64) monitor OFF
Thermobox Energy counter values calcu-
connection as count pulses lated (only 7SJ64)

Operation Communications Fault Motor protection element

modules recording logic Bearing Fault
RS232/485/LWL temp. I< Startup time detector
IEC 61850 Directional element
ICE 60870-5-103 Phase-sequence
PROFIBUS FMS/DP monitoring
DNP3.0 Locked Switch-
MODBUS RTU rotor on

Inrush Interm.
lock ground fault
Ground fault
Switch failure detection element
diff. Auto- Directional ground fault
reclosure detection element

Fig. 8/12 SIPROTEC 4 relay types 7SJ61/62/63/64, implemented functions

The following solutions are available

within one relay family: DIGSI 4
C Separate control and protection
relays Telephone SICAM PAS
C Protective relays including remote connection
control of the feeder breaker via
IEC 61850 or IEC 60870-5-103
the serial communication link
C Combined feeder relays for Modem IEC 6870-5
protection, monitoring and control
Mixed use of the different relay
types is easily possible on account of
the uniform operation and communi-
cation procedures.
IEC 60870-5-103

Fig. 8/13 SIPROTEC 4 relays, options for communication

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Protection and Substation Control

Integration of relays into

substation control
Basically, all Siemens numerical 1
relays are equipped with an an inter- 1
face acc. to IEC 60870-5-103 for
open communication with substation 2
control systems either by Siemens 2
(SICAM) or by any other supplier. The
relays of the latest SIPROTEC 4 se- 3 3
ries, however, are even more flexible
and equipped with several communi- 4
cation options. SIPROTEC 4 relays 4 5
can still be connected to the SICAM 6
system or to a communications 7
system of another supplier via 7
IEC 60870-5-103.
SIPROTEC 4 protection systems and 1 Large illuminated display 4 Control (7SJ61/62 uses 6 Freely programmable
2 Cursor keys function keys) function keys
SICAM substation control technology 3 LED with reset key 5 Key switches 7 Numerical keypad
have a uniform design. Communica-
tion is based on the PROFIBUS Photo 8/5 Front view of the Front view of the 7SJ63 relay
standard. 7SJ62 protective relay combining protection, monitoring
and control functions
IEC 61850 has been established as
a global standard by users and manu-
SICAM PAS, the new substation C Large non-reflective back-lit display
facturers. The agreed objective of
control system by Siemens has been C Programmable (freely assignable)
this standard is to create a compre-
designed as an open system which LED's for important messages
hensive communications solution for
employs IEC 61580 as communica- C Arrows arrangement of the keys
substations. Thus, the user is pro-
tion standard between the bay and for easy navigation in the
vided with open communication sys-
station control level. IEC 61580 sup- function tree
tems which are based on Ethernet
ports interoperability and integration C Operator-friendly input of the set-
of substation control systems which ting values via the numeric keys or
SIPROTEC protective relays and bay facilitates system engineering inde- with a PC by using the DIGSI 4
control units are the first devices re- pendent of the manufacturer and software
leased in mid 2004 which use a com- reduces the planning expense at C Command input protected by
munications protocol in compliance the same time. key lock (6MD63/7SJ63 only)
with IEC 61850. The station configu- or password
rator, which is part of the DIGSI 4 Direct operation of a C Four programmable keys for
operating software, can be used to SIPROTEC 4 relay frequently used functions
configure SIPROTEC relays as well “at the touch of a button”
All operator actions can be executed
as non-Siemens relays via IEC 61850.
and information displayed on an
integrated user interface.
Many advantages are already to be
found on the clear and user-friendly
front panel:
C Ergonomic arrangement and
grouping of the keys

8/19 8
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DIGSI 4 – the operating soft- C When configuring the operator en- Display editor (Photo 8/10)
ware for all SIPROTEC relays vironment and interfaces, we have
A display editor is available to design
attached importance to continuity
For the user, DIGSI is synonymous the display of SIPROTEC 4 units. The
with the SICAM automation sys-
with convenient, user-friendly para- predefined symbol sets can be ex-
tem. This means that you can
meterizing and operation of numeri- panded to suit the user. The drawing
readily use DIGSI 4 on the station
cal protection relays. DIGSI 4 is a log- of a one-line diagram is extremely
control level in conjunction with
ical innovation for operation of pro- simple. Load monitoring values (ana-
tection and bay control units of the log values) can be set, if required.
SIPROTEC 4 family. Configuration matrix (routing)
The PC software DIGSI 4 is the hu- The DIGSI 4 matrix allows the user to
man-machine interface between the see the overall view of the relay con- Special attention has been paid to
user and the SIPROTEC 4 units. It figuration at a glance. For example, commissioning. All binary inputs and
features modern, intuitive operating you can display all the LED's that are outputs can be read and set directly.
procedures. With DIGSI 4, the linked to binary inputs or show exter- This can simplify the wire checking
SIPROTEC 4 units can be configured nal signals that are connected to the process significantly for the user.
and queried. relay. And with one mouse click,
connections can be switched. CFC: graphic configuration
C The interface provides you only
with what is really necessary, With the help of the graphical CFC
irrespective of which unit you (Continuous Function Chart) Tool, you
are currently configuring. can configure interlocks and switch-
C Contextual menus for every situa- ing sequences simply by drawing the
tion provide you with made-to- logic sequences; no special knowl-
measure functionality – searching edge of software is required. Logical
through menu hierarchies is a elements such as AND, OR and time
thing of the past. elements are available.
C Explorer operation on the MS
Windows standard shows the Hardware and software platform
options in logically structured form. C Pentium 1,6 GHz or better,
C Even with routing, you have the with at least 128 Mbytes RAM
overall picture – a matrix shows C DIGSI 4 requires more than
you at a glance, for example, which 500 Mbytes hard disk space
LED's are linked to which protec- C One free serial interface to the
tion control function(s). It just takes protection device
a click with the mouse to establish (COM 1 or COM 4)
these links by a fingertip. C One DVD/CD-ROM drive
C Thus, you can also use the PC to (required for installation)
link up with the relay via star cou- C WINDOWS 2000, or
pler or channel switch, as well as XP Professional
via the PROFIBUS® of a substation
control system. The integrated ad-
ministrating system ensures clear
addressing of the feeders and re-
lays of a substation.
C Access authorization by means of
passwords protects the individual
functions, such as parameterizing,
commissioning and control, from
unauthorized access.

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Protection and Substation Control

Photo 8/9 DIGSI 4 routing matrix

Photo 8/6 DIGSI 4 Manager

Photo 8/7 Functional scope

Photo 8/10 Display editor

Photo 8/8 The device with all its parameters and process data

Photo 8/11 CFC logic with module library

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Fault analysis The time tag attached to the fault

records is the relative time of fault
The evaluation of faults is simplified
detection with a resolution of 1 ms.
by numerical protection technology.
Devices with integrated battery back-
In the event of a fault in the power
up clock store operational events and
system, all events as well as the ana-
fault detection events with the inter-
log traces of the measured voltages
nal clock time and a data stamp.
and currents are recorded.
The memory for operational events
The following types of memory have
and fault record events is protected
been integrated in the numerical
against failure of auxiliary supply with
protection relay:
battery back-up supply. The inte-
C 1 operational event memory. Alarms Photo 8/12 Display and evaluation of a fault
grated operator interface or a PC sup- record using DIGSI 4 software
that are not directly assigned to a
ported by the DIGSI 4 programming
fault in the network (e.g. monitoring
tool is used to retrieve fault reports
alarms, alternation of a set value,
as well as for the input of settings Real-time presentation of analog
blocking of the automatic reclosure
and routing. disturbance records, overlaying and
C 5 fault-event histories. Alarms that zooming of curves and visualization
Evaluation of fault records of binary tracks (e.g. trip command,
occurred during the last 3 faults on
the network (e.g. type of fault de- Readout of the fault record by DIGSI 4 reclose command, etc.) are also part
tection, trip commands, fault loca- is done by fault-proof scanning proce- of the extensive graphical functional-
tion, auto-reclose commands). A dures in accordance with the stan- ity, as are setting of measurement
reclose cycle with one or more dard recommendations for transmis- cursors, spectrum analysis and fault
reclosures is treated as one fault sion of fault records. resistance derivation.
history. Each new fault in the
A fault record can also be read out re- Data security, data interfaces
network overrides the oldest
peatedly. In addition to analog values,
fault history. DIGSI 4 is a closed system as far as
such as voltage and current, binary
C A memory for the fault recordings protection parameter security is con-
tracks can also be transferred and
for voltage and current. Up to 8 cerned. The security of the stored
fault recordings are stored. The data of the operating PC is ensured
fault recording memory is organized DIGSI 4 is supplied together with the by checksums. This means that it is
as a ring buffer, i.e. a new fault SIGRA® (DIGSI 4 Graphic) program, only possible to change data with
entry overrides the oldest fault which provides the customer with DIGSI 4, which subsequently calcu-
record. full graphical operating and evaluation lates a checksum for the changed
C 1 ground-fault event memory (op- functionality like that of the digital data and stores it with the data.
tional for isolated or impedance fault recorders (oscillostores) by Changes in the data and thus in
grounded networks). Event record- Siemens (see Photo 8/12). safety-related protection data are
ing of the sensitive ground fault reliably recorded.
detector (e.g. faulty phase, real
component of residual current).

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Protection and Substation Control

DIGSI 4 is, however, also an open

system. The data export function
supports export of parameterization
and routing data in standard ASCII
format. This permits simple access to ISDN
these data by other programs, such
as test programs, without endanger- PC, remotely located
ing the security of data within the
DIGSI 4 program system.
With the import and export of fault Substation
records in IEEE standard format
COMTRADE (ANSI), a high-perform- Star coupler
ance data interface is produced
which supports import and export of DIGSI 7XV53
PC, centrally located Modem,
fault records into the DIGSI 4 partner in the substation optionally with
program SIGRA. (option) call-back function

This enables the export of fault RS232

records from Siemens protection
Signal converter
units to customer-specific programs RS232
via the COMTRADE format. RS485 bus

Remote relay interrogation RS485

The numerical relay range of Siemens

can also be operated from a remotely
located PC via modem-telephone
Up to 254 relays can be addressed 7SJ60 7RW60 7SD60 7**5 7**6
via one modem connection if the
7XV53 star coupler is used as a
Fig. 8/14 Remote relay communication
communication node (Fig. 8/14).
The relays are connected to the star
coupler via optical fiber links. Every The relays are always listening, but This way, secure and time-saving re-
protection device which belongs to only the addressed one answers the mote setting and readout of data are
a DIGSI 4 substation structure has operator command which comes possible.
a unique address. from the central PC.
Remote diagnostics and control of
If the relay located in a station is to test routines are also possible with-
be operated from a remote office, out the need of on-site checks of
then a device file is opened in DIGSI 4 the substation.
and the protection dialog is chosen
via modem.
After password input, DIGSI 4 estab-
lishes a connection to the protection
device after receiving a call-back
from the system.

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TIP_Kap_08_Engl 11.08.2005 19:44 Uhr Seite 24

Enclosures and terminal systems Ring tongue connectors and forked special precautions are to be taken.
cable lugs can be used for connec- In the housing version for surface
The protection devices and the corre-
tion. To meet the insulation path re- mounting, the terminals are wired up
sponding supplementary devices are
quirements, insulated cable lugs on terminal strips on the top and bot-
available mainly in 7XP20 housings.
must be used. Or else, the crimping tom of the device. For this purpose
Installation of the modules in a cabi-
zone must be insulated by other suit- two-tier terminal blocks are used to
net without the enclosure is not
able means (e.g. by covering it with attain the required number of terminals.
shrinkdown plastic tubing).
According to IEC 60529, the degree
The width of the housing conforms
The following requirements must of protection is indicated by the identi-
to the 19" system with the divisions
be observed: fying IP, followed by a number for the
1/6, 1/3, 1/2 or 1/1 of a 19" rack. The
degree of protection. The first digit
termination module is located at the Cable lugs
indicates the protection against acci-
rear of devices for panel flush mount- Bolt diameter is 4 mm; maximum
dental contact and ingress of solid
ing or cabinet mounting. outer diameter is 10 mm;
foreign bodies, the second digit indi-
for cable cross sections of 1.0 mm
Screw terminals are available for cates the protection against water.
to 2.6 mm AWG 16 to 14 accordingly.
devices intended for: 7XP20 housings are protected
Only use copper conductors!
C Panel and cabinet mounting against ingress of dangerous parts,
and Direct connection dust and dripping water (IP 51).
C Devices with a separate operator Solid conductors or litz conductors
For mounting of devices into
station with end sleeves; for cable cross
switchgear cabinets, 8MC switchgear
sections of 0.5 mm to 2.6 mm AWG
The following screw-connection cabinets are recommended.
20 to 14 accordingly.
types are to be distinguished:
The terminating end of the single The standard cabinet has the
C Connector modules for voltage con-
strand or conductor must be pushed following dimensions:
nection and
into the terminal compartment in
C Connector modules for current con- 2,200 mm x 900 mm x 600 mm
such a way that it will be pulled into
nection (H x W x D). These cabinets are pro-
it when the clamping screw is tight-
vided with a 44 U high mounting rack
Clamping screws are slotted screws ened. Only use copper conductors!
(standard height unit U = 44.45 mm).
which shall be tightened with a
Wire stripping length It can swivel as much as 180° in a
screw driver. A simple, 6 x 1 slotted
9 mm to 10 mm for solid conductors. swing frame. The rack provides for a
screw driver is suitable for this type
mounting width of 19", allowing, for
of screw heads. Tightening torque
example, 2 devices with a width of
Max. 1.8 Nm.
1/2 x 19" to be mounted. The devices
The heavy-duty current plug connec- in the 7XP20 housing are secured to
tors provide automatic short-circuit- rails by screws. Module racks are not
ing of the current transformer circuits required.
when the modules are withdrawn.
Whenever secondary circuits of
current transformers are concerned,

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Protection and Substation Control

8.3 Relay Selection Guide

Pilot wire differential

current comparison
Distance protection

Optical waveguide















Protective functions
ANSI No.1) Description
14 Locked rotor – – – – – – – V V V V – – – – –
21 Distance protection, phase C – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
21N Distance protection, ground C – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
21FL Fault locator C – – – – – – – V V V – – – – –
24 Overfluxing ( U/f) – – – – – – – – – – – – V V – –
25 Synchro-check V – – – – – – – – – V – – – – –
27 Undervoltage V – – – – – – – V V V – – – – –
27/34 U/f protection – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
voltage/frequency protection
32 Directional power – – – – – – – – – – V – – – – –
32F Forward power – – – – – – – – – – V – – – – –
32R Reverse power – – – – – – – – – – V – – – – –
37 Undercurrent or underpower – – – – – – V C C C C – – – – –
40 Protection against under-excitation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
46 Load unbalance protection – – – – – – C C C C C V – V – –
47 Phase sequence monitoring C – – – – – – – C C C – – – – –
48 Start-up current-time monitoring – – – – – – V V V V V – – – – –
49 Thermal overload V – C – – C C C C C C C C C – –
49R Rotor overload protection – – – – – C C C C C C – – – – –
49S Stator overload protection – – – – – C C C C C C – – – – –
50 Instantaneous overcurrent C C C C C C C C C C C – C C C –
50N Instantaneous ground fault overcurrent C – C – – C C C C C C – C C C –
50BF Breaker failure V – V – – – C C C C C V V V V –
51GN Stator ground-fault overcurrent – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
51 Overcurrent with time delay C C C C C C C C C C C – C C C –

C Standard function V Option

1) ANSI (American National Standards Institute) /IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
C 37.2: IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers

Table 8/6 Relay selection guide

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Pilot wire differential

current comparison
Distance protection

Optical waveguide














Protective functions
ANSI No.1) Description
51N Ground-fault overcurrent C – C C C C C C C C C – C C C –
with time delay
51V Voltage-dependent – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
overcurrent-time protection
59 Overvoltage V – – – – – – – V V V – – – – –
59N Residual voltage ground-fault protection V – – – – – C – C C C – – – – –
64 100% rotor ground fault protection (20 Hz) – – – – – – – – – – – – – – ––
64R Rotor ground fault – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
67 Directional overcurrent – – – – – – – – C C C – – – – –
67N Directional ground-fault overcurrent V – – – – – C – C C C – – – – –
67G Stator ground fault, – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
directional overcurrent
68 Oscillation detection (Block Z <) V – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
74TC Trip circuit monitoring C – C – – – C – – – – – V V V –
78 Out-of-step protection – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
79 Autoreclose V – V – – V V V V V V – – – – –
81 Frequency relay C – – – – – – – V V V – – – – –
81R Frequency change protection – – – – – – – – – – – – – – ––
85 Carrier interface C V C – – – – – – – – – – – – –
86 Lockout C C C – – – – C C C C – C C C C
87G Differential protection, generator – – – – – – – – – – – – C C C –
87T Differential protection, transformer – C V – – – – – – – – C C C C –
87BB Differential protection, busbar – – – – – – – – – – – – C C C C
87M Differential protection, motor – – – – – – – – – – – – C C C –
87L Differential protection, line – C C – – – – – – – – – C C C –
87N Ground-fault differential protection – – – – – – – C C C C C V V V –

C Standard function V Option

1) ANSI (American National Standards Institute) /IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
C 37.2: IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers

Table 8/7 Relay selection guide

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Protection and Substation Control

Generator and motor

7RW600 Voltage, frequency


Breaker failure



Protective functions
ANSI No.1) Description
14 Locked rotor C C – – –
21 Distance protection, phase V V – – –
21N Distance protection, ground – – – – –
21FL Fault locator – – – – –
24 Overfluxing ( U/f) C C – – V
25 Synchro-check – – C – –
27 Undervoltage C C V – C
27/34 U/f protection C C – – –
voltage/frequency protection
32 Directional power – C – – –
32F Forward power V C – – –
32R Reverse power C C – – –
37 Undercurrent or underpower – C – – –
40 Protection against under-excitation V C – – –
46 Load unbalance protection V V – – –
47 Phase sequence monitoring C C – – –
48 Start-up current-time monitoring V V – – –
49 Thermal overload C C – – –
49R Rotor overload protection – – – – –
49S Stator overload protection C C – – –
50 Instantaneous overcurrent C C – – –
50N Instantaneous ground fault overcurrent C C – – –
50BF Breaker failure C C – C –
51GN Stator ground-fault overcurrent – C – – –
51 Overcurrent with time delay C C – – –

C Standard function V Option

1) ANSI (American National Standards Institute) /IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
C 37.2: IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers

Table 8/8 Relay selection guide

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Generator and motor

7RW600 Voltage, frequency


Breaker failure



Protective functions
ANSI No.1) Description
51N Ground-fault overcurrent C C – – –
with time delay
51V Voltage-dependent C C – – –
overcurrent-time protection
59 Overvoltage C C V – C
59N Residual voltage ground-fault protection C C – – –
64 100% rotor ground fault protection (20 Hz) – V V – –
64R Rotor ground fault C C – – –
67 Directional overcurrent C C – – –
67N Directional ground-fault overcurrent C C – – –
67G Stator ground fault, C C – – –
directional overcurrent
68 Oscillation detection (Block Z <) – V – – –
74TC Trip circuit monitoring C C – – –
78 Out-of-step protection – V – – –
79 Autoreclose – – – – –
81 Frequency relay C C V – C
81R Frequency change protection V V V – V
Vector jump relay V V V – –
85 Carrier interface – – – – –
86 Lockout C C V – –
87G Differential protection, generator – C – – –
87T Differential protection, transformer – C – – –
87BB Differential protection, busbar – – – – –
87M Differential protection, motor – C – – –
87L Differential protection, line – – – – –
87N Ground-fault differential protection – V – – –

C Standard function V Option

1) ANSI (American National Standards Institute) /IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
C 37.2: IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers

Table 8/9 Relay selection guide

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Protection and Substation Control


see Fig. 8/20

B I>, t IE>, t I2>, t ARC

Further 51 51N 46 79 7SJ60
2) 1)
8.4 Typical Protection
Schemes C I>, t IE>, t I2>, t
51 51N 46 7SJ60
Radial systems
Notes on Fig. 8/15 Load
1)ANSI no. 79 only for reclosure with
overhead lines. D I>, t IE>, t I2>, t
2)Negative sequence o/c protection 51 51N 46 7SJ60
46 as back-up protection against * Alternatives:
asymmetrical faults. 7SJ45/46, 7SJ61
General notes: Load Load
C The relay (D) with the largest dis-
tance from the infeed point has the Fig. 8/15 Protection scheme with definite-time overcurrent-time protection
shortest tripping time. Relays fur-
ther upstream have to be time-
graded against the next down- Infeed
stream relay in steps of about 0.3 Transformer protection,
seconds. see Fig. 8/22
C Dependent curves can be selected
according to the following criteria: 52 52
C Definite time:
7SJ60* 7SJ60*
Source impedance is large com-
pared to the line impedance, i.e. 52 I>, t IE>, t I2>, t ϑ> 52 I>, t IE>, t I2>, t ϑ>
small current variation between 51 51N 46 49 51 51N 46 49
near and far end faults
C Inverse time:
Longer lines, where the fault cur
rent is much less at the end of the
line than at the local end.
C Highly or extremely inverse time:
Lines where the line impedance is
large compared to the source im-
pedance (high difference for close-
in and remote faults) or lines,
where coordination with fuses or
reclosers is necessary. Steeper * Alternatives:
characteristics also provide higher 7SJ45/46, 7SJ61
stability on service restoration
(probes for cold load pickup and Fig. 8/16 Protection scheme for ring circuit
transformer inrush currents).

Ring circuits with about 0.2 s grading-time delay

to be preferred)
General notes on Fig. 8/16
C Thermal overload protection for the
C Tripping times of overcurrent relays cables (option)
must be coordinated with down- C Negative sequence o/c protection
stream fuses of load transformers. 46 as sensitive protection against
(Highly inverse time characteristic unsymmetrical faults (option)

8/29 8
TIP_Kap_08_Engl 11.08.2005 19:44 Uhr Seite 30


52 I>>, IE>>, I2>, t 52

I>, t IE>, t
50/ 50N/ 7SJ60
51 46
51N 7SJ61
Distribution feeder with reclosers
General notes on Fig. 8/17: 79 Autoreclose Further
C The feeder relay operating charac- feeders
teristics, delay times and autoreclo- Recloser
sure cycles must be carefully coor-
dinated with downstream reclosers,
switch disconnectors and fuses.
The instantaneous zone 50/50N is
normally set to reach out to the first
main feeder sectionalizing point. It Fuses
has to ensure fast clearing of close-
in faults and prevent blowing of
fuses in this area (“fuse saving”).
Fig. 8/17 Protection scheme for distribution feeder
Fast autoreclosure is initiated in this
case. Further time-delayed tripping
and reclosure steps (normally 2 or 3)
have to be graded against the Infeed
recloser. 52
C The o/c relay should automatically
switch over to less sensitive charac- 52 I>, t IE>, t ϑ> I2>, t 52
teristics after longer load interrup- 51 51N 49 46 7SJ60
tion times to enable overriding of
subsequent cold load pickup and
OH line or OH line or Protection
transformer inrush currents. cable 1 cable 2 same as
line or cable 1

67 67N 51 51N 7SJ62



52 52

Load Load

Fig. 8/18 Protection concept for parallel lines

Parallel lines faults on the protected line. This

allows the saving of one time-
General notes on Fig. 8/18:
grading interval for the o/c relays
C This configuration is preferably
at the infeed.
used for the uninterrupted supply
C The o/c relay functions 51/51N
of important consumers without
have each to be time-graded
significant backfeed.
against the relays located
C The directional o/c protection
67/67N trips instantaneously for

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Protection and Substation Control



52 7SJ60 1) 52
51N/ 7SD600
87L 49 or 4)
Line or 7SJ60 3) protection
Cables or short overhead lines cable for parallel line,
if applicable
with infeed from both ends 7SD600
51N/ 87L 49
51N or 4)
Notes on Fig. 8/19: 7SD610
1) Auto-reclosure only with
52 79 52
overhead lines 1)

2) Overload protection only 52

with cables
52 52 52 52
3) Differential protection options:
C Type 7SD610 with direct fiber-optic Load Backfeed
connection up to about 35 km (ap-
prox. 22 miles) or via a 64 kbit/s Fig. 8/19 Protection scheme using differential protection
channel of a general purpose PCM
connection (optical waveguide,
microwave) HV infeed
C Type 7SD600 with 2-wire pilot
cables up to about 12 km 52 I>> I>, t IE> ϑ> I2>, t
(approx. 7.5 miles)
50 51 50N 49 46 7SJ60
4) Functions 49 and 79 only with re-
lays of type 7SD610. 7SD600 is a
Optional resistor or
cost-effective solution where only 63 reactor
the function 87L is required (exter-
nal 4AM4930 current summation
transformer to be installed I>>

52 7VH60 7SJ60

Distribution bus

o/c relay

Load Load

Fig. 8/20 Protection scheme for small transformers

Small transformer infeed 7VH80 is of the high-impedance

type and requires class X current
General notes on Fig. 8/20:
transformers with similar transfor-
C Ground faults on the secondary
mation ratio.
side are detected by current relay
51G which, however, has to be C Primary breaker and relay may be
time-graded against downstream replaced by fuses.
feeder protection relays. The re-
stricted ground-fault relay 87N may
additionally be used to achieve fast
clearance of earth faults in the sec-
ondary transformer winding. Relay

8/31 8
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Dual infeed with single

transformer Protection line 1 Protection line 2
same as line 2 21/21N or 87L + 51 + optionally 67/67N
Notes on Fig. 8/21:
52 52
1) Line current transformers are to be
connected to isolate stabilizing in- 7SJ60 oder
puts of the differential relay 87T in 7SJ61
order to assure stability in case of I>> I>, t IE>, t
line-through-fault currents. 50 51 51N
2) Relay 7UT613 provides numerical
ratio and vector group adaptation. 46 49
Matching transformers, as used I2> ϑ>
with traditional relays, are there- 63 87N 87T 7UT613
fore no longer necessary.

Parallel incoming to transformer 7SJ60 51G

I>> IE>
Note on Fig. 8/22: 7SJ60
The directional functions 67 and 51 51N
67N do not apply for cases where 52
the transformers are equipped with Load
transformer differential relays 87T. bus
52 52 52

Fig. 8/21 Transformer protection scheme

HV infeed 1 7SJ60 or HV infeed 2

52 I>> I>, t IE>, t ϑ> I2>, t 52

50 51 51N 49 46

same as
infeed 1
63 7SJ62

I>, t IE>, t I> IE>

51G IE>, t
51 51N 67 67N

52 52
52 52 52

Load Load Load

Fig. 8/22 Protection scheme for transformers connected in parallel

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Protection and Substation Control

Small and medium-sized motors

< 1 MW I>> IE> ϑ> Locked I2>
With effective or low-resistance
grounded infeed 50 51N 49 CR 46 7SJ60
(IIE ≥ IN Motor)
General note on Fig. 8/23:
Applicable to low-voltage motors and
high-voltage motors with low-resist-
Fig. 8/23 Protection scheme for small motors
ance grounded infeed (IE ≥ IN Motor).

With high-resistance grounded in-

feed (IIE ≤ IN Motor)
52 I>> ϑ> I2> I<
Notes on Fig. 8/24: 1)
1) Window-type zero-sequence 7SJ62
50 49 46 37 or
current transformer. 7SJ602
2) Sensitive directional earth-fault IE> 2) 3)
protection 67N only applicable 7XR96
1) 51G 67N
with infeed from isolated or Peter- 60/1A
son-coil-grounded network. (For di-
mensioning of the sensitive direc-
tional ground-fault protection, also
see application circuit No. 24)
Fig. 8/24 Protection scheme for medium-sized motors
3) Relay type 7SJ602 may be used
for power systems with isolated
neutral or compensated neutral
52 I>> ϑ> U<
Large HV motors > 1 MW I2>

Notes on Fig. 8/25: 50 49 46 27

1) Window-type zero-sequence
current transformer. optionally
IE> 2) I< 37
2) Sensitive directional ground-fault 1) 51N 67N
protection 67N only applicable 60/1A
with infeed from isolated or Monitoring of
Peterson-coil-grounded network. the start-up 49T 87M 7UM62
stage 3) 5)
3) This function is only needed for
motors where the start-up time is 3)
longer than the safe stall time tE.
According to IEC 79-7,tE is the
switch M Option:

time needed to heat up AC wind-

ings, when carrying the starting
current IA, from the temperature
reached in rated service and at
maximum ambient temperature
Fig. 8/25 Protection scheme for large motors
to the limiting temperature.

8/33 8
TIP_Kap_08_Engl 11.08.2005 19:44 Uhr Seite 34

A separate speed switch is used to

monitor actual starting of the motor. MS
The motor breaker is tripped if the
motor does not reach speed in the
preset time. The speed switch is part
of the motor delivery itself. G I>, IE>, t I2> ϑ>
51 7SJ60
4) Pt100, Ni100, Ni120 51N 46 49

5) 49T can only be implemented

using 7XV5662 thermobox

Fig 8/26 Protection scheme for smallest generators with solidly grounded neutral conductor
Smallest generators < 500 kW
Note on Fig. 8/26 and 8/27:
If a window-type zero-sequence cur- MS
rent transformer is provided for sen-
sitive ground-fault protection, relay
7SJ602 with separate ground current G1 I>, IE>, t I2> ϑ>
input can be used (similar to Fig. Generator 2 51
46 49 7SJ60
8/24). 51N
Small generator up to 1 MW
Note on Fig. 8/28: RN =
√3 • (0.5 to 1) • Irated
Two current transformers in
V-connection are sufficient.
Fig. 8/27 Protection scheme for smallest generators with a resistance-grounded
neutral conductor



G 81

I>, t ϑ> I2> P> U>

51 49 46 32 59 7UM61

IE>, t


Fig. 8/28 Protection scheme for generators > 1 MW

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Protection and Substation Control

Generators > 1 MW
Notes on Fig. 8/29: 52
1) Functions 81 and 59 only required
where drives can assume excess
speed and voltage controller may 50 I>/U<
permit rise of output voltage above 27
upper threshold.
2) The integrated differential protec- 59 U<
1) 2)
tion function may be used as longi-
tudinal or transverse differential ∆I 87
protection for the generator. 1)
RE field< 81 f>
G 64R

I2> ϑ> I>t, U< L.O.F. -P>

46 49 51V 40 32

IE>, t

51N 87N

Fig. 8/29 Protection scheme for generators > 1 MW

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Busbar protection by o/c relays

with reverse interlocking Infeed

General note on Fig. 8/30:

Applicable to busbars without sub-
stantial (< 0,25 x IN) backfeed from
the outgoing feeders. Reverse interlocking

7SS60 busbar protection I>, t0 I>, t

General note on Fig. 8/31 50 51 7SJ60
50N 51N
C Applicable for single and double
C Different current transformer ratios
t0 = 50 ms
are balanced by intermediate-circuit
C Unrestricted number of feeders
C Feeder protection may be con-
nected to the same current 52 52 52
I> I>, t I> I>, t I> I>, t
transformer core
50 51 50 51 50 51
50N 51N 50N 51N 50N 51N

7SJ60 7SJ60 7SJ60

Fig. 8/30 Busbar protection with reverse interlocking

7MT70 7SS601



52 52 52
7SV60 7SV60 7SV60 1)

50 50 50

Load G 7SS60

Fig. 8/31 S 7SS60 busbar protection

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Protection and Substation Control

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TIP_Kap_09_Engl 11.08.2005 19:35 Uhr Seite B