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, I

irst u blish ed 199'9 by Ron tledge

11 N '\l.' LeI Lane, La idon E '4P ,IE I

Simultan ously published in the USA and' aaada by Routledge

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Re. muted 2002

© 1999 '-Ian J" ,. ,.:,aod.-f· .- nd Jantsangiin Bat-Ire dui

ypes· t in Time'> by Th .' Florence rroi p, :'-1 odleigh Devon Printe d ant - -. ound in rea t B ri tam

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BritisH Library Caralogui11g in Puhlicati n Data

A catal sue record 'or this boo is a' jJ ble front the British ~ . ibrary

Librarv of .... ongre L~ .' atal(Jglri~flg ill Publication Data

Sanders, AJBn J. K .

. olloquial Mongelian ; the complete course ['Or beginners I . Jan J. K. Sand. rs and Jantsa ngiin Bat- Ireedai.

. lem.

Inclu, _ i bibliogr phical re ere ces and indexes,

1. Mongolian lanzua _ -Texfbook', for foreign speakers-« , glish,

2. Mongolian languag~OrruJ1 mar. 3. Mongol ian langlJ8ge-VOCcl btl] atry. 1. Bat-Ireedui, Jantsangiin, 1 ~ t14- II. Titl .

PL403.S25 198

494".282421~dc2J 98-=._2130


ISBN 0-4l5~16;]14 0 (book) ISB·· 0-415--, ~ f.71S-9 (c asse ttes ) ISB.N 0 -15-2, 949-1 ( ··s)

I· N I] 67' -7 I( boo k, CD ' and cass ntes course)

rt .

, r-r- ..




iekn owl edge'm ents I ntroductlo n

he alphabet

I 'r -.nunci tiro,



1 ,3



A par ent's tOD. ue never rest

3 Jlprl1X&ap JIB'I X3Jl1JX93P ........ Ti' Actions speak louder than words

4 AbIJl on x d~ :x 0" H9II 'DYY ,m

N· thing v ntui ed othing g in ·d

5.' rr .... g,'D' a1R1lJl -» ..... " "Ii'rAB9_. 1I TTVV. -. '-CTIJI

_ ~I_BC XHJi1 89J1 yy'CT,u...JIi., ~.. a ~ ~ f'V 3

N V':_ 1 do things by halves 6 9prSCTBB GOll'DB'll eap, .... -:....-.

The .e 's n pla e like home

7 YIC yyxryi '~pHim ronroi 'You CZUl lead a horse to water

8 AoJ.[oo X3MJK M_)J{ Jl3r OIT-oJI ok b f ·r ~ y u lie: 'P

9 a,pryi 601I 68JIB', 8B"flBlfryJ! 60JI "'. ',p ,llJI Havi -- g no debt is wealth and no illness hap' -Kniess 10 :E)133H XH'l9~B9J1 aaaa XB~~~,Jn1

H' v n helps th ··s _ who .1 Jp t .emselve

I' .",.







220 250 277 300 30]

323 ,]26


Mongolia is the homeland of Genghls Khan and the heartland or l he world 's largest land empire created by hi m 8,00 years, ago~ The M01~go11 empire stretched at its greates ext ent from Hungary to 'hina and [rom Russia tOI Iran, ye~ the period of it's growth and supremacy lasted little more than I eentu y~ from Genghis Kb811" uniflcation of the Mongol tribes in 1189 to the death of he fifth and last Great Khan, the YUQ,n Emperor Kubilai, in ~ 294., Weakened by feuding amongst the descendants at Genghis Khan, 'the Mongol empire 0011 began to disintegrate .. The llkhans of Iran adopted Islam .. In .• hina the Ming overthrew the Yuan in 1368,. In 'Russia the Golden Horde was, defeated y Drnitrii Donskoi in 1380~ the- Saine year a, Chinese military expedition destroyed Karakorum, the Mongol capital,

For the next two centuries Mongolia was again the theatre of' struggle between tribal alliances. In tbe mid-Jetb eentury Altan Khan of the TUrned, (eastern Mongols) established peace 'with Ming China HUrl founded Khokhkhot, today the administrative centre of Inner Mongolia, Altan Khan WM converted to Buddhism.and in 1578 he received the Tibetan leader S,o,n:8ID. Gyatso in. Qinghai 3JIl,d CI'eated for him the [ide ~DaJ,j2Li Lama', The 17th century was a period of rapid growth of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia. In 16 ~9 Zanabazar the: four-year-old SOD of the Tusheet Khan of Khalkha Mongolia, ,H descendant ot Genghis Khan, was identilted as the incarnation of a Buddhis saint and procl im _ d leader f Mongolia 8, Buddhists 'with the titl - OndoT . egeen, 'High Enlightened One'. His 'palace was nomadic until 1770,-. when it 'settled on the Tuum rivet' where Ulan Bator stands today.

However, the Khalkha Mongols 'were under growing threat from the Jungarian Khanate of the Qual Mongols tlO the west and lrom Manchu expansion to' the south .. east" In 1644 the Manchus captured Peking and proclaimed the Qing dyna ty, It was th

Manchus who made the distinction between Inner Mongolia .. tho Mongol lands close to Peking they conquered in the 1620~~, and Outer Mongolia, the Khalkha t rritory beyond til Go' ~i, Seeking protection from the Jungarian Khanate, the princes of Khalkha made a treaty with the Manchus in 1691. The Manchus destroyed the Jung ari an. EtC'IllY but sta tioned their own troops in Kha 1 k ha, For over 200, Inner and Outer Mongolia were administered by Manchu goveruors. Russin acknowledged Qing COD.' rol of Outer Mongolia and the northern border territory of Tannu Tuva in th _ l 727 Treaty of Kyakhta,

'When QiL1.g rule in China collapsed in, December 1911, the princes of Outer Mongolla declarr '. independence under the rub!' of their Buddhist priest-king t11- Bogd Khan (~fIoly Khan'], but their appeal La the Mongols of Inner 'Mongolia to join them was un iuccessful. Neither the new Republic of China, nor T1Sa.f]S't Russia, recognized Mongolia's independence, only its autonomy as part of . hina, although Mongolia concluded u treaty with Tibet.

rhking advantage of the turmoil of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution i u Russia .. the Republic of CIUlla reasserted control of 3u'tonO.Ill01JS ( ) uter Mongolia In 19191:1 but the civil war i D Ru ssi a spilled over j n ~ 0 M 0 n g lia, too, ill 19.2J Mongoli an armed TfYVo1 utionarie 8~ uccompanled by units of 111C Soviet Red Army, marched OD f he. Mung 'lian capita] from their 'bast in Siberia. They forced the . 'hinese army to withdraw and dispers d the Cossacks under tbe command of th eTsarist Baron. Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, who in a '0. attempt to fnrrn his O'WIl government of Mongolia had briefly held the Bogd Khan prisoner,

A revolutionary governm eru was installed in Mongolia, and when the Bogd Khan died the Mongolian People s Republic CrvrPR) was proclaimed in 1924,~ but only Soviet Russia recognised it Under Comintern guidance (I Soviet-style communist revolutionary party established B political manopely 1:[1 Mongolia, Soviet-controlled Tannu 'Iuva was accorded 'independence' as the People's Republic ,off Tuva and recognized by' the MPR in a treaty of 1926.~ Stalin's rise to 511preme power 'in the U'SSR and the subsequent pursuit of Stalinist methods in Mon.golia brought death or slavery to tens of thousands of innocent people Ion false charges of treason and 'anti-party activi y' - not only prime ministers, generals, and admin ... istrators but ala lamas, teachers, workers and herdsmen,

The 1930's were also overshadowed by the assertion of Japan's imperia] powe-r in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, and $0"'].·. l preparations ·~O confront it. After probing Mongolia's eastern

border, Manchurian and Japanese military units launched an invasion ill August 19,9~ Mongolian IOOopS and the Soviet Red .rrny halted . be invas ion at Khalkhyn Gol in a. famous battle which rnuy have per uaded Ja.pIJI 'to give up plans for invading the USSR md turn towards the conquest of South-East Asia.

Mong,olia was not directly involved in the Second. Wor'~d WRr 11111'1 il its 18ts'L few days, when it joined the USSR in declaring war un Japan and invading Manchuria and northern China, In a plebiscite held under the terms of the 1~45 Yalta agreement hetwcen Britain; the USA and the USSR, the people of Mongolia vuled for Independence, The fy[p'R.'8 independence was recognized by the Republic of China in 1946 and by th ' People's Republic or ('h103 in 1949. Britain established r lations with Mongolia in 1963.

Soviet investme nt Ell Mongolia in the postwa period lbOOS16,d the

.ountry's economy' .. A. railway line Tuiilt across Mongolia cram ~ he Soviet to the Chines border became an important factor in relieving the disadvantages of Mongolia 'I landlockedness, providing it with revenues 'from transit traffic. and linking il with uew markets in Eastern Europe and China.

M U ~ d ~I ~ ..... I .. , ,. th Cl .. b k . f"' .ongo Ja"8 renewe J.LlA Wk. runa was soonoro .. ell. a,gtllD; us

I· Y the Sino-Soviet dispute aver leadership of the communist movement, with its sharp military focus on terrirorialclalms, and then Ily the Cultural Revolution in China, 'with its persecution of .... hina's

Mongols. It was only after Mikhail Gorbachev introduced P~'(!-' stroika. his own bran of political and economic reforms, and launched ills Vladivostok initiative to improve relations with China, l hat Mongolia's ge·opolitical. situation returned to normal,

Then in the 1990,. the Mongols' world. was turned upside down. ln Eastern Europe. communist regimes fen with the Berlin Wall until eventually their final bastion, he USS,R itself, disintegrated in 19·91. After seventy-odd years 0.( close Sovlet control, with hos ,pitals, schools, subsidized jobs 'and military protec ion provided in exchange: for political allegiance, Mongolia 'was projected into an. unfamiliar world of multiparty 'politics and the dollar market Mongolians had to learn quickly how tlO use the ir new-found political and economic freedom to su rviv e.

Mongolia. is now well along the road. of politica] economic and social transition. Its would-be reformed communists have .finally 'lost political power, and a new and. youthful government of democrats is providing the vital stimulus to drive he country 011 towards a fundam ntal reform of ownership 'which will revolu ionize traditiona] patt ems of life. With foreign aid and investment the.


'U' A

economic stagnation inherited from the Soviet past is giving way to ne W' gr(l~th II] .he key economic areas of gold, copper, 0.11 and easbm re, Mongclia's reform programme has the steady financial ~'~PPQ'ft_ of '[be intemational banking organizations and important bilateral donors like Japan, 'he USA and Germany

Mongolia it~ _ land of contrasts ~ blue skies lliOWy mountains forests, of larch .. grassy plains and 5Ul1d dunes fresh- and salt-water I ak s, rivers full of fish, 30 mil lion he ad ,0 live stock and rich wildlife. Ancient ruins, brightly painted monasteries and tJ1~ .herd~rs 'w~j[e tents are . cauered across th ~ Iandscap " H· w ver, over h,df the popularl _ of :t5 million Iive in towns, with srnoky power s ations, rusty pipes, sha bby tenements, and crowded buses ?D pot-holed roads,"ome of Mongolia's people are still hardy It irsemen in cclourrul national costume, but others have becorn businessmen in suits Life is tough for civil servants, the unempl Jyed and p_ensioners, but the once nearly. empty shops are fun of goods, and this yeuthful nation has gain d new freedoms and opport uni ties,

Before, it 'was hard for, foreigners to visit Mongolia wi 'thou t official invitations or group visas and closely guided tours. Now there are virtually no restrictions on trav J '[0 and within Mongolia, at Ieast none otherthan the cost of get ing there, and the crewded trains and planes and rough roads, Tourism is still in i ts infancy but thousands of flrei.gne:r;s brave such small hardahips every yewto breathe Mongol] s fresh air, to see its rare animals and birds in th IT habitat, enjoy in e peace of j,t vast open ~'p,H ces, savour the scent of Its wild ,flOWC'fS~ and couu a million st ars in the ••... obi's night sky.

~o:ng?lians used to be educ .ted and trained in Sovi 11 wa.y~ of" doing things oft n in th Soviet Union itself but today they travel, work and study freely in many parts of the world once closed tIC) them, Hundreds I f Mongolian s udents have studied in Bri tain, The first foreign language Mongols used to learn was Russian, with its vocabulary of technology and communist political correctness: now i' is, English, the language of international cemmurdcation orient d towards computers and business,

The friendly people of Mongolia, with their devotion to their ,~st:o:ry and nomadic tram ions rogetlu r with the gr '- at natural beauty and vari_ty of their country, make a Mongolian experience un forge' able, I hope OUT b ok will 'help you prepare, for your O\1VD.

I t is CJJ1Bto'maL[Y lor au thors to ,s,ay that they are gratefu [ Ior the help and cor peration they have received" adding that the au hors

· b I! .~ O' 'i".. k i _ ·

are respons I .' te lor any errors, . ur uQ'O,,· 15 '0,0 exception,

I would pay tribute to my 'Mongolian colleague Ba -Ireedui. whom I. worked together at SOAS for three yeari~ It was II mks to his initiative that Colloquial' M,o'ngolian came to be

I i I ten, bu he had to return to the Mongolian National University I 1 Ulan Bator b. fore the text W;J,S compl .. 'ted. His contributions, ,II d his ov ersigh t of th _ Mongol text were essenti al,

I would also like to thank the distinguished Mongolist Professor I meritus Charl es Bawden fOF agreeing, b) read our manuscript and .

I~gesling ways, of improving the accuracy and clarity of OUlI: text .. 1 was Charles Bawden who first introduced me 'to Mongol lind the lungols some 35 year's ago,~ and he has been a, true and generous 'I lend ever since" always encouraging we to press 011 'with longolian studies in the face of various difficulties,

I am grater l to R, utl dge's editors too, for th if' WOlf ..... ' n

'olloquia! M ongolian, in particul ar Edi tori 8.1 Assistant James Po lan I r 1 r his advice Desk Editor Ka 'J.! Hopgood, and .' ····c,fies Editor', JUiry 1 Ing for his sharp eyes and incisive views which have helped greatly hi 'ormulating what I hope will prove to' be ~3, user-friendly texthook of modern spoken Mongolian, the first to be published ill I nglish for 30 years"

Alan 1.K~ Sande .

Reading Decem ber 1. 9 8


Page 134: Cartoon by O. Baidi from Tonshuul. (March 19'96)

'-age 170: Car .oon by S, Tsogtbayar ' r ,J ~ Ardyn ',r'kh. (25 Au rust 1992,

Pages 201-2: --1xtra,cl from M011.go(yn nuuts tovchoo in transcriplion t y Acad ~ Darudinsuren ~ S tate Pu blishin House, (1990) Pa.g- -0.5': Ex racn from 'hingi, khaany tsadig by Acad ..

N tit ' ,rj. Ulan Bat ar: SO! ornbo Publh h rs, (' 99 )

p.- g ... 07-9: E tract: rom Vol [(] of BNMAUlJJ' n lUiikhOj edit ed

1 ' ad. Shir ndev, Ulan Bator: Academy of Science and State

Pu hi i hing C0111nli tee, (1969)

Pa es 11-1.5: '" ri -,tampl S from Mongol. bichig b' C oi.

,v '[I njav, J. Luvsan orj and Tse. Shar huu, Ulan B _", r:

Ministry of ~ducation (textbook dlvision]. (198.)

I I' e 17:. .artoon b,Y' L" D)ziibat from Ardyn Erkh, (Date


p ~I g ] ~ ,orton by. ,,~ Tsogt bay, . from 11 rdyn Erkh, (16 June


Par t: ~49: Stanzas from poem by N,.~ tsagdor] f om a coll ction edit :d by Acad, Damdinstlren, Academy of Sci uces and Mongol Writers' Union . ta .e Publi bing ommittee, (1961)

Ev rye'. rt bas be len made t . b' run oermission 'to reprod ice copyright mat rial. If any prope r acknowledg mente has not b .. ~ ~11 made, or permissicn nc t receivi d, we would invite copyright holds irs to inform us of t1 e oversigh .,

- I

I tar "e bout sev n million Mongolian Mongol) spes ~ r in 1 world - .' ver two minion. in ind pendent Mongolia (the , irrner QLUr 'Mongolia and Mongolian People's .epublic)~ aro~md .7 million in Inner Mongolia, some 500,000 in other parts of ",hina,. md another hal , million -r 501 in th suryat and .almyk Republics nd Ills, where in Ru ia.Khalkb. M, 'ng 1.. namt d ,f, T Mo golia ' I "e,' _ ethnic group and tille country's offici~ language, i als lp aken in parts 01 Inner Mongolia. and China's n~rth- as tern . rnvinces, M . ngols livins elsewhere in C ina and Russia ~nd . m all I '''~3 ed grouj s ill Mongolia it elf such a, th .' _ira'ts. and Buryats eak western and nO'~I" em dia ect: . Mongol which at .. some\' hat dill rent from, Khalkl a.

Mongo] is an Altaic language" distantly relat d "to 'Iurkic III guages of r entral Asia like Kazakh and. uvan, and display the l· pica] features of agg lutination anc vowel harn~'ny,. ~Eielly'i aggl urination leans that' ord-building is based on invariable st· ms to whicb single or multiple suffixes ~lr added to modify meani~g '~Jn~ achieve inflection (tense, case, etc.), Vowel harmony means '~bal all the vowel in a word s e =-" 'i and any sulfixe attached to it; belong 1 a one 1,' ,J either 'Lack" Of fro t~ V( W ~' . which are n It mixed, Mlil hese features at unfamiliar to ipeakers 0' -; ngli hand mo t other : uropean languages, they n ed not present di ,~ficcl'L.ies~ lone.,: 1 be principles have b ·'en grasped, They are explained in detail below ..

The asic Mongol-Turkic vocabulary of Kll,JI ha '. entred on th

nornadi w y of life has been subjected to a rang of influer c i since the time of the Mongol empir .. , (l.Zth- 3th centuries), Religious terminology in Tibetan and Sanskrit was spread by Bll:d,dhj~m~ and Man. ·'hu and I bini, S ~~ words and titles were added under Oing rule (. 7Lb.~2nth cen uri .. s). Ru ssian t schnica term and politics 1 phrao 10' y we e i troduced und r (> mmunis 'ul, in thi century,


and knowl dge of Russian became widespread, Now tha '.ngli·.h has become tlu Dl0St popular foreign language in Mong ilia English words like I roker' 'change and I hobby' have entered circulation in Mongol :' 0 n .

Th: Mongol h ve written th ir languag ill several di"' Tnt scripts, [he olde t and most durable of which, called the cla steal Moog' 1 script, was introduced 800 years 8',0 under Genghis Khan, Derive - fy. m ' ngln r writin ,._ and written in vertic . I columns, from left Ito right, it asO}-, tt" TS in, initial medial and, final forms. Although tb classical - cript is still us d by Mongol in fun ~f Mongolia and elsewhere in China, its S6 in Mongolia wa ' di couraged after the i1J trod ucn an ',f 9, modifie Cyrillic (Russian) alphabet in the 19408.

_1_' rha having under on, 1 a y chanze s ove he cen uri ' the Ianguag .of the elas ical M nli· 11 '.' cit is nov arch aic ut it i Important t I Moog: .1· b. th Iingui lie (y .. nd culturally. Mcngoli ' democratic revolution in the early 19905 led to d emands for tln restoration o . t - e. classic -] script. How ver, .its planned official rein ... troduction in 99~ initially fO'T the government 8, offi ial publications was postponed until the next century. b cause 0 th. t ek 0 proper preparation, a shortage .' f PUbU.L hing facilities, and also resistance from the many Mongols who want d tOI keep Cyrillic

III 5 lett er of the Mongolian Cyrilllc script ar those of he

l ssian alphabe 1. plus Band, '. t _'_ resent 10 and 0 .. S ·me'ussi ~ - .' r . are pronounced ill " eren y in Mongol, nd ' th:_s are use I,I.~ t .' write word which have enu re d Monr 01 from Russian,

lb,. letters of '[11 Mong,IDlli8Ln.~ yrillie alphabet have been given I I II i h written el. uivale nts (transliteration). Because M ngo llan v il ie has more lette .jhan the nglish alphabet som I. yrilli ' I t rs a -e represent '~y tv.O or mEngHh l. aers, Translit .ratiou schemes like , I'i' are used fo writin Mongolian place J ~ rues in atlases am personal n ames in th e printed medl , ruth, ugh III, re are traditional English spellings for some Mongolian narm , .

!~ i that of h c. capital Ulan Bator.

TIle tab, below lists the MngoUa;_ Cyrillic alphabet in capital fl 'mall ett r in Mo,ngli' alpl ~ b stical order t - i h the English ~, [uivalents plus an indlcatio in brae . ts . -:f what they sound like, lphabets and transliteration sclu rnes alone do not give an accuJ' re guide' o pronunciation which il" discussed in mon d. tail from . a .] 1

05 - ~

re is no ag eed international sys' _ '01 of transli en 'ttl. n, and

-I" 'wh, r you may corn . across variations like dzh for j (lit). dz r r~· (3.) and h for kh () as well as the u -_ of addi ional diacritical 111 -ks (accents] e g, .• for i (Ii) .. Some 'may have been ca -ri ·dI over from scheme s or trans Iiteratm .,: the clas si· al Mongo li a-n- eri -1,

. '.,g .. '. for sh,

Mongollan alphabet English equivalent

B r


a (like '8/ in 'cat') b (if ',: English 'b') .··li r : :_ English 'v ..

.• Uk Bnglish 'g~) d (like English 'd )



'E e,
II ~-"
)K :z
3 ,9
II' i
Ie X
H ,D yo (like 'yea' in, 'yearn ) yo (like 'ya in 'yacht')

.~ (like 'f' ill 'jewel')

z (like 'dz' in 'adze ")

i (11 ke ~p in 'tin')

i (only appears after another vowel) k (like English ~,k: ;i,Il loan words)

1 (Li ke Eng lish ~'l ~)

m (like ~ uglish 'm')

n (like English 'n 9; final 'n _ like ~ng in


o (like 'o' I'll 'hot')

o (like a' in 'yearn')

p (like English 'p'; mostly in LORn words) r (like Scottish ~ r'; Initially in IOH.n words) s (like 's' in 'sun')

t (Iike 'If in "tock')

u (like "aw' in "awful') u (like !iu in 'p ut')

f (like' English 'f ~ only in loan words) kh (like 'ch' in 'loch')

ts (lr . L 'ts t in 'cats')

eh (like 'ch' in 'chat')

sh (like "sh' in . shoe ¥)

shch (as in l:cash-cheq.ue~; in RU5~iaTl 'worlds)

no sound (after unpala alised consonant" may be written as a double CJ uo .a lion mark or ignored)

y ( ike ~y~ in 'marry')

'short' m (after palatalised consonant: may also be written as a single quotation 111ark)

e (like "'e'~ in. ~ d en' )

before 'y: yLi (like 'you' in you'); before 'v: yil (like U with an initial y sound)

ya (like 'ya ~ in 'yard']

0 0
B e
n D
p P
C e
y V
tV 4J
X x
:u ~
q 'II'
m m:
m: Q1;, !31 :EO

3 IO

The letters T3, M and 'r. caunot be capi tal or first letters in a. word.

, J 4. 1 .. , e ll' ~ .. d fami 1 · · If" ... 'I: 'm..

~ '""i 'we to, OWIng practtce wore 5 to arm ianze yourser wl1JJ1 tne

nngolian Cyrillic alp ha bet, If 'you have the recordings you. can ,II~~, listen [0 the word 5., It will be useful 'to to study this section in

1[, 11 j U nction wi lh the recordings as the transcriptions Me only ~ I proximate. TIle~H~: practice words are stressed. (vowels underI ,n ed) to tell you which syllable to put most emphasis on when the

. ~ If,d h,38 :mnre than one syllable,

Than scripti 0"11


haph. vau Ie.r dj;irov jijig

zou ,l\.i.DO. lam, muu D'l:im



teacher vase

felt tent; yurt four.






. 'lad

'book rocket Russian faith, belief tell:

factory khan

flower stone religion

1:I1J'V' '~,J iJ

II n t)


'oyy:aam opoc cycar T8.TBap cba,opIIJ[


S.'us g

tatvar fa,hri,k

khana tsg:tseg ebuleu

_ ._


,It!,~r QYllYJ


l'here 'is one letter which is neither COnSOI1.ant nor vowel, the so .. l a I lerl hard sign 11 which is written after unpalatized consonants .g, TOB~r (l:ov~l'ulI) 'regist rr',

11,e worlds. JmM and TOB~r are from Tibetan. Others, like 6arm I nd ,nyy1lllB, are of Chinese origin, Buddhism bas providedmaman from Sanskrit, The word HOM for a book lnay have come from lreek, In modern times 4J'aflpBK and DBQ have entered Mongolian ia Russian. Mongolian has quite. a large international vocabulary of metric measurements and technical terms.


. ,on tolian 1 . .tt .r

Practic wo .

a.n_. '. ription

M .



a aa e

e I[

IIIl o

s an dal khBr DD,d a a :yu,s



C -. lr



~. VJ















X- ,



:3 it




II, co




o o




'/./' 1dC/














o .0 o


mm '.

u __..:_)



'eo,~. 1~ XOT OTTO '"



. BOO 0



Yll: m nt-uw

rOD .90 WBpS9



om newst :ap 't yes




othr s! nether water source














t~i --


thot odu' I

- ----==


e 00

Iii i Ii i io:.



mo unta In

noon door ... ate your

. obi desert t'tris

table something bone

yy y yy Id II .9 fi 10 a

.0 hir~ ym

"', ow copy outthe 1 tt. r oft e Mongolian Cyrillic alph bet from the table on pages 7 and 8,.

The ,"Ily_,iUic srna J ~. looks Iike the English handwritten g, p looks like I 'n lish P'I nd c lik English c.

Foi clari 0 i'[ i ~ usual to write a sl OIt hori ront L lin t w tile

lett r m and above the letter T (which whe I h ndwritte 10:k like the nglish m) to avoid confusi ,I] with Band D: (which when handwritten look 'i .. .ngli8hu land. u),

Thr '. 'f the letters Hii M and Jl, b gin with IS rru II 'hu .

the. a. '. lin befor _h· U oward str "

'.01._ a1.·1 : that in han writina ai d y and Y and v have tails going below the line whilr 'II and 11 stand on the line,


FE d-"-

. ,

:: .




" .



.. o


OJ ,









;1' I UU.


(JJ7 - '-u 11/

Xe cA.A

.:~·l··. cIrL .. - .. -

'1- ~

~ ,N;





fJ • PJ[.



x Q


3 10 X


I7J ./-










, ,

,;;A .!P





1'/ 7 ?j



- ,


. .





,(j/[ #.4 ~r¥ "If r/J


Oif" 'fill ~



y y q,

a IF

1// /"












z ~ LJ


7tJ .ft


6.1- ~



a HJ JZ;

ifi,-JIr QIl ,JfY I·~V


Practls ling wri'tin. I word .. "

When you have prac ised shaping the Jetter carr ictly, try linking seve al letters toeeth r 'to form words, as shown on page 9. Some I IL irs re difficult to join to,' ether 'without changing I heir I hape .. T1Jis is p' rticularl '0 of a, w iich is . est left with it tail in th, air.

_ ach won out at 1'-1 twice, the first im with an initia

1 11 tter the se cond time with an, initi J - ., 11 ter, Be careful

j l l t rn up letters ,r similar sha ie.

, lEan Practice


~ 1I'1Ii''I''IT'IfT' u~-~

aaap :rap ~e'pBB lKu:atAl'

r .0:


'¥J~LZ otU7~


~ ~

311 KHB,Q

J£ n

M I B D D I p




~ q


c,' w

:X~ ?J{~





~ tB~ ~



HOM UYY)Kllu: opac Icyes.r

T8TBap ¢,ta6pHK xom

'U11"'11'17V 4# fJlA;~·lJ

~ fj~

A 8,
e _ - - iIj


XBP,EtR,U.a ec



, . -



OJl.OO Bereu yyJl



Y y
y , tI!JA

. -.'f'Lt'A if'

,J;. :BJ 9 10 10 11

TtlR&1 fOB.L 1UHp9.9. 10M Ie


Test. your ~nowj.ed.,g _~ of the alphabet an work OU~ the meaning lo'r the following word ..... m st of which hav -. com fr m ~.lussian.):

U -u] words ror th ourist:

DBClIOpiTl aBT0 6yc,; Tea1p'1 Tax.CH~ tiB_xeT, mDKC. ImBEt~pr, D;ilpK

B· 0·- and drink:

Iaii~ peCTOP.'au~ .' ·7Te.pDPOJE) ,0' ·.·e~ 6:rprep


Peopl e an - institutions:

:0 . CWUtaJl .. .JJJ- 'DIl!'&T BB~ a·lIWIjI· L e.

_ ~ -~-~L· _~~I ~I

'Ieehuica] terms:

BMLtlQ,P'F., p~~ [teMeRT TmIeB_B3~ .Kap6BlpaTOp~ MBJJlBB- ,aTOM:

~ __ :II

:p ·rti _ g terms:

TOBBHC oporp8MK ro_- CDDllT, m . eit, 01DJMjDJI~

C'iti .: of the. world:

nO~OR~ BU,lI M~:, MOCXB!, Yua8:Bfiaamp, HIS. . '. POM~

. ountries " til. world:

J\BrJIB~ MoBrWl_ 0 ··.~··C, r-'JIM8H, x:sa~'" 4Jp1HQ,


,'0 now wh~' not practise 'writing these words?


I 1 . Mongol . . -iilic script is 110t phonetic- and tr nsliten tion a1 - ,-' ~ uchever IC.h me is used, can give only a rough indica tion ,0' I muuclation. Some wor Is have no stanc ard spellin "1 S'ODle 11 .ttcrs _ . no al. I y pronounced, and '. thers ar oronounced in a di 'Ierenf order from that writ . n, TIle guide t ,fO:rulDciati:n takeI" ~ unt r these Ier tutes, but h r cordini . r an esse ntlal guid

II i the corr let pronunciation.


I we learned how recognize md.iv~d"ual_yr",]hc letters and write

II_] Mong lian alph t we sa, rv 31at many initlal cousonants are

I ruch he - arne as i - nglish .. ]-liw. -. I; in speech - [1 t M ._ sol do not distinguish b:__' ween p and f lor kh an' k (f and, k are found

1 loan words), Til -. also fi d w·· rds b ginnin with r dif_ ult lc ronouoce 'without an initial 11' .' el: e.a, Russian opoc~

TIle sound of some consonants is modified W en . h .. y s and at I 1, nd ·f a w rd. Nate in particular th I ollowing . ru l cons onant _: soun s rather li te w~ final r. like k and final A like t

11 TaB

r 6B1Ull' ;0; r,~u.n;

tav bim,. Kadr!!!d


w ~ in' /letter

for rign

.-ome'limes 'final B may he nasaltzed a ng e.g, nyy)BHH (puujin ) , rock _ t~, also CaR (_·an·) I; fun d ; ,.. r S··' r _ ~ ~ " . fi '.1 v· w 1 afte " is

n t pronouced ut ensun that the' L not n - sali d e.g, 3D .. ' -D) "l h is, ~ '! "OBD' (chon) wolf', see page 20 {hidden g ~. v 'wed i : a 1 o writte t distin uis v deed final ~~ frOID voiceless final '.~ oara

(bag) 'little , oar (IJJ· k) 'mask',


Now W L ar going to lookat tile pronunciation o· Mongolian vowels in detai .. distinguishing first between short and long, vowels;

-h~ &f ·

t . IS CID~ atteet mearung:

~ac/ (I-sas/tsaas) I now/paper ~/m (iidJiiiid, noon/door yn,lyyn (ul/uo.l) sole/mountain 'ynlyyJI (iil/niil.) no t/ c lou d

TIle short vow Is are (in Mongolian alphabetical order): a "0) as t he "a ~ III .I C'CI 'L ~: ca:a;Jl;lJI (sand oJ) chair

B (:i) as the 'i ~ in 'tin 1)': 'eOH" H ( n ewstpa per) o (0) as the 'o' in "hot: XOIT (khat) own

B (H~ as the 'ea' in 'earn': a;lBpl (odor) day "1 (u) a he 'aw' in. 'awful': yc (us) water

'Y' (0) as the 'u' in 'put': y;u; (,l noon

,L (short i) as the r in "Gobi': roB_' (014) Gobi, a (e) as the e ~ in 'den ': ,JIB (ell) this

All but one of t11 e ] on g 'lowe ls are doubled short vowels: sa (aa) a Ul 'a' in 'bath': xapa.~a (kbarondaa) pencil d (ii) as th 'ea"!n 'team : 1·d_M (tiilll,) yes

00 (00) a 1'11g 'au' in 'haunt': ID;QOO (od-.;o,;"Q) now'

es (iiti) :us long 'ea. ill earn ': Kar,DS (lID no) another yy tUII) as long 'aw' in 'awful': yy.n (DI1]I) mountain W (iii) as 1011.,g i u' in 'put': YYJJ: (iiu,d) door, gale

fd (y, as tile ~i~ ill "ill': Tamd (taux) ylour

u eel as long 'e in 'den'; mHp9:tJ (hirceJ table

ShOTt and long vowels can start 'with at glide or y-sound:

III (ya) as the 'yu in 'yum': lIMY. (yalmo.a) goat J!8 (yaa) as th e '.a'~ in 'yarn': 1IaM: (yoam) ministry i (yo) as the ~y8J,~ in 'yacht': Ie (yos) rule, custom

eo (yoo) as the 'o' in 'yore -: ISOTOH (y'oo'ton) -sugar lump e (yo) as tile 'yea ~ in 'yean]': ee (yos) nine

,I) (yu) as. the 'you' in 'you': I.OK (yUlll) (SOUle) hing 'loy (yuu) as, long 'you' in 'you': my (you) what?

lOy (yiiii) as y plus long 'u' in 'put': (see pag 13)"

uw Is may combine to form diphthongs:

ua (ai) as the 'eye in 'eyes': Ji8.Dd (dolai) sea

ua fia) as! 18 - in 'Asia': aMBapaa (aIIU_Afaa) individually o· (oi') as the 'oy' in 'boy': H'UXOi: (ookhm) dog

ys. (u~:) as 'we' in 'wonder': ,XJapaa (kll,~au) 'barracks (ui) as the 'wi' in 'will': YWLD (ullakh) to cry

,:I (ill) as the 'u in 'put' +' 'i': 'yiJl)J,-UP (illldver) factory d (ei) as 'the 'ea ~ in 'yea': X!Jp.~rr,!)i: (kbe're&le'i) neoessary

owel harmony

( wels are clase d as 'back' or 'front and are 'harmonized', that is 'to ~. _y, diff rent classes' 0 [lot mix within the same stem or its suffixes, Th back vowels produced at the back of tile mouth are a D und -Y' (a, 0 and n) and their y-glide equivalen s ,II, is and 10 (ya~ loan d yn), am , Jd (y), as in 3!ypraa (zurgua) ~ six' ~ HOM:illB (n,oJuy"n) u ~~ a book ~ lIMap (Y,3 mar) wh at' - tie (yos) ~ rule ens tom' and 10M (,UUD) 'thing' ~ etc,

The front vowels produced at. th front of the mouth are a and V: (0 and iii) all I their y-glide equivalents e and' 10 (Y'o 3J1d yti), find " (e), as in BIB'eB~Bp (ti,n,!oodtir) today', Y-m (giid.) 'door', 9U ( In) 'this' and ee (ylo s) 'nine ',

Not - that the vowel m represents a, back vowel in 'tile combination ~ but a front vowel in 'lOY' e,.8. the interrogative particles alter words ending in a long vowel:

Xallau;rraa my 11 (kh-or,aodg you.'?) Is 'his a pencil? InHp~8 my? (shiree yiiii?) ls this a 'table?

Initial II (i) is a 0" nt vowel: DfJ:9B yy?' (Irvj;!jj~!') 'did come?' tunstressed short v wels like the ,D inup3u almost disappear}, The I tt _'f' 'R is n e utra 1 and can be mixed 'with 'back or frcn t vowels, e.g, unm (aJil) 'work t', 19~P;R'p (octl.i IIdor) 'ye sterday ~ .

Besides distlnguishing vowel length (page 12) it is equally imporI ant to distinguish vowel [I[ uality Note lh. differences between 'the j ollowing back- and front-vowel words:

syy/gyy ( dZUlll/dzliii) hundred /need e

annru9-ll)9H ( olon) ol.on) ma ny /thin

ye/re (us/u's) water/hair

YIIl1D' ( D_. I ill) sol et n ot

'yyn/wn (uulfuiil) mountain'cloud



Ap'parent excep lons to vowel hair' _01 y'

The negative suffix ... pi can be attached to black. or trent st ms and their suffixes: BafmryA (lJaikllgiii) "There isn't any'; Baibttyj' .IQY? (baikllpi YUU) 'Isn . there tiny?' JQJ9:JrfA (.ir~Kiu) 'didn t come', Mongolian 'person! or plaice names winch seem to break the vowel harmony ro') es consist of two (or more) separate elements:

Cyx.6uTap lS,ilkh.-baa:tar) ~ JlJBC8H1fJJlTd,M (L'VS3D,·chii1Ic:m)~

( ..

~epxlulB .. nd.Dr~-·Elaaon), etc,

Possible vowel sequences

The vowels of each syllable d pend 011 those 0.( the immediately preceding syllable, Note that 0 cannot follow I OJ' y~ s. cannot follow e, e cannot follow 3 or·y and s cannot fnUow 8 and f and, appear only in the first syllable, The fOlilowmng rules indicate what sequences are possible:

va we! of' .f'ollo wing syllable

I, sa d~ y~ JY! 71;, 10 (my) J!, Jla

(sho t) a

(long) ,1&, 1J,! Ll, lOy,~ 1m (diphthong) afi, yi~ 111, 'KY'

(short) !Ii

(long) :l3l CD ~ ft· (diphthong) d~ y.i:

(short) 0 is

(long) 00, eo~ Y1~ .:&iI! (diphthong) 0:1, liD

(shor t) e, e

(long) ee~ ee, YY t (dmpb'[hong) d~ vi

(8110,rt) B~ 31

(long ,) ~'~I '11lP'"

- ,--~ .11"

(diphthong) a:l~ 1it

K (first syllable only), IIi:

I ing short vowels

'l vowels not begi .ning, a word or not appearing In the ftrs't , 1111·le are written according tOI rules which categorize consenauts

I • ~ c'':2III~'7'e- d ." (w· jth a vowel) O·T 'unvocal ized': ~l .... u_1--LL .. ·.· '", ..... '". ' 1&1] 'y' ...... :'.' ~ ,,' "" _ '¥.~' :~~ J~. ~ :

\II~ realized consonants (7) M! H~ r, ,HI' 6., :0, P

unvocalized consonants (9) Jt ,-. 8., C, T,~ , D.~I .~ m

r. I· seven vocalised consonants must be either preceded or r .. low' d by ,3 'Vowel e.g, aM 'mouth'. IJP.BIB 'three', The nine I II vocalized consonants may fellow a '7' (see above) without a ~ rwcl, e~g. ~pr 'at home' ~ C",'I 'studying', As B and F cannot be II U· l hird consecutive consonant in a word a vow 'l must 'be inserted, II MALR1iI':AD~ rises' VDvCnT\S 'spo no' C· ~U· it r~ 01-' lh ee co -lti· . - mlni'if-

r I .myv-'" . iiJ·· I!!I ~ ,AQIoIlJLU~.. i:!i ... ~ U "_ • _ .Ii ~ ... 'I- ;.- ~ •. • r ' .Dl1!!on,'ILiIl: .. S

~II possible if the middle one is R "9~ (see above): e.g, apCJ[aB 'lion', I rh . enid of a. word i77' oc (;97' are not possible and '~99' and ~ 9' are rare.


I 'b e stress in words, with short 'vowels only falls 10]] the first SbOIt lwei: DnOR (ol,o:n) 'many', amm (g)'.D) 'kills', from anax . to kill', 111 words, with 011.·· :[ ong vowel or di phthong the strr ss is, on the Ion vowel (diphthong): JDBIlI (waaR) red', 1DWI.H ( -'s,ea '. \" hen followed 'by a. long vowel at short vowel becomes indistinct ~I may disappear: OlIDR (alon) 'many', .omoo (ol.lUl) ~by many',

In words with more 'than one long vowel the stress is IOn the J multimate lODI vowel: r~a,aa, (gantcaaroa) 'on one's own', V.IIi&iII::&:L -8 "ii oriigiio ) ~ oneself yyqnaapal (u ucldaaJ,al) ~ 5'OE.ry ~ , Mongoliaa personal and place names ~m,ay consist of two or more elements which are stressed separately: e.g, :roMfiOcypDH

l.Qmbos.iiJ-en), BRlKR-Ban'lll1 (Bgan. O:IIii) ~ Ynas'uDIaT,ap (liIa,an· h~J" tar) ..

'Words of Russian origin are stressed the Russian 'way: e.g, LBTOUYC (avt. bus) 'bus', 'XaDURA' I(mas'bin) 'machine', etc,

·,ictionaries. of Mongolian list noun sterns without suffixes, The sterns are the carriers of basic meaning, e.,g. nJl [uul) 'mountain 11 ,


F:jp (er) 'yurt ~ (ro Lind felt tent ~ and b' . xtension horne', M: ,sf M ,n. ali' n dictk nari _ s list ver b as pres. ut-Iuture v rrbal n· mns (vel m plu I uti], "'X wi III a linkin .. w ,:1 after con errants):

, ~g~ CJJ"-', CYJX ;10 it'rlive;l Y3~,9' - 139," 't '·'1~"tudy".

" uffixes modify tile mean ing of th sterns an ,- , annot occur a one, D rivattonal suffixes create n w st nu ~I I .g;. from rBp t e verb ,_'PJIBX (e~le ") me ning, t married' (L ~ ~ acquire . 11, '1 W)~ and r9'pJlyYJl9, _r-riii-Iekh !it marry 0' ', Inflectional suffix ~ play the role of noun • I eel ru ion", e.g, NllfDi-u (ger-jin ~of' I yu t' (lit, 'yurt-of"), or 'verb conjugation, e.g. I9PJDL!!!I ( 'er-Jee) 'marri dll [lit, 'yurt-has ,C' uir _ d'), Noun stems m ''1 r .ceiv a. serie 0

uIl-:' :.g. T3pBii:RxD~:InlI!11 'with one', fa - _ily~ (nlp-ri,n: .. x ... saI'Iiv.:ii '_'1I'v.:Ii - 'yurt- f"- re r en-s -with- 'IW' n ')'

~Q. "'-~, . ,_.. _, - u ' ~ .' T II

W- d , d

o . _ or',' 'r

The usual word Old rr in u s, nt me is subject object-verb '·LLt not all these components need .. ,0 be present. ' I study Mongolian 'i I ER KOBrOJJ3J!I Y3B3 (bi m.Q.D'g:l khel jize'o) 'I Mongol language study,' Int rrog tive tb, yy?) 01 emphatic (myy A33l) P rticles may to ow th nal v _ rn and s metimes a name sroneun f .. r __ P asis:

Calbr fJ,aitHa yy To? ( ,ain b,ainW! tal ~I-I, 'W ar _ you?'


I ' this lesson you ", ill lea'n~

Some forms of greeting ijnd saying goodbye How to identify vcursslf

• Various ways of express i ng 'tc bel.

• Son1118 sirnpk questions and answers

• Personal and possessive pronouns

ym;IX8ll YJJBBa8TSpr I~e Brown,s' ln Ula,n lata"

I l id B~ own~ a British busincs :'11Ian fI111d his wit"' Jf, tie have arrived


thev are about to leav tn r;J terminal Duvid

a M, mgolian official he had met once ~, fore

I llu aior airport.

Ipproa'/1. db' ,'tikI? , I London,


'1 B ]1:. :yx:

~I,CBH.A: , VM.:

J [ HIlA:

I unn:,

'I' KI-f:

r ' 'VU:J.:

HO'eH Spay, 1

" Y" 331.!' {U~,H OaH a ' ?

_ aan. a caHII 6aIma yy'? 'atuI Sa 11 aal

, ouau caaxaa I<lY 6aHlua?

Mr Brown.r

Hey, Sukhl "/O'H) ar ' you?

I'm well. { .. l.fl Q" , you. I

[ m fine"


SOX.If: Mlar s new?

DAVID,: much. 110w15 the j'~n,ily?

SOXH: Fine! 'Whol- this?

-DAVln: This is n~y' wife.

lllaRl Yr Vocabulary

oDfPUt 69lual rall'p»I :MJI1Uu't

'Hoe a c.aitB ca;bm

you [pollte) pea ccful

e mill your La ~-~ y

(in terrnga ti ve) who?

lhis (em'hatic)

nt-future tense -na

_ _ -

f I present-future tense is fanned by adding to the verb stem the III e « B8 OI' one of its. variants lOIoo, "He~ '-0 in k, eping with the stem II \ V f ~: ad,... fia.ibra Bl nd si m i larl yaM'" DttJDlO 'm a y" Ii SI'-- alBa ~ gi ves t ~, I -,Ha 'comes', 6yq~ OyldC)1 s uno unds ., an d s a on, Th" final a in I FI _ Is not pronounced, 1l11f final 'Vowels in the other examples are' I ~I I en between rhe Iast two consonants: fiollBo (bol,on)._ 8rB8

I! ,~iu) and ,upm (lren), The short final vowel may be lengthened Jill emphasis: BBIIlII. sa! I/you/they) is/am/are (indeed)! ~

ing questions

I igolian uses interrogative particles to form questions from , II men ts, for example .,,?i in the qLB:Sti,OD CaJtn 6,BlI1la yy?1 ("weU I I re?'), where 6aitR8 has back: vowels, The fron vowel equiva~I 111 is w? (for back and front vowels see page 13)., ,tJ.KSJ ,HOM Y11 ~ nT3p yy? 'Is it a book. or a. notebook?' After nouns ending ':n ]11JI" vowels the 'YY? and If? become . Of? and lOY? as in, 3D l'!lprlUt 1") 1/ Ctltis, wife? '),

I U sentences containing an inn rrogative word ('Wl10?1I' or I. r '7') Ior example), the interrogative particles used are as or , H in ,9g X»B 6D? (!i'Jus who?'] or 8m, my :u'? ("this what'?') " after words ending in "'B~ -n, .. M or -a and E after o. he:r tters,

he suffixes -x and ·-X8a

l ne way '0 express the idea of belonging is [UI attach the suffix to the pos essor, e.g, Ta. ~yOL1\ T8.Iill_lI 'yours' TIHIflib: 'of yours' ~ Illl! suffix "'X'8R (-,ZDEj, -XS-H) 'for people e.g, TaHa.ituB 'those of ~ urs', 'your f amily' ean 'be added to names: Bpa;y.m4XaB the

"Cyxai . II'S' "'klk. ~.~ ,~- ,"1"- ~ bservi zowel harmo 'U

I rowns ,·.· ··:.U '·11 S lJ.amly ~ 0 ·senru]g vowe narrnony

Dun eases

t,~ctionafies and vocabularies Iist noun stems without suffixes,

· f ... '"d

When a suffisless stem is the subject ol tEl sent nee r IS sai to, ne

hi the n mina ive case, However, 'the 'tern 10' a. noun which is the ubjeet .. f a sentenee may not be suffixless; for . xample, it may have a plural suffix, Also, the fact that a stem h~ suffix1ess does '[lot II eee s s aril Y me III that tt is the s u bj e et of a senten ce.



- _.





(inlc'[[og,ative) 'wife



geed, well nice: pretty

YJ/nlmyJmy DB

SiJD ~(aalOO)1

Language points Th article

Th re is no defmit or indefmite article in Mongolian, and in translating Mongolian into English 'the' or '8' .. 4a01 should be inserted as appropriate, according to context. However, Mongols do use [he ,nnni,eral 'one' emir) for 8J,~ D1iID, or a' pees,on (Dr xya:)"

The word 6a.tna is, the present-future tens form f th verb aab "tOI be andme all, "am', 'is' Of' are', Like aU Mongolian verb forms, DutRa is invariable for number and person: clft ID"aiIBa 'am/is/are we U '. Sometimes, 'however" the verb tto be ~ is un d ers ood, In, the dialogue for example, Sukh asks David: fbml DR fig? . this who? and David answers; SlD MAUOa nJp:rd 'this my wife' ~ Similar y one ean sa,y= MUMM. nprHi Ilarm, 'my 'wife teacher', etc,


I t is generally considered that Mongolian has seven grammatical cases, The other six are called the accusative, genltive, dative/ locative ablative, instrumental and comitatlve cases .. According to 'lite relationship with other words in the sentence, they 'modify . meaning by the attachment of case suffixes to the stem 'he cases, their !lull]'" es, meaning and use are de scribed in the text, Some grammarians consider that Mongol bas an eighth CBlSe the 'directional' using the word Pi" "towards', but 1 have treated ,W as A postposition,

Fleet,ingl n

Many Mongolian noun. include a 'f~ceting' n' which is not apparent in the sufflxless stern or the accusative, ins' rumental and comitative s uJfix. _ s, bu t appe us in the i ti ve, da ~i vena cat ~ vie a nd a bla ti v e suffixe s e. g~ liD)]; io tree' ~ 'woad I MO)thJr ~ the (teet (ob] ect ) MO;ItOO.P 'by means of wood" MOJJ;rOir 'with wood', but MOiI:JIItI 'of the tree'! M0;rl:Q'BJl; '1..'0 t he tre e ~ MD:ABOOC ~ 'from the lre e ~

Used as an adjective attributively MO~ has the n-form MO,~B meaning 'wooden', Vocabularies m.ay indicate in brackets the Ilecting n e.g, M~(B)'1 or if a vowel changes the fun. n-Iorm e.g,

. - .

ap·,uB (apBWI)~ MQPh (MOP'BH)~ Occurrence of fleeting, 11 is irregular.

Some Mongolian word sterns ending Ul""1I have ,8 bidden. s' sound, so that the R is pronounced 'rig': e .. g,. my-ynm (sbuuda.ngJ. Similar

d . 1- d ~ itt 'b 'ld-' I; d - I r- . d-; -t- _. "j

WO'f.S inc u e ua;uILyu4,' U.11ng an. cw ":un ~ - reasury I

Vocabularies; may indicate hidden g. e.,g .. illYy;n:am:(r)"


TIle all-purpose Mongolian greeting Ca;b 6aitna "1 means literally "Are (is) (you~ he) well?' It is used for "Good morning', 'Good afternoon', 'How do you d.O?·1 'or 'How are you?' Wilen visiting a family, especially in the country, you should agree that everybody's fine 'before 'YOU proceed '0 other maners,


The next question to ask is. CDRKH ,cRIixm my f.lafara? 'news nice

what is? . to which th an wer is, usually Iaibas fhutlJl 'peaceful" 'quiet is" i.e, nothing much, is happening.

II hose initialquestions are not intended to elicit specific answer: .

h are " xpressions of goodwill, Such ritual questions, and

rn'~nAcs are considered quit natural and necessary when nomads II ~ hospitality to stranger .

Uing people by name

II 111 David sees Sukh, he say~ Cyx 9.1d 'Hey, Stikh!' There is no ulve case for nouns .in. Mongolian, but the effect is produced I (ding 21 suitable king vowel '[0 e ress the name (all title) of the

- -. .- - '-H- '8" I' 'ri 3 - - -, "W'-- ~ P

I (Hl call d: BaT 18.~, Ii eYt j at. '. ·:saN· IIIG. . .... ar er EO

cise 1


, ru 1 range. these sentences to make a. conversation:

11'1 II 6aRBa a.m.! CaDH 6a.iHa yy? CVl{ 9~)'~ C,aiR" Ta CIKH 6~rib]a yy1

nswer these questions with reference to the dialogue:

~rU3 X3R fi~? 2 Conaa ,caiXaJJ lOY OaHlla?

\ Tanaaxaa cairE' 6af:uIlt yy? 4. 3J.rn HOeD )lellT.J.A Bpaya ss? " I"r8.!iBaH: OaHillI:i yy~?

~ nswers are to be tound i.'n the Key to' exereises,

~ i It in [he blanks in. the following dialogue:

6· ?

)J;esH:;n: CaHfJ · •. ·:11111·,3, __ !

Cvx: . T.a cann __ rr?1

\ )J;eBMJJ.; Con 1'1 11

1 CYlr: 6,aIDla.

)leBltn: Caill~

r- w n

to'v 0 8J!I na -.r

, ...





Di,alogue 2 m

Ta, X84BB DYIA'4r JIB? Wherel do you' live?

JlI~l'ie B ,,OW'" gets to kno w an d finds au r tvh ere hie ll lies,.

Cy:,~ ~ X,{~.TarTaM HPBYJ.T.? Caml 6ai1r.Ha yy?

iKIoJJIH~ Cab.. T.I CamE D.aHlIa yy?

Cvx: CaibJ: 6amr(J, aal MKR:fJlll 1I3J11 Cyx,. 1"aHld asp X311 [)tJ?

)KT()JfK: M.Itum:j' na,1l1 }KIomrI; Tansr ODor II~p?

Cv x: M fIRH:A 000 r H9P t.I 'YnYYlThI Cvx ~ MHlmH: r:Jp:rKIDI illlP' OlUya" Ta aap 'X~U1Haac HPC!tB 63?

BRA casxaa J1on~oll,;'OT'OO{': tdpc3'H.

Ji)l;apcau yy?


"'1i;;V)" .. 0 Frf)iJ • LlL'\JJ .. ..I..l..¥.J. ll!


J ~ .••

"\IF YO.",.. 'I'T"D' •• -#'i~..!Lr~ii

C lJiliIi'";;




Jut [ ':

JUI'IE:' , IjI(,U!


SOX1-I': ], 1E~


J t.t :

I" " 0' Kli ~

Ta Hap xaaaa CYY>l( o,~uma 19?

E!a;D «Yna,*9iH6aa"]"a~p» :JO~ 6yy~~

xaana c~ar B~7

]ifi r3pT£iH x 0 poonorm cyyp;ar"

My, Brown? How are you?

Tm well! How are }IOll?

/Jm fine. My' name is Silkh: What~ YO&U' namei

~ . I' W,'l!li ft- ll- ?

My nam« is Julie. ,'ilOcl'S' your' U' name.

My [uil name itt Chuluuny Sak-h., ,My wife's name is OY,UUI1-. W here 11" ve you come from?

We have just arrived from London, Are you tired?


Where are you staying?

We~te staying at the Uloanbaatar Hotel. Whe're' do you, live? 1 Ii ve tn 1'1 J'u n d istr ict.

NO'[e~ ln the outer suburbs (:~f Ulan Bator people live in r3:p! OT yurts, round felt U!.nITS grouped in fenced .Qo,m,poun.ds.

,liD Yr Vo cab u/alry



stop, station

Y urt: horne vis itor, S uest


,3 0 'IDm

'to . come

[plural particle) nam

fa,LI1 'IS name recently

to live" slt your

[10. where'? Mrs, Miss d i s trict '~O\Vn

to tire

]tUlm X8.TlrraJr XD',OC!lJIOII 2M


genitive ease

I ] l suffix for the geni't~v.·, noun case (meaning ~of') is -,II ("'IiDl~ , H) or ~LI (.' ,) add ed to he stem as follows:

La stems ending, in a. diphthong: e.g, HOXOA: ,_ HoxoiB of a dog

bl 0 back-vow ~ 'st m ending in lB.! e .. ,g .. 1IYJI7YB - lfYJIYYMt Chuluun s

-1dI[ to bEU:K3VDw',el stems unless ending in IJ~ '11"1 r, ~ nl" ill: e.g, HOM - 'mllGaDl of a book

.. ' . to back-vowel stems ending ins, "'I 1\ a ~ '!: e.g, fiarm = 6u:wa:la of the teacher

~. nd -to front - vowel stems wi th a sh or'[ vowel;

e.g .. l3p ~ np" of a glr or yurt;

..;d '[0 front-vowel S' ems, ending in "'K: e.g, xys; ~ xyBBit of a man.

~ToiIIP, to long front-vowel stems with Be, .. ting 0: e.g, U1Bp~ - WlIIplllmti: of a. 'table

.~-J"!I!'III', to s ems 'with hidden g::

e.g. mY)'JJ:u - myy;U;', .. ", of the post

rvr mgolians have nOI inherited surname" 'The genitive suffix attac..lled 1 the father s name distinguishe 'it from a person's given ( p erso nat) narn e: 'l:r:JJJJILbl BaT' 'Bat (son) of Chuluun' ~

I ie suffix for the ablative noun case (meaning 'from Of' 'than') is KG ( ... eoe, -eee, .. sse) or -DC (-lIOC.) added to the stem as follows:

where {Tom?


:lOT _ XO'fOOC YJraaBfiUTapUc

front vowels: Q'B - xy.&39C mBBS' - me:B69C

I:3J - rsp88C

hidden g: lD}'})\II[ - mJ1"'Dmraac fie etlng n: llDIJPlB =lDJIp911U11C back-vowel sterns ending in II: Of L:

~lrJYJm ._ CJll11YJD1Il-C

U'OID town

from Ulan Bator frolm, a 'man

from the night from a yurt

from the post from the table

from the school

The suffix for '[he dative/locative noun ca-se (meaning "at", 'in', or 'to') Is .. ;m: n.dde.d to be stem. after any vowel, diphthong er '-JI1 "oM or "'2. (sometimes with a linking vowel):

back vowels: 30~ a~ at th hole] xoron 'in the town myJABEijl;, in the p' st

front 'Vowels: mellBJ! in the night ~ to tile man j eeting n: muP!J~1 - 1DlfJtI~9q to the table

: til. _ rwi e th· 'ufnx is R7 after -c, -r, -p:

npT in 'tile. 'yurt YJlamOUTapT in Ulan Bator

with SOI~[~le exceptions including ync ~ yx-c1,Jl; and rc ~ ycaJQl;.

Personal pronouns

The personal pronouns in the first and. second person ate:

611 I D~ we

'U you (to a child lor close friend) "fa you (polite or plural)

For the third person he/she/it is 'usually T8p 'that' or ~p xyu:, 'that person', and 'they' T!lJJ:. It is, possible to specify the sex of the third person by adding 'man ~p (ap9rl9iI) or 'woman' :9M (a.mrml) e.g, m·p :1M XJB that female person' 9D :s;p :x.yJI 'this male person'.

Plural particle 'FU~Ll)'

The personal pronoun Ta (and T.I;rJ; 'those') may attract the plural particle Hap w hich is also used after J10'UnS des ignating pe op t e: Ta ss.;p ~ you ~~ ( all) , T91~' up ~t hey' , DIM! HIP ~ lamas -, 6arm .up 'teachers', etc,.

_eSSIV'R pronouns

l ~ I t ,,~ses;s;jve pronouns are the ~ arne as the person £1.1 pronouns in

t ~ wni ive case form,



I I 1)1 rson 1;1-9-891'

I Ii I perso·nq M H Hi TaBJd

I r I orson (T)ytlll[i

my M1JDd/OHJ(R8R our

your (thy)

your maa4 Y'OIJ.f

_it ts T!lituHi their

)1 l~n_t[U.'y the inclusive MIHal meant 'ours and your$, while the ~ It slve 01lJljAL\\1A meant 'ours but not yours', ,8. distinction .. now 11 ~ lid I Y made ~ The. pas es si \I Iorrn of TB DIP 1:5 TO aapLm.

ant-future verbal nouns

rbal [10 uns are a class of words which gramma tically can act as 1 hs or 1]OUn.~i Verbal nouns in stem plus -x are called present- 1 uture verbal nouns e.g, 6dx to be ~ like the English infinitive.

I ~ 'may be used in questions: Ta g:.BA tla:lx yy1 'Will you be II I rc? 'I They may also attract case suffixes like ordinary nouns: BII I RAOBJt 6a:b:;Qaa When I am in London',

erfeetlve verball noun -can

I he perfective verbal noun with 'U' fix -caa ("Qou)-ce,H~ -eBB) is ~ -idely used 0 describe a completed action in. the past: e.g, QC-!I!lI:

I formed from the verb IS -_m :up (from IQlrlX Ii·O come' plus the unix "'C3R (JIpcaB 'carne"). Similar constructions include CYY""CIH

I' d~ ,- iI; at' (frc - - .) .. - ---. ..' ~ - t ~·:PJ ( .)'.. .-.-.- !I.. .,. I vc "or sa. ,. om cyyx. ~ OP-COB en.··1 eu .' opo, .~ .. , 1):r""00.0 ga,ve

t rex)~ etc.

. rative. verbal nlourn -nar

he iterative 'Verba] noun with suffix iii~ ( ... ~or ~ , .. ;! -,~!ilr) indi-

~Htes, a regular, habitual ~ repeat ed Of long-term activity: e~g~ C)')'AU II,., t"onned from 'the 'verb stem cyy' (from cyyx 'to U ve ~ - Of lisiC) pl us ~ he suffix ... ~: CfnI:Ir live' or 'lives' (regularly), similarly: 6d nar, op- DOlT 11 er- ;E{er - i s', "ent ers', ~ give s' (ha bituall y) ~ The i te r ati v e i' of l he present tense when it stands alone, but "may be modified by l he tense of other verb: later ill. the sentence,

Imperfective con've'rlb -:lK/~;

Converbs express ,~I] action 'that precedes, accompanies or modifies that of the main verb, The imperfective converb describes a continuous action. The suffix: -llt is a tached to the verb stem and followed by 6atna: e.g, C'fJJ.K: fiaba, 'am/is/ar: living/sl' ring' from ICYy"~ D.IIKa oaba 'writing' 'from DKqjjJ(~ After stems ending 'in -r and mos ending in -:B or ... p instead of "'Z. we write ,,"q~: arI' 6aba

.' iO '. jI fn .',' , , , ' ~'Iiiu ~ t', d _" '~j '_ _ _. E' _ " tio .

givmg rom 9['8X, c.,.,.: o_a. S_U _ ',Ylog rrom C)lJu. "xcep IOns

in "]ud,.· OpE oaba 'entering' from opox.

Names II _d farms af addresa

At presen Mongols have one given [lame (B9p) whicn serves as both forename and surname. 'Wives do not adopt their husband's name Ion marriage. Short lor familiar forms of the given 'name are us ed within t he family 011 among close friends,

To distinguish themselves from others 'with the same given name, Mongols precede it with their father s name (sometimes their mother'S name) plus the possessive (genitive case) suffix (see

page 23) - .BaTMB ~op . ~ A1op: ' ;D:YJD4U1., etc; where Dorj'

fathe 's name is Bat and Dulmaa's fer her' name is Dor], TIl.'! Mongols call their father's name (patronymic) OHor which originally meant 'clan" The patronymic is often reduced to the initial tetter


- B~ Dorj, D. Dulmaa, etc,

When they write their patronymics in English some Mongols confusingly omit the possessive suffix - Bat Dorj, Dorj Dulmaa, etc.

Mongols address one another by name, relationship 0,. job title perhaps plus, he word r,-d,~, which is, a polite form, IDr an appropriate long vowel: CyX ryd! 'Mr Sukh!', Aas u! 'Father! '~ 'Xyx l]1d! 'Excuse me, sir!'

Children address their parents and elder siblings as TI and wives used to do the same ' 0 their husbands, although tha custom. is no longer so firmly entrenched,

Foreign me.n are addressed as HoeD 'mister'. (originally a princ ..

d th II, .. : _, ., h ss) - d wo - - e a ~ 'V"f.I1I"m'i!:i''I'II''rI'''&

an n e A..itJljg m c ess ~ an ,', men '. i:'- Aa..I'CiU,' J);a.n,

Not' , ,[,E,,, -, _. - k ,\1 .. n. nit" \10'111',.. -- arne? 'I F-'or mnr~ about II -e . J1iEh" you as '·l'\\!.il10 l~, J'~ n·w .. ,.., '.' ", -' ._., ""'~ '" !i,

Mongolian personal names see page 2417.,

,cise 4a


ut be 'Verb sterns into the complet d past verbal noun :orm (stem

I I I~· eaa): e IC!J' ail'li~ ~Or" ~UI' -'Ii"!iD''U' 11'IU!Ja ,.

.111 iIiiilUDQ,.il "rij'e'i U&rl.I!Ii~~ u·____:__-~ ~-.., I II!!

~[)J; 'ate' 2 Y:3, 'saw' 3 Hp "earn. !
.: ~. .. - .
YJ.Dl1 'read' .5 61~1 ' wrote' 6 cyp 'studie d ~ ·rcisel4b

~ lit the same stems, into the imperfective converb form (stern plus

, ""dd" d ·t' druiD' ')"~" ~b P ti • - ~

or ... q a '_ ec I 0 u~,a '. e.g, DYJ-lK, u8~8 'IS rvmg, ~

. ercise 5

n nslate 'lb ' following in 0 Mongol: e~g,. 6. 6aieau: "1 was,'

1 am, 2. They wrote, :3 You came ..

1 ]. e was, :5 Th ey are, 6 'We Ki v eel"

'srr:ise 6

I r inslate t11,- following sentences into Mongclian:

J ey. Sukhl Is, this you wife'? Bat L! Mrs B row 11 is tire d ~ Waiter! What's your name? My name i David"

. lalogue 3

my "uC'c~r BS,? hat do vou da?

1fter a discussion o1Itfn,gft,aR'i~ skills and job, S'iikh and the Browns ~tl tree to meet again later.

t I~X:

I( OJl11:


II rona:

Ta lOy XHn~~r B3?

fiB Jlo~omu KX CypryyJrlj!f'tm 6anI1~ :3 (I., rra MOHrOJr. X3n M~J{~X 'Vv?

TKfd)l as, 6II MOBFall X~JI .X(aaX&H .M3JDl::t BId MODrOn X3n cypq Gait-r!. Ta Momon. X BI,n.H:HJ1: carll! yy?




Cy;r: ~eBH ;'

, 'ffKH:

J rs: ,-,tJ KH:

Ju' U~:

ram, 6HUl 16, __ 16arm cmn'i 6H Op'qyf, ~I 6 ~ - a. M1tInd1 '3I', rB O~' '_' 9M'I, r3.Bl.I 8lH'JLH '" JI M ,m" xry' ~ lin ra.TIiaa,u: , 'ap'HJf.n:aaIIhI BltMaH;q 2l1KHmta)!{ Tausr QlKHJI cmJtH yy7

MJ}ryi: :myy. 3t1l~ 6FJ Jlapq eaba. Aapaa 6 KPTat1r.

3a, 6' RpTafi!

Whal',/ you rio?

J 'm II London Uni v' r. ,ity 1_ aurer. So yOM ~ now Mon.goiioJ1 then?

Yes J do know Mongolian Q bit" [lur" 'studying Mongolitl.J'1.

Ar YOl a Mongolian. la 1, uage r -fl -h 't?

No I 'm not a teacher. I 111. (J transiator. My w~fe" UUIl ls a doct. r, ~ ut Silt! doesn 't speak English. I am working ot the Mint:~try of' External Relation .'

JIi' ylll.7' work OK?

J t's HoI bud. Look T '1:1 tn a hurry=See ya~' late 1'! ,OK. Goodbye!

IrnUB9 Yr VOC~ bulary

is'' ~TBi DB

61JlQ r-ua.~ 19J1f1,

Aapaa ,zanaB



to 'work ':'n Iish teacher

, : odhve


Mongol (1 an ) not bad

l ]1 k n OVl1 speak tran Iator

cheol yes

relat ion S

It do make langue g ~ , - gue

crt i ' I' (final parti le) doctor


to hUTJY

N08rOJl Myyrrft M3,A3':

_p- _ ~ an: , ."m,


no l (this bu t)

fOI i: n, .. xternal but

lal, r

a . ttle

o "., we U, so, etc, bi-reat




JlB1d1(.H) sap

- 1-- lag~, pol ,- ts

bOlut ths g:~'nit-v: C' 5'·

I llllh r examples of the genitive case (page 23) in' ialogue 3 illus- 1 tore back, and . nt v wel .uf ~ e·:

k vowe .:: ~L1B a: j_ . UlDIJI fiYY;IIJ1MR 11 tJ· - . r -(11)- as 1:

~.v.""''''''¥'''I' "",', - "pIBJI:Lt88JffJ 'of relati ns' b • au'· 0 - the long

I~ I ~ I vowel; I~ypryym follows the rule that a back stern 1·11. ins, n adds .. '0:111:: C:rp17Y'JWIls 'o school',

III m v w Is: -{B) ~n Dll: _, DIDud: of .. anguag " b '1 . u,:

.. ting n,

nder nf r ouns


lian bas no grammatical gendet. th t is, n [1] euline emi-

rr n u er form .of n, U S or pr n, uns, Nun, n t grid, '

ifi ~ s th t e.g, 'arm 'teacher', 3M1J "do t fr', '

~ I In dater' '. an be '"1 11]~1 11 or a woman, The ending ""11 or "'l['ll is a unmon marker for such noun " While ~.M'Q is formed from another un, 3M' e l in e I' OP"IJYJIIrIiI '".. a verbal 11 0 un of a en t deriv d n the verb ~ to translat ~

rlvatlon of I iouns

tn iditi nal M, ru olian word for 'bu ine sman' is . &l:Maa 1 '


~ I 1 .a.iMaa. !ltr.· '. The word ~~,"JIlU from ,xrnwmaa als

trnde ha tende d t J In an p: "j],. er, while X)rllU'JUll''l is ': _ sh P I slstaut. t nder the growing influence of English, the word

'1· -CMes 'businessman has, "'DIe', d rhe Mongolian vocabulary d be n to lose h - deroga .ory .":_ nse that it once 1131d i •. ussian,

riv ations from this are 6113Rec' uid 6H3BC :9 iXJm " ',i usi .ess

IlIan~ g . r "

uns which are 1 ne WT, _ in lish may b tw in M 'n llan.,


j' example" 3(l'lllA 6WJ{aJlh uel t (lit .. 'visi : rrs dismounting-pla ',:_')

Iud MeHreR T!J.M;Jl;9n 'banknot. L~ (lit, 'silver'J'money marked'), True \ : rd. pc irs, create a ne if rel at t, d rn e aning: . - -8. :mn:6ara. 'tabl e~ nr \, 'glass, and spoon' .. eq9p BIIM height' 'high low' ~


Noun plurals

In the Mongolian for 'hoi el ~ .'!O"lBA ftYJJ:ta.:ll1 the word 30t.DJA i' th plural of SD 'a visitor' or 'guest', The plural suffix "'JX (not t 1 'be confused with the d tive/locative case SD E6x ~;m;) replaces the last l tter of a small number 0 nouns: .ROXOH. - ItOX~ dog(s)~ The plural sULffix -c is also possible: yr O§O lfro wordjs],

However, most. nOUD plurals Me formed with the suffixes '''(H~

"'(H)~ lor "',"1lI"~:

DOM - HOMJ~ boo . ( ),~ .rnp - r3PYf~ yurtfs)

xyyx~ - XVYIAn;tl childjren) dropping the short vowel 9 IBIU, - IMIlIlHYYJ1; ,goat(~) H separating the long vowels KO!1TOJI - :Y:OImJJl'lYYJt Mongol, Mongols

6ycryB = DY'~ woman, women

Tile Mongols don't use plurals as much as .En zlish speakers, cspee i ally w h ere the nurn b er .is not speciflc, or where a particular Dum ier is specified: Dr aO'UB '",8 guest', ryJBBlI 30UH 'three guests' OJlDI! ~01tltB, 'many guests',

Adj-ctives· and a verbs

Mongolian adjectives stand before the noun(s) they describe and ar . unlnftected: edB 'good', Clb rDp a good tent [yurt)"; KX 'big', :me ~ 'big school' ('t'llIJliversi.y~)~ n:x ayprrYJmfl, c5arm 'big school s teacher', 'university lecturer'. Adjectives may also h adverbs: XJP.JUl1l MOpJ. . 3 fast horse', and xyp~aH DBa (from IfMX 'to go') 'goes quickly',


The basic word for 'no' in Monaolian is VltJI~ When "no' means not this [but that)' the Mongols say Olflln after the word negated: e,.g. Yryii. ft. Dariu IlBIll. 611 opqyyn:lJrI), (fbrllra) . No, I'm not a teacher, I'm a translator,'

The Mongolian negative suffix .FYi: (from yryi:) is very useful for s£.\~ring 'without', 'lacking', 'not (bad)' ) 'not (doing something)' ~ etc, bee a us e it can be attac hed to verbal n.O'UD.~ ~ a djecti ves and BOUrnS without cbs rving vowel harmony, FOI example tla:b:ry:l the present-future verbal noun form of the verb' t[11 be' tim plus .. ryi: mary mea 'there isn't any', or 'he isn't here' according to context,

I his is the usual way of negating verbs .' .g, 6orro, "1' "M~ Y 11' Jl permitted?' 6~.nro (bolon) 'You may' etc, fiDJlDxryj: 'may I III ', 'I1O't allowed", SimHar]Yli!tWJIID (meden) ,1;]/you/1i1eJw'lelth,ey

III ~,w and MB.!:sxry-i: 'don't know': IIpUI (ireD) ~wiH 'c me' :lif,p3X11H II t be corning': CJJItB { suun) ~ lives ~ CJYA8l1' 'doesn 't live I,,, I 100 '01 (oill~n) 'understands' oman',. 'doesn't understand ., djectives and nouns are negated with '·.rra in the same W,fly:

T1A 'not 'bad' fSlril~ 'not a little; .qJBtf1i 'without person', 111' N ert ed' . yc;ryH ~ wi thout water ~ 'I 'waterles s and Dparrpl 'no II ~ L1er' 'unnecessary' ,

I i-you haven't understood what is being said to you you sa.y,:

Ii omoJJi11l Da:ba~ And what you can do D_xI is say, Please ,I ak a little more slowly!' Ta lKB8X8B J;D:BAB JlPIUU- "i? The verb ._ ill: to speak' and a question, in the present-future tense is a polite request, Another useful phrase is,'P]e,itSe repea_ what you. j II d': ;n;8.XH~ Dr AaBTl 'again lone' repeat 1 ' '! using the prese n t I 1 perative (KuRT ) which is the same as the stem (ot ~l.lf.Fax)",


11arid replies 6upTd:! (lit, 'with joy, but thee usual way of saying ~ 'i odbye') when Siikh says 'to the Browns 1{8paa 61JlPF· J "~I 'afterJ rl rds with j 0)' , in the sense 'see you. later ,! j The 'word Da.&p is also 11 the root af' oupn;8Jl1&! (bay, ~ thank you! ~ from 6lJIpJIBX ' to

I k'·~I. ,,!l;'iII' • h- - l'

I IAn .. , a.180 LO . appy ~

-e.,rcisf! 7

\ hoes e answe rs which :fi't 'the di alogues ~ jl Cyx a~rm yy?

a) TEAM C'VX flarnL

(b) JiHIII, Cvx 6arru 6H,W'~

BpaYHhlx.aB CaJlXaB Y.n:an16aaTspT HpC~II VV?

(a) THitM:, B.paYKhlx8B casxaa YJ12U1H6aflTapT :H,PC3H. (b) YryiI~ B.pafymdXaH Yir:aa.PlI6aaT,a,pT HP~Xryi,~

, Xararraa BP,3,YH NO.Bran: .X~5Um: M~ll!X w?

(a) TOM~: .,' aT'aITaM H,:pa,yJI MOHrOJ1 X3JJl" M::t,II;H3.; (b) 'YryA11 Xararraa Bp,~YE MO.Bra,n: xan M3I~xrvu~



Cyx .~ 6yy~~ cYY)J\ "I'.

(a) TmtM, . 'YXO'lIEA6 _ '.. anA ~ yy~a.:r.

('I YryB .. y~- .. lll'J,[l 6 Y)1;aJlf1; c~arryir~

Exercise. 8

'Iransl _r into Mongolian: 1 We Iive i - Lndon.

2 I e is ,8 univ ity Lecturer.

I am not a transl alar tIm a .cho It a che T., 4 Th y are in a hurry,

5 1. __ is school is big s 1 01.

Match the re p n n the right to the q- es io c-.- n the left:

: 1) CdR o,aitrra yy?

: 2) Cyx:HlhI r~pr.Hib-1 H3P

XStH' 63'1

.' ,~.) }_E: :O.JIlI 6. ar y}II.,'

(4) AeB'(f)l; M' HTO.]l ·:VB YV~; (5) :' pal -wxaH .. ," .auaac


( a) , V1{H,MJd' P ,OIOYH ..

(b) Yryl[, T3P JIOHJJ\OEQ::L cyy~ar,.

T~,Jt no OR, OT ., ' Hp:..-3H,.,

en-liB. 'T, cairn 6m, a vy? TItIHM· ~_ cypryy JTh~ aJ[illJ[J] a>J(

[ RX cypryy!J.f:lA a»t.JdJI'IlaX 6,aiffia yy.? I rxaa MOCKB~ aac 11,P -:~I-:- Vy?

1- gu ~ for comprehension 1

I 111ft:

I I lJJ 1::

1 .. e, ,pa-119: ICaHH fiafura yy?

Cvx 30:! lea-RUt 6·'·~' R. Ta camr Gag ., yy? CatHEr 6aKH2 a I! COKJlrH C&ltxaH lOy fia.llHa? taHnaH flamra,. TaSa,a-XafI C.'aiE yy'?

: ~aim Oa.HH3 aa! 3lf9 X~lJ f53?·TI~·' 8TaITaH Bpayn _.-._ 1.

THii10J a. SlID} MlIlli H } ~ FOJlr.J:.

,CaHH 6aiiHa yy?

Calis. Ta CaHB 6aBH8 )"'Y?

Caan 6'aril!a aa! MHIDm II3]) Cy .. 3B~ MJtHl111' T3mJ:rliH OrOYIr.,

OI-OYH~~a.m] aaaa yy? Fa anrrra X9J1 MJI;3·

Yryi, ali aIIr .. lltf x _ M.-'3XryH~ xapnn opec .. ~, aUK


Ta roy xIDi;rn;sr D~?

H Y naa 61aaTapli.IH ID)T srMn3Jl~J'T 9M,"'r x iI.u;a:r. Ta xaaaa al.1 ·J1Jla1K 6a('" a B~?

Ea nOH,ll. Hal ax cypryyJIl:t~ alKBJ1JJa.E 5attHa~ Ta Hap CaJlX8R HPC:~H yy?


Ta Hap raaua ·YY:JJ( 6aHHa?

DH,II" (~y JI. all 6 a _. 'Tap» 3',. 'IJ4.Jl .: ~ry JJ;aJlA CYYJK 6 aihIa. « Y JI.aaH6 a at TEl P 3alfll~ 0: _,ll, _II calht 6 a" a yy? MyyryH lllYY. 3a, IG~: 5H1P"') oaMNa. aapraal

· aHp'TaH:!

• I or Ull,urn;- p

Ru rsian yest rday


- _... -


Exert:is.'s 70

Answ, r thes: q uestions about yoursel ': 1 Taasi H:3P X3H 03?

2 Ta ITOH)l;OH oron YYA vv?

3 T a. sx c yp ryy __ urn, alKlfl1lI all 6 a:irna yy? 4 Ta MOHT'OJT X~!J caan M9A9X IT?

5 Ta :MOHrOJl rapr cyy;p;Hr yy?

Ex 'cis. 1"

Answer he following q - _. ·,ti' ns ill the negative: 1 I. y. J[o ;nOJIJJ\ CYY):U~lLr yy?

2 n B H,:r; f) arm YY?

3 }I<Jo, !3rvrq yy7

I'_-' . his esson y u w'ill I :-'ar .: '. About family raiationshlps

• How to count lrorn 1=30

• Same uses of the accusative (objective) case

• The present and uture imperative [I Some other new verb forms

Tallo t1fdIp D)l3Jl EJJJ89~. BS? How manr roam,_, in ,'our tlat?

David' and Julie visit' i kh: brothe r B'at and sister-in-law Dl :e,'rna in. theis Ulan Bator flat ..

neBUA~ E,aT:


'2 :

C,2lHH oaH,na IT! Bar aa? CaRB. Ta [Calm GaaUI aana 'YY1 C aiiH 6, .ana aa,

3a 8JI1m op op, Iill .. yx.mlI. llVY~ :3H~1 MffllIM



Caim' 6aifHa yy? M.HaIDI H3PHHr '3JIT9p'Maa r ;D;~rT

T aRlal MJ]J'lbW x 'f:3!Jl.!EI'r ]8,91'7

~I aM,Rm ;rJ;eBHJt ra nsr. I-IaMaiIT EJOIl )KmJI' snsr.

3['" tniw3~ op. ~Sh13 MaHaR 3'i'lII:h] opere. ,Rae-all)' Can3.H epee B3!?

3a CYl~uraa.. MaHait 30lfHhl epaemt 11MBaU, xoep maps H9.C I'D nra onon canaan 6uHfIa ..

TaB: _ _'"'_ .' aMp -gnSI . epee '3D .B9?

nelJ.K.Il~ }lUOI.lB:

A9Jtf:. pM.aa: }KEO;JlltI :


1 HT~

M,an.aD 6a.Jip H3r TOM 30TffiEI O'lJB91 ryP san y.H'fJIarhll, ep[.T,H. B ~ rWI SYyXHhI epee, ~ KaJIYYH YCRL1 . p'9. 'l!Jit XaJf.cYY.Im IlL lKOPJl,OH Gm. Ta HB.P eJ1Cl1~ y~aaC\l 'fi,_ Jttr=r _ ,yy? LI.ail yyx yy?,

-.K C'YYI'3H DJli YYM1lap GaYDa ..

1 ow are' you, Bat?

I m well. HOI41 are a/I ".1 you?

I Jlr3'pMa,-:

I [O.lIK~



. l.lJ: Pinel

J \"1: Well~ COme on in. I'm SU,kh s younger brother. This is In y wtfe.

I· GER.MAA~ How are you? My name is Delgermaa. WJlat ts 'OU,r tame?

ID: I'm calle. i David.

I ~ 1 E.:: An,d I m called Julie:

. 'AA:, SO corn this way! Thls i our iuing room.

What' a ni·-€!' rooml

Pleas,' take a .s at. Besides tl'~ , div n. and tw .1 t hies th. re are plellty of , hairs i'l our .. sinins room.

How n1Qny rooms are there in y,ou, flul?

Our flat has a b.ig sutin I room, titre' bedrOII/7-I_ as W'_ a Q.S_, kit h ·"R land a small be thl - om. . he' lava-

tOTY is ne: t to it.

Are .you hungry or f/~i,.sty? How abotu some tea? / would like to. drink S()J'~~' mdk» tea.

I 1'1' T'ERMAA: r II I :


' .. cabul·~"_ry'

name 1 '0· rin e 'Come on thenl 'Blat

au to be (several] also

IS- are'

i. (emphi uc) be ide

I LJI fire


YUll'_ r sibllng small



thi W'3JY

.: 1 im, hers


to enter

to be hungry rOO,ID


to sit (several)

:lIOOpJlOU( ) Q'YX 1IInl13



,0P°1: aDD.:!. epee

c~ CYYlt;li"aax

,(IYPBSB) three

to speak, say sofa




TOM JlVl:3ICax JRTJJar8, yc(ycrm:)


milk bi,g

to be ruhi rsty sleeping water

to drink side


two; and 'bo'w 111 an 'Y 7 ~eil


what a ... "

XlW'JY1I xce)} X;~D mOl l1lUP33 I1CIB

Ntne: .AI,though IMTS,j rtd. Is translated as 'milky tea ~ ;,'1 is mostly COWlS milk boiled [cge;thcr with butter, sali and tea-brick shavings. H is quite tasty, bUI il is nor a cup of tleal

~ e accusative case

The accusative cas, suffix marks the direct object of a verb, Its, usc is obligatory for persons Bod deities, but not for animals and obj ects unless particularly specified: TB ,D;cplPtl1l" y3cml yy? 'Did you see Dorj?' VV1H~re tile suffix is not required the accusativ f rm is the same as the suffixless: 'TaMOBrOn :X9D lm~SX ,,:r 'Do you speak (know] Mongollan?'

Th ' suffixes are:'

-F for sterns ending in a long vowel or hidden g: rspntl 03 1':!I,prBAr, myy~B iiim )JJYlJl;aBr

... :w for back-vowel words:

nOM, - R~~ IOT' .... ,XorL!r

OHKiI' for front-vowel words and, disregarding vowel harmony, all words ending in, ... r~ "'lKl ... q, m ands:

DP - B3pm'" H'P ~ r:~Idr~ X¥B .... X.yHm:ltr~ Sum: _ 5U]IIJlliiT

Final intercensonantal vowels except in 'proper names are dropped: ,&n;m;QP _, 8\JIAPMr ·

The accusative of the personal pronouns is a follows ..


1 st person Znd per.son 3rd, person

HlMm 1I8.Mal:riTatn)tr (T) '11,8];1 i t

DBA,H H I ill (MalfbW) T8 aapNr

(T) 3lABJ1i,r

ll~ can, of course just give your name without a 'verb e.g, MBHaA fI p J];es1J,It, but in t11 1$ dialogue Delgermaa gives hers, differently:

M Ii DB I: B3pa:iI" ~19m-sPMa.a r3;D;3T. The re a re two 'POUlts to notice .. I I sl, she uses, the word f3~ 'called' which is the habitual form

I ! rative verbal noun) of 13_X 'to say', and second, the 'word 'name II! racts the accusative case suffix. Literally, she says ~'O' me (name I lice) Delgerrnaa called], Then, when she asks 'David his n arne II h 'U~'_ a different word for 'name' ~ap which ts an honorific I~ u m (used or others "but not of oneself): Tamil aJ.Qll)Yr DlI F3ADr lO; il avid's simplifl d reply is "me David called': 'R-aMaIr Ae:B1g:I f ',~.r.

~ lt t-'~' t h

• •• ".[ •• • - f •••• .'., ," . Ii ,- .. .

e eermtanve casle~ ,10 1'1 ave

~ ')1 ' comita ri ve case meaning 'rogether wi th has the suffixes: "'~ 0 r "'"TOE for back =V owel words:

HOM _, HOMFO.B 'with a book

lOy - myrd with what? (thing) and

-T3i. for fran l -vowel 'W ord s:

l he comitative case helps express the idea of having; Taewi IDaip :~IIH epee~ B9?

row' Hlany rooms does yO'Llf flat have?

M',aud~ ,(hut, rYPBaB epooT.,:Jfl:~ Om flat has t hre e ro 0'111, '"

'Hx ~ OROB Ttl-earrm'.,

The department 8' ore C"big shop') has many d epartments,

Ihe comitative of the personal prOIOO'UDS is as follows:


..i .


1,;'_ pers on 'nd person J rd person

oasr,rd 1f1llMTaii:/TaKTd (T)ypT9H

6~BT:J,8 (MalITd) T,l, RaPT(T)SABBT9D

~~lOT' the ablative of the personal pronouns s e p. 224.

P t iii til'

r'as,en .Imp.ra :Iv'e

11- e presen t t n se imperative is, 'the sam e a SI th, verb stem: opOX 'te enter' op- (verb stem) Qp! 'Come in!' and similarly Wyx 'to sit' cyy- (verb stern] Cyy! 'Take a seat! 11

Fo,1" greater politeness you can add. an appropriate pron,Q'un: T8 opl 'III ewE or y'ou can rep, a op! op! Ityy'f, ,,;yy!

To, de scrib , , activity of several people or groups of people Mongol bas R class of verbs, called participatory verbs, 'armed by adding the derivational suffix "'~8B"" to 'the verb stern. For example Bat asks his visitors, TI, cs:b Itiaib\lrIJlRl, ,"11' (fid-qru, .. ,mt) instead of the more usual Cab 6aitua ,.,I? Other users 0' the' participatory form would be teachers to a class of schoolchildren officers to soldiers etc. I Iowever, it would be quite accepts ble to emphasise plurality by saying Ta Bap alb' 6aba ,'t1 to 3, small gtIQlUP. Other

c- ampl S include ,euqrau: 'to all go egether' (from mUllx) and CfYJJ)-aax to all sit together' (from cyyx).

Mongolian cooperative (or reciprocal) verbs are formed by adding

."11 d · ti ~ I Jfix ~,,~·1. b t . ..,lI ib ,..,' m ,.

me enva 10Ilw su U~ "'J'IQ;~ 1.0 tne "ell" .. stern, to nescrt 'e acnvines 1'0

h - h a nerson ioi · ~ ,~ ~ LEI

W net a person JOIn· til With another, ~ xamp es: T~ ", 0 get to

know som eone' [from - T- a-~ 'to kIL' 'ow") anUTrITIAV ~'~~A converse'

I'!i.. '. ,~,.. ,11;.0 .. , '"' .... v . ';UJFIX!IJ ..•. ..~, M,r~~ !l.v ~.!I.-:..'~: ""!;;,;,.

(spn to speak'), QJllan qu 'to study together" (cYPlX:~ 'to study") i

Would 'you like to?

TIle word 'YiMUP is formed from the stem yy ... of the 'Verbal noun 7YX ~tOI drink' with the suffix -MlUI;P and combined with the verb 'to be' as IYMUP' 6-& means 'would like to drink': IiI mM JJM8BP So'bs '[ would, lik something to drink,' The varii nt, are ""MODP~

~M'" :Dan "'M' a.!l::!ii'D, ,~p' &":m ~".jj.T ~!'iiI~,'n" '-I 11 'U 0, .uld li ,.I/:i somethin g"

V~pl~ I .. .wr~r!, ~l!!b. '1Q J&UD.JL .~,.~~¥ U . "" _,,1 .. - IHI~ ~ l~U .. ~ , I,

'1[0 eat' (from ~:tx: Ito eat )" To say you wouldn It 'wan, to. do something add the negative suffix -ryl: :Sa ':yyMUpJ¥ii fi'alBa ~I don't 'W9J]t 'to drink,' This , .. .map [arm can be' used attributively: Y3,M93,P

~ fi Ilm h . :i! 'read bJ . There i ' -

,k~HtHO a,' wort seeing', ymDMaap 'reac a" .e _ " iere IS at paralle I

form in "'Jyw1"d: mX8lt;p"mrai KCYYJ:JJUIT 'a matter that should be looked into' (from a.axaapu 'to pay attention to'), Negative

udjective ' can be fanned, using the suffix "e"u[Lvi: YJlUl·p,I 'undrinkabl e', BJJ;3lJJIyii: ~ in e d i ble '~I ~ Ie tc ..

Past ',erf'ect tense,

We noted (page 31) '[hart DwqJJlWlIU,! means 'thank 'you!" It is all example of use of the past perfect 'te-ns ~, form,e,d by adding the

uffix , ... JlU to the stem, 10£ '6aapllllX 'to thank'. Simllarly, caixo T~ "pleased to meet you; from TamrJR'f)\X . to make someone s acquaintance' means 'pleased tOI have met you', even 'W hen said. on first 'IDee ting, TIle sense .i s H, completed act in file speaker 81 immediate past or future"

h - - I-

e ver n sax

Julie comm nts aaeaa eabaR. epee ,H9 'what a Dice rooml' in, the for m of a q 1.], 8t1011 where Blmm is the perfective verbal noun form of the interroganv verb SIX 'to do what T, Uses include JIae-au IDa? ~Wh,21t happened?' and Iacm TOM' 'how -Ji~g~~


Words like N)J;EI8, 'besides' and ~ 'next to' are' called postpositions because they follow the nouns 1.11:. y govern; ~ is itself a

, th d ~ III· - ~

noun tn ' 1_ auvenocauve case meaning ~IO'l1 the side'. Postpositions

rut the nouns they refer to into particular grr mmatical cases: ry;Il~ XIIJK¥JA ~'by the side of the road' and yy~.,fl0j ~pmJJ: 'at the door"; other postpositions attracting the genitive include ~DP

und ;I!:II'r~' 'w~n 'inside' d 'amid t~ Tl - iti

.!;J , ~'U"J). U ~ Ij" . .'.:;. '. ~ ii n _, .nYlEIA amI· S ~ I • Ie postp osit 1 on xaMT

'together with' requires the comitarive case 'Ul4Td XBld:l :'vnth you', m;a;al., the a blative case TYVD»9C r'ItRa . besid es tha l' ~ and IJIB3P 'on 'I I he sufflxles SI cas e w!' tll fle eting n: ,iDBJl93H ~-9p 'on t be table '~I ~

Short and unstressed form of the possessive pronouns are 'p aced alter the nouns they refer to: XR*YJ)J! 'side-at' Bh 'of ,it (is)' lKOpJIQB 'the lavatory}" The third-person Bb is used for both. singular and plural: HOM m 'book of his/hers/theirs the 'words being run together and the linked H& pronounced rather like the last syllable of 'salmon', The 6rst-·per~OD forms are Ma'Ah (singular) and Mism (plural) and, the second-person 'IJKUh, (singular) and Tam (plural),


Sometimes *talO, do, not have Its literal meanin 'thine' but i, added for emphasis: T9p qAHb 'that one then '.

] li' ,IAB~ _....- xyynIItB [
nm H'lKMMItt
, -
] Y:u:rJl- ,opes yRl-tD8rLlU epee [
¢=;: ~
I ]
] 301lUDil epla 0XJIH1d [

] YB'r.1I'arMH ope r
<= =>
¢=: xanyya ymru epeo
]1 yyp;o:IDl ==>
~I ran 3~ epee
==> aopOOB
It ~ yy;a; 1 U;QHX

Note: Th ' wo rd s ax an d ~q!r. l be more rormal \VO rds for · 1m other ~ and ~ :mlbe r" ~ appe ar j 11 51 It h L erms H 5:J Op.DB ~'h om B 1 a nd and 31:: DB 'tnotber l orItgu e i.!JD;I P: (or aaB 9 ') 'paren s' and :iI:q3I" M8JJI 'sire' (MWI = animal. HVJJS10C ).

sx mother

a Ii dad, pa 33}K m UW, ill a

ltOHX(H) window

Vyp;1llI:H Ta,ca..llr a entrance han

OXMB daughter XY'f son YV~(H.), ](;!UUIfa(B) do r ' r gate

rclse ,

I JI in the, missing, words:

I _:JnThU~l r:a prnHt-l Jl:3J[r~pMBJi ranar.

,j'3Inr~pM'a,arni11-1 ,~ot(ln:J orron caI-Ql:WI 6l1-mra"

["',aThJH O'aMP Ffl"IULB epEUlT::ui ruM.,

"a.JIYYH :YCHltI lap, ei l1(' ]JJlH' 6aifn3 ..

OJlll C.YVT9K U; au t) aana,

,fc:ise 2

11 unslate into Mong. [iar :

Inc lled -at Pleased to meet you! ~ II w many rOOD1S has your hotel?

. you wan something to ent1

~ om into ur knch 0 ..

ls te e 3 divan in th _ big sitting r '1m?

··ercise 3

) k at th ' plan of Bat's flat and an w er th qu stions:

"3.TD.IH aas 3~J.[orYn yn ~r J[arbl H e p Be. 30 rn-Thr if) P BeRm XaEY'Y)]J; ?


OXHHBI YHT,narhl.H epee X~ASUI UOIIXTOJ1 59? '. ,. OPJIOH D,OHXTOi: my?

1 3yy"xTh_l epae, 30"11:1]3] epee o·_~p aJl,L lIL ~ oep YVJl;T:31t BF?

ar, 3Jlf pMaa xoep xaana y.HT)l;la B3?

~ift1'fiia~ 10·· Y·" ?'

. ~~:~'~,~.~ '- - ~

" ,rlOU hsve any childrtJn'7

I I id and Julie,' ontinu the dis u ' io I of Bat' and Delgerma s '''1 une and family ~

1 fOJIH:

I'll •


T, a X"1n~1 'f11~ ";!iI, ~=i,. IO'-V?

. x, 1..i1'''~~' ~..m,_ . ~ (.

JlepB6H Xy\1X3';LlT9{1. Xoep XYYI xoep IJXJmTOH. 30P»1\ Bac.oHlll, XOHr0P3,YJI, Xvnan m~ ,1,D,3T.

',- -?

3A X:!fJ;I];3H HaCTaM _B3 i




_ .. ul··-rv



elder r th r perrna nentl , thirty

seven four

r I! iIo 1

emp ia ic partie e


twenty coun tryside child

how many? vho e? here


30pm al'31B omrop3yJI)1.0' 00, XYJ],au sypraa

58,1(:6· TaBToL

'L 'aRM aan 33)K, oep Ynaa -6ailTapT filiBr_! ICYY.Jl:_c-yy?

Bu,D, cyy~ar~ ~H3 ,6ajpaH~ 6~3HT3H X.a-MT CYY'A~U'"

XI.P',(nI 'T3~ M:aHaH xnep xyy: .. JIT, 'e.o:ea JlBICaH.

X3BBJiX HL .')31K 'B~ ? Thl YY

1)l;,3JIT _._ MaanniHx :yy7'

M'1IIIlIi ~ _ aB, 3.3}lt~ Ji;rJ; T9)l;,3H:T~iTI. .II ,HMYY' raa 31I));

cyrnar Il]M.

T,s;n; xaamaa KHcaH 6311

BuepXaHraH aii:M~' • pry KB,caH;o Aassm gyCJm, a~ O~ICOB. Bac Cyx. Mlt:., ' a - wry ;n;,33! Ta X~.Jl··H BacTaJ1t:B:9'~?

JiB ,ryqltH BJil1IMTaH" Ta ]{~AT3f.{ ss?'

1iH rylfi(l~ rypaBT_IH. ,KroJIH XOP'HH e'CT9 .

D;. you have any , hildre· ?

We hav fOUl" child . 'fl. We have tw . sons and nvo daughters. They are called Zortg, 8asblish~ l('h_ongorl.,ul and Khulan.

How old are they,?

Zori ,i ten, Kh '11-' rzul se -',f~I1" 'hulan SIX anti Basbish' five.

Do your parents live permanently in Ulan Batort:

Yeo\" they live here. Th,ey live in' thi I fiat togther "lith us. But tkey ha ve gon to the .. otour: with llVo f tn, " ali ld " n.

Whose parenu are lh y?Btlt s Of' Delgermaa's? They 're my parenis. Eight of us live here attogemer. WIi€!r have they gone'?

Th." .. have eone to / . vijrkungai province. Th· are

visitine my [ather's elder broth rs summer camp. A.nd Suk-h is my eld brother!

How alii are YOtl?

1 ani thin - ! s= eig hr. H (J W o ld a foe y au? I m thin ... th~ ee. Julie is twenty-nine.



1- g. to 16\1

Iia :

~eBH.IJ:~ Bar:

)l;CUIQll; Ban":

rr B rrr:

~: I_~~I



JUL' ..

.' ,I"""



0..: !&L_ .• 1





'. ote: BJi ~ r ,( ) is a he rdsman -.. urnme IT camp w here he se ts up 1n 19]11 i n h -

summer gJ.3: ing area: it is also a small house in the [:OUD'[TY used in the summer holidays. Ovo'lF" is ~[1 eentral Mnngolia.

:I'amas a.Itf Dpb(B) 9~ee


~dl) DJl3D DkU' Ax

JIOo.(B) u( )

(ADO Jl9:9)

··IX eight

ngua,-e poi ts

_ rdi ill nurnbe S it .1

II umeral e tcept 'twc I av fleeting n which is p esent wh n

mring (1 '~I '. . nd in com xmnd nu _ - r··:


DJ:'3B xoip rypBllB ;Kapaau' raBBB' 9Jp.raau )l;DJIOOB

I \ it l

map r)1p,8.8

AOPOB TIll Iyprla J];OJlOO BB.ibf


11111 •


ape all . -

apl6 B3r (apBaB xoep ete, )


rn ryqB1I

I 11

I I (1.2. etc.) U

~, h sets 10. numerals decline as n urns. The n-s .em form L u. d f~ counting obj cis: ,I.PBB.H C8~WI ~ t n chairs ~ .

The u.s . f B31"3B is irregular: Dr mupS3 'on. table', S:PB8B Dr ~I'¥o'--- 'eleve n ': hairs ' te, btr ErJJr9.R xlN.Taap 'tog ther'i xsa nimH ertain (person.' rmrs,' . O·~DLIlJI xo·~~- 1 x 2 = 2'.



Th num,hers"Dc. and ryp, 'an also be translated as ~, ' d':

BaT ~~ W1'3IPMaa "oip 'Bat and D· .lgerrnaa', 30pm\ XO-1IrOP3JJI Xyne ryp, ~ ", ,', ig, Khongorzul ', __ d ,'hulanR• In principl t]·

could b ' lone with lar e numb 'T', 'I, u. it i -n'-. practice .

IHow old are Y',Iu7

" r giving (lD.ClIS age the baste for - ", 0' 'he ear lin' numbers, are used pi -.s the comit rtiv _ case suffix -TO (~TO' ~ "'1'31) as 30par lapaBTaB, XOHrOP3YJl .lOJ(DOTO:i- XyJJ8H 3TP,;raaTd~ Bac6Bm'TKBTIIi.

H' 'W:, rver Mongols try to avoid r peating he same case snfft._, in ,on sentence. t that ' t ays: 3oPl'F . pu XOBrOpsy.n ,AOOOO, XJlI8lI ayp aa, BacolllD lBTaB ~,Z ", ": 10 Khongorzr l 7 Khulan

6~ Basbish i-with',

'Ih e cerrritat i ve case i I U' ed to ask, 'how old? "':, 31A8B HlICTaB 'how many year-with?' 0 - DI~B 'how m ny wi th?' I'U =:licJin marks a reque -t for plural in ormation in .·3J); ",a~H UB, ',- __ . B3' ow many hw many year-with', 'How old ar they (is each of them)?'

Collective numerals

Bat says: ,,~ nJU9BnJ a:itMyy1.taa -B;!; cn:AB.'r With -. sm w a e eight.r u living here' using ~Jr. which is ,8 C . lee ive fa IT]

f ........ ht' M' ].. '"" ~.~ t tl e '

o HB-W'iL 19 ~'IO 'e examp res:' XOB;yn or xoefllBa. ll.': '. o toge 11, r ~

~BY'yJl(aa,) "the three of them' 1 ~op "IYX(M) 'four tl Ig, -ther', etc,

Ilac~ anc dhectlon

From the demonstrative pronoun 9&.1 'this' we earr derive 9~ (91lS plus the dative/locative ... ~ 'her -'~ or 'in this place " the dative/locative 0 ,p 'that' its -.' 'there'. The interrogative adver . - '."~_-- a

'where at)?' has t e torm xaam_ wl re (to'?

The sulfixless (st m) form is some time s used f the I bject r movement in a parti cular direction: xe)l;,ua Beam (He 8) gone l. the C nmtry.'


I-XepTll:H :!lXtil3P ~'XH3pwyiI 6vcryi (XVH) r· IJI~ C:f)H

m: rri d wife

unmarried (man) woman

marri d

tr .. x:ap_ yR unmarried woman)

rXH porlEJH married

6VCT3' (XYR) man

6yc h It 0 sash


._ a11dBlUlB

~ (aaa) (HSXfJP:) BaT

..... ~~ __ ~ f~IIl:!i,e'"

~. \_~!§iI ."

(UXHSp) ;U:3~pMaa

''''I''IH1 oLaoll


BacfiHm 6YCT9 ;rwy


DR oycryB ..IYY

1 hile xyy m ans 'son' xyyx911: means 'girl (you could also sa.y this call a, wai tres )~ XYJX3~ i child II d, P mI, its fins 1 -~.

yu have. any children?' T,I'," 3~V:1 in colloquial .ech is cone racted to Ta XHKtO my·?

11 w:' r Lh ee e qlL stions:

~IOPIr[[i X9;Dl!nI )1,VYT~M B3lI'?

~ThIH aa 8, ~!,3!JK xo e,p XOT HB CaB yy?

, ... or ~ .... ?

BBpXaRrUJ aJlM:8T X'3!aEm, oaanar ,,0"."

I HaCTaH B3?

I ' fir ·pM ,8; - ,i :3H H3:CTaH 03-~

rc;se 5

11 wer the: e questions ' bout yours, It:

"I") XOTO,ll. .. YY)m,a_r yy,

T ,a~LB 391KT~:Kr:a! xaM,T CY,Yl1lar yy'? (S e p, 49)

~ 1'_.1 X3P1B8,c'TalTi B B,?

· xyyx';a:r~l1: lOY?

llb~ aassra H9JHltII' X9'H ransr Bg'?

rcis« 6

'cr the qu lion with r Iere nee

., the diagram above:

1 XynaHr1lH 8XLfE HDpmi~ a - OlillI 'f:3.'Jl.3T Vy'?

2 ... 0 .op' YJI"bLH ~soraUtm .-_ .p'" ~ BaT r3~:mr 'Vy?

J Bac6ImI ·',OBr0p3YJIbm 6,y-rvm ltVY ["~V?

4 :S,ac6mn Barsm 6yc,T '. ' P;yv roy?

.5' 30prIl,T ;tl,~,.TH"a!PMaarKJdH uexep 'VV'?

1Ca:B:m JDJs.apaJt I

Halle·, goad' journ, VI

'avid i'" l. ., king at Bilt s books when Khulan and Basbish return home from (J 'visit to Oyuun,

J:[aC8.H COBKS HOM 63? Bll :3JH9 opoc >KYYJI rna 30PHYJ1[C .IT !I, DH3X H,OMllJIr ymJJMaap 6ama.

Ta 3H~ 110h{]ill' ymnMa,ap 6aima yy? Ta opo ,'J.

M~ill\SX YY? (X(JHX llyy-rapBa)


., aH _ DamIH] yy? sa B' ap OIn)II 30"lflm1fOR 10

,::'M 6,3[

JlHEU:: ape· II Ba,YHhIXaH ~.u;3r yJJc. XYIUlH ,Ii

ap 'BVYp33 yraa! Bm,c6EnJ q[1 nasrnaa Xl?IJ1TY'Y', c ]I oaima aa! Haanr apr .. qa,. uae',U,ap BMa,p 9Map '"OIB.rn rBPT39 aaxapaa?

Bac611ill nar CORMlT ,lKIttAOtt walth" OJICOH ..

T3P massacaa xormm CaBRI:T)JE;, XHiil " J],l~

xyEI-I-f..A X:3J1 fiLMapAarrVa T3)Jl YH~III llIYV!

3 ~ -~T a,~ uH;J1 JIBJ]al~ ..

" 'K ...... 6 ... t

. -. HB. A." a a.X8.l1: tJam1K,~IU

]iBn 0;0;0 JlBa . ~IOnCB., .'. '16. OPOH 6H.TI; - ~

GafIXJVH. 6ac Ma .raam OK]L mt IDJlH1ITaA. .lKBM.Y~ryK Erb xapaMcarrr,am 6a'M:Ra, Ta nap X3)l;JtJif XypT9D. Monronn flah B,3J?

HP9X capsm snsc x ~ PT:9JIlO

TS,rS3lJ y1JaM' ca~l_[, 3a 6aJTpT,aH.! Ca ~: >-,aapafl!

._-, TaB, carra cy-yx 6ai1raapalf!

n r:l!ip!':\...:"JI'I Ila paa T~P- EO' 'L TT'" aaaa p, ,·,lr,-,Ji I,

~:aXE~ IiP.3 ~.: .!In ~ f-I>l' _ ' .. u ~' .. : .' ,LU,,J, _ _ .U _

]S,aH PJlaJU1U~1.! Ba fiJ) TaB!

What inu resting book 8! J would like I· read 1'11. guidebook: intend d [or Russian tourists,


TIii:!i,~P-'Ml'lr'O • ~~.Jl1 WI ., 1~~iI


:3 ',BpMaa:




OroYH:: ~_BH~:


A ·IITF pM,aa': ,eB,m~~



DAVl :


.. ..

. ell rin, .... )


- ~ ellol Oil, whnt a lot 0/ visitors you have!

They 're the Browns fr,()'r~ EngIQn"~ Kllu,llln, lvash your handy: arid [ace! Btl bish; yo,u have made )JOlt"

hirt 1111 ~_irt " .... om . here! Wilat _,', ind . f rubbish have YO'll b rOLghl' hom ~ ~'; .. ' ay r

Basbish fo,und an inf1-reJing tatle insect.

'You put thai insect 01' yours in th« dustbin. It s true WIUlt' they SIQy' a parent's longue never rests!

Well~ w',e h ve La go~

Don't gal Please stay Q bit.

Now {t'ft time to go~ m have n. [7'. time this e vening; an d tomo rro"w ~1Je' ha ve " /0'1 of work.

Its fl' pity you can't stay a bit. Hal long are y u go'; t to be tn M ·'n' solia?

Until th. n '1-'-'~ -1 month ..

So mud: the better: ' .. oodbyel Have Q toad jOLJ,rn~y' Goodbye] Stay' well!

, o'nle again! Come (J11.d collect chat book later! hank youl Goodbye!

I ~ERMA' : \ ~o:

_~, :g Yr-

., B,b,ul, ,- ry

to bring, etch to rest

I'd Dan !'t!

'I hand

o sound, ring

JE'DUI l urist

II fre time, leisure

I lJYlBlX LI,' be intenr ed

X_1f guidcb', •.. ok tomorrow (to) here

rubbish lac .. lIOW


to ind

8BB8 opuA, this evening

BBe8~8p t day

caB ( ) i1 0011 tal ne r

cap month

TRBD-D YBaM eaIH all the better

)TDI--X . 0 wash

Jl[C peopl ~ state


t " read trutt regret

to 1Il13L' e di rt y ru - ·.bisb

b 11

~ J-JIoWIio

= r • 'po,'IL.'iIl'im '1711' . ,_. ",' litl-.lD.._~ !laMIa

:mPTJlJ'm - mr


uu 'when? hirt

'in ect




ts, are

what . kind

The e ,J:' some more ' .. ample'S here of the present imperative: lIP! 'corn ~ fm Hp9J: a .. d ',' '! "Do it' 0 PU'[ it' -tOD1' x, The ne stive present im. er tive is formed b.' p acins 6, . __ befo e th stern: Bmtrlflf:. ~'.' .', 'Don't do i '!

Mongolian dl in- uishes betw en the present imperative ('" b stern) aDI. future impera .ive ( tern plus ~a_apd~ ... ooPtJlt~ ~3~P8it:

Haem lIP! 'Com ~ he re!' ,n:aL ,88 JlPB3pS' ! 'Come ( ack) la r ~'~ OM 8B'~ TakJ a 1 ..• _ 0- ~ 11 HOM 8lJ .. ' , aD! ~ ak '_~ '0 _ k next tirm yu come) "" . t· . "Likewise B .! ,. HJ!I951P"'! m:_ an ··,'oln'L c·____ . - c ~ r _ be tu ure imperativ i less abrupt than the pre rent im erative,

an . - n he further . cene·dy . dding a personal" .ronoun: Ta cyyraapd:l~ "Do pI-,S' ake a seatl

When you leave a Monaolian '. hom. he ma- .. Y to you C·~. ~ JJBlapd! V;,rbi· 'h m cans . ravel well!' bon voya .' _- ': the tr di ion ~ I reply is c,-'--- CJJlK ID,draapdl meaning 'well staying bel Both these expressions use fU[UI, . irnpera ives,

Expressing a wi'·,h or ~eed

We have seen (page 38) U:S _. of the suffix -MdP to expres a wish:

David says: :ell ~.mJ epoe ... HO:M:h1r Y:H,lllM_aap 6aba mi. ~ ning (, would like to read lid. Russian book. Another w Y' f . cpressing a wi h . 'f neet is wi the ve b ,1 noun plus. rBC3 - KJV (OC3 i the perfe live \I, rbal noun or IS ). Thus David could also have

aid: BH~D opoc BD~ YHil'UHX r8C3H 10M .. Note the accuse live case suffix on tho '1 ecifie .. ,bj ... t: 3H9 opec BD'JMKr.

FutUfl I.'·. I~ se af th past iperfee,:

We have seen that TflB1lJ1JJ;naa is the past 'p rfe _ t tense of . h:_ .' rh 'TaBlIlD'J;8X and expressing a completed action mean '. lit: :rill V

'pleas L have met (you)', In tin. dialogue we have f om :~_., ..

I" 0 th form 6~ DLlIBa m aning "We nave to 0 ~ In the .~C ne

" "to - 0 I shoot!' is .. ~ 'ore i5YYAD"i_ !


r '.

Iloquial use .~_ 6o~o' by David ,liq DIX 60- co means 'It's

to 0.- The ver . 0 ha s veral me __ nings Ii includins 'tc

me 'I . nd i used with tim expressi ns, With the: mitative

1 i it means "0 aequin ! s.g, O'JIOB OMTol 6oncD'H {became with uu ny books', acquired a lot of books j Anoi her meaning of 60'J1'o :.

10 he P rmitted'. as j . BonDX' "1 'May I?'

'flexiv" .- -ffl _.-. f'::,' _ . _. ,]II . e -.u IX Dr

Dun I

hen Delgermaa tell ' .. h· r da ugh' er Khulan sa rap BlYP99 yr,aa!

III is tellin her to wa b .' (own) ds and face.. d Mo solian

I I a C' . ·.· . d ve suffix -0 (-OO!!I ""B6, ~': .. ) 0 a d t the app priate I _ n (:B'Y!P-_:)' exnrei tl _~ .. ide: .1 O"~ own' in th accusative . S I:. placing the usual suffix -r, etc .. Delgermaa also tells Hasbi sh l U' rOT making .1~is shirt dirty 1DI IJ~aMllrll- .' ,TtyJlCaB g.nrna using II.'" reflexive suffl: (~Raa)., Add .. r- at' er long vowels;

Note that· 'hc.n peakin . Khuh n D' 19· . aa adds "he suffix nly to the secon of L 1 two nout '. rapi HyypS!J': this again slu 'W II L Mongolian is, sparing 'in 'i rs Ll e. f suffixes ..

Another example of tbe reflexive is npTu (rap"T-sg) with the I Itj· /locativ case m ianing 'at ( 'r t '1 one's own. h me'

f common way of saying that you biav _ something is to put th _' I ersonal pron un tn tho dative/locative ,c~ s . Th example in the I. J. gue ·8 'DIQt-.9EQt 'L U l'we have' .. The pe r < U" 1 p xmouns in II . ir da i vel 0,· alive C8"_' rms are:


I t erson ·er n rd person

6J1;l1D~ (M&~) T8JFQJ;


'i1.M;l: (T)'Y-YB'Jt


Othet points

XY¥XIAT,9 . xymd UlI' . ap~ c ild-with p rn : tongu .rests regularly not is 18: M I golian pr v: r .: 'Dnc chi k keeps hen b t


Instead of t - e mor usual C 1 - oaltHa yy' ". YU-UD might '_ ave

said A ,. , p cafm: yy/' where " means 'calm, quiet', The 'verbal

noun 8BllPU to brin " is a c mtraetlon c '. , 't kins . from I - '" )

and aplX ~ to :.. me ~ 1PIP8.X an _ BMP8X displac short vow 1 : compare the forms 8B~pC-S.H and DlBp~,.

B th 'month ~ land ~ mo .]1' are cap but . month' is regular: cap,LlI'

capJilH, ea ,'~li c8J"aac- eapaap, e'- pro w ile 'be 'moon' h_ s a

'fie etin -' n ca (H): c: p., I 'b Ca;PEIJd, eapaa;m; , cap - .- Icapup, CElpTd.

Delge rmaa says I' '.- _I' D1ap W __ 11 asking what Ba bish ha brought home" in th· .expeeta ion that he ha brought several 'things" :,~ j Dljl a r du plica tion in clud es lOy my i ~ eli 'w 11 _: t thin ". ? The s _ p 'inei .1_: can be appli d . 0 m uns:

Xy:s , asp aap 9Dr8BJJ; llJPTlaH 6a'ljOrr,~

Dift r nil peopb li their own colours.

&sr,c;··.··, 7

Answer till ques ions:

1 B,ac6JruI ~'PT.33 lOY aB.'tlBpca,H 637'

2 ~eBH.)l JIMHP HOM y.HIIIM:Elap 6aJ[caa 6s?

3 ,I\el- JK'fOJIH ,0'·' .". ISHee opo w, !UTi:e lOY ~I

4 Ba'T anee I 'OM 3aBry:H lOY,",

5 Jl3JIT:!pMaa X3,~~H XypT3 __ M.oBrOJl~, 6ailx 831

Exercise' 61

Translate into Mongolian: 1 Come back next month!

2, Plea don't go r

JL., "_' _. _I ~ '!II

3 ltk_ a seatl

4 Pler se come in'

S Have a. good trip!

- 'rei.a 9

II"lfl]slate in 0 Mong . Ii . n:

Khulan m_ d .. c-' het shirt dirty, . asbish wash ad his hands,

.. wid and Julie have to go"

Did .' e ermaa have ' loot of V"I itor il' '. orig and Khongorzul w. mt with country.

'Cairn CUmIn yy ~ BaT ,2UJ,? CaRB. T" caiiH 6ua8 yy? Camr 16 I.HHc aa,

Ii_ 0', opl

Caan '6,aFilJa yy? ~, H'3JHIKr ,D:SJI ,3'pMaa r~;u:~r. f-IllMIJIT ~1~.BVJ)l .1'"3 )l;3r .

Hass aHr }.: OJIl'l' r3~31' .

.a, Hiim" II I

~ '.1, . ·H~ MaR _'_ ran 3YY, I .YJTaaxan


ran' 3~H1il ep_senTT H::Jr XG-DTJ'[Jf'rf'l 'ffT'r:;t -

J ~ • ...._ I!!~ I •. • "... ~'t .LU¥l.p93~ n;ep.B' H

Ca.BJlWl 6aKHI.

Tall,IH (5 -i1p xansa .'. rnarsra ape9T3H 831' MaRaH 6aJi- . rypaan Yi'., Jl'STJillI epBBT9<H_ Ta YHJl:aac f 6amIR ss" I{ocPe yyx yy?

Eli xyftT3,! urap akl]}lr YYMaap 6aHBtL

. a KYYX~;[rr~:j"H -. y'1'

epaea xyy ~ .JlT3H. ··" E"aco mr, XOHr0P3YJl. ~: 'Y,lULH rS)J;:J-.

X an X3;L{9H B, . TaB D:3?

TOM xyy ·.OPIIT apaa, TOM' OXmI Xoaro ~'3yJI ;l;OJlOQI 6ar~ OXJfJH XYlllaH 3yp:ra;", 'Dura X.YY' Bac6MID TaBT&H. T. Dd aaBI3X xoep Y.nae;u6aaTap---r c'_'~ar yy? Mmr:u:iiI aan H c 6apcaH., M_ ~n:_':'" 3~lK Yna ._oaaTapT CYfJJ:aJTVH. Barsm 3caBhm a _TaJi •. ,' aepxBarafr aHMaIT aMbJJ;ap~a[' .

Ta X3~3H BacTai B»? Btl rJf1IT Iii .

. la~ 6f1~ snnaal

r • jill HJt~ I ~'r~

I r,:


. '[on»:: h T:

": III' p~Maa:

~ IOllH:

~ . JIT"3pMaa: -KJl=


nl~JIT!9pM aa: )l{JOlMR:


JleBfd'P:, :

3,2Il 5 asmp Td~, ca ttr~ 1lB aap aD ! EaapTam, ,cairn cyyx{ oaifraapaA! Ilapaa )l:aX1ffi J21,p~3.P'~IM-!

Baapn 8JJ1i~La! E (lJIpTa1i !

Xy(fl:!U~ cold IDara small

Hac is a p Cali h las die d/is de a d

Kottle(H' coffee RIl1\fi,1lP2I~ 'h) li vie

f[Y,n a ax: an warm ntap a.lf~ pa r beer

Note: Beer ln MOllgoli,~~,1 i:!il map RAper which means 'yellow koumiss': the real koumiss ,'iApaF' is fermented mare's milk, w[1,].ch is drunk in the countryside during 'I he S ummer men ths, Sometimes Dml(U) , i he Russi a n word ~,,~ i used ITO r be er.

jI~-- -'-"


.' /

, ~-

Act'ions speak louder than words

In this lessen you will learn:

• The lnstrumental case of nouns anc pronouns

• How' to find 'your Wf!J.y and give 'd~,rections 11 The use of some ns'w postposltlons

• Morra verb 'farms and their correct sequence

- ialogue "

~'iIi'D' 'J.n:l'n,prro H'1J!'II 'J"',D' ~'n'tll'V7r~al n

,.-~ 'MJ··r~~.; £~'J~'Mat ,~.

oun,d thl; cit,,' sights

I avid and Julie discus! with Saleh ;SOlne of 1/1'{1 places ill central Ulan I u to r t hill tlley 111 igll; t visit,

'~UH;U;: Yn:a,luoaflTap XOThllI TeBJJ: HMap )lMap COHHPXOJITOM raaap 6a HJJ:,Hlr 1&3?

'IN.:: OThIfI TVVnIA~H )lYPCI'MT ralpYYlrhilI nsr Hh

Cvx6aa:ra,pbm TMoail. 3H3 epren Tm.JJtOaJm AYHP.:

'yx6aa'Japhm xemae 6InL T:3I'p MOPli,TOf[ X:VFmlir

na:M,IUmnI Cyx6a.I'TI1=1 rsnsr, Tsp Xl[B: )d,ana-M YHChlU' 2.1 (xO'prnt 'B;jJ3n) OElhI A,.P')lbl11 ,,: :yBbCraJIT ll~prHim ;Ctapra

tlit.. i1Il 1f":'" j"i ~, 'f r U'~'~~l~~ I!

I' [i.1JIIl: Cyxf)maT8,pLIH xerueoHKH xo,Ii,n, T~ trsr TOM caapan loat.imlIH OHTfr. T3P ·lOy 'B~'7

t y:x: Caapan oaHm,HH ~lHHb, T'epH1iu Op~OH lllYV ~~1)~ TeJu-f1hL OP)]\,OB~ Mouron YnCbUi ~,p.enDrn:W[erq, EpeHD1ir CID\Aj' Y'JIChIH Hx XYPJl].lH rrmlff;.n ,aJKHMIAaI'".

I tUBItTJl: Cyx6a,aTapbIH T'l..rn,f),aira 'D,31,pyyu T3.JI.I{ Al'Yfn~ 6YJKrlt:ffB rearp 6BB roy?


Cyx: Yrya TWJflaiiH 6apYYH T~·lillI, 3YY-I T2LJ1;Di loHA. Xapa «YnasH6aaTap)) ~01r{]{QI -6- _ JVlldH 6t~ PIYYf:I rann 6 -;"'- - [

TWlO" - I 621 lyytJ Tann T. B illfYAaH. . itH DH_

~ .... .. ~

'0 u.Hna:r. op lrJnrn uHPJK x Y , uno rearpsn

fi aApaH;QI 6ait~ar 10M.

)Krom: . yx6aaTap bIB TaJl6al?}» V PJ:l T,fUIJl lKllJICK- nanapna

tl,: _ .B· I 89 Icc pren rYllaMl, r-: ~-H. 3H3 r)t a.MlKili'tf' :y [19,'

H_9PJI:3~1Jr u:?

'Cyx: 3U3 ry,naMlKmir 3HX. TaiuElhl TYllBMJK rall. H3PJ]3;r,t; r, AHrnH YJU;bIH' !)n'1[UIH Be· 3H3 :ry;tU1MlKH'bl ,9lYYH xsc rr

o PIJ.t:tJlO •

What iru. resting pl' ces .-- r the e in , .. , - "'ral. Ulan Bator? 01.E.t! 10/ the historicnl si ihss o] the cit; is called .iikhbaal Square. TI'u~ Sukhbaatar monument is situated in lIT

mlddle of this broad square. The man Ion harseba k i

amdiny Si,," .hbaatar: H~ w, is tit _ arm . commander in . tu - ountry's F ' ple s R, -v lution 01 -21~

There's a big g'~ly lttilding ()J~, 'hit ,nr)rlh side.l! rh Sijk,hbaQtar monument. 'Whaf is that?

Why, that grey builditlB is tIt: state Palace. The Mongolian

'r sident; th Prune Mini. ter I1d th tate Great KI1,u~ I

member: work ·r1 th State Palace

Is the op ra 01td ballet theatre 1.'1, til west side

.SUkhbaQuJ.'r Squt1rl!?

No i',fjs not on tne we's,( side of the ,sql.l;a;r '. It ~\I on tfrl

side. But it" '.' n the Wf';; .. r side oJ the Ulaanbaatar H

On the w -'~r .. iei· of 'he squ,. lr -' there s th central post offic: and the IOc~ ex. -hange. The stock: ex hange is suuated in

an old cinema building.

. here's II wide street 0 l the south side of ···al: hbaaia

'. quare, beyond rho tanl ns: --hal ~ til t' street called? hsu Sire -t is called R ace ~ treet. Til B ritlsh Emba ~ .. , stti €lIed Ian the eastern section of this street.



S~t-nFH-~ U~ __ iii


Ii ..

mRR-- Yr Vocabul ,'ry

aPIt t1apJ1B

[Jeo, ·Ie wet

6:· . ru'p

dance. ball t plae ~ lane

I nyyB

r ,l.I\Ui:r.n...i'Do. (B)

member str at chief, boss

in the middle memorial

p ra

pre sident

south north

'-:[,0("' exchange monum nt

f' V luti m assembly



be" ud

s oldie' " aml gan:t '.0

post - postage .mb ssy



state palace historv




IOU XtIpeurH1M' Gap



xyP ,




i Ii I.

prune nn IS rr




t· . call, 'OHm

to be situat d wide .. broad grey

i nteresting

fIImB., ~Jl)3r ~pmr myY.AlI(r)

.'Jl'IBB .l:au(B··


II ',lficall _~Qt : Darndin [ .. khbsalar (189.'-192..1') was r 'ommander-in-Chie and ~ I I rster .: f ~8~ and 01lt'!., of the fOllndin;g members of the Mongoli.a.n People's Partv Iii lch With SO~lle~ he,lp m.sta~e-d the ~ People s Government' in u1y 1921~ and. w,ru;

I l~uedT tb~~·_gngohan People,' Revelutionary Party apparently in 1924~ although ~ I~ N I, dlS~u_te . S': me, Mongalian Til w say that . rulin,g it a 'revolutionary' Ipirrly ovret Rlll.- Ian Idea ..

I ie ~lIeldll .~JPM . r 'grea " embl)' l' 'UI '1~' eat M, ngolit . parliament, main. partie in the ass rnbly el eted in 16, were the. Mongolia ···-aLi·_naJ I L r!loc.ra~~c rarty (MCJBI"OJUim ~: IJ.I~CID HBM) and ~ ongplian Social I) ~l1ocr~nc. p.a.r'~y (MmIrolmm. leo. -, Ilm~PleMO'.K]lar.r' mIll) fanning the 'Democratic

llinnce (AJt.b;umcm x:on.fjoo)~ rrd me opposition Mongolian People's Revo- 11111. nary Party (Mo~ ap,lP'lll J:JBhcnurr JDM)I . rerorme comm nis; perty which I I J,ous~y wa,s the ruling pan y~ Wb II written ill full, only tlu flr,~· word of most

II' l, I utles L writt '0 with a capital letter, In the MonsoIUrn press the names '0

I h political par ~es, are!lly. abbreviated ~ ... ', ,'., ,MCAa" MAXI-I etc. _:rom I ~ 4r-'92, M?,~golul! W~.· 'the ..• ,HMAY, li~ Hdpa.MJtU MOIlMll A~:D; Ylle Of 1 mgclian Pe p}e s, Republic, M-omuuu (MoRTWl ~. ~lI'd ~Br

I mds for the Mo olitm news Bin ncr,

VR 3_ (11) :10.»600 uaxanraaa

root nation alliance, union el c_ctricCty)

to' dem cr'- IlZ . informa tion (political) party

;p.mJI3X M31la:9


Languag'e points PIII.I,ce and directlen

Each of the four major points of the compass has two names: north xolBo,/yMapl. so uth BlMl1alyp~ east syy:aJ;o;OPBO~ west oapyymepUB! The paired n' mes are mostly interchangeable, However, it is necessary to I. istinguish betwe n being situated in a place and moving '~n a. direetion or from a direction: e.g, .XOH;a: (sometim,es1om) and YMapll mean 'in, the north' or attributively 'northern (allY distinction between xobo and xail')! for example, is no always made): xo:lm, WitJ1 the .. nr suffix used for direc ion owards means 'n rthwards ~'~I 'to the nor h': and. XQ '.- - DOC" with the ablative case suffix means "from the north',

Another 'w,CIlY to indicate place Of direction by the- compass ~ -, O'~'II - e nee. 01" the wO' -ds 1T'IIft1'1T i d rt'ii,~ and- DU"f'I 'dir ection' II::Ii g. .....n~ .....

LTIV, ·J~ei.ia u..~~'., ,,,.,,,. '~ .. f' 'IL'~"- .. '_ ~ ~ .... ~~.....-=,_ ,I,~"., '1;.;0,,'., Au..lll.rLlli

T,IJI 'north side' and xo_ TaDJI on the northern side'; xDQ :gyrr. (or . o~ syr PH') 'in '8 northern direction', xofrr .!yr9DC 'from the north', etc. The use of e.o:mpa5~ points fo locations and directions is quite usual in LJ lan Bator which has Jew named streets,

Some compass directions are also used as postpositions: xo:bo 'north', 'behind' and DImB 'south', 'in fran ', as, w H as 3'Y'PJ and oapYYJI 'east' and. 'west', ~ eft and 'right', c.g.,:ax ~3mylPiUid ,xoiiHo 'behind the department store', ranT T3psrKMi 6~ BMHB 'in front of the railway st a tion' (raJlT T3p:9r "train ') t ,3ypm9C tla:pYYRU "from I. It Ito riga ,t ~ t '. tc,

Nouns las .. _: ttrlhutlvas

Attributive- USle of nouns as adjectives is common, particularly with materials, metals, etc: MD)l;(H),: MO~DB' xaanra 'wooden door" F ,MBBIU(O): MeBTOD: 'ye. 'si ver water ~ I.n1en::IJTY', aaac(:n:)': n:UCaB WJDJY(B) 'paper bird' ki te ', etc,

Note the variations as different linking vowels are used, ill the 'noun.': MO,P:' and ~c· which attract fleeting n:

MO,P:' (horse) = genitive form MOJIIBJiJ but attributive Mopa e"g,.MOl'mI xyyp horsefhead) fiddle (a popular musical

lr.tS trumen '()

~c (foot) - genitive form 'f._CUBe.l attributive ya;EJ;C3IH e.g, ~C3R ~, basic law, constitution

. mlJI; (JHl.PJl) northern

in ttl e north ,xolJiooc· from the


te the miT (yuap) 3yrT

north Xo.lm


xobo (J'MlIl') NORTH


mpB9,l1; W'ES,T (gpoe) IlAPYYH<== ®~, ~YYH (;m;o.pilo) EAST P;OPBO~

'we ste rn ¢= f)apPJD ~l1llIl'm easte r n

in the' 'kPJJB (epoe) gyrr 'in the

JJ.. aMBO (";0:) SOUTH

6hR[fj to the

gyr' sout h

(3Jr Itil)

ij YPmD

from the a,MRS

south syr:De

9ldBS;a; (yp:~) southern in the south

aun suffix -T fOJrming adjectives

111,e 'noun suffix Jf can change a ]lOUD into an adjective: e.g, moran n emorial' and mer-am; 'memorable' ::x,ym.CXaJIfJ V 011 ution , and CranT 'revolutionary', Similarly ,9P'A3MT 'learned' is derived ~ I '11' 3PJl:iM~ m· aning 'knowledge" and nrms til _ plural 8PJl8MT-SH, \ hich how ver has rome to mean 'scholar'! (singuler),

umbers for years

way of counting 'ye ars is illus trated here, using cardin cd numbers 11ILIS fleeting n: ,MBBm XOPIIH :&3'1'8\8 OBld ~P;D;MB XyahCFWI lIlU r conn try's people 's revolution of (19)21 'I',.

The v rl "0 be' : verbal noun () ,.~: .) present-fir ur liSaiB~a)·i. U-.· , in Mongolian when the .. ubject is indicated or can be seen: C· I 0··,·, _ 111 Th word, 6, also 111 acing 'is' has th - s .•. nse of gener

existence, Wh_D the ubjec c nnot be seen but its exist. nee is

kn . wn: .. ' "lD I,' . - TB . Tano I • 3YYQ. I~ 6,' : itThe loper

and ballet theatre i ' on the square s :

The !jtlc past ten e of, is. It i usedmr inly in tb thir person in s eri s an narrative when _ 'the S'PI aker 'w',' n,t a witne ss 0.£ tl, ong-pa t event d _ scribed. After ste'mls"'~ding ill "'B~ ... r : nd ... p the suffix i' -V9:,"g~ erm9 from. o~x. The~e IS a co] 1 - uial sh rt fnrm for uesti - I." dropping the final ~. _::: Xexee ~. ~, Yi-? _ I • id c.. go 0 the 'Untry?' Tbi i: __ t th impe rfec '. co~v,erb

which must be accc panied by moth r verr (' e example bel w).

Usa- of rex

rue verb 0' m r.JlK r,p.nSJl3r "is called' C,' mbin i r:t.x, th · im, Iective conv rb of 'to say '" with BS' lJmJl3lr; the iterative verbi I n', mn fonn .. ,- D'pD , 'to nam " ~ N t the constructions: Bu' lOy raE '6tH" 11133 D '. IOMI~ 'Why should I gOI the 'r ?' and 10" 'r8r ?

. s well a ..... expressing .' rprir ~ lOY ·-D 991 What did you, yl "

. - -, itc 'Ii •

.. ", ,0-' m9T me n, .....

Exsrc,;sel 7

Translate into M, :ID.Ii n: 1 Southf the _ t- _t ala,

2 North a,f Sukhbaatar Square, 3 ~ as t 0 f the 01 d cinema .. ,

4 'West 0 the sost office, 'In the middle of the litt e garden.

EJrel'c'i- , ,2

Co' plete the '. -11:tenC'1 - _ y adding the e rr, ct suffi , _ s to the braek

eted words:

1 Yn'la:s6,I.amp (.,-0") (1"BB. OEon C.OIDIPXOJl1'10H (rasap).

2 (./OP'L,)xva) .. 6aa:rapi (rex),

) 3.YYli (TW) ~YIJn " flYJKHr TeTp oRA'.

6:w19 ( r) .. poe (_. J1c) 3Jl'UIH gaM ( PDlBX)~ - : II 'TO, (ammrFl)·yr'., ( ~PJI~'X-I sa?

, (Tantia (Tan 0

I ansla .e tnt . Engln h"

Cyx6aaT,apbm xenree mrn " _oM rarm naua pJI!'!J DaR' rvi I

Al1Tn:H YJrCL[B 3.Jll{1ll1 5l2iM ··.B~~TaBS&rb] ~~ 6Iail~ar. llYYPlll 6'\1 _filID1 TcaTp' «·Y-.JIaaH6~laT 1,P)' 3()q_~ 6YYJV[hm xaXYYA oplmu.o_ ~

A 1CV·D ar' p I p'OHXHli cann OHm ~,'YBDCrlillT L{3P lDm

;a;apra G' ... J ~'3~

BHPJK 'Tano,aiiH 6apYYH TaJl;J]\, XYYmJH .mEO TeaT,pT opnrnor,

Qv.nuIp 08X BS?

- ow shall we go?

I avid and Julie decide to Vf, it' a "'US um but em 1"101 sure k' lerh r ( ) tak·€! t1 taxi or ,go by bus

Ta YluLaHoaa-T8:p XOTO;n; 1J.l'., Jl M.y3eA V3C9H yy?

HI Jl ~HXl HP93;ll MORroJ Yllll3."~I[lnJ Tyyxmm MY3',~

y:CH. : ,P MYcif y333 . Onoo .. i Tyy.n...JI· o.JLlLL.L.I

My31e ~ Y~M I IP 61 - illia.

"Vx: "fa O;r(OO xaarnaa H"BaX r311I oaHHI 1331 S,aiirau:wiH TyyX1?J1lH MY:3e:fl PVV -,.y?

T~" BaHrWIWilH. _ YYJO!J:" I MY3ci1 pyy.

Ta . 3U H~r,3H x VB, Ioljj yyJ13 '.~ yy? Ta rnamsa l .. yraap


i1jJUJ;: Taxcaraap ,URla .. " .n;:OO TaXCldJlbl 6YYAaJI PYY' OilIIDE T!EJ~!3C raxca auaaa Baaranamr Tyvxmm M;yl,eH PYV JJ::I,H.a.

Ta ,JmT,aIl 1L8a-',"ryiiwy? Xon OHm rnvy~

B,HJ.t THHm,,', aar . 9B2K OOIJIO.' yy?

OJIHO OO~ Bal. aBT' 6yca.ap q KBX{ O'OJl]~10.

'aBrW1I~ TYVXKltH MyleR .PiV .mJ~ar aSTo6ycElDI

sorcoon xaana 6aK!tar lOM 031

6YYJI..JThm ~1) p .~;n 6· ilHrIIi ,I , r 10M.

11 pJIXaap JIB, X8<1I-gX3 ~ P Xf.I . r ~ }K 3,3. 6 ;Q; JIBJIaa.





D'AVl ,:' SU)(l1:

D'A:V'.', .•

C"1i. . . I


J . I lE~ SUKH:

DAVr :,

.··:OKll" DAVlD~

H. a 'V,(! you. been to an,Y museums since you, came to Ulan . 'ator?

'WI v b, en 10 the Historv Museum sine . w, arriv. d b It we haven't-lee", any other museums. Now we would like to see the Natural History Mll!:Uf!UI11.

Wlz: re are you thinking of going rlotlt? To the Natural History Museum?

e: 7. to tile Natus al '. istor Mus ium.

Are YOlil. meeting anybody? H"rJW are you going to It there?

We'U go by taxi. We II g no" to the ta i stand take a ta: t {rO,711 ther ,'nd g t the, mural Hi. tory MUSet4m.

Wn ~l you ltV ik? It S 11.01 [ar.

. an we go there 011, [oot?

Or course YO,f4 COJ>f. You can go by bus too.

~Il,ere i: .. the stop for the bus g ing t " ,I'll, Natural Historv Museum?

It) outside the hotel.

Actions speak' louder than words, so let's go~

"mW811 Yr Voc,abulary

6tlBra..nb ~n)J; aereoon My-ael 99p prY/PII' T.RKCW.'II)


n "L t (bus) .. t .p D1 us cum other to(wa ds) taxi

t ~ at way to meet

1 -t', qui' fax , 0 ·:'pea .. I sa

: omeone too! thou lb to wall.

YfJlS8X, IOn Ulna.

XI 99mB' XfB q

Language points erfective:'onv - I--'b, -aa.n

Th .. verb forms aplSJJ; and U!.8lt are oerfective converbs, forme by adding the suff -a~ ( ... oo;m:, ... alA, ~M~) to th verb stem, Th stand in mid-sentence and indicat the completir In of orre action before another,

ne of th sen ten ',S in this dialogue illustra e. seq ue . ce of II fl." s using (1) tile imp rfective . onve b (2) th perfe. tiv

I verb and •. ~) the pr .. ~~·. nt-futur t, n e. Davi .. ays: 'On,: .. ·I, U 'ClUb] OYYIl,aJ] PJJ OlEAX (I), T3~3C T8XCB ,&BBM (2) MJ3ei DB! (3)" 'Now visiting 'the taxi stand (and) having taken I i Irom there (we) shall go t . the museum.'

JI ~ dialogue contain '. some exam les of us.' of the instrumental d e .. suffix -aa_Pl oop "" aD, ':!Jgp):

. 'ith adjectives and nuns to ~ay 'by means of .. ig .. 8BTODYCUPI bus'! T'I .... up " y taxi', JDjr '~_p by what m :ns? (from my It t?') wh .:::re I 'he ~r-' separates the vow' -Is,; nraap (irregular form)

, &1l.Iap on foot' (.JIBl1B' .. ,ax m zan ~, " 0 'walk ,".' 3OplDH'IJ

I ',. trian , mJra.B: 31M: 'pav - ent )"

ith verba] n· nm ._ t in dicating im Of' pur -: ose, 'tht ough' for th - I '. of" .. 'tin order to', Coo' ~ 1IBaxaap as in BJJ;.ll MJ!eit .XBaxaa:p TaxCR . aa In order Ito visit the museui we took a taxi. ~

The proverb BpHYH.ftp D, :mtmU3P' XlII! witt .&pa:a.ap (from J- to talk) and .D-JI3D9P (from -~'.'.. :! "to spe 0' say) illus'TIn ,'. the eornp irative through U se f the instrum nt 1

II I means .' tter' or rather': 'Rath er l 'tnt to talk go!' (And)

I a her than t speak, do! .

I J ~ .' mit umen tal case forms 10· ~ the pets ona pronouns (': by rn _ '- ~ ~ .) are as follows:

. ingular

Plur l


I' P rson nd person I d P' (Son.

~lUlP lfIaMaap


6~3P (MaJUap.) TamtBP

( T)9;orJDIP

. ·es .f I:M

111~re are two words mM~ The noun 10M means 'thing': JTX 10M umething to drink', The - redicate article I 10M me 8Jl'

~ I ffirm·-ti:n"r in " uestio ,_ : 131' 1t9&1B 10 _,? Whal h ppened

t, . him? Th re is ., . a .. t tense form- v," rbal 'noun -," lus IOMCau

'woul . uite lik [ j' ... '.

The abl tlv case (sufft . -aRC,) enal les us' ay, .1: aac 'w 1

rom? _ an' '- T3~93C IT m ther ~., W_ us e . 11 ~- deri vation I suffix -m . '.u [' b ' _ fie· iv ion: xaamaa 'where to? and "K1I199 . (to) . iere. For ~to'l_n

'towards' the postpe ition PYJ (m) is U,S'. d 'with n' 5 uffixl , ,'S case, rter Maj ,=p it b. -, mes l[JJ :nyy): YJIaau(juTap JJYJ~

Pia :_ and ' :ir ~ ction

'ODD ehind

.If 'Dim to the back

"'~O'·' c·' "",

JLUIllJIJ. "_ .'

from behind

¢= ,"'IPYYB 1[811 n I to he' right

fiap'YYR rignt


II eft to the II·.

yp;o:aar;, from in 'front

'yparm forward


in f 'ont


r ~ rf rind (I g, ,. tc.) fr 'Ilt (whe Len .. ) back and Of

since then

I t b· .k!'

,e ,ac·,

a far as the door un "I now


X:O ~ ill ypannaa

T9p ye~c xofrIW xo:f.U.llOO '6an) !

xa ,!IT' XVP an

O]lOO Kypl' 'n

~~~----------~~--~~--------------------~~ 63

1 ed to des rib an action 'which has b en star .-0 but is unfini -11 d, the imperfective v _ rba nou is formed by a. ,- ding' suitable long vowel ' 0 the stem ("'a& -oe, ""88 -es):

--po oing 0 1.,'1 1IP88 ming, ,UlnA.8. reading

, ' separat _- I ng vow Is hi,' letter ~r is ins rt d: being, CJ]frfJB . Itti ng

with the imperfectiv - converb: :ntux :aiiraa 'is dr iu,_ ~~ nd may,' lso be used attributiv ly:

. ~ '" ,-_ 6aiiraa XJIIth, man 'who is) do n' ..

u rstion using the perfective ver ,al n ,u _ (suffix ... e . 'I -CDRI' etc.) 'y be ._11 werr d in the impede, tiv verbs 1. nou form plus r ative suffix (6airauy1., etc.):

'fa peas yy?

~lI\lI;m. __ ,.a.

. ~a:I~!!

H·B,v,.;: y, .u . n (i£)?1

(: 0),. I hav m't :, en (it) (Yff).

Th _' -= gges t n is with YHartH . h t th . acti ,0 ias no yet tak en place, whil . with Y9C!1m:ry':i t 1,a the action 'W-S recent and 'perhaps ven dis appointing. Y3CSJIIYI "I dido 't se ~ :lrt ~"

" tIl T I' I', nple:

~'c, ~ n:? XHiil:'39$~

I av yO'[L done (it)? No, T haven't done lit (yet),

lOy XJlH.JK :aiDra Ba? What are (you) d .. 'ing?

11 Xw1[llsryjt 6' _.~, . '. (I m. D' t doing an thing.

ap 11 'OM ,IBMury'A~ (I) didn't buy a, 'J books,

, Ine can als ask n _ gal' . v e questions, w hie ~- are CI 'It idere d I _ S,S lir ct and more polite: T Y3C~lDry'A IO,,? 'Haven't y u seen it?'

~i ~'.

I rc imp ~ r ective converb nllK of the verb nt", has the colloquial III1 ·aning i:rw-ih the aim of thus when S nth says xaamaa JlB8X r3 : . . _ aa? wh r to go to thi n king, are?' be asks: 1"Wbre are you I kin of going?'

Other points

TIle negative suffix -l'yA is used with nouns to expre ss the ide 'both .' ~ . and':

arHea YA'lun'Ii e;l;BP meHeryi:

morning and evenins day and night

he e and the e

Translate into Mongolian: 1 Can't on wallk ,:' ere?

2 D 19 rmaa came from behind he History Museum. 3 J rave you seen that new red book?

4 David will take a taxi am the 't .j rank and g -to the C ntr J Museum,

5 Stikh wen b hin the Cen ral P tlace,

'Iransla e tnt English:

1 XYAaJij1;a~l ,~- "~ ~9,nryyDT 0POOA ascnaa XHE:B3.

2 MY3eil PYV ~HAa:r aBTo6yc ;.J,01:JH~ 6YrnJIhm ~3pr3!~ ~U31106Y'CHD'

6yy~aa.c anna.

3 AeBHlJ.,~'__IOJ'lB roep ,AHrJUlaC H]PIS'9)J. YlIam5aaT,mp XOTOA 'cy UQ 4 gMt! - ' .. (J]a.a x' " ar3~~ rilpT33 xap am

5 Cyx nJTr3pMaa xoep 6.afIpan;n;aa OpOOJ]; -am~ YYfl 2.

Reart ng, th·. 'W'. irds to make sentences:


EOyr,lap Ta :B3 JrB9X Tln~33

2 TVynlinJ V9.H~ KP.9:9.II; 3HJl 611Jl MYle,Hr 3 oruma o .. 00 sma': Ttl 133 r F lK aauiaa

4( «BaJIJ:IToJ1» TaReD OW. ian 11,B]., __ ~O'llI)J; pyy asaan T~HA 3'C

5 opnmor eMf-fa ,aB,.OOYCHLI ,nyy ram YJIaaH6aaTa[l' OYYA- T 6 YYAJ1hlII xunar ~p3.rImfi

I _I! gu ~ 3

xaa .. a~ JIpSB?

'-e,re have you been?

_ O,.Jf walking round to)vn David and Julie meet . 'iiklt again QJ'1(/ II ' tell ell h other wher they hav b €'l.

T~ xaa :l8A apaJl.'? 'l»ra_TIIflf ' Tyyxmm MY3eil 01I[COll yy~'

JIM: O~ COB". B,a:nra.r:[]ni.H T-VYXHlm My3eHr~9 c caaxan ,D-P,,ll . .3., 3a BaHramdlm TyV .JlH;H MYJei1 TIM,ar;JJ;tlB yy?

Taanarnnaa, CmXaH l\zy' ei1 6aHHlll. ACB:H1l; YJl3,

rypBa.TIHim 'BH}lr,a~ ID[ ;n:YPTa".

ra ... ~.leH y3:39;U; ,n;il'PEUl HD xaatnaa RBcaH 6 ?

li,tutrOJJH HR TyyxHil:B 1!dJf13H V3,33!,;U AtL p,81aHb, rY;D;aM}K'3.ap ).It aan 11 13 naa .

Ta 'JMl~I" "raaraa,p UCaH 6~?

DA: H)l 1.0 ~o,6 ca p lIBJK me ,;E(:3Jlryy)JHHH . MHO Gyye· __ =.

T,·r .~~ .HX ~3JI vypT ·,ltPXOH asr HO!\lbIH p:3JInfV'11'T Op:,OD.

H Ol\tUdH Jt;9llTVYP Xy}"Ue:lll KlfH 0 Te arpsnr 0 ImO 68.H;1laJ' roM 6aAna,

3B'l HMap IJj HOM X Y;rl,3J1)l,3IrJ as am'YH. HO:Mh1H

,A:9.nryyp33C rapaan TOB myy~anJ Hl1'11 xa)h,'1'}Taap .mnK '(:_( OI1.'Klttfl !ULMtJ.Tfl CYM,TI. o-qJIO O.

QOI7DImH ,Jl.f1M,b-l,H CY'M :M1{'3eAr XYYlJE. I rnanmsr ~ty3'e'''r ransr 6aftC21H' 10M., T~ CYJd' raanarnaa yy?

JIM: DH,[t D;I.M:&m aar OJ1H IT y3C31H. r~B~ Ha~aJ.l «B,3 . .3. <iHx Xa,pLm» MYYxajJ xapn sa xan BryH eaaarncaa III\~.

PiA; qOHJR:HH JIaMnm, CVM :' ~vx6aa:ralJLIH TaJJDairaac XOJIryH 'ylfIfP CYM~3C rapaan 3,YYH Tf.U7tW33 Dra.B .mJ~t~ :JaM - .6H,;I;:m:B'B rapaan r~,pTS3 :·.ap'h' all,

11 KH; 'h~r . have ylQU ben'? Did '. -u visit the Nat: r. I Histor ,


It I u~: Ye(~ weJ~ve just got bale" from the Ntuural History Museum .

I III I : .0" did you like the Natural History M'llS eum?

PI IE: Ye", we did" It JJ a ni e museum. David e. spe i, .ily lik ed the . _ inosaur ~gg,; ..

'here did you!, 0 .' fter vou Jlatl visited tne museum?

lUI: After visiting the Natural History Museum \V,e lven,l round the streets Ci bit

What transport did y,DU tak» ?

lV;. ' took a bus and go I' .off in ."OfU o f th. departm ent store.


I .. .


Then we visited a bookshop quire close to thrt' department store. . be bookshop is behind the old cinema.

.JULIE: But 1ve didn r buy any books at d'U. We left the' boakshop, wentpast the central post office and visited the '. hO'ijin Lama temple:

So Kj·:l: The Choiiir; Lama temple used to be called the MU~~(!U/H of .ReilgifJ'.f1. Did you like the l'eYl1ple?

JULl: We ~"aw a lot of tsam masks. But 111ft ,ugly IO(J,/a 0/" Beglse and ,Mahakala seemed to file rather HQ3IY~

DAVID,: ChDiji'n Lama temp;« is not f(Jl.'J~ from Siik,hb,aaltl'Y Square) so. we I eft the temple, turned east, crossed .tit e road and wal ked hom eo

Note: The temple ef Choijin Lama houses ';:1 big eclleetten ot colourful papier-maehe masks, of Lamaist god~ made for performances of the l'~!am' or ~ama dances 801 rebgifius festivals. B e.g l se or lJ3n, 'eea r' of rnal l ij ~ is l he gad 0·1 war an d prcreetor iJl horses, M~baka la {Mo [I go] nam e In Xap) me ans til e gre a L black: one ~: 11,e has thre a eyes and six arms In the J 16th century the Dalai Lama made Mahakala Ute protector of Mnngoi Buddhism.

6ar 6yyx 'rapD. mr:pT1it 3 lIM BaM:


8~(H) ~BX eyM


b~ rna 'Itt a sk to get off

to ~() out, Ieave like


I am a, 'mom k Ill,gly

quite near e;D'D


[0 seem

temple; .c'li]urch t please

so, then trans por t bcca,us€ dinosaur black

to return look

to cross to buy'

I ama dance nasty

ymnr rypmm! Xj"



,xer~UB I',ltpax ~aB9X'



Historical Note '[see map on patge (7): Kho11Dogiia Cb,Dib81S~[I (1895-l,952)1 whose statue stands outside the Mongolian UniveT~~ly, 'ils sometimes called ~MongQ]~H'S Stalin', Chcibalsan purged [be counb:y"g leadership ill [he 1 ~r~os and as Prime Minister (1939--5,2,) llsd absolute power. Some Mon,gals admire him fur defending MongoHifs independence,

Auandyn Am 8T Cl ~g6-1941 )._ afte:r w horn H street is named, was nne of Choibalsan's purge victim_s. He was head of state 1932-36 and Prime 'l\tinisl.~r 1928-30 and Hlj,6-39. Cholbalsan and Arnar were both founder members ur the Mongolian People's (Rsv1ohnionary) ,'Mil'.

JJashdorji in Nahmgdorj (1906-31)1~ whose museum Hes south of the State Central I I tu ~ry! was M,oll~ohla' iBI 'soelalist elassic' writer, He wars one o~ a group of ~,~tmg 'Mongo]~ educated ill (JerJll&ny between 192:6 and 1929 and on return he III Ired set up what hrter became [he W'' Union. FIe wrote, stories, plays ,W)lrl

I n ~ "11I1S, i~~ludm_g _~ wel~-kno'wn.· poem c~].J,ed ~BHI :HFFBr. describing the uHIU'[HI ~ uny of Mcnll}oli;EIJ (£0]" extracts from tile poem see p,~~ 249).


Teln~t1v 'O,P J:IOl.-1


'Y ).I-;rr.aCHlil1 TVVXIiUIIl MY3eft

H;Q~I!.lll Xmpmll'TlHr'l
a~Ull'VV~} 6lfpNc
Ox Taa
,l!3lrl1' liP :mY~fnl ,. EpifJ1HJtll i C:U1;1; MlapLJ.JI ryDJILMlK

cYX,a a~,T,aphllH

irSH apraa

6VJKM:riH M: y Jnro1l5jJ,U;-1i"t1.~ ~~
~~aTD 3U~Jm ~fyaM Cvx6aaTi~phl11 xeWSfl


9lIxTailu-rnI ~;n;m1J« ~~~~~~~~~I r[ln~ll~

.'l'-l ,P o;.m:Q;l3J:RHb:1 MaM




;fi H

O,rmc YJHlfdll ~'JJ ~H u ~l'!"M'

lfHHI"UC X3aUbl . a praB q;@JJJ~~.

'y .lJ:~JilI! '[I9B j IQ;Nli.lllllJ Call

'H.EUIJ,fi.r,ID;,OPlKl nIDI Mf-~em


~ y

y asc r3.1J~11 nil JA'il 1j',I1$,l\JfM

~~BUlIOOJ]'ft. ~@'!DJ;ll ~yr.uaJt

O=I~_ ."

, ,~')P'.ll::lX e!l:JI!DJ]]'.ilH


, .2JHXHM Y33 .r~JI3',H y-BbtraJN

ball chamber exhibition revolu Lion ary

wedding libr ry

, v"n e culture

rs ,JI:3' X e ell' '11 HOMLnl "RH(_ ' spre '"Ino,a eoen

Ls,ngul,age solrrts De iln;j ,e past te nse -B,

Tb_ defini tie pa 1 ' , TIS' ' formed with , 11 _ suffix - - ,.', , "DB, "'9a, ·s )

pr' s n action.c _ 'm 1 " ed j - th past as, i <, __ d JJilI=,C-1 Ie ' .

and "'" en . This e se is often u \ d to ask question 'which are usually given, n affirmative answer in U _ past perfect (~JI8a r :

3a ¥SIB yy? Y3JI~9"

,':0 id (you) see. (it)? ('Vi, )~ (I) saw 'i )~

A n gatix e answer i given wi th th P rf C' ive vel bs I noun (-,C8B :

Ta ,DD 'yy.,

", C~I'I:if"I'!I'I:.'....a. "

.. ~:I~·

Did (you) buy (it)? (I) didn't buy it).

Note th l ,'DROll Y'I means , I. rl iaps', and is n I to be c nfu '_ d with »OJIO, , yy? meaning 10M ,y I?' ~ etc:

'Y1,BlI.HI; yao DD-JJ:'oa yy F9., - ICa&:a;1l;Ir.

(I" t " this may perhaps '0" true ,.

Because ,., . .

In th dialogue David says, for ibeca'use~,wp., . 'he (1_ a on':

T&lI6aiir~ac XQI:r.ayI 'Imp .... 'Becaus (it) isn't far from th quar

..... 0; Th_ ablative C~L' torm -,'tpaa.c i aL " I lble: I ,

HIlcaB Y'lPaAe ... 'Because I at: !p, '_ h me ;; i ~

., n other wa y ,r aying ~ bees u ,. ~' i " 'us e he v' ,- -L a~ n oun 601IO

plus the in .c trurm ntal case suffix, 6onoxoDp: X,oJ] ,60u:O:l:OO.p'l •.• 'Becaus e it w .L (we were i f· r · IW ,y E ... '

Mlare~ bout the in'trumen -81

e 1 ialo ue ill u if" L-

m' re uses of _ h instru - , n ,[ case: aro und tn e Sit rei t

by (what) mean I of tn ,JIlSp rt

ry;n;,&MlKaap ysaar&a.p

Literally _ means 'r ding ni als' rut he tern 1· U'.:,

- generally, inclu ,"' , lan Ba or' TSP9J:'", at cart

or trolleybu "'t sc c~ lie. becau e th, ,OV' rhead electricity pol s

look like g 'al! h nns, ' ,

"de ' f) _ he post' oft ~

KYyq:Haap as i used to b ' (called) old style, in 0] den times, from the ad j ective ,XYYq]ffi old

'I verbs may b _- forme d f -I m adjectives by addin , n appropriate i - 8 rurnental ease : r fix:

HX BX99p II ," it



gr atly firm firm y

_' have a liki ng for somethin - is ;n:ypTd: Ta 10,·, 5JX;L'l,V,PTaH B3?

What would y -u like to ,,' ?' Disljking is ,IO]1' ". The obj ect 11k ad lr disliked i . in th ds tive/locative ca e: T" MY9,e,' mTd lOY?

~ I· d [do) you lil e the m use urn 't DR ,'-EIp;r8:~ JIJP 'I don t lik,e

gg ~ .. ~ Ell '1I~' xaipTai I l ve you.

The pc tposition aipxo (quite) near' also eov zrns th dative ase ~ BO' ,'- -' ,;D;:.m"YiPT OR', 'OB '(quit- ';' net the boo __ shop .

oi,ng thus and gai,ng where?

ike the in rrogariv ve b ." ax 'to 1 o what? (p 'g. 9), 'T-3r!lX ':, d tln s' has no e sa t I quivalent in English but cu ns up , uit r, quently in various forms: T:Jr.I9~ 'having , 0' -, thus' mean', 'thereupon' 'next', 'then ~ etc ... and Tgrae 'Let't (do thus)' is 21, rnmon v luntative (s _ e pag : 77). Similarly the int rrogative verb ~aa" "." ( erfective eonverb xaa~) means. I to go wher _?'_ T

, a:q~ "1~8B? means literally 'you havir g been where hav - come '1'



Note tb t th ~ interrog tiv , particle i :. ome times, omltt d; in tb case .' . aa,NtJIIX whi ch is a _ exception it WP' Id be . "1

More on the see uenea ,of ,t" nles

In Dialogue . we see further e camp es of the perfective c nver bein J llw_- by past ' . ns forms:

(1) 0.00;0; ~ "" DU: TR MJ31,·. '3S3,~ AaPU xaamaa

Where did 'you go after you ad 'visited the museum?

(2) 0.'00;1; ~ ~ ~ JIBJI,. ~ MYsoll ys39J1 6q FJJlt·· I'.· .' "ap BBJIa8.

After visitin til museum we w en _ roundth street 0'


(3) r' .. laaJI ~ ~, • .D'.' ~ ~ ~ Q~UO~

We I .. ft tile booksh ];]". went past he central pOS1 ffic .. _ and

visited the Choijin Lama temple,

(4) r.p~ ,., _ ~ .-" ,'. "'" xapLOIR. We left ~ . . and 'W lk ~ d h. 'me.

One or the sentences in this dialogue illustrates the sequ nc . of tenses u·· mg. 1 .. ' the imp rfective con ve rb, (.2 . the per ective cOln,~er',~ln, (3,) th 'r sent-futur tem e. D'HVid says: Op;oo mAWl Pi" D"X)f( (1), T., .' '3& TaCH aaaa,D; (2) .Mfse'·'

PH .fIB ( . ) ~N ow vis] ti ng the taxi '.' and (and) ha VID,g ._ aken II t '."

from' here (we) , hall gOI to the museum.'·: 7

Translate into . English:

1 JKmJlli YJI3r ryPB31ll:1W OH;r(I"eHD; ;J1Y,PryH Y1:fp aac rs pT93 xap 'eaH. 2 AeBtI.Il ll~.nryypT OM.p'XOH aOM1l1_ , ~~JITYYPT 0 - . OJ! lt3Jl9H HOM

X}'lJ~aJl.n;aH aBcali ..

:3 Bill na1d:hIH 6 ar V3M~3 p 6aAra . I. Y"'3IHP 0 H }1mB. J],8M:hnt It· .


4· IT a o!'II 'R I5I"'Il can '\iI'H'n ,If. "'1 iI"!t 'lI'X'X Q,~T1;. ape a_c a.

'. .,Ll..lJJ1T3p· .Ra ryn,ill4JKaap Yll ~L .rID'" .1' ,. t" (;Ll;l~!o.o ,MJ,.. . c'''M _ - '. - ,

5 Cyx ! Ta r~'p IIVYrs RMap ynaaraap xapHx B97, MaaR T3pr93p

mvv A~!

'src;s's 8

I a ns 18 t into MOll "olin:

I We thought that the Iooks of tegtse and th Great B-ack On were rather na ·ty.

Turn right. at th '. I entral post offlee and walk alons Peace Str t, I : roo se 'the road . ,nd went in' . 1,. . ayang' 1 o· "1.

Delg rm .a WHIk:.' 1 'n,: the e'· ",.1-. rn .~ ide of tile 11 ba itar Squarr and ne t t. 1 the ,en tral Palace of .'. ulture bou ht a newspape r from ,R little 'shop ..

. 0 alorrg Pe: ce Stre t from . he west turn the corner l the central post office come a far s rhe Sukhbaa .ar rm nument an meet me t. re,

ere;.. 9

.. - rs· th seruu:! usmn _ "because and 'it, ne, ative (e. _ ~ 'Because

lidn't g .• into the sho didn't buy' book,"):

11 JI;SJ.I11rVPT opooa B~r MOBron HOM .~M~a.ll aD'CaB.

IBT06yc TaB Tan:6airaa 3YVIi TI-t'"'-- -8 rapa8J1 3 'q:~ 6yy;U; .. U.J ryJ,l8M1Kaap JIBJlaa.

~ZtTJl :PM .a QIIO'yn.oep ,". 'p;;'ilHJIC,a nXonfioonn IJYI'TaH fionoxoop onf), •. OS.b) rHIllfYl1 6 orr COH.,

I1x Xypan xoJITYlIl yqpa,a,c "peHX:M"', CDl~ JIBfaB fiB"" MpJI33.

II :r3p!3~C3~ rapaan aBTo6YClIIH 6YY1l;aJI Pyy HBeaH.,


.... IL.tLII

YnaaR6aaTa'p . OT.LtH TeB)]; 0 0'8 COBJIpXO'JITOH rasan IHH ..

TBlUd ::tit . 17Xcf5 aTaphlH TWI6ann ~ I. YXo.f:U:11Tap _,1 __ xemee ~I C'VXr6as:ra..p.hDJ .. mEU2~RHir XOHA Ta.J!Ql; TepJriiJJ DPAOH 0P'~OTi TepHRB Op.JI;IIDIT «caapan 6ai III VI )

,.,..r.:i, TTr.:::!ir . 'I'M

• .:Jf~';' I:. '" " 'e

apHID! Op,nOlfl):l 1:9JI X3H !JKifJlJIa.n;a I '.

«. aapan t5alRrull.H»~,~ YllIC:bIB Epe.'HXHinertJl, EpeH.X1fJJ

... 'X 'H' X ,_.

eaan ~ ra ypaJr~:3 aero rS3 Pl..IH r:mnyYJJ: a.)KHJ1 J] anar,

TOM «caapan 6aKmlffi»-rm1B _ IS f),ac H:9T

XHJK1fI'X3H 6aHlnHl-l Dlaf~ar. T9P .J·Y B3?


"J~Jl }KOOtl' 68iIIJl-~.l tJon'. 'yx6aa ap, Lloi6ancaarltiiH i5yliX· ." yyl.lHff :.··FThiA'Y. «"Y)"IMbffi y;a:mpp.;&rLl .. ' J] O'YPlIHll AOJIrIQrraap capsm apsa 8r9B,~ olynXaH' .. p rapaa~ ~:3prBibI DalpbIE lImrc:aSJE 30_ CO}K V3ll r 6amCaH ..

Ilonnyraap capsnr ,E11,'B2lH nsrsn 60n XOpXH . ar: .. ]{

OHJl HR. • au APJlbIH ··Y.B.b.··-ra.n:Lm· .lf~ Cyx6a TaphlH TElJI6aR FI 'y\:~1I ~'. JlJll JIYYPh 6·f)K ..III • ..II..lL£. .....

Te"aTp' OlHXryjI OmI yy?

TF.ritM 3,3. <'< Y JI aa TT a a a rap» 301Qlff,;JTh rJ1 xa.z:yY Jl 6ata. &P. Xepenrnsn ilHp.K Ta1]OaHI-I GapYYH ann Tiel! myy~aBI'HEH XaJKYYi~ . y~l.Hll .IrnHO T'eaTpT 6a.iIA- r ,ro '. E

Cvxoaa.l'a:p'L ; TaJl6[atiB .' MR.. T~ ~~[·n;:3PJJ:tl.rf1RIJ

uaana rrsr apraa ry~aMi:l{ cd. 3HX "1[- KBHJbI ry;na a, rBlK 3p.n~JJ.3r~ AfIT Jd YnchIH .1II1:ffiH ~aM J)H

rvnasc .. ,a oj Tlf '!IT,' •

.a J MY- ' l¥L'.... _ ~ Ua..r.L~

Ta o~oo xaamaa IBI . rB1£C 6a9lIa BB?aao:an . ·.1 II

pyy lOY?

Yryu.~ I'annaa xJIi][~ P'VY 6HllT, Borp; XitaJ:t1d oBJIP.nlu opnen M-y.eJ1t PVY 1max r3JK 6a.J1Ha. THRrn~9 HBTaJl SIBlE fioJ]ox y-y?,

XOrrxOH [. ,JIOX{)'OP y.H -"aI aap saax xs p'9'T3H~ BOI xaamJ' enllKfm OPrU;OH MY3eo 1'1/), RB;o;.ar aB'T6 Cll.b! 6yy;1laJ1 3 QQH;r:J: 6yy;u;n w:u ~a. pr3;D\ 6·mAar 10M.

B~ ern rn: t, a' Ba strra '~

Md'"..!.ppr~r _,1:- -!II .~~ ~ tl_ .. !Ii

A~JIf':3M a' :


" ,yx:


"'\rr , "fJ ' ~JO.TTJ;':I, ..

6 ~l yy isn'm il?

6'YRX3Jl tomb

scarcaan par de

EHJI 6yp

3acr.u_W1 raaap go. ernment

sore ox to stand; stop

o EHl911.

Y nll·p,.I:\RI'1.l VH6.a

iii - - -

- · 'In X:B:r:t;TI13X

anmversary winter leader

ransport monas". ry to .~ t off

ote. ' 'r. andan rnonasterv is Mon ; olia' Buddhi t cent . situat ed on a low bHl • mile or SOl ru 'rl h~\Ve5L o[ Stlk.hbaaJar Square. lis temple of [rvlegj" d Jaaraisee, wit h a 28~mel1:'e gilded brass agure is a dly landmark. 'The Bogd Khan 'WM Mongolia s religious leader lind head orf state 19 [1-24·. His winter palace and the temple l1e~1 dnor, situ led 'n the south ·ide of Ulan Bator c'nty towards 'the river Tuul, is L m 'LJEe um.

.... T~,I.. Tn;rU-y~'I' ~.rb ' Il.D..l.JULn.DJ:l J. X .I~



I ilM6yy fiOJfOH C yx6a.a 'ra [lhlH:

I AaMJI{YfAhfH Orr:rrruT .lI:Sl~p cruiiH raapua OP',IlOHOOC ~ Il.YYH X:OKm,'1

)Jf-llJIJIax: ~a 10,,00 -15.00" ~ hf~r[JI 10,00- 1.6.30

" I ia: 100 Tlar (30 Tor KYfJt3;n) l . ':16_ - r,HAaa.a~'~.

II r3,1J, YTilC: . 21. 7 L .

~CHHH epT8R ~aHa8 (T EurKFl :W.H XemOSHIm ypp;)

,~epr 6:Vp 10.00-17.00 . H3: 100 rer .' 50 T -r . V¥X~~ .. 1000

i1r -. _. raJlaan~r . ~r·.n:

)'Tac: 342195

E or;u )Loam [ :f:1tll'roK xp'!JrJI9JK 60ifean ~ KlMe,,.-~' j n T J) 130


;o:YPCJm'" ypJIArHR Xyn;aJl;IUIBHb1 ry ~iMJK~

Bapa ra"~1

T!Jl6 in 3.YYH Tn n Sap oyp 10.00-11.00

YEt ; 100 TBr (TOM XYH)~ 500 Tar ~ ra;lta~UjH p 1'9;0;

liT ic: 23 ·',8,"

3:u1 c6 a' pbnl yp nacanoBr'Q,;m;or O'YT913'J1YVI, Ho :'0 I A :"- ;r)~. B3.rYYl=Ul.m TaBaH 6ypxaH 3,. P f.

Jl3l!a.pLm XalI.{jfy,ll AlKHnJ!ax.: ~ ~·Ga rRpKrYYAa~ 09.00-1.1.00 1.0fi- S no ]il 09.00=.l4J1o.1

II ~I Mlt 'HMi). pus.

II'I~ 45 Tr TO'M xyn f('(3 XYYX''[l

f eac: 5u~ro

I '.b:RH JJAMJ:dH MYSBH I M'bJl r - ry Imi I'y~alitUl.

I I tlJ\.faPH3 . -[ C ',n:e

J ).(JU~ 17 .OU y- 31" XYYX3IJ; -

HAUAFnoplKHltr-l MY3B9 }l(aM "11$1 " IVt11ti1ry,.M •

Y _' . :_! 1.11'· fn"'Kflllp;!l;' fl 'q'o~'" KHrI ,JIaMhT.H MY leA . '. 0 e p 1I1H XO 0 po -Ul 2 ;rJ;3I:I,XIJ) xvpaH 6·, fim,ijll.

8JJ\BP Gyp 09J]O=}8.0D

Yu .: XYYD~ 100 Tar. TOM X¥H 50 T r

YTac~ 3 '7879

I p IH tm IIIHhI }[OBOP He. ).vmH V 1';9 3JJlVY~.

~3.cmm TYYXlOOJ' :MY-·Eft

X p;aJ1;o;aaIThl ry,l{,DllK ( • acIlllita as p sm OP]J;H1J 6a pyyn TaJI]l,)

~ p .... yp 10.00-17.00

YH s: 100 rer (ro < xvn) 200 Tor = ra.o.a,8.Jlb I H H:p 1-'!JIJl.

YTac: J25656~ 326082

IllaOa3ap:LTII :ry;n,iM.JK., a _ au l V M 111b:l YPp\ 'lUJIhlH .2 .Q~ nxa p

II I _ P·

! ~_JlJUlX: )],&- .~ lOJJO-17.00

I ',: 1510 T -'r

rae: 363 ~ 7 J.024··




huntin , sable article

torey fine aLB terrae gown

and ,n

per n citizen

9JJ;GJ G'HD;rer ~.pra8

yrac (.cUI)




6,m .. (B) 6yrDau.

comer pavllk

te t 'ph .oe valuable

- taTe

blue sky

WJ~ .m»3JI Isp-:J,r



IB I'~~

to ,S thing' original



in tie [51 ect ion find

,tIi lOMe

OlTJImI I}~p

Notes: The ·~nda.f G en "Lfty Bri llaru 'an,abaza ( 63-172-:' wa MOil, '-1ia~

firs' xn-UT Of Lti h r incarnate lamav Said to b descended from ' en ill Kh n and from a BodhisaUva" lOr was enthr .n . 't th, age f . ive, t· studied in ib t and wa gitu~d sculptor, painter: .. architect nd poe be~d B becoming: rnt olia's supreme spirltual fUI'lho.rill'. At er ~o~,lf£ confrontation ¥lith th~ . irat Mon~cd the Khalkh, Mongols and f his r eligious and political leadersblp opted 'for au alllan e with the Manchu rulers of' ,Rbina in 1 9 I. / nabazar was murdered in l72 I durin a V1 n to Peking 'SOO[l at er the Manchu empero rued. I~CC rdins to a " i ,'graph publish. d i' 1995.

BWXBB: is rhe Buddl1 I and it 6JpXm is 8 Btu dna imag - or statue. Th - Hora )1; a, li - ax OT Green Tu& ~s a statue of the protectress of Mongolla 'made . '" Zanabaz r.

The ~ is the trnditional brightly col u]". d silk gown wo n by M,crrngo~ men and w,omllL with as b 0 co te' sting colour ied round 'the wist. IL is ouen 'worn together with the trawl] nal Mongelian leather bo 'l called ryTBJI which ha upturr ed toes,

this lesson you win fe'arm:

The volumative forrn of the verb (let's)

• This eondl ional converb {if. . ~I

• The ccrnparative and superlative (bette r~ best) " The names o,f; various kinds of rood

i logue 1

pS'~p8JV{ opH

D to B' "est' u~ant

I If' lephones to invite Da vid anti Juiie to dinner Qt all Ulan Bator ~'l turant.

I. I I YTc.tJ.ap.Kp1i1K 6aiitHa: FhU1Bal yy.

UJ1.: BaRRa aa. X~ . 53?

1 tl: :SH BaT GaMB,a. Ta J.1,a{l 18H: OPOD aasraa my?

I~ U}l)l,: ',tlBTaJi oai'JlTYH I IX sa, Ta JOy cypaa B!i.

1-1 r pe TOP, ~ 0 p':bfL XaM aB~Jl.

I - T3rhe~ BM'p peCTOpaHJ1. I, ox B~'?

{.(" '. on 0 HTO)) EO M :'IY «T yyn» , e C1:01 p aH]]; Op"ll e. AJtYl, UL ~3p B':g '7

«C £l.TIO n ro »).< '~TYYJ1 ),.~~ a. a c !1:9'Sp.

Jr. T 3n~8' 11. xu OJ] ca ~h~, yy?

(;(ICOJIomo» pecropan c.X ': OJITOH., aaHoaaT, 'I

xorsm xaMrml: caHH p e ~ _, OP,aJlhl usr rA3r I'OM.

B '(JTEJB yHJr1nIJJ)1;ar yy?

y ryit yHJrm~rll v~~r 10,M~ Xasrr SI]S1).f[.

Jd,[l,: <~: 0]]0 Iro» pecropan xaana 6aH,nar nat

Days of '[lie week (rapar)

JUIB, 1 Monday

HX __ - Wedn, ay

MJ1TMllP nv "'B DlIM6.


Til -sd Y --- ursday


'~L call

Friday B'.IlrI.

Abbreviations may bound at the b vocabu ry ..

of the -'. [ongolian-English


B,aT: ~eBBJ!II,:


~eBHrlt .. EaT: ~ejn{;[r


I l~ iii

Hx MJIrVY'PHHB Yl'fl; TaJI}l O'UIllar~

.8, M3~3. X"~II rtarr _yJl',: B9? 'ypraa xara T.

O~'DO XS;l,· I U3r 60JlJK 6aHHa 1 TaBaR uar f)'OJDK 6 ail_m:Ul ,

3yr9~ao p" 3yr33p. 3yp raan nar aracr ~(:. OnOIH:DO» peCTOP2lH.n yyJ13~!I.,

'a -.i_ 'he.

BAT (OD the phone): Hello?

DAVIn: Hellol! Who is it?

DA'" [D:


DAVTD~ Hi\: :








DAvIn: -BAT:


BA: :

This ,i ~ Bat. AT, you tWOI free this e' e' ing?

I' . rtainly W' ' "e free. What ar·' -(}U asking abous? et go to a restaurant. Let .1- go together:

OK, let's: Which restaurant ·'hall we go to?

_ 'fc ,- • b I J" R I Tu" ~

Let s go to t'l ROJ:n·- D'~V or t.. e l~" f,ve,' _ us ~

Wh.i h one is better?

The 'Rainbi 'v ' is better thon the 'Riv, r Tuui'. Is the food there good?

The food ai the 'Rainbow' 'f. stauran: is very g 00' d .. sa id 10. be 0 ne of t'h e bes t' res taura nts tn Ul an B ato r. 1 U ',: _,(f-5 rvi " ?

N. . it ~v waitr ss service. et': go to, ethel:

Where is (he Rainbow J restaurans? It's soutk of the: department store.

I understand. At whar tim shal! w€' me t? Half past sir.

WJIUt s the time rtow? It s five o 1 clock.

Fine. Let's meet at the 'Rainbow' at half past six. '. I'S do that.

It is

lllKRS Yr Vo cab uls1ry



. " _re why DoL? b dy, he al th better

_ . ne ~ alrigh

just a rna' ent

oneself rainbow

to ask about to serve

waite r/waitress half

,6aiiJIryii .-=-_i '89 6RI,




~''':'':' ,14!·

SepTD8 WJlCHr-D tJ:pa:J:, 'yiJNIIsx yl:;Jrm3A xarae

tim -: clock

OIr; either I ~ iO OJ

: The word pBmOpau fOI re taurant' has come vla Russian: t11 best MODI olian u I lent L 300l'Bi1r ra381)' (aoor mean 'food').

"guag,_ points - , do that

I) xpress the idea. of wanting to do something or calling OD others It 1 it in in an actionv fo 'he fust .. p rso - singular and plural mgolian adds to the ver = stem the voluntative ~uJfixes -u. ~ u I -se or -a, -e and-e ace rding to tl e follo ing P sttern:

L l' ms ending in a consonant

I nc k V': 0·, ,-W~-j71." ~£'l"" ... a·!OJ -y" or ~n' ...... _ILU- DUGV' - aun.JiiJ' aua... JJBiit.U

~ ~Jb.~ ': .- -n - -~i5 ~~ &DMAI ~ -- .', ~

-0 = ~1iJij: 01'0" - op~

- ".Ile: TSr3~ - TSr:&e y38~"~ - 'y3J.a

lot owel

S em' len ,. ing in a vowel:

hack vowels ""B'I -y or ' ... J1 = ... x: yraax, - ,raul', cyy:x ... CJ'fB -0. = "6: 600x - 600e

I " - _t V,QW 01·. = -e: xu:irK .... XBie-· xyns3x

, xyOS8

III" verb 600x n1e8I1$J 'to ti,e' and XYJD3' to receive' and to 'wait ., L espite the spelling r lcs the v IUntative':'u'ffix is mostly

I I ) rounced ~ii and stres led: Am. (awll) - Let rne (let us) take'

l IJ ak ?"II 'Vi- (.... iii')' . r,' " ..... 1,... ,- i,

, we _e~ ~fi', II ~ Let s " e take a ._ .:t\.. etc,

~l e voluntatlve is very flexible and is used frequen y in

.CTopaBJl; o,~e.~ XBMTJIID;dI. 3a, T3'I'IJe"

1 et's j i a estaurant, Let's go together, - K,. let's,

"Binly, why not?

r exnress lilt ilihood the suffix ~m4lj ,:ep~,aces thr final ~X of the · nt-Iuture verb Il un . ~g. fia -,' :.-- "likely -, be 'i ' 'aJFIi ,1.tun'yA1 etc .

When, combined with he verb ,BU, in ,3 question _ e.g, 6aiJn~ri gtl the meaning is 'Why "Dot?' 'How could, (one) DOlt?' The m plat. i: pro,nOIUDC .d (and sometimes written) DX&B:



BOJ[OJuy,i B&X: Hs1' Of _ ours, you may.

]), T,EIRhlr M»JI;3JJrY11 .ax sa, 0"- cours __ I _~now you ..

Xa -BITSB 6aWnya aax ma? How could I .. _._. , ~ e without?

TIle suffix ~mai:: I. ·xpre:s,es certainty: 15 ,--~ -,0 'must be',

Whe n things are bigger or small ,=, b tter or . orse than othe r· Mongolian forms, th .. comparative by put ing '[he object c nnpar d in the ablative case (suffix -aae, etc.) and p acing the adj ctiv after it:

London i· bigger than, Ulan Bator,

or better w" can U,·· ~93p, mearun c- 'on , ~ . ver ". n top of":

118 AB···· -. Which is be tte r? <0(, :OUOBrQ» ,Mo . il-,-r .ac ~p .. , R in ,ow is better than the ~M;' scow'.'

T3M9~ra3p, se " C M'OPBOP Dem n »;a-9p~

Goins on, horseback was etter than going 'by canu .

The adjective is unr hang ~ Baraae caBR bette - b, n

oms,POSH ,JiIO\tJla3C I, ~W" rse 'han last year' (eFB'p8 lot: 'I

'YmtBB68.ITiP,IBC 6araoT' "a town smaller han Ulan Ba or', axaac TOM bigger than his elder 'brother' , YJDBC an;m;ep 'higher hall th mountai CVVJI3'3C ~aaR 'whiter han milk',

Aneth .r Mongolian proverb for ' .. 011··· tor: " 'uapr,aamau 88X118 8H&B'AJ)"AU ")fI1me It39pl "Today s lungs (yynIHI_;) are better th n torn irrow's fat (eex).

The supe lative is f" 111 d with '_h-_ ~ lord xaJMrIIIrR th genitive ras

f f · 111' hi 'ijgii',","'~ 'b -" -

orm 0 .' '. ,ar . 51 ~ 'V, ryt -_lOg: ~~.itI..iJ..D C', - .: .: ,t ,~.~. - ~

M;yY wors " t, .: YJlBaB6'UTap XarLm D.MIldB eaita Dr~ on, 10'- tI,· 11 st of Ulan Bator' ] estai mts',

Telling -he _ime

~ .• as " 'What is the time? Mong 'Han: use the imper ective conv rb

of DDJICOC,·· ~R 0;'- -- "0 j •. ' 6abe,'? I)pBau ~ar ([Jp, ". ,·ac DO-··

CdBa 'Its three 0" 1 . k (half a t three).'

o say ' at (a time) ~ the. dative/k .-Jativ. . uftix ~ corne ! lnt '. play:

1I .... ,;."·....,"""rD: qarr (89.)? iAt wh ,t time?' I)pa " , :. - -_CTj ",t - ·_U p.

c, " If you want y .. u an count of th: m _. uti, s: BeaR Uar ap _.' ,

, 60-· .-.,-aJbJa It s ten - .• t nine j ~ TUD nar ltB1£IlB IflmyT 6a 1.- .'.

~~-- 'It s five forty. or tw nty 'to six' .. Aep,BsH o:arr TaBID[ MKRJT " oajtaa It I.', five to four', 'fiv· -: minutes short of four' ()lJ1YY' ut of 'l 'i - .. ufficien .,) KoiPT!; at tw ,. ~epaB XOplijl . ' .. four twe -Ity' i!

. op' ~ XYPTIJI HBr .. _. - -. DlI,CA9r' lOM~

111· High l to Kharkho ~n takes an h our ~

words 10M yy 'ei her ",0, or' be tween al' ernatives may be II .peated: 'tJH xya 10M' ,,~ 'iJDYY 10M' ¥y'I! Are you man 1 .r stone?' I i C 'P ost position N:.1l;Bliryi: m - ans not on 1 y . ~ . b ut also ! ~ .': 1{o 0

Bp'B9C llUUlyyC-.', ,- - ron:: Adem 'No only th ',alI'

, L I als the snow leopard nd lynx ar tl. min enemies of liv '",

Note the collo uial question my c:JI"&lj-S 'meaning 'Wily do you, I 'l' or ~Whal ar you asking about? (imperfectiv v -rball noun).


set dish a Ia cart


_ _loner

breakfast lunch

XJTI'I,(S: eBJ;l99 unDEtl1I (II) TaBar rorooq:


, ork

spoon plat. cook

·mJ rI'~~~' mOll

! upply the voluntative suffixes and translate: 1 113 pecropann CODOX' .

. -,ah4T (znax).

A,3JIr3pMaaT.aii' (Hpmt).,

y II ~mfi aarap 30'lHJJ; 6Yf)J;aJIJl (YYJl3 ax) ..

_ K nsr man nrap aapar (anax) (Tsrsx),


3rBJJ' 6K q 6ac THinM: men 8B'"U-

Vtl.... . ·1.JI.JIi;(l_

- a ,hlP naraan 6y~amTa_M men anrf, 6' HOTOOTO]{i

_1lI'9_ I anna.

Ta oap' lOY saxaanax B3?

.1i,H yxp.lffi.B lim.X.aHA m. ~ypTaa~

X3P!'B TlniM DOlI fh~A" .o;eM xoe p;ty aap XOOJUJ.H~ yxpltim ronM:8X RU,.'L

< BHI111 6o;LtJloop 6011 raxaiin Max VX,pr niB aa

~~ISll]. R mapcaa raxaaa Max fQUV£33p tl'RHH,a.

T~,rB!Ul 6H ca:fIxaH' MOHfon XOHKH1ll Max 9.81:.11. HM.ap flMap troroo anax B'3? Te -rc, map n:yyB,3!n 6a.tlITIaa 0 H fi lOY?

JLU3 6Yl'BHH . IOJ'iOO 61I~~_! Yyx JOM as '. ~ yy'? Xoep TIm!! map aiiP,fj 3aXIHlJ1'~lt

:SIR H3,r asra }KHMC:lmli yc aB'"hS.,

Why don't you come and sit next to U1 ? Wh)1' til -t?

Whre. the menu? Here it' iJIJ

Whm areyou going tOI have? l~/11 gain, to have ric soup. 1- tluu ta ~t -?

Not s bad. I quiee like ir~

Then I J m' a Is o g (J ing to h " VJe rh e same (so up ) ~

iI' you 're hallil~g, rice ~'l'OLtP 11m IlUliltg vegetable soun.

'W/tar else' are V·lJ, go! 'g to ord. sr? I like bee] til lot.

In that case let's all have beef fill- ts for the second


In my opin r n pork is better than beet. 1 d llk: ' to. eat roast pi ·rk ~

Then {1'1l going to have good MOl~,golian. mutton. What SOTl o{ vegetables .\',hull we have? A.Fe' there an-y

potatoes carrots or cabbage?

There are all kinds of veg" l-1Je have 5'· me thing ['10' d rin k?

'. t s order tWIG bottles 0 /. beer. III have a glass of fruit ill-ice"

Exercise 2

Translate into "n,gli h:

1 Y JlaaBOaaTapT X9A~lt PSCTOPflH 6niAar B~? Ans Bb XaMJrtrnll caaa t)$}?

2- .IilR rOJ!» sosr It 6yy;rvr:nnl xoo 1, «Tyyn» pecropansr "00- 0 .


3 MHHH - '. rap ~M~' .1[)IBfIlf1f eaapan MOpKBOOI)Ki[}lU1f.

4 XCThl'lI T ·'B9aC ranr T3p~tn-mH 6Yl1~aJ1 30'llH)l 6yy;,a;rraac xen,

5 Born Xaansr OP';:(OH, Ynaaanoaaraptrn Xa.MrJaHJI TOM XlrnJ); all an XliH.n;ZI:3 C cail· - an,

J 11'-JJtr3p M,a a:


Translate in 0 Mongolian:

1 Wha "s the ime? It · half pas ,1 VD.

2 Whe 'will he come? He will coi e at four 0 clo k ..

When (at what time) does the train go? It I .av _ _.' C ets off Er the sta lion at IO,.20~

4 WIllen d.D you h- ve - reakfast? I eat breakfast every day

7 o'cloc '"



I r:

1~1, ERMAA,:

I \V'ID:

II H 11~:

'Ta, .aJJ my uSX' sa?

WlJat are :VDIJ going to ,hal'S?

David and Julie nu et Bat and Deleermaa at th 'Rainbow I rl tat rant and try to decide what 10 order.



Ii II I.E!

Bar: iKIoJlI1::

BaT: >K1o ::


;rt9.nT:9 pM,a at: .!-~: lOJ1_ ':

9J1F. psraa:

Ta Mld::Emit X3JKWJ.\ c.yyxrvH JOy? T .r~JIryi aax B :.?

XOOJIHbI D;3·"' xaa Gail. a?

9B3 6a ... · 'a.

Ta Hap lOY anax B3?

ElK uaraan Oy)];llRTaR men aBIIa.

A '.."1f""IT:;.'1!' TrfIo\U?

. , jI .J ~~ ~ ·J.V J' !r.

TldltM ~I MYY O}]m ·.3. Hanan a,KTafixaH 6aHAar rot


II II I ~:

lUuBs Y:r Voc'ab,u/ary

IUU:~ ,BJlrll

DMYlrd ,urafe:) BJr.F:81lIBlB 61itm;aa 6Q;;rJ;colJ] r,axmi

ron' 1\1111:(.) 'mlMC(:U) lDlmJIax MUX(H'

to take not, none tasty

glass, cup nice, g,cod eabbage opinion ,p1g

fill ,t


to order meat such potato

in that case, if so cow ox



in that case

:upan mBM 6(tJl ~aaa fl}?lt18 IUlM




to be able La roa" t carrot bottle ~oup

,aU kinds


map ,JIJ']'BBlI' UlIIJI(Il) MMfa)

.J1B3 5v:pui:tI!

Langu'ag,'~, points

Th ""'r ( iii, h 'i!)' f f th M' I"' b isth " ~

e 1. or -'W. en , rorm ot the . .ongouan ver " IS the condition

converb suffix ""IHW (", "'UO:JI ,"B9JI "'"MaX)· Mt er s tern ~ ending ,to D ...

- " ,,_~, _ - ':i! '_. .' '.' '. '- '-- ,~. -:._ ,_: -

~Jf and » tile ~Ban: becomes ... alll! ( ~6cJ['" ... 6mn:~ -m):

OpSOJJ: 'if (they) enter' ~ Y3B9J1 ~U (be) sees', IrDGJl 'if (you) give T3rB9JI U SO~I~ DDO 'if (you) go', etc,

6DPOO O,P,BOJJl fi DaxIYI: '1 m not going if it rains.'

o~o aeyyJrrI fblbaJI 8CYY ',any qu stion ,,?' ('Now if there que ti ns ask. )

60poo ,I,CYYlU

'oopoo OJ:JOX ,ac.yyx

to rain ~o ask

ram question

The negative par: .iele ~!U~ is, used 'with the conditional:

3_/ C ~!li:nllaJri_' [f C' h )' d 't t'

~r " ,.le, .,' oesn .~ ,go 01T •

If th, subj" cts of 'the clauses are differen ~ th· subject of 111 conditional claus is in the, ccusattve case:

1 AKhIr 1\aFUB 6y:m:UTIB DIM ,u6'aJI 6,11 HOI1lDTO:l: mBJI ,URa;; 11 you're having riee soup, I'm having v ge able soup, Ju le says,

III a. 'W' 'H:A'iiI.ifff ' .... .r!!li'lll'l"l.Bl .Bij''l''''!'l!rEli

.~.r.~ "!jI~.I[¥-I ~y .. o~·g U~,-..I!3...V~1

I r (when) I come, I'll give you, money,

laMa:Ir &p,RIlI ,d'B ~IHJ]; MB~O' eram.

~ . (when) you COmEt I'll giv . you money.

1 . conditional particle It'lOJI mas be used with verbal nouns:

D :smu DQII ,B~ ,D.lIBp5l1:~

I',·U me i.I you go (if you go let me know).

No l; the regular form . ation of the negative present-future verbal II IlL 11 with -nyi Bon:

. zpsxryit fioJI Ef8MJt 3&XB!a JIB;yyJlBa.~ I~' I don't C 111 , It] l send you a letter,

,BMaiT :' Pllxryi o on: 'OK .~, .'lama flBJYJflfL T~ you don t come, I'll send you a letter ..

f mditional sentences may begin with upu (XSpU9), meaning if': pB98 TttiM' ticm '~DJll, apFwyB.

I C~D't help it if '~1, t's how it is (it is so)"

hy not thus?

f I dialogue includes another negativ imperfective verbal noun II h the verb JIi\X~ but this time 'the question T9~ SIX 1131 II . not thus?' is formed from, the ver T,3nJX "to do thus', Likewise ._:o .' KIX B!I means 'agreed!', 'how els ?'

dill partlele 1\.[

1111 particle 11 plays the role of 'and" 'too', 'also' , 'even', 'although', It according to context:

,JIue, QBpllJP YYJl_Q8C 11 9~Op I~I CJ:Y "I anra, ;Q; 11 'T9lQJ; 11:

R1IM q: ~ 811m


. '111" ~'!!!ii~1

, ~ u~

higher than the mountain

even, higher than 'the mountain '~h ere is tl ei th r 'tea 11 or milk E here and, th re

not so bad

me too


.' . '.


my q MBA3xr'ya my "I XKI;~n!tA DR 'MIASUllYP

doesn't kn w anything never does anything

doesn i know anybody (or, nc one


Similarly JlMap T{ ~w_ateve 'an, ·-,S83 11 'whenever': X9399 , ·1 llo'JDI.O meaning ~(YOll can) fetch (it) wh u. e - (you like) , JOY 11 6am 'no hill - 'DR "I flam 'nobody':

, . ercise 6'

11,',' nslate into en zlish:

Uru1Jrbl raga pT ~,~w ~ 6a:Kxryj~r, C'V17- 1,1 6aflxrYB: 6a aean.

, T3P HX cypryyJIH:fm llU1H~ 6arrn qmlL lOy q M,.3lJJt· rryH~

:Sa : oep)],yraap XO. Jl _ . m:apca.I1 9MCT9ll r~_ aan M8XHhl

WIlIdll e ,J3'h'I.

01.IHA 6YYAJlblR Maxes ac KOMIIOTOOC aMTIaH roy?

H mapcan aaracann ~ypTaJ~ Y'lp.aac. :XOHb~ YXp,HihJ ·qa,}-I,aca~l ~1ax lIJ,U19 rryU:.

H8MSllT Yr

A ... ~ itional vocal . lui., ry

~:yp···re'· p

u· . "-

. -


burger salt

to fast, ba ke ,~, , steam

t ' brew tea 'fish

s te wed fru i t

nGBR9!pb OOm"1mO




JII'SJIH J[OOJ]L, t01.1IB to

...... .,...ILlI' .. flJ16tJP DOJr.I"7TBB /' If it be so I


yypu,p ~

~ oilUlIi.c .........

:tarac(u) K.OMIIOT

Me· ,e9lD1EU~ epraCT X9l11X

DJJ' v m . gfl r

to boil

anoa:H '3p suga

roCOH,J( m:c pax . ,. fry

uuu1u;en ... ell i tz I

~ Uh It lp .. irotn I enghis . han. the B ro wn,s'" Bat and Delgermaa b ink 10 eel '"II' other's he-alth,

3PX3M xyn:ni.r noea payn, xararraa Bpayn, a 6VX1n~ MOlIrOJl op: BrUt Ta.BT_ H canxaa 'O~HH>K

MOl _ on POH, M10HrOntIYY~"hm TYX.ru1 C ··HHH canxan 10M ClfllHlK. rapraxur 6F~ XVC~)I( 6~u~hIa. [« 'fl"HHr14 , _ ,8.a H» apnl Yfl,I{BraJIJ!l:B J

Epeen ep 6.'J1TFait~

· a ~pyyJI ,M" 'f:l;1l.JliiH renael

:PYYJI M~H~ 1fT TaJItlol r apxH' ro.l'TooLU'ooB]I:.a;J r .. prmj" H X8Mr.r' CQMX8.B TarU1LJ]]jJ:C au ·naK3 Ba T ID1B

3d I1x '5aJIPJ]aJ~Hui! BH~ YJlaa!HtJ.aaTapT nonce XO,lOJrOO~ Hx q 10M y3JI93. B,_ c uaan ffb Y33X, 10""

a ~. • s, aHaJfJ lIanac)loplKlfniH TSPC6H HYT,

MORrOD 0pOH YH~x~.p caaxan opo 61d.ll33! S,wn

~ f

··BxmnI T nee. :3H~ XY!lJ1aTL~r lepra _.

-pyyJl M~rI.n;Jt[illi T9J]'9:1 r apXI1 rOfTocu3'1 Sf)

.JlYYC"t{KXJUUl! ': a, 6ac ,,1" nran '~KqRBf'H. Xaas»

a [UUl • :FJ :till ..

3a, Aba.n OVV "Inti XJ]]m3JI IOyy aHJ

APXH OAOO DOHO ool ACHY)]; xoep asrsrr yyxaA .rr: « "'lII1Hl'flC XaaID) TVYHKlir YRTYYJ11,,11tX.,Jlar lOM~ r3prm1 Tam \ra9X3 .. P It urra xyH 10M aal

.H,RX&IH q 0: pr, ryJtt!

Ice cream cucumc er

Ex'srcise 4

Insert the correct :. .rsr n I p,ron.oun· am co' ditienal forms.

lYH elI'· .,,;:tap BP (w OH srsaa,

2 XVH'r3B 60n (you) ~.H~ .apsx YV?

J (You) 6Y)laltT!Il m .J1. REI (I) ,M~tXTali' me 1 aBBR.

4 /1) CYVT~tl nair yy (to you) Ko~e erne.

5 (Y-, u' H]J II q~. nii I) (you) yrcaap jJ_pHlla~

)11 :HILl:

I. ''I":

I rIH~~

Exercise 5

r II r:

ran: late intc Mongolian:

1 If you. have notato ,I II h a v - rrots,

2 If Sa orders porkv D ~ lgermaa will rat mutt ·]1.!

3 If ,t ha t man do esn. t come, th c_ doc tor's going to town"

4 If )fOU come at three o'clock I ll giv you some sweets, 5 If it snows Bat will not be a-ble to return horne,


[0 rear vodka

to publish Is that so? wtfe


to finish wishes hopes to' open

to visit

~7~n rrf1r~ ~y.J-J...£L.

-- - - -




D -, D~ _ AVr_·,.






Ta xoep KP~,X AOJIOO' i{OHOrOOC x.eAee ,J1JJ~Ui m>tt 6aiITa,a r3JJI VV?

TIIitM 9&J ~ aJIh BiiM raap :IJfUtXilJ"a O)lOOX,0H]100

TOBJIIOOryRr n 6ajt-Fla.

Dear Mr land Mrs B',(}~1/n~ ll1}e hop« (hal' you wil! have a pleasant visit to Mongolia and thet you will pub/isll'inlerCrfting and nice things about Mcn'lgolt and the Mongols. (He porus some "Genghis Khan' (Chinggis) vodka)

May it be so!

To (your) health] , _

Tn (your) h,r!,althJ (they -: rink 1!I'P (vodka) [0 gethe r)

WeU~ it has been good to gel to know you lind you wif"e~ my fri~nd Batl Thank you! 'We have spent til week in Ulan B ator: We h ave ,even, seen a lot o thi~1gS. Further on there are pl,fnty more thing'S I see. YOUT Natsagdor] ~ l1.onte{(1n,d, M'on,golia. is indeeda beautiful country! Let's raise our gJas'ses t

(your) heauh! .. ... ' .. ~ . u

7'0 (YOU.f) hf!llithl (they drink up) Oh, it ~~ !int:shedl

Welt, let's open another bottle of' 'Genghis Khan' This D,Me.

Fi/1 €., Nothing ventured, nothing gained!

Now lhatJs ,enough vodka! WJ1en David drinks two glasses; 'Genghis Khan' sends him $tr-aighr TO sleep Your l,,;ife ts c~'r'Qinty (a) stria person!

Can 311. be 11;e1:p edl

Tnt' two of yOll are thinking of g{)-i~g to the counir

from next wee.!c" is t hi (J.,r sa? _.

Ye~'~ o,' ,at the moment we just haven 't decid which provinces we'll be goil'I,g round.

,.m.'H,'S Yr Vociilbulary

,lHIX '81pm(H) rap~ax

no " I3plrd

~onoo XQ,BOr nvvcax

~lll- -

eptHlJl awmx, 30:'tJIOX

JQqUB 110m pm):

plenty friend

to raise pleasant

to decide to Wink up


fOT the sa - e at to homeland

ysru \'1DDSp manx ~1lnI(1II) Jt}'fO];I1rWlU ~rr xycn

9PYf.JJ; M3H;nIlmrx: :s.pD1d'

to sleep indeed, truly

[0, spend a rughW glass, goblet

to pour respected

to \-Vi~'J1

health honoured, d ear

~ _90

, (,peDD BYTH

anguage points

I ensive ve:rbs .. qIa

I h~ m aning of a verb may be intensified 'by the addition of the ivational suffix ~cmx- La the verb stern: JfyyC'IHJUlU iC(We've) nrnpletely 'finished (it)!' d rived from JQ7Ycax plus .. "lHX'" and ~:.JIU-, HUJ Ymy,yJI"IJ\IXJlHr ~U'SlJaUy is sent str.ajghl uJ1' to sleep,' from Ul)1!mtX. Similarly, cocoa, "got up' and, 60CIJIBXOB "sprang up' (from cox), The action is complete and unexpected: BaT HIf1mXCBH "Bat

nt off' (from HBU), _

'Ill stem of intensive verbs i~ sometimes used as an imp rative: rapldH yerng SYIJIIlIX 'Slgn here' (from 3'fP,qAXU) and ~~~~,_,aH'IIIX i, Give 'yo ur I· rder' (from IUlIaJIIIiKKU).,

I lis third-person form. 'with sufflxe ... r (singular) and , ... ~ I I u al) translates the idea ~ May he ~ ~ "~ r 'May th y "" . '. Thu ,_, Mar! and 'BOllTfl~d! derived from DDJlOX "to . ecome' and II .nning 'May it 'be so! ~j (~Ma'y your wishes come true'] are perhaps ilL! me '\ common examp es, Political slogans used 'to say: lWXT)TaH'! 'Long live!' from the verb yawx 'to flourish'.

I 10.11 1990-96" while the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party \ 1 the elected ruling political party, the government newspap er ,~' 8p;, I~ Peep le ' .. Power ' carried the front-page slogan, Xaiprr )("JI 01'01[00 M8lfJlJ'Ynldl! 'Let us make our «(TWO) belov d



Mong Ii' curish! wb re '\ . is the voluntatlve orm

~IX. which i' th causati '" - _- below. '~ rived fron,_ "'Jl,Iiil.IY.IYIJIi!~

TIl intr'O,duction'·f a vel mt tl e slogan _1"_ 'T the retorrm 1990 was in marked comrast to the impera ive used during Ih preceding 69 years of communist rule: O~OH. Dyxa:i: l!pO-lIt'1TaplI ~ 'B3rJ.l!U"T¥H! 'Pro]· ta ians of aH lands, unite!' where DSI'JE;:9JTfB .1'

econd-person plural impe rative -ITIK of mJr~ 'lot .• U' te

'become on I~ Dther C rnmon uses of this impe a11V'C form inclu Oporry!d ~ arne in!' I nd ICyYl~B! 'Sit down!" wh -0 a~dress'. d l only in 'person tb form is mor p,' lite 'Please come 1DJ' etc,

Verb forms in whic .. sorn. on: causes an action. to tak place, r called causa tive, The derivational suffix .' far. the caui ati ve lncl ud

... 1J1i1ITI... _ 't11Tl1' _) •

- ~., ~ ~ I ~ '. !

~gT J ........ '"" ". '" • ..-..

Thi P .rticle is U . I, f r ernpha 'i' - .. re ally , 1 ~CI, rt inly', 'j u t ~ :stj I etc, As Julie says, TOBJ)OOryi JI 6aba. ~We just ba've~ ~t decided. It follows the word it qualifies. There are many colloquial U~'I'~ ~ n 'only on ,'; Tsr ,n A9D D, .',0 then L\Vb- not (do that)?

J k·'ng, 'U. ','It ions expr ssing be sit tit n er W1C< rtainl)r. (r

In as 71'. _ ~

remindinz someon bout iomething h c mtracte form -n of th J past pel f ct tense in -naa fl1.a.y be u: d:

TRitM ~"Drnr V17' ~ U...o.uL [I J: ~,

Ta B8AT8..11 Y1Jl9IlY1?

So that 1 or RI, a ly? rtave we m t before?


Ii 'I~ d · w c'am.· 'e:' a" cr " e_. arlier:

Similar e amptes .. ,ase _ on vcr -5 , _



'0 organize, 'roi ' t5aiix . 0 - tc '_-nd from BBaX to . 10

• rther de iva' ional suff ···8 used to form. the causa ive

reviewed lat f ..

~"" JI M9uH91l

~IA _ • II

Sukh know I " U TIght.

certainly spe J I Russian


~!mr3PM&a, B:OMOO Y33lK In 6afrEra. 'Yfl] Is D, 19~ rmaa tiB r ading her " ", k?

Contralct'ed form Q pa,~ It perfeet tense

I, lgermaa asks XSIAee ,,0 r.JX flam a rsn ¥Y'? 'You are thinki ~Ig I I going to the; COUll try, is 'that so?' whe Jr, murK m DdrU, m -an " ~ re thinking of going", 'planning to " 0' and :raJ[ YY? 'Is it s071;, 'Ar _ ~1Ll sayi g?

I he ver I I 60110', is very versatile and appears in many cant, xts: ( II) 'to b_ 'i in time expressions, (1' W' b 'V seen (pa e 78); (2. ',' 0 come as in 8,PYYJI DOJIOX to grow hi .. Ithy'; (3) to acquire with II comitativ - cas T9.P91T3 60JICOH "got a cart': (4) to decide I in KBBX fiOJlCOB 'decided to go': and (5) 'to be enough', suJli

I .nt' as in Dialogue 'Apm 60mo! 'That's . n ugh vodka!'

tner points

saw earli . SOTIle participatory v' rb ( erivationa] suffix ... u;raa ... ) h ere the acti on i'. cam, d ou t in. a gro p, H, re we have . orr'Dou;rooB 1 ey drank up t g .ther derived from the participatory form OD~D.X to drinl u_ together'! of TOITOOX tc " rink: .p' (and al 0 lu establish' and 'to memorize.').

The verb XliX and 11 combine in the expression JI 1J apr,a.ryj:!

J h re's nothing to be do ! Can't be helped!'

u ie ays ,aibdr.: ap saaxaa TOBJlQory.i: "We ha zen't de id d

I which ar vinces we'll be going 'ound w ere 1I1Ulxaa i lite II se nt-futur _ verbal noun JlBIX pl u·' the reflexive ("0' usativ ) I ding -81.: 'I ur go ~ ng round',

I) 1I nslate into Mongoli a 11:

l yuu_n cer .ainly spt a' 'S Russian ..

t Sukh still working t he Ministry of _ xte rnal f elations?

I I went to the central 10."'( office to seno s m .thin 0 my elder brother,

~ Mr Br wn plans to go 1 th coun [y 'with hi wif _ next week, .a .jump d up and went off,


Supply the causative forms O'~ the following verbs and translate 'them. into English:

1 OaK

Exercise 9

5 r.~pJD)X

Translate 'in to English:

1 Epa, 6o!Ior!: Epeenslep' tSonzyr,d! 2 .HuAm '1.J apr,aryH ..

3 T~r~myH sax 89.

4 ]; OJ] omyit· sax B:BJ •

S S a~HJlryi -~[,ax B :3',

D'ialogue for comprehension 4

BaT: ,AeBJI,A:






IT t:licfi f.I'fiIi i ~w,~!gJ:A!!l

BaT: ~eDHA; BaT:·n B)l'ep )KIoJm:

~9.mrlpMa.a. : )I{JIO,}1JI:

Y i!JrqJJ 3fl1!:

Ta BraD M.apr~.aIIl OPOg 3UTaft. Ie'y? 3,a.BTm 6a,ftnryH aax B~~ lOry :r~lK?

T...:{'''' .- c" B 'rKD~H'T~" XaMT 5[BIIB

J.-; 9r caHxaH pecToplm~ OP'h:" _ ,'~~ . ~n


3 X" c- - "Iii'!'L'f"l'T ~Jl'L 'n e il"'O'ij'IO' '" €Ii U V ~ riL'I""'I'f<.F.iI'TTD ~,iIiiiI n.',' '1il'_'11 6 ~?

, ' . ~ T3 rbf! ~,. 0 .:s..~~::j!.. ~'D J:'!' '11;..01' :~ iIa..J;&. AI.'ll-.!, ... ,I...L .. Inl..Ii!Lll. """ ~

« Ma H)l(YXlni».~ «Y.l1 ~U1H6 aa Tap » 30qm;n 6:9Y:D;JJ:hIl

.. _,....,_ ....

pecropaa xoep XaMTHHl~' CaBO.

~MaJlfJ,yxa E» p eeropaa HI C I:l,I~R x.aORToll. X3'P30 T~ oon t~.MaHAY1Ulii»· KB1d ..

3 - .Q ifTI 'VG IT'13 I~:T U-ffl ~ B ~?

"a~ Ma.pTa.~. A.~~~ -1,~-.w. -.;;J •

llOlIOOE uar apaan rasan b1Hnyra~~

B'OJIDO. 3o'rf.HJl 6YYJlJ1hllI pe,crrofuI~ y'yn::=r&:II?'



Ta Hap lOY' asax 897'

Bll YJla an n oo..rrmiH 11- en 0HJI; ¥IX llYPTRl1 ~

" - ~... -- ?

Ynaall JlOOJUtKH man oaaaa 'YY.

Ji,3.iIxryi, .Ilyyc·~caH.. XapUH 6rnaa, flo:rOOTOH men


Ta :RapMf 6Y)J:I.ElTan nren ,BfB6aJl flu HOro(rrcnl men


'lin. I10rOOEI X:OOJITO.H 6mD:~ rrorcorea urerrenn JUlpryM

XOBHfLhl uaxatHA AYJlTd.


X~P~B TDHM tDoJt xoep 6y~aaTaH' wen 6,a.c H!1(r HOI'OO'fO i men a. B"~


EM xoe:plJl}Taap x:oon(JrH~ rrrapc.lm ~tTXaitrJ Max ,HlBMa2lp 6a.frRa.

BaT HHJt xcep l'aXH.a1ihI rnapcan Max aB'hJ1 .. KMap HMapl 110.['00 6a.i:lnl.?

1] anacarr TaM C, C OBE.mHO t map .JIYYB8B fiB.'R., T~pH9IBC3~ OK).J;31f)l 'U1JHpaaplo.!'

Ta ·H~.P yyx 10M my 2U3,ax B3'?

TiFf «PYCCKOII!. mIMnm'CKoe» YJ1Ma.ap -O,aHEo. ITIBn~3p~l3 mx XnMJJ.XaH. Taasrr Ha;mTaB xaMT YYBm.n ·ElH MX )Kap~~'JITaii aaf'rua. ·yyJ]::~u:a,J.w 6~lnp X11He~

?[.JPU1[S r-q:

O ff"TiI.~

. ...tJ..-.t~, III

,11.~JIf'3 PM e, a:


_ KIPLll.3I'l.l:

J ~,eBH;ct:


J.l{Ki.ft1l :

xap qlB rum(R) nap c( H)

101' rHHYJE .Q;~a,p c tlBtua:pr-a:Ila.

black Lea beer WIne

spa rkling wine se a bucktho rn

paIllaa lire rni n e raj 'W a ~ e r

WYYC(A) J U 1 ce

[-]OrOOH X'OOJ1TO - veget arian

I m,M.D1JmJilif YU;!1.a.m. I emonad e

j'na]'IDUH'C]{ champagne

~ I )le: «Pyc:;cJ[oe mOlmUIII:cE:Oe>i: or 'Russian ehsmpagnn', formerly «CoseIl'CltGe, ItulMll:aBC.Zo@m ~Sovi~'[ caampagne' is a sparkling 'wine still bottled with this label ~ n L h.JCS~2Jj. :R lga an d. elsewhere, TIle ye llow berries of !3 e a buck l horn are u sed to' make I wo drinks, Q lbk~k sweet [uice ~nd u wb:i'~e fruit wine,


'£T[_lO'-" V·.,l 'n'T;;J9T!i TT Q'DCT" _ O""'p,IA H Ll.D... .l'\..lU-UJl.l.IY.i.r D._. ".' .aI1

(OVJI1'1J\II ryf:{B..~ (OpOCmIH 3HX TaKBaIfhl e pre H ''LI9ne€) . Isro

IJYlcTlT81m Yl'A 38JIYY 'fe~KfLHIP-:fJt})m Kat-=rH,'faJ[ J04HlI, 6YY)J;M

p~OH~) YT2lC: 314304 'YTac: 358,235

I )).J;tSP 6yp 12.00-22.00 8~ep 6yp 09.00 .. 01~OO

ran reroo: XOT ;Cto'r, ICeK.C, r, n aJ1~" ITl1UQa~ TaX1111

I'arr Turoo:: MCH:ITOJlhUi flOJl'OB eBpomIHn XOO.1l

KAPr,,'~ '""1':.]' pf'D,r"!'FO. pl.,oil U __ IU~ ,LJ.'-"L .. ~

I'll AloymKMB ry;D;1,NpK

f M OHrOJl 3M3rT.:nUr CYV C~ilrM~,];r[l. ~ 'uiU"aa xeruae~unx XIDKYY)J.)

rae: 368035

JI,'f)p 6vp 12.00-01..00

I UJ] TOirO 0: X"JITM 60 .. on upon xoon

~ ...

;;;J nx Ta.HUH.H_b e pre B ~e~Jn1!e,

(Opocsra 3jJ1Uill: C,aJ.H,lm-btl-l H1lMtU1C yparm)

YTa.C: 322859

9n;ap 6'yp lOJ10-Ol.00

fan 'foroo: Tepen 6yp'.H1lm.


Note: The 3M3~ me. PI) 6tt1raa 'stirring mir·~ K:em;e8 and ma;HUB B.p~- , ..... holding a ladle' Dl3IT9C~m'x-omoo are the arne. CaReap 'Cosmo · .is a district.

MAPKO nOllO PBC"rOP·-·· " A,epEB yyJl saxsnr yp~ 4 ;D;uxap 301.[li~. 6Yrn~

'YTac:: 310783

8)J1\ep 6yp 12.00 .. 21.,00

])OlDItiEr 20 T9 PJllIlhr .' _ 0 OJ!

MOeDA P'BCTOP ~." . ~

3=p xopoo; :OJI manara ,6ap:LCaH M:Ou.rOJl ,9M3..rT3HF[ .KffW.eeEI. YP';O:

Yrac: 3100.3 61

e~.p 6yp 10~OO-22.00 ran TOvOO: Opoc 60.1[0,11 eBpOI1 XOOJI

C8Yl1 PBCTO'PAR, X'¥YlOlHiiH Hai:paMJ1aJl naps, ·~Yrnm TYHa pecropan

YTBC: 3.26554

'8n;ep IOyp 12,~OO-2.2.00 COJIOHrOC Toroo~ini

5~JfIT3C sn OJI.oH OpHb1 .- err

6ypHitHl xoorr

ran roroo

rs p33 P yilJ][qJI3X JKaprWl I,r)


. ..


home deliv ry har ipines young

IIPI " "J"1A·· PH" ere IP' I,A'1':l"

1.1.1. . - ,.'. 1 • .,Il; ..... I.,~

~ - ~ -

AM:apc,aHaarmill rr.n;a:MX (raIl)laHm"- tj1apYYH TM-Jl. 'YTiIC: 366218

a~Bpl Gyp 10.00 .. 2.0,00

ex 60lIOII OJIOH ynchrH xo OJ(


e Yll' [nJ ry;o;aMJ« '" VYXS';!l 3anyy~(yy.D;JdH T,eaTpldH YPA Yrac: 3.29675

Mar apaac 6yctUl';uep 12.00-22.00

E,BPOf[ bonos M,oarOll xOOJt

CBJI!',B:r9 PBCT'OPJUI Cancapsnr }I{]lF.lHllI JUlJIrYYP33 3yYif TIH1UI 2 - anxap oait:mHtl Yac: 56 . _I '.

e~ap 6yp 08.00 .. 04.00 Opoc 60JmOE le8 pon 'XOOJ1

CaM.pax COJ..[omoc 1',ap,JI JlJ1aHara( H

to stir, ladl _ Korea.(n) kind

1 dle

lJYY- .....

. .

'" -,'

N d hl b h I

. ,1'_ . . '. _ -,.'. -. -, -",

, evelr ,·0 t Ing,51Y aves

In thls lesson yau wUI learn:

How indirect speech is structured

I. Ordinal numbers and d8!YS of the' week

• Another form of d18' imperative

• The terminal converb luntill

• The continuous. eonvero (keeps en)

¥YJl'lII;l( tli"g;Z{Or J7PBIIl rasBjJ

hree pla,ces much vi' ited by.: tourists

~i tells Da vid and luli about three place: tourist. visit in the , I ingotian CO un t.rys i de ..

'I: BD JKyyJ]Wm~ sopayncan usran Co.:HHpXOJITOII J:[,8BJIH.X OM Yf--:lll1lIJK O'i..iffiai

TVYlmwr fIa;Jl y3YYJlZi:3'1.1 ~I

X<aaxWl )K~y.n33}K 6aB! ~hi:3 8:014)); ~(}l{yyn~ AX oq~or rOBL HYTrKitB :F1rS'H cwixaH rasap 1Th Typaan Caaxaa YYXbIH BJILIl-] aM r nsr )l ixan uaasar rasa p 5HJf3·» .rs()K 6aHlIa. 3HS ras _p ,',_1H8r-OBL aJb.larr DaH!Ul 1 IOM~

II 1111 a: ArIEm aanan a r .D., I. • Haa,u, riOMOO!

u I'~ Ta CO'B"COO'lI. ,~)KYYJPI~'[E1 ttaxaapJIbIT HX T61.T)l;.fru,F xoep A8.Xh

aaap GOD XaHT,3,im YYJl.apx~r OpOH JOM. A~'_TIXHH A~lXHIij]\ nnp)l;, rapcaH Xap -:-:opYMJilT '. _' ~: - . 11 i5aJ]J'aChlH xaMT Y39Jl COHKPXC·.R X\,r,FJ. ,M'Rm, OJIOH 6aHEfa»,.


JKJOIDI: o llnrOJ1OQ .. :; r yyJIlffiJl; . ,",Y !Hl)tar ryp JI a.x:b ra3S:p

xaa 6aiffia _ -17

,a : )l(YYJ11<IBll ~.. nyrnanar rypas ~axh HYTar GOD «':3H 6yc It xastaapax T3P3J.DK 6J.lJl . '>} rSOK OIPi 6ajr.l~,mt. T~p!3.JCK .:~n:I~33C xon DJHIl. Ynm.aa6aaTap, .Vy x:o.H;J; 3yrT 0,' 11'Aor 10M. T p.!l.lDK pallia all raJd ro r}}{ acyy HaJJ 60JIOXCOH }"I'I,.

. 1(-13 JlaRilaXa~ ,(T';s,P3IDKilitJi R:3r o~nor Don . Hi . al,111i1 reonornan 1'OnD1l; rYH BIIB 'pMB~ -6aH"rIB.D;· opnrano» L' 6r~ rss, Bac 38,Pml;n aO'H ~ 6_' "mar r~'.[(: 6l.!l1 1 aana, r~B"tt T9'p·JllKlOO. pam. _a-ml yxaa l'y q Old ._ry

'\3';1'" U'iIi .n-t ..... ~[U!iI_L:I"'l!l!

BA :


B .. T:

DAVIn': ,AT:

J - LlE:


.1". !I

J ur 1£:

Yf. a ClI1,D to Kharkhorin ton)n, by VA Z [R ussian-made

our-wheel drive CTO"S, ... C.OUlI y vehicle] oi by plane. There t also a daily bus: The b~I:JI,t:o.~· from the LraI1'F1p" rt Offic/ [Ulan Bator] ~ In n7.·y opinion. one "ally mus l visit Karakorum.


.' n Xap XO:PYM PYY HtUK: KB3lX :03?

Ta Y "·3 M.aIJIHH 10M YY OHrO]l,(lOP Xapxopan KOT

5fBlK 6 on - o. a :. '~B p o'YP ,3LB.,Tofly C B K f5 anraa.

BBT06yc:Ei' . iBP :td11 TI' I~_ !fO £II ' I _ a3pa _ ~ a BA--~

MHEIKIi 60 -oop·· ap "OPYM PYY 0 .~KJl'tyH .011 6oJ1tQxrv

I'm reading an interesting guidebook for tourists.

.' how it to ms ,

Wail a bit! This b JOlt. ss IYI. One o] th, pl es in 'he ' .. , Jh much vis-it d bv (wrists is the' YolYn' . sn (Vultur .,. T, Fi . erve in th. Gurvan Saikhan (Three Beauties) moun tains.' This place is in South Gobi province.

Com eon. g iv e 1111 e t'h is bo, kl

L.i!111en: ~ The .' e ,tld -,I" .e '. hlcll t un. ts fti aft' ition I

1 r '. tf' attracted r. the Khan, . ti mountain area. Ve.r n an peopie have been inu rested in Sf! ing world-jam: ,I Kuru ko rum with th e old cit '} ruins:'

I understand. Where is the third pluce that tourists gatbe a lot?

The third pili _ ce where tou ris ~ game', a lot is' Terel] wl. i ·1 is part of the Khemii mountain zone: Terei] is not far IT fJln here, it is north-east of Ulan Bator.

I wonder if perhaps 1 COt: ld . sk you whether the. e L 'P' ing tit T:t~relj

TI is guid· book says that 'one r{lf th ~ [eetures of Terel] i ~ the peculiar geological stn« lure situated n sarby', lt a 1 also that in SONl.e cl'i/fi' the' If! are evert C'llVeS" But il doe n "

. ttl ... anythin fib 'Jut IQ Te, el] 'nit? -ral ·pril1.g~ How can we .'. t I Kurak; rum?

III : TIle obl zone. on the borde r . twe ~'IlMCH10HiiI, and China co .:rI es Sou ,J

I . Imam. ) Middle •. .' ." (~BAI'OHb. and ' . i ~OPBOroD) provi n 3:

1 p). Gobi [. rna 'tty no', ds' r but de ned s 'steppe I lain wh re vezetation p 111~e, trees , nd n wing wate:r are very ra e, the topsoil is· sand or graveUy,. ,an

I ~I nrners (Tap ~a) 1iv~' (.ij'UOI1:l UOH [Yllm Tsevel, 'y, (1966) Cencis« Explan{JJ~fJrJ; ~ (Jwary of In MO'I.·goliu;fi LU"I:fUfll!re! Ulan Bator: State Pu.b~i~hing Ccmmit tee). I I I terraln als .1 extends across ~obj-A1ta:· (rOBli-A1rra.A;) province named aft r I muuntain rans c. TIle Khaegai mount ins giv '- 'heir nam I t -. the central

t. 11 ' [j~~ pr, 'ince of _<·rkhUl' _i ('px&Jm L Hn~ ~vorkh~ngai (9Be;p~aur,)

mng literall the, hac ~ t p) and 'breast' (. BeD) I :f the Kbanga.·~ l, . the n" rthern ,I rU'lh~ slopes Karakorum (m rked on the rnap) and nearby Kharkhorin town ~II In o VOT kh an , ai, The [(hentf mountains II.n: '10 be found in . entral (Tn) and i If I lli (lUIJffnd) provinces, while TsreJj is, an hour s drive fmm the capital

Yr' .cabulary


.. pn :-:-- ft ,'au

M -;I!'--

'Us cave

mnu th: g, r ~e attention ruinted own) p -rh , 's

zone belt geologica] nature


wo ~d(~, .~ id .'

c' rtain vulture


LID' her vessel" ship aeroplane



8 a,pM'BD; cmmpxo,x ICOIICO '.

featu -e peculiar

to t ake i nte res [

o listen

pull '. ttraet offlee bureau structure


traaspor mouotainou vicinity

rock 'I eli f

to belong to further

LI' g~li[h. r

o ¥Y

DlIOrUl.1 Et




JYJl·pxar XID

I~ PDH n.a·asaT aaap

tiJfrl~( .,

~1(8B) XDM8il",BX



. en DHroq(H)

~ €?
0 ,











~te: The towns ot Darkhan, rdenet and Choir (JlSp:x;&.B, 9pJlSJmT "lob) shown ! 111 the map m Selcnge, lui,' an and E,. 'l Gobi provinces C nam'"a. B~i I~ ,plInm"BL). are h centres Df hree ther pre ' inces, formed in ]99 '~ which ar too II lin in size to mark clearlv: Darkhan-Uul, .' rkhon ani Gobi-Stlrnber previae

.. -

J. PXBH"'YY 0, OB r,OBll.-C_S9p) respectively Fo rn re detail see the t 'entral

une map on page] 80.

'border capi al


I .n Mpsn r~ ep , r1

river railway

nguag IP' ints

i reet speech

feet speech is the w, '{'I_' ac nally sp ker by a speak r, or qu taInIlS fr' m wri en lex's _ hich in Engli _ are norm lly place d. i thin quotati TI marks. 111 M, mgolian di alogues, qu "",R tk ns usua y Igm 'with a dash:

- Ta MlDI~ ]Dr Q'Jr3'3A IBm •• ?

Would,' u peat tl at?'

)w'eVCJ. q -, .tatlon marks (<< and »),) are user arc nd quo latin md proper names:

4fBU M, praam " 8,A881 JIB.a» r3: m ~;Q D'JIJI.99 ..

We are to th ',' untry tom rrow, ,. my' yo unger br th r

said t " me,

<SUB roa» SOI'Ullt 6nA8J]~ Th, Bayan G,01 lio'leL

I di're ~. spee_ h

I ndirect (reported) sp ech is a, third-person accoun of wha H, I eaker (or quota lion) said; it include, a verb indicating s ieech,

II" the spe ak r words r r containe ,- in ubordina t ~ clause, In

It iglish the " ub rrdina _ clause usually begin: with 'that ~ B $1 - and nd-person pronoun cl ang to, third .. p rson: and th ~ tenses are II ack-shifted:

Direct: ion" ·ond pla '0 which t urists ar gr _ LL '

attrac -. .d i tile Khangai mountain ar a.'


Separ,ation of verb from' 'ubject

In, - IT· ct: Arter that Bat said tha t the s, eond place to which tourist, were gr _ a til' a ttra ~ te was the Khan ai moun' .ai

, r a,

In Mongolian the subordinate clause is cit ,d ,.1, poken (c noted 'with, ut change of persons lor enses, the v rb in, lieating report spe ' h corning at th '- nd of the senter C '. The I' .• bject of the mai clause may be ieparated t, nn the su xirdtnate clause by 0, co

Dir ,ct: «lKfYlPQl)IB aOXl.l.1lJD£ IIX Ta.TAU xoep Aax& rasap Don XBDFla~1B yyxnpur OpOH' IOM»I.

Indirect: ~apa" fA, BaT, :zyy~ RlUBapHLrr' TB.TAIr

xoep ~ rasap 'OJ] Xa:R['sfm' Y]rJIapx&r O_l)OH 10M rsea · ~yltMaa HaltaJ-l= «9,. lmJILTO 11:, ". 30xaxry:i 6aKua» ee3 yup IBcaett'yi;'.

Bee-au Dulmaa aid to me 'This overcoat d,Q s not suit :ynu I didn't buy it. (Du maa told m that he vercoat did n 1 suit 'me so I didn't buy it .. '

11_, :_'U jeer (tl e ~ peaker) 'may be se xn ated from the verb ind ca ing speech (" aid', 'r marked 'l!'~ L .) Y more' han one SIt· of the w ~d" spoken:

99 ;Q'OJloa XOB.Or't o;ar arupJIMB.p 6afruJr ~ yyp1f CaplBTY'· araae eqm'A~p, aCJYX~

-,'~,o"IUlvraap cap ,19 ... 1tA TG' sfiU " :ayuaap -ac

8map':, . ~ DTOM ~ lac opaxry:l. seenSR c:, I, -'- - . , '~~al.lIM 9 C3 ,p It'on EL)'1Taap xyA:I"Hlijrii' 3p1J 3 ... ,5

DMHP CfJII.,:- - a r3B~

When w ather forecasrer Sarantuyaa was' sk d yesterday wha the w_ athe " uld be like this wee '~he) lJ...:d: "0 19th F,_ bruary th re wiU be :U'Y.l flurrie s in central and eastern regions, For the r ,SL (other) of t10 period it will n snow (and the r ,'1 wBI be) a gentle wind, Around the end of It -0 period, over most regionsthe intern ity of cold will

d cline by ~-5 degrees.'!

'The ~ bject (spei r may al ,',', be seps (". _ Led spoken ~

T3:r9I,A .' 'mIMBP1D91" .u.KEYYJl8H X'-YB9DC: --- T H ,p OBI raE aeyya'i ITap 11K;

haxri'i D' ',', :, yy .. F3:" aOYfu",

._....JIBIl8 nlJK 5aihla"

~ '0 re.Jaying throu,gJ1 th interpreter (1) asked the man ,~Ar, you , ing?' That rna says,' (\M ) are not going, 'i (I) a ed the n· x

I ]' rr, ATe you going?' LeW.) Ire going, (- e •. says.

uar YYP'll 6~p,ax ..198n9i1

weather foreca er to .I1urF¥

gen le

weather snow' period wind intensity inLetpr":;ler

I ~U)~ '. raap 'I ~a C{H)

y fll.n;aij! tUIXH(H) :'IP~

~ .JIM::' p'~l

Cy1Jpa, . ,JJfli1dJKYYJl8X

de line to r ,lay

polite Imperative in, "h. second-p rson singular and plural i;

1'1 rrn I d by adding .. ,u-q: (~OO1J-I "'H'lI ~I -1:1111) lOI the v ~ b stern e.g ..

CDBCDQ'Q (pl ,_'9,') li ten

M~....",BJl X3J18:1.D: 'rEIlIlI (pleas ) repeat for me,

Ty'y:uki:e-aa B.J: yaYYJl33"!

Please show it (that thing of yours) tOI me!

Ta 3B3 CONRBOO BanBJ!': oren! S' 'YDWB&A erse,

Give m this paper (of your: )! I'll give (it) when. I V._ read (it),

,r8.JIT TSpsr DB n:ar fiOUDO,. T8 Dp BarDII3I'Jlt81t CJ)TaB'I! It's time for the trai to leav J plr lase board your carriage:

III suffix ... cas; (~COR, ""GBR, -csa) add ed to 'the verbal noun 60-l1'0 ' ~ trodi ees a wish ': ,r wan': TS113mK. p41_Uaurrd 10", r9" IIWYYSU . 1JOXCOB 60JJO'B yy1 'I wonc -r if perhaps I COLl d ask you whether th TIC is .' . prin, at 11 .relj.' This construction ~, quite C 'Immon in

ornbination with the conditional conver ,'. e.g, BBJl; KeBreTa,ti 60J1 1liRB9 'np aaaxcau 'If we had some money (lit 'If we w r-e with ~I oney') We. would lik ·0 ouy a Drew g ~


Use of ablatl e case

One way of turning cardinal numbers pH.: e 43) into U1 dii Dum oers is to add to t __ e stcm without fleeting n the suffix .. ~., ( or front vowels) or ~;uan (for black vowels):

11 . l!i,.' '" d hi' d

HB~'· " rl,. e.p~ fL en _ '. :' .a.BA" "t ' I. ; ~,epeB

'f ·tlrU ' etc.: lhe stem and sui x ar _ S: '-m ti ne . w itten separat (Dr ~3 , xotip A8Xb, etc.),

. . t. that l _ ask a (1 uestion 'front' someoru 1 u· ing the a bla .I'Ve -.; ae, ~oc~ etc.):

III T&HaaC Dr 10" aCIyy:Maap 0' altu a, [ would Iik . to ask you ,om· 'thing.

E C T BlJlil&CI1 101' :IRS BOMLIr ,1lUlCBE Y1 rS(lK acYJB~ Bat a· k ad me whether I had read tbi b· .k ..

o .' ina] nurn b ers in 1f!!]J?JKI... .". c are 'us ed for five days 01 th· '\\~C~ th . nu 'berm beginning from Monday: D,~X SJJ;OP 'first d y.

1,( 1 I be plural of yyJl mountain the text cited giv 51 J]'1IrC, but sam I·:_ ak r . :r . fer yymt-yyu: wi h 8,_ eting n: '.~ 'in the mountains')'. Til word Go .j (re . s) las a plural too (the M'ongols s'y there t re 3_ differentG .. bi .), 'u,l there is no awe·. ment on which plural f rm ~ s corr ct: fODaYJA rDBBJiQfYA or rOBllYA,.

BlJ~X s;n:sp

- "J' - e

XOBp1J;8.XJI :Ae I

ryp aJJ.l];;2l.XL SA'sp ,1l;8p8B~'X s):te .' T,aB):{ax:b 8A8_P


iesday Wednesday TIl}U'f day Friday'

opic i'ndlc.ators

SaLUr ay and Sunday h: \'Y'. V r are [lot six f:C and 'seventh do but . tarac caiiR BAsp ~ h I F good day and (fi"'fT.JH· ca:h 'XI:

I (whole) good day! I no doubt rcflectin the five-and-a-half-d working wee . which has been in force for rna 1,1), y,e211·S. These naD1U are u red in narallel with It' Ilbet .n-based nam I •. C -a', e 74).

I 1_ dialog ue c nt _in· . everal _ tamp es of the U 0 the topic ind i-

iator ··'f em'.' tir P ~ ticle '"~[I::' ,'epl ;D;axL BJT 6on .. ,. ryp".

Jl;1n ,B]1TRr Doa .,. laMPfLDITLIB Dr oanaor fiOB ... It 'P'lLrpOSC is to en] hasi e tln t . ie, usually 1I:h subject, and in some circumlance' to identify it 60JJ may be trans ~ ted 'as or': O~OD 60JI I inwadavs' .


The p rticl s 6o.n6oJI and as are used or the ame purpo e,

xcept that :H& also suggests belonging to O'Jr being part of s me~hiTlg::MIa raam -t morrow Mapr,' I m 'the n' ·t lay'.

Reflecting 'tile duplicati m of the principal compas p int (s~ pa 5);0 sam 'main u Lldi· isi TIS have multiple forms includin

th · followins:

6aPYYH xob"o/6apJYH YMDp/J)dap alpHa north-w st

!Iyy& XO,DO

6apyya s.MBs/6apYYB JP~

3 I ' = 9lmO/arlD YP;U;

north« a. t outh-we -I. south-e list

Fhe nega ive present-Iuture verbal noun DQJloxryA bas double n,· gative corn oin a ions: Jill " W11'yH '. 50x) OOJlO!Xl'Yi: or mt $.( go.' Ba ~ 9I-I['y'i (60-JI) DOJIOnyl ~l 'must cor e' where' he Ii teral mes nin

j' .... at ·oing is not allowed, I~ etc, lienee olJllJIrYi" Don OOJloxryjt

11'11 visiting not permi .ted' mean ,·You.) r . Ily must vi it!"

Sometimes the present-future vel bal nounuffix ... xryH' may epla ce "',JD'ylt:

. p '.1 X9Mlf[9D a:aaxrya 6 D1I OOJIoxry1i.

Measures 01US't be taken. ~N. t [akin is n· t allowed,'

As with . h To ,p~ jnci 'al pin" .~ cae suffixes indicat. ' I· ati .

tion: 3JYB ~o,lbnoor' . 1 In . r' b - as t" sV!H xoABo'c .. rot

north-east', 3YYK 'Yparmaa 'to the south-east'. 6apyyu. 'JPA syrr '111 . ~l· 0 nh-west "apJYB fJMRe~ in the south-west' etc.


Exercise 1

following direct SPI : ch into Mon 1-i n: 1 J ULlE: 'D11d yo 11 LInd en ''I." nd?

BAT: ~ ¥ So 1 understood.


2 D vlD:-Wbat boo: ar YOll reading 1"

J I : J' rea ing r suidebook foot tourists in Mon olia .. 3 Dxvro: .... :,bow m h tr

B'A~ ,: I~Wailt , bit!'

4 J ULI, : ~I ow do :_'S one go \0 Karakorum?

D -"I... RMA:" 'n - c -"'Y CaJ" O'T by plan '.

5 The guidet 0- S~,": 'Th - urvan S, .. ,J18- mount" in are sit ..

ated in South Gobi P--'I I ince.'

Exercise 2

nan ' I "t ~ t e oll i ndirec - sp eecl into Mongolian:

_ Julie asked whether h had und .r to d~ Ba r slie '_ that he h L:U1d erstood.

2 David asked, what ok she was reading. Julir answer' ~ t ~ t

, - 'Yla· Ie dins guidebook f T tourists in -- on o lia "

3 D, eid ask: d H, t t i show him that 'I ~ t tel ~ himn to wait a bi · 4 Julie a 1<. dhow ' ne couf g: to 1'" arak ''elgml 'S, sal one could go by 'car or by plane.

5 he guid book said tha the Gu van Saikhan m untains wer in South t obi pr . vin .

P' ir off tb day', I 'f the week:

nyP:iJB xu" pnan enep 6YT:gIJ cairn e ," p 6J1M6a 'T~· " &Xlt; 'e~Bp rypaanaxs enop "lSIM Aep~lBJlSX e~,apl Mji'rMap H~r.D:3X e,.o_ep JIXMSa aasaa XaT,iC cairn sJJ; ,p 6aacaB

E:K!~'t:is' 4

Translate th foUowmg se - t nces using the poli( e j :c, perative: ] Please h, w it (ilia)!

2 Give lat t tis book of ours!

PI, 'a ' that again! Pleas hoard the busl lease go, by airl ('Ia Fe a


.. '


ialogue 2 m

- ~)CR" .lpp73n XSP-OPKF(lf 6aJix .,'1 ow long ,ill vou "t',v in Khsrkh'orin?

'1 lthou! Bars gui(/ela 'k ill Bra Lil,11"'. ann',' mak up' their min '!J~ I (Jut Theil trtp u M t flg lia S unci, 'Ill' capital.

r: Ta Hal) MOllJ(OJ1~ P1pC9~p Y.iQ8JK 6aMH __ yy?

~ I 0 HHll: Hq Y n3,a.Hbaa ra PT np C~ sp ry [JBaH AOJ1OrO 'XOHor rapar 60JT)E cam a. A»rnn !lpf33P MOHOJ1;ll, -;n,aa,

napa P1p- , D3Jma. ,!-'i"H',' vnaa

;U. Y j ....... 0. ypvanyr,l . p ,'apb1H

XOPTm.}I irpcsn.

fa HP',,, P HMapl 3>KMJI-, rOJIJJOlf a ~r .a plI 6aitna? _: H OR I ~l pea ap M onron yncsnr ~!'yx,' i1 1i3Jr HOM X.HHJK 6 ,K]] a. Mana OIO)'THYY)]\a)l x p2lrr.s,g ID -!

IT yr HJ. I.J _ 6 OJIH 0 /l;rO, Q !

T HAM 3a!]), K3,n;3H C~, H ' ," 00 OK1-l_, P men "

o 'OK 60J1TOJ) cy_ B. If a :,IB,au H3r3 'Ca,phlU[{C3:JP ROMOO 6~ ~yycax X3P~1~ 'K 6alma,~

Ta ITa ~'@.PXOP' 1 pyy 33,:3 asaxaap mlal1~ '8,A


mBi:ll~~rVB 6aliHa. Tai bIT aMpaJrra~ asaan Hpr-J'

'[)HA XDTO)1 yJIt9:3JK 6'81>;1, s.

Ta T~H~ 8J]'h xsp 'Y:Q~,atI cyyx B9.?

Cajnf '3J{a'xryii.'H3 HO_"')l JO'f r~}K 61i'4"::JE caHll8

1 I r:



; ~I)Jl:


TOJ:tPYYJI~ an aJI1t _ Old?

T B1I1d naB.1l a· HOlf)t Y3hC. Bl'I!l e EJ eene p 11JKKJ:[ t-'X X,9 p 3rT~ fir 6a, rna.

sri,e, T _c', , e. Mail, at VB H39.C9;, 6aHHa yy?

Y'fr~H:!):!)cl~ x 'JI::lJIIYH' JL', ,B 1 Ilasc ,-Mld:B3JI YYCT __ JI ,~_l: ,'IJI XlIHB3,. )4YYCTfLJl r,.rr~r 0113 ,'[{3'?

How long have you b een :st~yin8 ill Mongolia?

~e carne to Ulan. Bator more than. three we.eks llgO. J come '0 M',o,1-' -olia ' n busi tess quise often. This time I " r: iv sd , 11. 2'Ot}l Iune.

I i~ T~



I VrD~






BA :




What w· rk hav, ,)'Q,11l been cone ntrating on situ: j you came?

Sin. r., the beginning of th ye~_ ,/ have been wrai: abo' k abou: M,on.golia .. My students need iJl That ,!~ a big' job!

YeL~ ind 'I dl For . several mont hs I have at \jV" itin nly book until kue It 11' nis hi. 1 must finis h wrlting III boo: b'y the end .f· o vemb Yo

1-1 a v e y,o&t dec i d ed ,~hen you are go i n.lj I Kharkh (J rin?

W. hav en't decided yet. We wanted to stay in tOl n until y 1£ return [rom holiday.

How I ng will you na ~ there?

I don It know exa. tly. What doe that book I~ay? ~Vllicf1, book? Explain,

Let nu hav. IQ IJ/( at your . uid b. ok. We must decid tod. ,y~

Yes.- ~ys. Her, YOll are. Are' Ott ~'l' rious ?

OJ" course L'rn serious. Don't t'lley ~'t~Jit never (It,g~~ by halves? (lit, 'If yon add salt let it dissolv ~ · ._ d k ~"..' b ., I')

if Y . U I ,0 wor nms - - t t .

IUT.BH Yr VDC~· . ·'ulsr•

~~ XB,pnsp ~a.nT ,aIlXl.apU






on business holiday

to pay attention ov er, m ar _ than m inly

11 uge, i mm nse here you are student

t s make cl ar repeated ly

to stay! take time to dissolve

to reach. a .'~ I'Ve busine .

L decide late at night

Lan,guagle points

Ihe converb addin -eaap (-coop -csep:! "'C991') to the verb stem I scrib _ S ~ continuous action going 011 from the beginning nf th

I Hun a cti )11 ince ~ . :

Ta MOBrO~ UPC9BP y;u: 0" . yy •

How JODI· have you been staying in Mongolia?

(How' long is it that you are staying since you came ro

Mongolia? )

011 rapea pine . til eginning of tEl year

BB YD' (iUTl.pT apCg~P rypB8H lI:HJI rap),. 60JIJfoo" It's more than three years, since I came to Ulan Bator.

rnbine with calix the continuous converb m. ',an .. ps ll. ~ ro :

QC93IP calHa keeps 011 corning

BB TIt-a iii or xy'H39C3~p 6t¥iH8" I have _c-: n wai ling [01." him,

.r{omrap c' , 9cceep If)aux yy?

WiLl. 'th dollar exchange rate ke: pi on growing?

TyyJl romdK ycmd T8BIIITIIHU' B9ld9l"AmJ<3P 6aba-

L_ VI 1 . f Tun. rive's ill rising (n. \V' paper head ines ..

1 he con ver in "'T-8Jl (....rooD "TaD, JfSJI) d scri be s n ction whi _ h III· - . ts ano h. r 8_ ti n u ~ iJ :

B'B XBJ.1BB cap DOMon DJrlC33P meBS opo' f)OIITOJI CfY1I .. 'For several months [ have sat 'writing my book until late at night. (i. ... sal going on 'writing rny b: ok until it became late i .')

~aBC xB1laSJI YYCT8JI,1 II.ZlJJI XHAR8JI llO'Y'cran!

If you add salt 1_ t i dissolve: if you do w irk Ilnish i ! (Never do things by halvesl)


TO]Q)JYlt8.X JAU ;IliiPU ~


3X XSpSlrmM1A'T1/D

r !j

mUDe opol

[f the 'two subjects are different" the first is, in the accusative case:

TSJiIJIJr IlMPwrr~ UUJl; Rp1?JJI ~ ~ ~ Until YDU return from holiday ~ ..

a.8M.air QT3Jl XYJl38Z tldraapai .. Please wait until I come.

Further examples:

,HlIl6ap Borron: m;D: mIll: I-"EBJ1J1IDL They'll work here tin autumn (comes)"


The O'.X is, calm un il the axe h;, brandished

(the lull before the storm)

The word Xfl7[3Jl: meaning 'up to" 'as far as'. although used independently" is evidently a terminal converb of the verb xrPIX ito reach];

X3j,AfIll xypT3JJ TDA Saits: 89?

How long (up till when) 'will you stay '[here 11


(1) even changed. (went so far as to change) :my name:

Similarly rAT,an 'for a long tisne' may derive from Y.JJ;U 'to stay'.

Another WH,), IDf turning cardinals into ordinals is to add to the

din at b ( t · t' h t fl ti .). th uffi 'C': f

' .-', . ~ "'''''': '. _ , ' " , _ '1'" -I 'I" ,- " :.' - ',iii·'· r' ' -

C8.r . nutu ers rs em WI ,CU ee rng .D" _" e s x . ~BP , or

front vowels) or "'AYraap (for back vowels): nriAyt'99P "first,

-3:' -- ii., ,_ - - d-''n; , ,'- 'll~':"'d'" ,i;£- - fh' ,t 4

XOwp;a;yr-up 'secont I ~ rrP8IJ.ll3Taap " Ull ',- ~ )l;SPBBJQ'I99p itO ur!!. ,e, C.,

'sixth' and 'seventh' (3yp'r~p, ,llOJlllJT,aap) are slightly irr gular, dropping vowels: I.PBaH 31yprfijUTaap 3DH 'the 16th c- ntury',

Mant'hs of the, year

Ordinal numbers in. ''''~&lPI/!!!A,~P are used for months of the year, the num bering, beginning from mm~!tp cap 'first moon/ month' or 'January' and ending with apBID XOiepmTUp cap 'December',

Alternatively, the months can 'be counted with, cardinal numbers (with fleeting n): HlI'r cap, 'zoep cap, lrYPBaB cap, _paID DDB cap,

Cardinal numbers (with f[tH~'tin.,g n) plus the dative/locative suffixes ~T/~A are' used to indicate 011 which days of the month an event look. pla,ce:' :IllS ca~plim ID:r3BJ: on the first of this month', xoePT (or xocpo~) 'on the second', rypBaa;n; 'on the thi rid ", XDPBB.J:J; 'on

I 2'0' th'" 'onth "JiG h

[ le' ,:.. , 1*)"ffiH-",Q; on t -=- e ~: t" '.

Other paints

onfused about 'which book Julie is speaking of, Ba says: oAPyyn15ax1' 'Explain?' He is using the conditional converb (page 82) of file causative verb (pag,€ 88) TCJUJ'JJJlU ~ to clarify

from TO;D; 'clear'), 'if made clear?' -

'l ranslate the following sentences into Mongolian using 'the continu) U Sl, COIl verb:

I~]rJW long has b been staying in Mongolia?

The ambassador 'has been in Ulan Bator more than Jour years .. ~ It's been snowing since the beginning; u.f the year,

I They have been w~.iting fur me,

Delgermaa has been reading her gujd, bOQ,1' ~

lIercise S

lrartslate the following sentences 'into Mongolian using the terminal mverb:

Please wait until she eomes How long shall we stay here?'

Bat 'will stay in London until 'th e spring, We worked together until Blat went home,

~ When I left home i.~ was snowing ..

lranslate the following da tes into Mongoli an:

My birthday is 24th Jun .

Monday is the first day or the week ..



3 They arc coming on Wednesday 3r'o October, 4 People's Revolution Day i ] 1 [h July.

S The 13th Deceml er was ,8 Sunday,

,Dialogue 3

.... ........

Onoo .flU BW!J3,?'

Wh',at'5 to be don~ n'o'w7

Bat uses the guidebook to persuade David thes there rnig}zt be son', thing to .. see at Karakorum after tlll~

3a, JIl1BJIllX HOM;ct ~~'_a.pXOtn[HLl ~3'Pr3a ]2,20 (M1fI3T xoe:p 3'YYH XOPHl1) Og~ Anc Aopuo]l, ~YJfJJ:aJI; A,3f11 g,Qpn'OA EBp10n-'bu:[ xYAaJI,IaaHht 3,aMhlE, YYJl3B;! p ~:3:9Ip xYJl,aJ.llAa a, rap V,MnJJ:]l3pmlH TOMoaxa H xo XapxoPYM 6iaidryYJ1llT)I)I_{33» F:3)I{ 6,pJ'q)K:tI~.

Tap 16y.J[a',rT~ 8raell9'H XllIHh1 ye;rr X,BlPXOPYMhl ynCiill:1J: Imlc.n:~JI 60JIrOlK 1235 (Jfl'mna 'xoe.p 3yY :rrnm TBB8.B) OR XVP'fSU[ cap.rO·»(VYJJ · fj,atP]l:JITilXyyn:C aap t1 8..011 r3}K 'Vllr3Il xtn VV .Fr!HI Eh~c·

t:: Oil

lJ,aJffi'ft ..

r9'B'-=r J[,8.BJtS,X BOM, XapXopYM XOT' XVI (a,pBBH 3yPt'~Ayr~UtP) 3,Y,YH.Il IJJJI ltaEHJ1 C~~lK OAO TVYtlltH opn xapnraac rannxan CyypL 'qy..uyy' Hb yJ1!J:).K.3Jl f9}X T:3~9rB3C~H tJaiiH:a,. T'~~ lOY. 1f),aA,xI'yH,!

X~m,PJm A'~:fULarHitEr' 6yJ[8rr~ 1585 (MSrnT,a "raBatl 3y BaBE TaBtlB) OHP: XapXOPYM :tOT olircaIl ralph} ;n:3pr9~ MOHTOJJ!lJm mapsnr manmsi ,RHXHhI CVM xd;ill;HMH nsr ,3PA~J~13-3yy.r 6HmYYJl8,B m,l[{ Ol'rrfC3Ii


,3aa. eR~T.l9p uaraaa X9(lM3jIH xamaaan ryp:Olla cv

i5HB l"~>K ehtrq.m.~:J. «T~W~'~lJ cy~ aJIT M,eHreep ¥pnvx XHHC~H, cynapra, 1l"l)\MLIH olar XYB~i1 ~fp.rn:~HLIiIlbI qrynyy IDII1ITIT3lK WIT' 'M'f:U:1re ap xJmc 3f roen 'IJ:JmvlISl""JI:tJillIiIH 3yKJ! OJ1 OR fhui» .. ECTon c aixaH ! OJl:OQ jJ,2:X 6IIJI:39'? Xapxopza :P'YY' .BEaX 6HJn~T 0)1;00 fiYP'ITYYJl3X yy?

Ah, the guidebook S(]ys~ 'Near Kharkhorin a big taWl1 of trade and handicrafts named Karakorum

IT snrs P"M" aa ~

M~-·' ;. ~l r . I~j- '!!I


'lvas fOMltf.tied' in 1220 at; the junction of trade routes from the Far Eas). Central Ajji~ia and' Eastern E u rope. ~'

That chap ter continue s, /Saying' that Karak. 0 rum

jl,. I ~ 11 I" F. he ti l' OI.~II' .... '1 I!II

oecame fl€ ,COU,11:try 5 coptta; m t e. ttmes t)" :ige,uel

Khan and we'l'll 0'1 growing and developing until


But the guidebook emphasizes that in the 16th century K ara ko rum t[}'wn WQ~\" destro y d in a (milltary) campaign and now aU that' remains at its palaces is the foundation stones! There '9 nothing there!

11LqERM'AA:: IOn the other hand the nest chapter confinn» that in: 15B5 one o] t'lLr8 M'(J'n,goliQn. 'yellow .ftlil'h! j firs; monasteries called Erdene-Zuu was built near the place where Karakorum had been.

B \T: Correct. It says that there are three temples inside Q white high'="If1)ullfl,d' compound. 'Ill these temples are many artistically made gold anti silver stupes, tsam donee rnQst;s and costumes; and ,golci and silver ornaments set Itvitn pre ·tot~s stones.' \¥o,tderjitll

J II ~ J What:$' to be done' nOHJ? Shal! we get our tickets to Kharkhorin booked IclOW'?

N~lle~ 'The ~yellow faith' is the Gelugpa or ~'ye.l]ow hat" fo:~;m of TIbetan Buddhigm \ Inch was encouraged in Mongolia aftar Altan Khan was converted in 1578 by the I 11L:lBll leader SOI:1sm G'YDJSO" to whom Altan Khan accorded [Ire title Dalai Lama


_ cabulary

JI .


u '(BId) n~,


- ~JII·I

" at gold first

to build

to develop ticket chapter

to get booked amy

orn amen

'llfn&n, ~


camp 811lgn trul y~ re ell f correct object century palaces

to broaden high

S~ Up~L; shrine

EUIII Jl::ab ecraB




an", lm'A"fn -rr~1 plil.lW


VJll~r jV~'X I~au


Dpm1K~lr,mlX e,q~p



fnundatu n·

to be , est .. yed

big" 'imp . rtan t thos

to emph asize

o make artistically time, pe iod


_0 stay, rim 1

enclos ur clothin

wall fa tn ~. religion

to inlay

je .... el

Offlll). (I, . cylJ:\3f. TOMODX,OB' T9gr!3. T91M;itirJl:JX JPJI8X


V.t!f~~X xama,a

X¥B~~C. ) DP9M('U)



Modal coover', ... an

The modal converh is formed y adding -H t tne verb stern. Ste en· ing J!l, a consonan or soft sign. need a linkin ' vowel: -as,

-tm~ -,3B .. It j .. widely used in various com bin iti t . exn ,

sc 1 ion 0 earring imult neou ly orm ~rging with hs L of t - m

v rb, P -evius exampl we have se n includ ~ IOU buy", 's Iling take', where &VABJI.aH is the m dal converb 0 th verb xy;u:~, 'to ,·U" and I:YDH au ~'[O receive', receivln

tak ''I XfD~·:J. comin from -IX 'to r eeive 'wait for', n

combinations c -: ,t new w !rd. in E glish: anoth r . xamol XllMTPW: aH(0mIax Ito c . ~ . , ate - I 'actin "ointly work wh

XBMTp8X means 'to act jointly" In th case a 30UOH 6· 'to org nize', 'composing build' the modal conv rb 30· ·0' derived Ire m SODO m .anlng 'to cr 111'_ 'O:8e~

p. icularly polit . v erb MOpWJ:O~ to deign to is combined its modal converb Iorm MOpmIO with other v· rbs to make requ ~ e.g;" 'MopB1loll 01'110 'J'1? 'Would you be so kind a, to enter? D confus _ this converb in vowel plus !!OB with the present-future Len in - ,- p] us vowel: TuTd Mopmmo yy? i' translate ~: "Welc' m (,urraB means pl. sant un listur bed'] "

rCausative verb:s

We saw (page .' .,.) tha the derivational suffix "'YJJI~ B' 'tached to th verb st m erea e a cl ass of c u '. tive vel ''I Indica ing tha actic n \\~ iscaus d (Of' permitted .~ In 'his di 1 guethere i a 1110 comple x exanrpl ,:' epreavrJmB 6apllDrsZYYJIcaap 6a1bt me: nit 'went on growing and developing', Iere apraxyyDm is the me converb of . he causativ epre_.;- ~.-c-_:_~l[9', ~t,. grow 'broaden r epr8JJCHX to . tpand'; and fiapwn" ", , caap i· the eontin {

ausative fl8P'~ . 1·1 'build up, ,D'TJ"'1l"1"ai"'llll!lll""'Hi"'ilii to . "C _me devt .looed .

deri v tio al uffix r,a; - ~s the ~ u il one E. r fo_ ming the ~$ive .~g. 10 Dial. - ue : 6aAI·Yy.u-· ·,·3 W s f ur ded', from ~ '.", ~\. - 'to be founded" from 6a117yn8X 'to bui d'~ als . r't" I nd, o[r ranize '.,.lb' r example :u to open,' Kl9r~!t 'to bt I I n ed ~, Ta__&'lI8X to to Ii k e ~ TllJIBrJl;.-x: ~ to le as 'to

The agent of a passive verb is. in the dativ /1.: ative ca se: BDXO~

• ~ca xwmra 'the door . mened - he dog .

. '- few passh ·~rre form -d with th _: • ~ , -~ vati mal sufnxes -~- . .a,

~lp;OX [ om WI(l- 'to find- and ~ e.g. TaX from . [ .ax "to fa te riO

. arm ,I numbers (pa .. e 43) for 40 to 9 ' re as folh ws:

40 P1811(1IlI) SO T,II.&(TaBIIR)

.0 lDP(aa) 70 ~(8l[)

80 Bl1B(K) 90 -p(911)

J~ ed to ,g' the' with 3JY(B) hun ed' and : ". I -~'I(H) 'thousand' we I 1 indicate the ye' , (the Ole _ ling n Is present when counting lllj ~ cts, bu t 110 t for MJDIl'I.wJ)cn counf ng years)':

in 9t 7: ,... - I eCB sty,a e ~ ea ,llOJIO'-:., (J~

ardinal numbers (without 1', eting n) plus the dative/locativ e suffix, '-]I. indicate L_ 'which year, O].~ at which '[lumber room Of' house ~ apBB,D; '[a t No, 1 0 ~ ,:·OpBH lm~ in I. (19) 2 \ 171iJ11)1; in ;'30·, . ~ t. ,

lranslate tlie f llnwing S: ntences using modal converbs:

The -, han received him on Sunday ..

e Gr,'8 Khural c rganized a QI. W . O'V rnmen i ie teach r 'will buy, 'new book on Monday

J Mongolia and Great Britain are cooperating"

J ulie was 10 ring in fright at Begtse _



Exercise 9

I .. reate the passive (ann, of the following active verbs:

1 M3JlI:9X. ~ to know 4 COHCOX.' -0 bear'

2'. ,. 'It r: "1'1'

aJl2hX to ~ 1. _I "1

5 H~3X 'to open'

Translate the following sentences with numbers into Mongolian: 1 Temfljin became Genghis Khan in UOCi

2 My birthday is 22nd April 1989~

3 You should travel by train. No. 0.3.

4 OUT univ _ rsity has in thOU'S3Jld stu dents,

5 Bat has four thousand six hundr d and .fifty sheep,

Dialogue, fair comprehenslon 5

ne~m:;It.: }K10JIP]':

1llJd, H:Map HOM Y:EUUH.lK 6a.MHJ:1 B;J'?

"'I:" M - -11' ~fjT":"lII'TQ·a ~]£'lIjJlfJtTrLT'L,[, T':'l'~r n. .aunax

.01:1 ,- OHrOJT~ u act'J. ~"J - ';"~,.i J '_ ~D_Jl U.;;;! ~

ymruDK OU[lll, TyymrHT HlP; V3Yf.X38T.1! )[{maXI,H x_yn:J~}K 6,ayJ JIaBJIaX lIO~, «I'oas , "}lq7y JrttH)K, HX 0 LJ:;DO r raapsra H:~lr EI b I'yp 13 ali cati yynchIlJ' ,B-Jrhm aM ;tUltp.X.RH naasar rasap 6RJiHa~> ra 6'li''iC:lll Gattua.,

.... ... f1I

)I(yy JT&l)~hIr f! x ra l'AaT eep r 3.3 a P xaa 0 aana Ba'9 'I

} {yyJI~E HX 'l"aT~ar eep nyrar 60JT. Xanra YY Jra I_J x IT 0 po H 10M., A~J.l1rHR )l;_lllfkUlll 113 P n r ~p c

XIPXO_PYM~[H 6a:rrrac~ 3p.n;:fj.~,,3yy XHXJl

opmnor. )I{YYJ"P=[nD; EtX nyrnanar rypaa naXh nyrar Go X~HTl4Jfn.i. yynapxar opoun xasraapax T3P9H>K 6»11 r:rllK 6 a .. c DWIC:3 H 6aJn~-Hi. 1" ~.p:3.nJK 3,[-!Jl~'~ C XOJlTY'A· lOY XOJ"lfV"1I. 'y J1~aJT6a,(fuTapbIB 3yyH xoa~ 3yn MamWi8 a. usr nar smax raaap opnrnor JOM ..


AnTo6yc~ 111:1J:.t:;~X onronoep Xapxopna XOl PIT HE)I(. 60JIHo. Ta nap Xapxopzn pyy X33·33 asaxaap

~e,BH;U;: )K10JTH:



~ --, TT'I;t. .. L:[\._l1J ... ..lJ~ !!

ne.BH~: ]].,8, T:

... ..,

I11.R1lll3 B ~.'

TB X.9fl,Hl;:f XYIYr~l.n 1'<3TJJl tJ.aiix 83?

r IOJ]]]:

Ta 6I1~ HJl OJ I OD a cy-y rrr ~f as a.n aa w YV n!9!!:} ~ Onooxoanoc ~1)~rvH JI fh!rfuia~ Taau JIUJUIX BOMhlr VlLe.


~ .. j ...

Aa~ CYf~3JK 0)];00 TY"VDKIl ap,A .xapmaac Fa Em;xaH

cyyp ~ t{yJJ]1y Bb VJllOK.:3iSl'») r~}K 6~~C3H 6aIiHa., T~J:Ill y33X_ LOM lOY ~ 6atrKrya lOY?

Xapmr 3JE13' I:tOMLIl-I ~a,p,ata.rHf~tI D'YllSlrT, .s-BS OH~ X ap x a PYM Kerr fj,a1if cau rasn T:JT H U ~p- r!3J_'f\ M OrE[ rOJ.[bl~r

__ IT" II

mapsra maJDIIThl anxma CYM .X~H;U .9PAal~g-,3yyr fiaiIyyJlfiB .r!lX 6Hq}K3~ ~

3,a, .•• ' apxopsn p;yy rmC:3X OIDleT!3~ 6~pITVyJi:9X VV?


f ,t the rnomcnt


down across

'l ,.

moun am I'HS~


saxau 1 shrub mountain range lake

1 )COO OT1.nn:elJ

] [ypyy HYyp

JHJ uaa

Mongolian for 'mountain pass' t )la,pxClu-'YY',J[ aitMrf1'HH TeB

River on 'which Ulan Bator stands ~ n Mongolian fOT "river'

~ I A.pBaJIX~8i'p' TBST3K aHM,3J.r

Mepeu Te.BT~H aiIM,a.r

~, Abbreviation for Mongolia's capital city

I I Monromra xa.:MTHirn TOM M·apaH'· Cyx6aarr-ap I ~ Mongolian for gorge' lor 'mouth'

1 B a lij H XO H ru P re BrESI:H ,aiuvJIa r

~ Mongolian, for 'mountain range' , r, I::loU6,aJ1C,a._H T0BT3,A ~ulMar Mongolian, for l.'lO·WD ~

II A px anran am.rrJ!lID-Sl Ttll,


27 Big ri. e II" in eastern ongr lia 30:"'9BCrJI aKMrH1dB T. g.

31 M .n olian for 'm auntain' 32 Y ,HaCTaR TBBT . ""' 34 . OB)]; TBBT3j;I aHMar

35 MaH)J;anroBL T9BTSHI ,aiMar 3·' BYJIraH Te:S,T.3l!1 a1IMar

39 Salt 1 . in western M mgolia

nop~ '0_ .' • Obi aiiMrHiUr T··:U

5 M ngolian for 'w . t 46 Mongolian for '1-8 r

47 XS.Ta;DlTaM XHIm:r~3~~r TOM HYYP 4·' MOlD ~. olia for "cave ~

~~n'l"V'!iiii!"\n ... u~·.,"u~~ VW'pli

l . JtrHiI T 'T _ • _ MI r 2. Mongolian for 'sn w

4 ro.Bh-AJTrTElll, ~fm T, B ,: A de ert shrub

7 Momon: :.yJIChIli .HBiic "JI

Monro m 61apYYH !.·DH:r:( aitMar l J TOM XOT, OPXOfl aUNITHKH 'TflB 12

T·M HYY,' " a."p


J 1. ArLTa." T BT J"_ a.iiM:a

o Mongolian for south'

2 3yVH XO:H1Io. MOHroJth[E[ 4 91\IHOrOBb mii:MrltllB TeB M·, mgoli n f • r .' ake '

-"'" ....

. Be aMM"· , TeB

gOPHO~ aHMT1ifikB' Ilea,

\6 Mo nronsru X.a.rd [ H if.1 J. Y P']: ron .9 P~~B . T

7 Mongolian ' or !; state . If nation' Monzolian or 'mineral s ,rhlg:~ Monromm 3\!YH XOH aHMar Mongolian (or 'province

t Mongolian or 'homeland'



. . .

- ..... ' .. _'

pr '0

'-', .

.' .

There's no place like home

lin hls lesson you willi learn: '. About buying: ailr tickets

• About booking Into a hotel

U$9 of the ccncessive convarb (a.lthough) '. Use of the optative ccnvero ~~'f only,

Diclogue 1 m

.MHA TR ", . " " 'llJItJ . CC J{S1Jp

A t the ,MIAT ticket office

David and Julie go to the Mongolian airlines office in to bu. their tickets [or Kharkhorin.


'-:1')"' ·IOJIn-.II"\"" - .. rJ .. 1Ii

;(M A \> roc.x{ ~H lOY' IC:?JH YTrflTaPI yr 8,91

MMA T DOll «Monrorrera prpr31ffHH araan»

1. ~3 B p.mnlH»)' I{OMIlaErPIHR B3]J.

OJJ,OO ' HiI co-n P OOJLl]oo!

TaHJJ: MaJK TYC 6oJl:oxcou 6UJ11'

'liRA " . a XOPIKf.I XYPT., nr .' oep XYUHK

3axHaJIMaa.p 6afl1ia,

Ta X3.JJiK.lff.BM~r ourouoop :HBa,.K caaaaraa 6afrn31 l areal PJ.U~l:I·IDrou;oop 51B·ax yy?

gnu ~ ,~la! llfO]l Bysnr-Yxaaraac ernaamlff HaD ·

YWl~JI9rq: }l{roJJJrl:

Y HwLII31'I:,

uar ,ap_ RB T8BaH MImyT~ HHCH3

.>K!OJ1H: Har OHJIBT 5£Map y:H3T3:M. B9?

YMHl;;i:H3Ir 1: II~l TBJIJ"JIH OHJIeT apsan MHTlraH rerpar rs It' r,~aap:nmxaH «aoroonoop» TBJlflX . ·~p'3rT3H.

~{rOJIH: .a, xsnsn AOJIJ1ap If ...

~~ Xoep T ~ m lEI 6. er . oep 3YYH JJ;OJ1Jlap.

, .JJH: Sa 38,., Xoep OHJl_.T IS'b.H . MoM AS BaH ]yyrf .n;OJIJIap ~. '113 6,a W,· ~ .

II UIA)l: OJ:JfOIlOaa; X:9;It!9H I.HJJO a-rail aBlLn .jE9JK. 6on,llor rOM fV.l

~JPIJ13r~1~ Hsr XVH 20 l1Jl0 asaa ,2B't[ :mnr<. 6onJlor.

. II H: X1'-._ 8ft).]; O:HrO'QJJ:l&l 6YYAW1~ - ·COHO'ai"JX Yqf}PTa:K ,B-I"'? 01ll"OIt HHC!;l'X -3. H.ZJr [UlT'RldH 61'dH,. 6yYllaJU[ lo'q '[i 6aHx X3p IT3H.

N I .U': Buyant- Ukhaa is the lucation of Uh,n Bator aj rport, 20 minutes" drive southI u[ the town centre,

::.;] ""l"A tn" ~ 1111 If'!

'I. TAN .:

hq JF:


'l :

. ~

' do," '. [hf word -MIA. "mean?

MIA is the name oji the Mongolian ctvit uir tran .. -. port company.

Now if's your turn.

How rna.y J h lp you?

ti'l:' would like to book two seats [0 Kharkhorin. Whi ''11 day are YOH thinking oJ'ft_ying?

an 'wt! take (go by) the plane the day a.ft' r tomorrow?

Certainly. Til plane leas e' Buyant-Ukhoa at 8,,30 am. ·low much l .. ' '(1. ti k, 1 _ st?

~' ing!« tl, ket is 10;000 togrog, but lor signer: have' I ptl:J~ in greenbacks.

Well) how many dollars?

A return ticket Is 200 dollars.

OK, let nu have OiVD' tickets. Ho '€ are 400 dollars. How many kilos of' be. gage. can y. u take on the plane?

TW'enty kilos per person .

What time should we be at. the airport?

¥rJu musi be -I the airport 'In' hour b -fore (.1, partu, e time ..

, <,r



I I ,p (T8.~m)'

air baggage dollar eivi I(i an

cash desk kilo (gra.m .. ' mpany

. lIy


to pay

_ sistanee meaning should (u 'word

of whi 11 dat · n c· ssary

tomorrow TYC

queue; urn yrnI

morning '~d

in ten ti 'n yr(:s:)

sea: XB~. f.WI" ~' ~

tugrik '. Mongol c ~rrency~P3rn

ee not below)

NOlte: Althengh togrog is the correct translit ration [rOITl ~'" M.o~goHan. r~th the speUiog tu_grik~ derived earlier 'V~..I Russian, Is still ~o~uul til En~hs,h IPllb~lC[ltlun ·,,~rucb void t~ . use of d '. ri'Hcs Bolli forms aile used interchangeablj m LJ:n bu,,~


~A"IT '-~I~"


Multipl,e imp:rfect:ive CO V' rbs

Th,e IvIlAT a . si . tant a ' .. .', J le TBEQl " ,am 'rYe 60JIo.· ~,COl[ DOH? 'm8Y I' . Ip you? ' In t. first part 0,· this questi n Jl8.lI[ is, the inl'p_, feetive e nverh of sax !ltOI do what? and 'TJC lTI am help' or ~ aSS1 tanc '" Alter ativ _1 Tan;lII'·,· ' TJ08JDK 60JJDXCOB oon?1 uses imp. rfecti e con' rbs (TYClI"·. means 'to assist'). Toward the of the dialo ue there i an tbe r I.' .. ,' . pl. " f' multiple 0., of im .

.. ctive converbs ~ ( 8.lilD.) an JJBX 60-JlAOF. In this ,."'. UN IT aBU' 'to take' and ,JIlUII from DO: 'to go' are combin d with 60-~' from _OlIO· to become' 'be peru itt. d' to me." "takin lain ·

regul '-Iy pe rrni I ted

Ver'b II nou 'plus -can

In t11', MIA . R',· istant's ques i.' n the ad itL n f the suffix • (page 99. to . he . rb ] n un 60J10~, (DO:llDXCO') modifie

meaning: would like to have don, "

Fin,al particle 60JJ

I, e 60' '. at the end . the assist: - t's question, play: a differ ent r

from th conditi am 1 l(jon: (pag "3). ding a sentence, cox is

final particle expr ' ung uncertainty - 'perhaps? ,

'TIl, refore T,ltBll S&Z TJC 60'JlOXCQH 60Jl? breaks down as ' 1 you doing what .ass is ane - (1) would lik to re ader perha expre sing' pojte bt t t .. ntative inter st.


MI, assi .tant ,F! ks . r somol[ n em .'; it slana te m meani 'J I II ars, R· r l e .- .. - ongols CO'lOIilTS . eBr8) hav irnportan t traditional rssociations, We Itu:lv,· already not d ma,&m ma.UHM· 'the yellow nith (L' rnai rn} and a Mongolian lama is sti I sometim s c. lled

r p . - .' i, 'person -~ri' h a yellow 11a.' (MI.JIr. .' is 'hat'), to

1 L inguis h him perhaps fr r c an. yJli S.H M8DllliT' ~ person wi th a I d hat or m« fo med Bu .. dhist, D '. ring the c mmu n ist y. ars there were lIOrOOB Manr~ too ~ the security police. Black

p me ~ n 1 ay(i tf 10 eeu ar' (at lOp - o . ed t:, map) or '! -d' ,j 'be

'hard we rk'. 01' th '.' ber hand X8.·LID· , 'l1tL

I k f '"']"" h ·

II~C. _'aII [] JS s' amaursn ,

TIle red . r 'the communist revolution is reflected iU.YJr&8D6uT p 'town I f the red h ro' (or possibly 'heroes'] the Mongolian I ital Hd'CB3D '. ~i_93 'capital mon sstery' renam d in 1:24 at er ,1 _ YJIaaBTaH . ~ ymtem,-ExlB t e R,d ~ bad beat n I th Wl1it ,'I Of

f18.BT8B., 'The Altai mour tains ar _' th 'golden' m nmtains from (B)~ and the first. se I tlem m [J Mong:,] ian 'soil t I e captur d the r volutionaries in 1921 is now called Al anbulag

AnTaK6yJIIr ,olden 'IP in, '). 111 word for 'silver Bare gav

I I name tc ~1110 ev' ani to what us ed t . b Monsolia's s nallest

. ,-

, ins: 100 Me -: == 1 T8rp" r, The . rd T8rper' means round' ~

Returning to raditic n 1 themes, YJlBaB 1IJ{33 'red food' i. meat, It) contrast to ~araBII B'J'.(~9 'which is what the Mongols call 'butter l c ;"O~ cream and other milk produ 'Is j - eluding .' _- .. ar koumis

fermented mare's milk: these 2_ I_ mo' tJy conu - ed in . b.

rmrner Dl0 ths, There ar _ .' condary m . miners for, ", ,I.R t . :

Il ure 'I e. g, Il:i. laSH C-:JTr9n or ~1JlH cmal ~ go • d nature ,·ats'o 'flat 'I ~ I. :qarSIH SaM 'a smooth road' or 'bare', 'open', e.a, ~araaB '~UIP , en ceuntry',

descri .. , th. eolourc Lsomething YO'UI rna 'S~ y that it is 'with . 1, U usins the comi a' ~v. ease: MI1',HHI :MInrd: - ·~ap, eBF9T3A Iy ha is' . lack.

11· b IJ form

id . i oi' ', .... m~~ Lin11~., the card nal num .' -r~ n_

ut : __ rting :n I'f the fix -raa

.hree tim, S '0 '[ tirn_.

ten tim s etc" fired three times

~epBeBTee IPB8ItTU.

rypBliB'lia~ 6~cfJl[

Addi ti.. n .' - til. u fix ..If m an' 'wi th tho nurn ber x ~ii

with the num ·e - 10 10 'ogrog bankn te

Note however )Dr 'uo¥eplillI 1PoIITJIsa.6yc ~a No, I trolleybus

Other points

Th:_ multi -1 omoound r" I, 1 brk - 1 .• wn '1 ( II , ranaa.ul ~ .. ' tern 1 'f r. ign ~ rillB8JtMR ~- J

". r tgn', ra;J;~ ~ e pi ... f til for rign (part 1

rawt8JJ;MBXaBQ'J; ~10 people of foreign parts' ( .. ative/lcca ·.VI cas e word OO"iBP is. from the .. nssian D1lBP&p;b meaning both: urn a d . queue: there is also a Man .01 wo d for q' eue: AAP - (verbs: A' Pa&JIlXt A&p88JI8lI soeeex).

~SM·.JlT 'Yr

Addition'at vocabulslry

.heck r igulati n umrner

to f ,11 _.r

'fii-·ht international ticket

XGJUll,·XJBalp./xY~IJB,ap QIDaL:

. 'IHI"JlI3JJ:

~ . mov'e timetable

d partment direction

epJlO . 'O-BtJmr

D-JlO1l JnChlU 1]",aCBJI6ap

OpD& ayrarr

ap xymaapBap


1.3.5n 1.3.5 ..

.2h5,." .2 .. 5."

.2" S ..

J .. 4.. 1 .. 4.6.

1.~4 ....

.~ ' •. 6, .. 1.~J",.6 ..

1 .. 3.5~. .. 3,,5 ..

~2~4.6~ .2~4·.·, .


..... AI," .J; !l!iIi.f!l . ·11

1.3.5 ..

13 I.,.

•.• ~ II.

.2 .. 4.6 .. .2.4 ...

.. 2 . .4J;I~ .2.4,.6-

09 40

OR ,:0 it 25

08 20 10 SO

09 50 11 35

09 05 11 201

OB 40 11. 25

-9. 40 12 20

08 '0 12 45

07 ~O

08 00 12 45

U8 00 1- 35


~ .. u6. m I DO

12 ~4567 07-40

1.23 . 567 09 50


1O~12) -12)

Y~EYMlar-T·4J, to 12) T~'wI1r-SyJIraH -YB (444~ 10-12'

B-M~p~H (5511 'II-24)

Map(n~,_' (5518, A 1 .. ,- 4

-AJl'L: ft {551~ AI ~24 A.lITaH~YE (5.52. AH .. 24)

YB .... 9MHaro:BlEI yp .. oaas M- raro Ii Typ 6 as-.

I Typ, 6aa3 'tourist base' [Russian)

U"~ .... ~;~~

bJJX 12.30 17.00 15~2S 14 . .35 16 . .30 20~OO

2~45 3~3S 2~4S

- 3~20

17~40 17~30 13.30 11~35

51.00 08.40 10.30 14.00

Y .' ""':31.,

. . .

~ __

YB/lla9JK Y'B1B9'SZ }fB/B~81 ..

'" 'QlfJ"'I1'Ai'fJUi" . . ~ ... ,....&

;Jl,aB/BjiM 10.30 Jlxar 15.00 MH/.a 14,3.5 MJrrI 13~ 5

li~~'X{/YD aB/EJlM 1, ,30

E~;3E1YE full r 18.00

B:33.iK/Y . MBIBa 10.35

B~'9.)KlYB MiT/lia 10.35

:_9:3'JKI-' ~ IIyp 10:0.35

¥Dr lia 09~OO

¥SIC .J] MJr 14.30


Ceyn/YE MH 10.00

YJi!MOCImR yl IJI 08.05'

YB/Moc!a MH, 12.00

MocKBalY , MJI/HJI 08.10

YB/MpKYTCK Jlx/BB 09,00

Mlpl(JTc_)YB JIxlBI U~,30

YB/X'~x X.OT AalrIy··S.OO

X, x X', lYE AalI-IJ[M 12~20

YBlBeplll1dH H.DM 08~05

E e.p.Jllll)lYB I-I»M 15 .50

*B'99}]{ is : hit for E 3}'KIl'H - B eij ing OM==MHAT ' A=AHp l...1aiHa,:U=A9poqulo, TacaJIoapm '_ I, I. ~ Y:S = ])33Xilll OO.OOOT



15.00 14.1.5 0,8.40

. o .

0M223 0M223 CA902

. A9:·


'. ,M224 Q,M224

I. ·A9.01 ICA901 OM8027

..... : .• ' 605

OM.··02.'· KE6605 ,:M135

,U5'63 OMl36

·.'M135 'M136

'YE - MOCK,B,a 1891,lo.OOTB:r xoep TWlbl::H VJI. 37~tOOOTer

y , - C" 11 3 axen xoep T ,!;jUt VII3


YB - HpxyrCK 34,.650' er, xoep rriJI.hIH. 'VEL 69~300T9r

YE - Xex XOT' 47 ,950Ts.c 1 xoep raman YR' 9'5. 'OOTer

YEI ~ ·:epJum 292.500Tar xoep TaJI:bnt VI .5" O~OOOTer

gH3 YHS Hh 3'BBXEnl: MOJU'OJthill 1iIpl~)l3J1\ JI Xl1daaIHla,~

reise ,

I dOI1!t 'now how to a,s, him.

If we 'bad car we 'would like to gQ to Kharkhorin, . 'ou can- at ake your dog on tb, bus .

Is 'a eon ing e day u ter tom _IT W perh p ? Foreigner ,1':'0 have t_ _ neue.

, ercise 2

hich colour are y u r minded I,. 7 Give th ir Mcngolian name ~ The n I, rne of Mongoli a' capita '~,?

Mongolian Buddhism?

Hard work?

. airy pr'l duce?

Mon .. olin . nd USn,ey?

II UIlsJaL s . he f 11 wing conve sation into _.nglisb (he new words II the m lin V'OC,B ulary):

-'aifPT MHl-TL" 1JFI elIBT~ep mene X::?)~I,H .U;LM' r9pT31~' HPC3]" O~?

-HI' apaaa. narr.

~BKTrPIH xynnaa JqJh! 11. t;nlMaitr Hp!BKB.ll M_ H Jl uar 113 ~aa ~yyrapcafl,

~rr3r3JtryH aaxaa Jl931. TI~ ;uryrap)],;2, ua,rBHr XYMyyc onoo oop XHKr3!lryH oaHraa WYV nsa, XOBJ'OP MKHh.

" .

er';ISfa .'

nswer the questions:

nly on· int mal air' . irvice op rat. s daily: where to?

,n whic . d· Y e .her iahts tOI Khovd?

I Whi h 8i thts from Ulan Bator go to the Lak Khovsgol r a'?

Who n do f:li hts leave 'J ai for Ulan Bator?

W11en. could you fly from . "au Bator l the' Karakorum are' 71 OJ] which days doe: :M1AT fly '-om Beijing to Ian Bator? On which I 3,Y" are rhere 'ill ht fr01H .. 1,11 Bator' MOS'COl¥,.



Don ~t:' worrv!

Duvi(l and julie arrive at the hotel in Kharkhorin.

" 1'J;'U''I!ilII' rr~ ~~D.~ijII~,~

)Kn_}j{Yl{p ~


J(eB~~ )i{JrIYVP:

~ 'U"I; I'""F'D ~ ~(U!ll!j_If.JJ~



. . ... _ ~

J1CiOJrn: lK'J.IXlIYP: ~eBHll;: ,>t.~K>K'VY]J :'

geBHJl: :>K1nIcyyp:

-D' ,.:t,V',:, "rT""Ii ~

- r"ri·· II~III


DA"V.: to:

I .' II!



Jut re:

Tanaitrt cyn ElPBB 6,aiHa yy?' Ta YPBI~ tl11naH saxaanc ~H yy'?

1:JY'JIYYBhl BaT l13,1 - xoep XYH,:u:a e peel saxnaneaa, MHlilm B3P o:Pi,yB.

II. epee 3axH&rlCaH 60!UlBll OR D~ TaHlI! CUIO,X:ry:ki 'i5afma.

JIaB yy?

CI!'1ll'1DI'~'m 1!l);IiF'iIOO'.1lI'1Jl'lr"U"irI" M' '''3''1:l'iIJIIT'1rn C""P'1IT o.'n~b onon ~~';'J'.l

~QU ~uU.·:· "~"~ 11 . ..I:;:.IIli '"', UJ.LI.ll_~~ ... ·.~"'t ... rrJ'.l- y;~g!lQl! U u.n I

T l.uaJ1.D; cyn epee O'JIOIJ o ono ~,"EI ,XanyyH yc (i mB yy?

XaJzyyE yc ~JI6:srr IJl9.TT09r! epee T81Ih Ta~;rzyraa ~laBx,apT is ~u~'rra a 5' 0 1- ;u;yr~:'K:lP epe IS ~ Ty HX,'Y1~]' U b 3J J E

];.]1 epesree V31~}X DOH,ax yy?

BOJlonryA XRX B3~ Mal!a.HJ\ apai x.m\1~nl oaA:raa, r~.B~ apa,H CaHXaH epee OaI:{xryB. aHa epee XOHOIT' HM.8,p yPI3T$J:H ~~?I

XOHOIT l'aB~IH ~(UllIaJl ~ Yp:b;J aap ranexl

Bn;u; aB~JL fypaJJ XOHOMOOp 6aim,,,. BypTr~JlHill[ XYY~CL~T 6ar.Jree~ erne vv?

3a~ Ta Bne'px:,a:nral1 aHM,arr CYYX JJ;yp'"ra,f[ jny t T,m,1H Ba,T 6IdJlxoep nar ITYTrnibtx. 'precT' oono..nq eepui.JI BYTa:r~

DOl you have Q'ny rooms available? Have b oo ked?

----- oJ' - ----

ChU!UU'lY Bat booked a double room by phon My name. is Brawn.

You m.ay have booked a room' but 1 can't find III booking form.

A re you sure?

Don't worry! 'We"v!e lots Qf· rooms a vallable.

You t11~y have lot'S of rooms available .DU,t iB th ~f any hot w,ater1

pilenryl Your room is room SOlon the fifth flour. Th is is the (i ts ) l{leY;



May J see our room?

Of course ,you mayl We have 30171&; rooms a hit cheaper hut 'we don't have any' better rooms. How much is this room IJ'{!r nigtu?

Fifty dolla rs a night Pay il:>l adva-nce.

LetJJ take it. We would like to Sl'lly for three 'lights. Please fill in the registration [orm,

OK., Do ,YOM like living in 01/iJrkhangai?

rt)ur Ba: and 1 are from the same locality. lt~s our own locaiitv; thorns and all!


1 . [CE]~irJ:O'N] ST:


Ii I ... , 'EPTlONlS;-r:

I' r\VI D:

1\ [.CEPTlNnrr:

',9 Yr Vo'cabu/a',v

a bit (more etc.) loIillin

regi s tratien

,..,:lM - 'I

!!;.lIon" .' .. ,

cyn TrJDIYP YP1¥l:~:P ~lIX X'OBc.rr xyy;qae(:o) XXM,'[t

9Jl03r' ~II09r

available, lree k.ey

in ad vane ",'

to do be Ioreh and n i lib t .24 hours form, she et cheap


ll'W"Ulirh .. ~~.& I..P'

receptionist to worry sure

one's own thorn

11R6X II

• pub


'nguage points

I he concessive converb, form d with the suffix ""Bill! (~Uq~ ""gBlJ~ "' ~ '~91P1) added to the verb stem. means 'although': the forms JIO,S'! nom 100nox and min 'but' or 'although (said) from mx'

1 ~ he most common - we have already 'Seen mn in earlier lessons:

'Mua m:l NJllro IJ4lI, 'ran'll UfrlEll: DJI M!9JlS'xry:l~

My wife is a doctor but she doesn't sp _ ak English.

Cy.m:, up Ie olitral. CanOll1l xaJIYYB ye t1A~lJra, TI'?

"I here Brie rOO!D1S available but is there any hot water?

, nnbined with the perfective verbal noun in -eaa we can create I umpounds like sanumclIH 6D~OBllI 'although you have booked,":



r~pT 'OpO'O:'1 CYYCBJn'yA or ~3PT OpeDK 60':IIo]JlJ' CJJt:U1I'ri. Although he entere . the yurt he didn't sit down,

(o'l", He wen l into th _ yurt but didn't sit down.)

3p tionolq xy:iT.JB 6a:tR1~

Although it's summa it's cold,

( - I' . -- - -to. "',,,,, . lA)

or, - t s summer eu I" S co u .. I

Sprscr:Di Dano.a. a.puB HYTar~ Although WiLb "horns, it's 'our OlNJ] ncality

(Th- - ~ . . '-1-' '.' Uk-" ~ .' h=-·· . - . -. .' E" ·,t - " ,." lu .. , b . t )

.-e11e·$ DO pace re orne or as, west, .. omea nest.:

H. Ii .

Verbal SU- rxes In '~HTrYH, '"'J[TU, ... .rrry.n.

You. might u- e the imp erative T8 Syy SDB (SOBO,. ~'O worry'), b a eomme n way of saying "Don't worry!' is CaJH.8 30BOmry:i whe 90BOJrITYi; rs formed with the suffix "'Jll'tyi ~ houldn't' ~ 'needn' The suffix may also a.ppear attributively C .. g"

The suffix '~JlTait means 'must be', 'must have , .. m' e~g ..


.oem 6aitJrr-d r,~ 6'-'';:''-~'. U~D.lWLIL '_ /lLILJ.j~·I,·~

must be

must have gone can't be

Note that 6DJIIDmoft, means ~il looks as if~ (Uac oPOX DO-JlOlITO • However it can be negated with the ward ,.HH!ryi: 'un ik ly':

Dirac opox. D3-1Yi DO,JJ.~mo:i~ It doesn't look like snowing, In attributive use:

~ driva ble road

The suffix ~,Jnt~ri

-"g ..

dfti.~~ ~~ -~ ~

,,:f "::'n'''1T1fI''t~ umlI U~!.:.f.lL

means 'likely to .. , '. ~

likely 1 . be unlik ly to be

Mo'r'e about colours

The Mongols are attached to Iex or dark blue, : ince the beginnin 0': their Iristory t'hey 'have called themselves the 'Blue Mongol

und their sky god W2lJ. Mau mx. Tam'3p 'Eternal Blue Heaven', The Inner Mongolian capital, Iounded by Altan Khan, is XBD,QT.' I BI u.e Ta"~11 ' '.

The-re is a separat word for 'light 'blue" ~HdP., 'Grey" eaapaJl~ came up earlier with reference to 'the 'grey building' caap8Jl 01'-1JIH or state palace (page' 53)'1 but grey .. haired is 6YJPIJI.

There is a wide range of verbs dealing with colours e.g, 'to turn rod' ynab, etc, ~ and special terms for 'rho colours of female animals ['_g .. JlI~ yam 'a red COW' ,IPr~ raxait)f(OIJr 'year of the white S{lW;~ mxOJ:ifDD for an. animal's coat means 'grey'

,_djectival ending -arap

lhe suiilx ...,aTDJ (--BTOp) modifies the '[lames of colours to Indicate

. '. .. ~. t . 'L ,d' , c"·d di . 'h! , II. .. 1--' , , 'it, ,.,

U 11 approxuna e ana 'e e~g" fie ms , ye lDVIlS 1 ''/ etc.:

xap ,_ xapUTSp


JJlI.aH ~ YJIaaBTap reddish

mal' ;000 D_lSpU,rap yellowish

UOroOll = 110 roOB,TOPI greenish

Other suffixes playa similar role: rtaraaD .... 'D; "whitish" xsx xexu;yy' '(dark) b uish '~'lIXBp, - ~HDPJll:YY' ~(light) bluish', TIlle I irm YKO,ap for 'reddish' also exists, and with map !;ylello,w'~ produces JdlfLp map 'orange", The fruit is aMTlIT Ef.PlK (or 3yp.z).

The suffix ~BTapl can be used 'wi th oth r adj cti V. $;1 e, g" ,;rtVJIaSW ~aaBTap 'warmish', 'upHilu: """ 'll&prinap 'thinnish' 'semi-ftne' fleece)"

llAAHBAATAF' 1vx:6a.a:fa.pLl[i~ TaJT6aiH 3yyn rnn,D; ,280 OJ)

11'·r XOBOnrAH VH:9:, US-$60 .. 100 r 11~1 ~~1i2·· O··,iI.2·· 0

g~.1 .1 .. u~ .

o A "fiIV11IIV11D ~~4_~1~' ~-~, ~'M

CYXD',aaTm'p ~JYP~r 6 xopco

-20 0pToi:

Y'B9: 22.0Q.-3000Ts,'r YTa.C: 324594·

~=~.'c·· -'_ ".. . .l.A 1l'I' ~- ... ~,


t l [U{rHcHiftH ep r,BS 'q,9JtB e 18 op

"II: US$72-144 , rae: 328869

Xex T3.HT3p-5 45 OPTO'H

YB!J;, U8$90 .. 140

Y 313- 30n Tae: . "au



3m Tail.IU3J[hl ap raB "{{ana e- 5'

12 0lJTOH

..... Ha: 1,20(j~1 BOOT'il'r

YTa.C: 321578


aErX 1"aHBaHM epren 1Lu~Jle 91 (Aar JIlfi:u 9JJ~ ICrlii]J:hm:

HaMHht GapfYlI T~) 38 IOPTOH YES!: US$55= no

Y'fif'i~ ,. ill 3·' c 10 2'· '3' 5

L. ~~ III i - ~ 0 ," ~. ~.

~r.~~' :-,;--. 3·'-A)4-· "

- -",:____.. -: ._:.~.'. :~

·rd-p- irs, and echo wDr~ls,

Baauron J1-y'yp~n'" 3-p xopoo 48 apToH,

Yn!~: US$40-55 'YrrfiC: 311479


Basaron ~VYP::H' l-p xepoo

ooked briefly at word-pairs (page 29) ln w:tlich two nouns with til r rent meanings w ben. combined create a thi rd (usua 11y colle cU \ ) me aning:

UKra xBJIfiara, ran SY]1X

nlll€;!; further examples:

g1 ass, spoon := tableware fire stove; = 'kitchen

g, 3'3lfl r II ye

fa tiler' mother == paren ts land water '::= place

· components of other word-pairs however iave 'mot. or less III same meaning: XOF HOBm 'rubbish' Q Jlll\o. 'magic', etc.

~'tlne apparent word-pairs result frorn unexpected combinations , with pap as an attributive:

xo 'POC < 1~1 )


distri et ~ snbur b

A,djectivll ilntenlsifi ers

p xymiima - .. ' ',1" 6,,,,(&)

. ,Harm: .op:&,

ox mouse = rat

ox gun =:: artillery marmot horse ;:;; pony

Intensifiers are placed before adj ectives (repealing the first sIy11 a pl us ~B!) e~giO "deep blue ', 'bright green' ~ etc,

xu 'up

YB JIlu" maa map

BOB Roraoa 'OD :lex 1I;,8'B D;r9HX9P q,u, naraaa

pitch black

dee. red

bright yellow bright green deep' blue, intense pia le b lue pure white

~rhu words, as the name suggests, are' tho second halves of the urd-pairs 'which reflect the sound of the noun the y foll,w (the I po si te 0 f in '[en sifters ). The initi aJ consonant eh Mges to 'M ( 0 r if II iH M to 3) .. The m eaning is !O and suchlike ~ 'that sort ,of thing':

d Illli- .. I! ...

cups a:n _, SlllCL _ ,t\e

chairs and the like medals, decorations meat ani' similar

. ~aHJ];~ M3FQ1;aJI O~OB MO,A;C'H

Intensifiers may be used with other adjectives besides colo e.g, ItBB, ,~Bg:p 'quite clean', ,XIIB lUlTfY 'very hard, 'strong'. IIJlIEI!ij brand IlC'W" - etc ..

I gb~~.... If! &.,.,

' .. I. 0 MDHO ya~x ~a.DJl .1,.0., rapanya ,x obDa~

I) am just too busy to go to see fi1m'5 and things,

The 'two 'wards eep

There are two words sap" meaning 'self' ,and, 'other':

Bap 'self \' alsc 'oneself ~ is found in such constructions as eoll"M'l'Ul'" 'to oneself, 98pm:1ra9 'oneself', aopuiiB 'one's own', in expression like eopc.A;Hb :qLJ]J~p 'unaided' (i.e, 'by means, of one's ow power"), and the verb o o,pmiMoo x .. "to feel at home",

aap bother" has the form sap ISOp 'various' (doubling to indicai plural), also a a postposirio cc "apart from,' as in TIYH:2J3C e9,p 'oth I than that', and there is, a verb aopua 'to change' Ito make other

II~' form XllUOMDOP Da.tHa, is the feasibility, 'would like' form 'up; ''''~Il, etc.) of KOROX 'to spend th . night': IJ:pu' XODOM'OOP

m L'] wall ld like to stay t hree nigh ts,': a, XOHOF hi 24 hours and

~ nJlOO :lOHOr a wee k m

[Jeri ved from the word lQTar "locality' or 'horne territory' is 'of the locali y' and IQfrrrdux 'Iocals".



E1tercise 6

You are booking, into a Mongolian hotel .. How would you ask: 1 Do you have a single room?

2 What is 'the number ·01' D1Y room? 3 What ii.oar ls it on?

-4 Please give me some toilet paper,

5 What time does the dining room open?

Evarr-~~.a ,~ ~II~ . ~I~J~ II'

1 How much is the cheapest room at the Ulaanbaatar otel? 2 Which hotel is near 'the British Embassy?

3 Which hotel h._QS the most beds?

4 Which hotel have the cheapest rooms?

5 Wh 1-, icb h 0'- itel , ~'t",Q in Genghls A· .. · venue? , "'V'~ "'" ,I '!l,;;.I ,u.-t \# t-4," ' ' ~ &', . :.. J~ ",..-:. "'"" _ _I ,_: I""" •

Translate Into English:

1 CyxMHA'T-EBll K2IICC'a"a_IC .H~r TaJ]b]JH ,(hilleT ancan OOJIOBlit nuro ucop II1[CC3Hry..H ~

2 Jl9JU"~p.M:aa ra,.rrr T~ p~1'3nrn 6'YY;U;~ YA,turn xy.JI:3!9C3H 60JI.08·~ E]JC~'aryH,

3 Ilaaaa rapzr 60nOBl{ xorlDfiI Marmm eEH3Ie;rlifJJ)' 11'P9xryiI. 4 ,ApSilfJ nar xarac 60J]COH tJOJ]09tI aBTofiYCH1.1 }Konoall

, - ,.._

'9 XJI9 ::.ryB.

5 ~eB,HA x 9!,J]]'lit a p'Lf IOMW: 6113]leCM1~'f~ 6onoa,'Lj MOH"fOJl X~Jl e M9Af13.

Which intensifiers and shade suffixea do YOLl associate with following colours 7'

1 white?

3 d . ,~'"" bh ~ ? .' aLA ·,ue.

4 black?

c II ' ... ~ ye uw

2 . d? re,- .



ialogue 3

. nH'A#!i" D'ft~n~~1 IlAI'...ItUU'3 ~Y~~~"'-!III

" on/'V the dr:iv;er would eomel

1)'tlVi,Q a·lta Julie set out from the Kharkhorin hotel for sightseeing. l~ t E rde 111e- Z''-lU m on aste ry .

JiR 3P~EI~"3YY nIJl;n; Xa'pJlOp~ A3p:r9~ O1i\uI'traa r3lK f)OAOX{ 6aiiHa.

E iil'TblH *YYJIl[J:t3.A :3:0PHY.l1CaB J1aBJltlX

~ ... _. -'.?

OaHU!. 'B3~'

:5 a TJl,iBJIaJI: flOMO'O «( Y J] aa H6 a a Tap) l,O~[,PJ;U; 6YYAWlJ:( flDQMpOaJl 60JlClBl!f tlld MapT)I{a::;.

Sa TVYBH.Hr B,t\'TbtH 6aH,IO'aH~ Y~lllH>K o'aicaE 6 ODom 1l![ c aBax:ryi: G am-ra ~

XaMaarvH~ XYlItHPT; 'Xa.PXOPHliOOPI flufJ.tUI :X..yylJ.H.H .n;yPCTWI Hh 3'vr:!t~,P 10M. Xaaryyp MD6an .Q;:DISP B3? 3XJJ~'~A MaWHHa.ap' XaPXOP'Y1't'l O~llIO" T~r~~~ V3fI~33C:93 3IPA:3H!)-,3yy' PYY' .oraB,aa:p MElia. 9rH.€H9'ftHH ecea UU E'ttlrep'C9U OOJ]H)D'tI 1K'OJlOO~I Hi~l:3'xry-=i~J tj,aUHa.! 0 AO'O H'p:g:a C3lf!

I[yna.a.n 00][00 COD ~ e SB,9)I9 p ,xyft13iE 6.aJ&1~a.

Ban }K0J1·001l(OO np~XJ[:g3p' 3PrL31 ,3-,3yy XIIQ~ pyy Im,'DJI.

Calffi o' yy? Ta Http B'P,8(VEIDIXaI-l O'RS A931• liE, TIBbJ[ JKOJIOO-~]. Bx Myynoxofl F9'Jl~r XYH.

C,a._J~IH 68-e:Ha aal ,EhlJ]; 'T aasrr 'xy Jr33C 3:3 P 6aim·a. YYl;oraap,aft! liH MamttB;g;aa ma"l',3lxJYH aaaxaap RBeaN 60JlOB~ 6eH3ID-I 6atixrYH G,aseRll.

IO~OO D1eJ13ml oaJte,a 'fy?

.BaiTI:a aal KBax ~-ry?

I .. rOJIH;

HOM' xaa


)f l'I('i1I1I: ~ I,~ H,Pf~:


)1 LOJI": yyxoxoi::

J~ :l BU~:' YYHoxo.ft:

1 think: that Erdene- Z,UU mo nas t e,l' is near the ruins (~f K urako rum.

'Wh eft! is Bat Js guideboo k t

,A.lth(Jlj~gh; Bat brought fii·· guidebook to thle U!aJ1 Bator hotel J jilrgot it.

l read it at Bat's flat but I don 'it remember,

It doesn't matter: Wherlf'ver ,you go around Khujirt an d K h(JI~~ kho "in there are p! en ty a f DId mo nit mei ~ is", Which is the best 'I/ti'tij' to go?


I) v ,0:

~ I LJE: 11l,vm,:


Jtr E:

Fir. t ~ -e ~Ihall ,0 to Karakorum by car. ond r/1 Irom there to Erdene-Zua Ion f-001'.

• )1

It, gone nine. o 'clock and the driver hasn ~1' C01J1 '

It' only he would COt11e now!

I] only it would Blet warmer! It J' cold today.

'-, ,_. soon as OUf driv r C(J,1'l, s lei ~ go to ,'ri ne-

monast ry,

Hello! Y;·,ll must b the Browns. 111'1 Y' sur driv ,'. HQUZe is Muunokhoi

Hella! We have been waiting far you.

Sorry! 1 tI,.enl ttl It/ell/Ie car but there was Ill) per 1, there petrol n(J'~)?

Ye,'\'. Shall we go?



Ju re:

M' , OKI~OI::


MUtJNOKl'l '1:

NO't~:. M uunokhoi ~~ici{lus d?~f nl.ay seem ~, ~ln;~.nge name, but Mon olians hu lrad]tlonall,.. been gwen such La boo names 10 avold raistort une MU evil fuse Rpiti'[. Oi(h~r exampl s ~nc1 ude lbxmlT ~ jl1eepsldD~ ~ EbpFy.a ~'DO name' 1I M»;g;aXlyl Ldun'1 know._ There ~is ,9 range of names ending in the negative

Xysti1OI[ "not a hum n h in, . :.'. 'RII[ 'no ady ~ DrrtlBDT 'n { at ;;IU' ~

'not his 11, and Tsp6:mn 'not th L one •

6eH:fBB fio~o:x JK0JI40'r MD:pTRX

petrol to think

~-ary,yp xwaaryi'

which way?

il doesn't matter 'fuel


" river

to f or et

to rernen ber





t r ne In

Lanm age points

More enneesslve eonverbs

Dia logue ,: COil rains further examples of concest i ve converb constructions ("'U1.I) S ne with the pe fective verl 'al n un:

BaT J[8BJ]8X 0' 00 sO'Dl;L\ ,6,~, aBUPCIll DOJlOJA DB' MapTlKg9,~

Altho ugh B at 'brought his, guide look to th _ hote 1 1 ~orgot it. or Bat brought his guidebook to the otel iut r forgot it.

Beoll nar BBrBpC8H 60JIOA lK!OJIOOq B])!-X1'VA flalrRa ..

Althou 11 it has gone nine o'clock th =- drive r "tin ba - 't em, .

&I Tl-YtI MAL' J8 I U ex fidem Gao, 08 l was reading it but can't remember,


he ot,: tive con, et 'b -aacaa

Il e opta 'iv" onverb ieaning rif only', eXpires. lug a W1- h ror the I hird p T~ on, i f :rm· d b'~ adding te the verb stern the suffix , .. aaeD {aacO'il, -,BClit" -39-03a) according '(0 'the, stem vowel:

HP9!1C!J" ! (I', wish he/she/i /they 'W ld cornel BOlIOOCQI--,! If only he! -11 Ii /they would beeom ... !

511 8U,Ta:I'1'U YJJI3M1l&p oaka Baa BHS6'Jle.PBP9:JC98!

I should like to meet my father. [ wish (he) w uld com I -

t " a"

, .

~au&ap rynraMaap oaitRa :c;ac HX opooco:il

1 should like to 010 skiin '~ If only it would snow a 10' I

J~ur the negative add DltTId be fori the op a tiv ,:

T3P fiX"'l'ltll 1lfft~~rortli .1 I h pe he 't 1

,.u.¥.:iJ.:i!!~ ., '.'w. ,. oes,n '·fit;.

'he temporal, converb -'XJ1aa

I te temporal converb translated 'when ill ': h of as, -I,' n

a ~ means that one (;J ction is follow d los sly by anorh er. It is lOT ied bv ar ding the suffix "'X1IBap (··x.uoop, ... xnaep "XJ]3311) to the verb stern; 'i . the 'WO clauses have different subjects tbe subj ct uF the subordinate claus e 'will attract the accusath e-case. ending:

BaT lIo.:M:hm can BBDrA»XJl~gp T3HJ11 OplK C3'I'lNytJI Y S,U I kI,M,~ As soon HS he library W'a8 open,e, . Bat went in and read

."l-ll1 .. --\

Ti1i ... JI' d.

.. iyo-gRr OHAOH.Jl :an9Jm3ttT'l uJl rr'tnJ'aT:gi "U"UlI.31B.;o

. ~ r ~.I; JI:~'A' ~.~ .

I'Il meet him as oon as he COIn- to London,

:xB-rIS311 3aBCapJIaxn:a~p YJl]3aJJ' ..

Let's meet at break (a- '- on as there r., a, break).

13··: .


~ Ta ,,0333 Ia3P3X 931

- 9apllmH' fi,sUeyynanm 8H8SpaXf13iJ,p

WIlen are you going to wake up? As S DOD as 'perestroika 1 has p assed,

G3p'~X 'to 'wake up

eap.tqJXeH 6aJl:rvvnwrr

9Hrerl'8X to pass

- ~

pe res tro ika (economic ren ewal]

Because the meaning of the temporal converb in "XJI8ap is rnuc the same HS the verbal noun in -x plus the instrumental case endin in -aap~ the latter construction is sometimes, used 'instead:

B'ap, rap~aap JJ;YJlaS'B 6QJQ;or;o

It grows warm when/as soon. as the sun rises,

li'ap, r.apaxu;p AYJIUD OOJJ;D;or..

'It grows warm by me ans of/thrOUl,g'h the sun rising,

Alternatively, ill colloquial speech 'the construction ~u,d 93p3

is found (~p9r meaning 'as 'soon as' ~ 'the moment that'):

~~JI !QlJCI1P.rra.xJtup 'YYJIIU.; Let- s mee' at break, ,~~l'.J[ 9UClIpmtXTai: 99p~:r YJ1(3WI'~

Another temporal eonverb, adding the suffix. '""1IBrJl; (":MOrJl~ ~Mart\, .... EDt) 'to the verb stern, also has much the same meaning;

~ar lema: 6allMo~ X8~al .DB'I."

('We) 'Shall go to the country as soon as the weather 1S flne

JYy:Em:ir BJJM3rQ, 6H;JJ;, JUttlDHJI, 1IBC&d~

As soon as (he) cam .. · .. W,c went '·0' 3 film"

AHY ... aac IIPMS~m ,3ux8:lDtlr 3 O'P BIlO 0 ..

A~, soon as 'he arrived from tile U-A (he) set off for Zavkhan "

t-~ H.p(H) fUtBcapnax :JOpHX_

,X.H~~9Jl fanio(~l)

lesson 11m


to 11 a ve a. b teak [0 set ofr

NuLe that xaaryyp meaning 'which way?' 1,,:, by what route?' ~umprises X81 'where? and the suffix ... m Lin .. ked by the cansouant ~r... to separate th two long vowels, Similar constructions lnclud ra.Jl:YJP 'outside' (ext mal) and AOTfYP 'inside" (internal),

l"r anslate into 'Mongo] ian:

If only he would go and. put some petrol in the car! 1 hope it won t snow a Iotl

If only David wouldn't drink vodkal If only the weather would improve! If only the new ·· . hop would open!'

, Karciss' 10

I Jse the all rnative forms described to translate four different ways

(11' aying: 'T'll meet Bat as soc)," as the train comes,' -

'xe"cise 'f

'l ranslate Into English:

81loeAlep, HapT,m oononq xyH~.u 6,aIHa~ BH~ opMor~ Ko~epT 3X:9IIJI~S!.

1 flaMlooBr aaaxnaap HOMOD YImJaapaH,~

,- 6

-' ~

. t, I

Dialoglue for cornprehenslon 6

4 3H1J HOMMr ymnae ryli Gon oIlDa yr~rum.apm!1

5 : - TYVlIHH:r flax .fl'. 6011?

Y~'II"""'T'· n_~~'--:ih.- L """l.1Ii


. H JIl{JISif"lil:

'. ····IOJ1l1:

AeBl1Il; .. )Kru~rvp:



··7.."......,..,ll"'"'IIl~., p.

0" I~JI\:y ~

"'\V" ~- ·tAl"

n'\..WJ1 ..... J ..



'. - oep, XOHO'- -oop 6,aj1Jl~. B,!J_~ ,aB~X.

. The an 'n I. aAXA1 u, .. 1J,aapait!

XOB)10: p ID36a.ll .IlYpCr,.T raaap Hh 3VT!3'3P Xaaryyp ,J1H6an ~3:t) P B:FJ?

3XJl~9A .xYY'llm M,&IDK xoroop smranaap IE at, m It C~, V3!f3)lL T3TI1a;n: MaJIIIfBfUlP Xap Y C l1YYP o'tfoopn n'

Is IVl ERE"}X 6 . JTO 'COI-1 ,60 ....

Hy: ~-OB;A ·'-OT xvpra rypBatl

3aXHaJDta,I"p 6ai.l ra,

G X3'AKH~, snax canaaran 6aiIBl?

Mapraaur OIL O~ HBC3'· YY'? ·Vryii. X08,~ XypT9ll apaaraan OHT'OJJ, HOFae apnan TaB.' , UBr ~fj"llmI MImYT~ HHCH3. fyPB3.'H 6UlIe'f IMHP YffilT3H B3? T asa ac naam, apaa ~1 3:rtp ra a raa e ,D; 00 tn sac d: hI

X rae T6Jl6apTi. ypsan OHJteT svpn -3.yYIl 'op 1

T,amaH )lonJ1al •

a, 3ypraUI. 3yyn xop B raaaa AOIrJ1,a,p 969 tl ,"': · YKW=[JI~~: Ta Hap u - -' rroproo V~ VJlli~ VV?

)IUonE: T3J'H3. T arrlXH T mtTA'ru""ryjl.

YHn\'(J1!J.r~: Ma». oHJle'"r rans SlH~ oamla_ OHrOn; mrC3XJl~C liar .,' arncsm eM ,0 6YY]l;aJIJ]; OlJCOH 6ai: ". . ~9P3TT3]~t KOTO)1; Oq.oo~ 6y~ax 'ei C3'" 6.aTUJl i3lKYYSJ:axaa MapT:!

( . ·'/OB)l xaruu 30'flH):f 67Y~W.Ll)

~:- aim 6aHRa yy~ HOeM Bpaya! T,aIDiI saxaan - I·'P ;D;ifJpa'B;ryr' . 9p aa axap 0 aid:, as 411-JJ:vrs,s . ISIP ae.

"'n3 'p' KOBO L IMap Y-H~T::li B3I? Xoaor-r ~,'tJlUl T8,BaH ~OJlJ]mp·.

XS.T~p'xHI1 VIl~T3JH oaiiIUL. epee rt;!:U:1I,S'PJI9.:3.'ryji 6af11[ Tspan aJKIIJIJIa1IT'VB GaRRU. Iypaan xyHHiJ sap ISP

DaHNa yy?

X<JDKyyp: 1iaii.JIl1'H Rax B3d 401-;ayr ''''p ClIJ'aH ~anx' _ . pe'

above plenty

to smoke tobacc confirm

teo much


l elow paymen

00 [I T9.rroep 6yqax pelle a.RJIU, lJ.3JB.3!&}1I!' "

'4 HI

. .

r. turn tnp

to travel

o clean Manchu


• TRllT3 a.JKyy JI ax

'You can lie ad '_ horse- 0 water

In this lesson yDUI win learn:

" About country I~fe and the weather

• S~mp.h9 a rith metic

• About noun formation

• The traditional anirnal calendar

• The imperative "let it be so'

Th - b i - ,

• "19 oonver . a'S soon 21iS •••

9Bfl9JfBP r.9.HnJD JIHaP tism? What~ the weaths'r' like fiDdav?'

'UP" "''n, l:'1'"T;1" ': ~Y~~.l...D1II

8.l169;EJ:ep 'T~IIr9IP JIMap DaHR,i?

'T!JHrSJp cailX3H Oa'81I8.,. MOfll"'lOJIJ( &HnHruJ HX:9FJJr C3Jl9p T!f.fSF9p 'D;9JIM:;)f 6 d;o;ar 10 ML

'~r33A MOHrQ:Jl1.,tr XEI'X T~Irr.!lpHitB opca r~Jt!r 10M yy? a,t[Hrn;S'p xyi'T9I~ CaJ1XHTa.H~ mopOOH myypra 'Ta.BbJK ,6aican. eHse;aep CaJlXM, TorTJIOO~

X~un[Q xaB,ap 6 OnOBl;) ~YB nrar llJIUlax frH 6a:litHa IBHaa)l;El'p apsaa T3rUlH X:JM llYJ1SlaH,.

Ta uar yJ"pbm' M~;Jl!J3 COHCCO,H yy? Mapraam JrMapl oaHlIa r3'C~Il 6,a?

Taarap MYYXJiH.P FJ a r~C:JH., Ay y , ~3,.x«.YJTa aJTISiJI '50,p'0 0 opox r31C srt.

....... olhJoocoo xap y¥'n, ra.pll 6aitH,2i.


"'\.V"' ..... 'iFiFlI'.J"'" . ..iJL~~.lLIJ. i



I tl1 uo:

1 nu~:

I opoo;

T~'flT3,PI Q~JJM:¥nt 60lL .yy?

Ma.ra~ryit~ Ilonco, EUllkMuJyraap cap J1 ax :typ OOp.aOTOH 6aHAa.r 10M.

XyB"rrnH eaan 60.lTOX lnr{tDl'T3:}~~ X3~:~n"l c,j)p~ HX XyiTP!X 831

Ec 9XJl3X11>.31P UX' xyiT:tllliI~~ A33. rypBp.,Il ecaitH xyiT3H TYH RMapryii,! Xacax ;rTlerqHll XclIM xy.plf.! ron X8HItABJr. SBan n;8,C M.X opnor yy?

MORroJ] OPHb~, I'lX3RX DYTrlrT Y1TliFaH TYPYY ll(m,CTa11 BaJd~ar. 3apm4. eaen xap 9YA Do,n;u;or.

M.mlMJl AYPTaH ynlfpan 60JI anraa IiaM'ap~

I~ JrJI1t1illEr J];B',plI,eM YJlM".[JaJI

H Ii" SI'T in ~ 3YH summe r

uaMap autum n

HBi8IJI winter


Ul uo ~:

~)I u~:

I J \\110:





~i( )ROO:

, i\V ffi 0:

J3(J (-;U .. JU:


What j~ the weather like' today?

The weather is fine'. Tile sky is clear [cloudless) ,1110s1 days oJ' the ,lela}'" in Mongolia.

Isn't thsu why' Mongolia is called title land of blue skies? Yesterday there' liVQS II calef wind and dU~1 storms. Today the win d htl$ drop ped.

,A.ltAoug,h, itlls spring it's quue warm like summer. Todl~JI it's .. pilus 15 degrees.

Did Yf}U listen to tne weather [orecast? Wh,,., did they sav iJ would be like tomorro ~v?

~ ~

They ;~ay the weather will turn bad. There's g,oing Co be

Q thunderstorm ( rain with thunder and Lightning) ~ Black clouds are gathering from the' north,

Is rite weather goil1.g to clear up?

Perhaps. It ~ (Jl~ly in July an.6l August that it rains heavily. The signs are that' (J cold winter's coming.

Which montn does it get 'Very cold?

lt gets very cold at the beginning o] the 'nines I'. The cold in the [middle I three 'nines' is very di:fficull. III reach es minus 40 and' the rivers freeze.

Does it snOllJ (J lor in winter?

Over most 0.1 the territory of MO'1go,Ua there's little S.I10'W (only ~ a. feat's hoof). S orne 'winters there is black: zud, My favourite season is 'golden autumn',

Note: 'T]lC 'nines' are the ~1 days after the winter solstice emn,is; BI]] ~ 9JtDI1I, 'Mongol herdsmen use the word,i to describe eenditions w.h;~ch prevent their



livestock hom, grazing nor.maHy~ TI1e anlmals m,a~ starve if not moved elsewn or fed lrom fodder reserves, There IS 'black zud' when there hi ]'jU]~ snow in wi and the pastures are '[00 dry~ 'Other kinds, of zud are caused by ice formation. ex ample, 0]" l),t.

Questions: (a) If there is 'blac "" zud' when there is little snow wh

d, ,', "~'I' :L, th '_,' ,~, ~ 1- • ,ii, ,--, -dli? (b) ,\1.n-. - did th dri

oes u. mean wnen L, ere IS W rne ZU, .• : """ "'-WHY .' u ae [IV

describe Mongolian autumn a.'s 'golden'?

,mB8:J Yr Voc8'bulary


voice; thunder zud (see no-e) to worsen

tOI blow (storm) to stop (raj n) hoof



to deduct: minus to freeze

DlIODOO IIllJYllra(.H)

xyp 60poo xy1bp3x D_ DonolJq

Itlle opo:! ~JDfS'r ~.JlI!d3IX



to grow cold although

to snow

clear, cloudless to clear up



3YD ~a1tDu 11lMDt mfT-OX,

TYPJY' ymrrBl(H)


''V'iI!I'IIH'fBV ,~~VA


. IIJJlH*.



e arth d U~ 'l wind storm

Lan,guage point I

'Verbs to IUS,S wlithl weathler terms

For rain and snow 'to fall' the. verb 'OP01(. to enter' is used; 8Hean~p TS:nrsp IIMap· 6aba,?

What's the weather like today?

BDPOO (lIl8C) OPE daima~

I ''8 raining (snowing),

Bop.DO DP'HO raCSB,.,

They say (said) rain is] going EO fall

8'' H.A iI"i 'i'TiiF nn'iiTftT'l

.gg!l"& _&.y.I=~ ~ UY.~&I~I

There is, heavy snow fa Ll or it snows a Jot in winter,

lin larly the v lob TaD 'to put, place' is used for wind 'to blow':

lapoDS: m:yypra TaBLE odcm~

lhere were dust storms (b owing),

I wind and rain ~tOI stop' the verb is TO'ITOX 'to stay fix':

The wind dropped,

I Ii nu ds one can say they HIe' 'coming 0 ut ~ (rapax):

'·V31 ·rap. Iflaba~ Clouds are gathering,

~p llIJDI92 (aplmg) D[mOR ".? Perhaps it will clear up.

8HeaAopo,a:lJYYH 3ymHII H}~ 3ap,1IM raapaap 6opoo OpHO. CWIXH OYPYYB~U~~,C c4--'9 M/ceK~ B,a5lH- 9nr:HHt[O&fu, .. AuTaliH 9apBM H]1'ITaap 12~14 MiceK XflJ'~f WHPYYCH3~ YYJul.pxar ·uYT:ra..ap 1~21J rOBH1ia ayrraap 27-32" oyc,8lA H)rrraap 20-25 );:,:3IM AY,JIaaH.

Y.]],aw6,aaT.ap XOTO;m dop,oa, opoXTYfl~ CaJIXH oapYYElaRC ·4-9 M/cex~ .20-22 X~M ~Y,lIa.aB eartH.a.

III !of is a s· ying in Mongolian about the foreshadowing of even s: t pOOmiJ: -rypY¥ CIJIXJt, OOOXOBH 'TYPJY x~'pa'!I 'the wind before the t III~ the crow before the wolf' (6ooxoit is a taboo, name f·OF wolf),

VIl~X '/~eK

to reach mHpVVC3X to grow stronger

metres per second: 1 m/sec ~ approa. 2.25 mph

Ius and minus

II giving a temperature above freezing it its usual to say 'ES,O and u many degrees warm':

pl us 15 degrees

r I he temperature is below freezing the verb XQ,Ca.l[ "to subtract' pl,,~y8 the part of 'minus':

minus 40 d grees

Note that the weather forecaster was reporte d to say (page that 'th • intensity of cold will d cline by 3=5 degree's I:

Xyif1:A 0 !I:, 9J"If 3 ... 51 X3M331' CYJiapBa~

Le, H 'would b,e 3~5 degrees warmer (but still below Ireezln

Simple arilhlmetilc

The basic verbs of arithmetic: are as follows:

!lmd:9X to add yp~ to multiply'

xacax to subtract

t ....l:'-1 xyoa&X _0 urvine

When you add 'to thes the word apra, 'me thod you obtain noun forms: DM9r· apm 'addition' xaeax apra 'subtraction t Wh 11 you add the WCi] d T31(lX:tr 'sign you create the mathem

1 • Il. l' it' -L~ " " ~,~"

call signs: Y.P:EY"YJlSX T8:M;D;,lD" rna trp U:;,iJI non ~a.gD l! e'LC.

The verb 'r.IHU;9X means ~1to equal' ~ but 'equal' 'is T9au:y( and t equals sign is T9:nu:yyrQug T9~r; yn;c:a,x is 'to remain', Various coustructions rule used for simple arithmetic:

3 + 4 = 1":

IJpu ~~p ,;tlSPBIDir B~1DD~ (o:r H~M691[) ;D;OJlOQt 60JIIIQt ( 0 r tlDJJJJJl,r- ),10

or IJpaa ~;a1'1 'DlUlX Em J:{O'pOB T3JDJ;YY CUI TB.:a:Q3X. m) ;ltDHOO.

'10 ~ 6 = 4:

.Apua8c 3ypFIar :XI.-caxa;n: (or '. ·.a-CBa.n:) ~8peB '~liD

(or 6wmu)1O

or APBa&C DCU n aypru. D:tnJJ;yy (or DmJ;8X 11&) ,~9peB.

3 x 4 = 12:

I)pIlLIJ; Jl:epB99p tp3:yYJdJDA (or yp~J1[) apDaD xoep 6OJIB{),.


Sin] p 1 est of all yo u can say "I)p.a B.B ,QapBH i H_ tapll:1&B xoep;;

14· ~ 7 == 2:

AP,BaJ1. ;r(OPSI:. JliCI,JlOO~ XJBal.X~ (or xyaufiu) xoep 6D':rm:O~ or ApBiB ~OPBBAt xya&aX m, JlO:.D:oa T3Bll,YY' (or T3B@X m)

mi!p ..

o divide .into four is J];OPBB 6omOB xyBlaX .. However DOm'OB fa also mean 'each ~ every'; capl 60JIr0B 'every month' ... xyH DOJIrO

ryone' as well as "in h role of' ~ 'as'. in expressions like a:MIU:I::I ~ as an. example' ~


rlbutiva nume "als

III Mongolian equivalent of 'one each', two each', etc, is Dr I'l , :loep xoep and. so on, When distributive numerals are used I '1 ~ I utively (before a noun) the object noun may be in the instrun 1 III ~11 case:

r mr(.9B) ,3JYCM33'p! (I[OMnop~ etc.) on, p~' ce (book, e c.), each

two noteb oks each.


. '~~31 3" a,y.:a mrps1r(eap) arqu .. l ~ te) gave (ins) children 100 togrolg e ach,

II I h L; distributive numeral itself is, the object it takes the accusative I I" suffix':

~~~. ~~

·oel' xoepldr uaapu~

Take two each ..

of rrrar

J h e postposition m HI' bas the sense of 'as \ 'like': 3)'KrnHj; 1tYn'SEtXa1![ ..s:a 'It's as warm as summer,' -imi1ar construcrions include IfiynJ; I I xyHnuq "all as, one man. 1 and 9;D:Sp.1uur capYfJlX&R mwe II • ht as bright as d,2IY' .. In other construetions it implies some III · ~rtainty".g. ea;fhr XIB 'J 1110 [. 6uflHa, "seems like a decent chap' ud TID Mapraam m BP3.' HIMt' oatu.a 'It seems, h,'II come ( tlll arrow .. '

t\nm MOPE. 'qHHlul MO.Pl! ,lIn'l~ xJP-n;,m"

,I LlI horse is as fast as (like) elder brother's,

When lUIHt' is used with personal 'pronouns, it attracts; their l~l~ ique stem' forms: III,Ie :111111' 'Iike 'M. "~, '11M 1 II III W" 'Iike you',

J " · 1 ... ';: t, does tl "11 ill " d j!

not ter postposmon WillCJ[1. I toes t ae same ss ',0:1111:, tow,ar s ,~ Tn',R

itm'towards him',

The variant WM 'fll1lJJr Jl tneans 'as if . ~ ,i didn it: ~ ,. ,.' e.g, M3~11'_yA, II Ii HI" X' xapB1xcaa "a m wered as if ( be) didn 't know ~ ~

The postposition should not be confused with the diminutive ;1 ftix in -'IIIIIHt' e,.g. )'pT 'long" Jl)TDlIlIr "longish',

ogu ,2

... L£.I

Some . f the verbs w, h ve u ied in thi e son are d, riv. a j ctives and share he same ending in ~pax:

M}'YXaipax '(0· irsen' from MJY 'bad' an ,'1 MYJ?Xd ugly· GfU'tapax to improve' from cab 'good'

XfiiTpn: 'to grow cold' from xyiT,3H 'cold.

~aaplX 'to grow warm' from J\YxaaB 'warm'

An,' th zr gr. up 0 v rbs deriv d from adjectives - nd in -TI'IX ypT,aTrax 'to lengthen' (from YPT 'long') and 50nmoTl'O shorten' (from '601"lIBO ~sh, It').

';m11JI rnpT Op·, Pf»JH W7

. you had a look inside a Mongol' yurt,?

Transla ore into .nglish:

1 Taarap calbIcHp'q 6'afm' _I.

2 Bara uacras Bel[ 60Jl xap 3Y,JI 6oJIOX yy? 3 'CWlXH. rapaan uropooa myypr' 'T.IBHB~

4 Be e.BJ1KHH Hap 6YQRX ,)lpeep 3X~Jl~~r.

5 XaB8.p umr HapTaH 60JIOB~ xacax XOplM Jt~M X:YPC3B.

Exerc';se 2

XH3p M ElXSB,:

Tb~l_ 113 t _ into Mo - ol ian:

1 ~ + ~ 0 = 5 (When you add 10 to 5' it becomes 15E) 2 9 X 9' ==.,] (9 'multiplied 'y 9 ~s equal c· 8].)

, 21 ~ 10 - 11 (If Y'Oll subtract 10 framI 1.1 remains.) 4 1 + 4 =: 4 (When you, divide 16 by 4 it becomes 4.)

'When (if) I ' ivide the cake (TOP1' into eight everyone will abJ . to hav 'on piece each,


IJ n}KM I=tfljl]£

£' .. ~.

~erels'. 3

J _ lXOfllllllM·:

Match up th epa irs. appropriat ly in Mongol! an:'

. rD:

1 )1YJlaaH, mopoo .3 3YH cap

:; nap, xa ax apaan '3.M 7 asap, uan llLFlT

9' ypXOf'; HaM3p

2 ~IlJrJ]11 apax, 60p 0 0 .4 uac, xyaaax

a.PBID . 'M, ~yJ]aaB,

T3'Hr3p~ x-yllTP9.x

10 TaR mnr, ,yirr9I-J

.' 10:'


.: ore, sorel BH~ M,o. IBW rspr op:» flMa3p 6aihI_a..,

srse T.31""'he. [MSJr~mH]d fIoX01I .. OpHO!' CaFrH f5.aH __ 8 yy?

Cai:H. .a eWbl OaRRa yy?

CaHR 6,8.i.H~ as.! Tausr r9 PT OP1K V,'" JK 6w.u),x yy?

EOl lIO oo! MPH"JJ01, "PHO YY? ~P'T ,Aiul.pu:alTyH wy?

I'apr 3,m capvvxsn GaA.uar. r~pHHr 3YU

llr ;;g;aH Sr .. 6yp "3c'"rSa . ,~phllar.

T . pr en 8JI JJ.YJ1 aax an oaMAar yy?

ISBeS[ ~epB.H ;lil"anxap' 6VP1t91r roM. 'SiP fion ffVVX31l TOXHPO:M)[{TOil. I'sp 60.n· MflJl1.£I'm x 1 Lt qyXa.M T(lXHPC,'R CYYl\. r!!J'pT nfap .anaarrra 6,MAdT II ~7

'Y-YXLlr apran Ty.Jllll3 P xanaanar, rSJ'P }J.Q ." 0·0 ra..JIhIE 0, kp, OpHhl 6af~ r, aB;I1\ ap eas l3'P r Tor'rcOH 6,OHp'l'afi f5a~ar'E

r3p'ftHU XRaJITH X33~~ q yp~ 'mBa


Ta X3~:tlH MaJITaH 'f3':~f?

DB ··yy:raa,lJ, : OI!b~ lKapmaXaM }]M,aa.,

neen iH3~" raan J sr T3MS3, Ta1BXDH

~ w

xa ar TaB JdJIYV M.OPbTOH.

M anaac I'OY ra pax B~?

Manaac rrcoc, 1-I0.IJrfYP, IPhC' ill1!lP r3X ~13T rapnar.

"loOP'1 l: top! We would like to have' a look inside tt herdsman's ger,

.' .. ',:. (to he h crdsman) Secure your


How are you?

Fine .. How lIr€ you?


BA'U rNNYA1W.:' JtJLl ~:




I'm fine 10,0. May we have a IOtJ'k ;",\4 Y,f)ur ger?

You may! Y,Q'U are welcomel Dines", ~t it ,ge1f cold in lJ ger?

In the summer itJ· cool in tile ger. III summer (/1(1 gel hos only one layer tel r co Vi! ri 11g, .

Is it warn'l' inside the ger in winter: ill the wluter there are four layers; ger is suued 1'0 noma d l C 111. o V€"111Bt1 I! geT is actuall)}i t:l suitable (lwollin",g fa'" he rdsman ~

Wl1at heating does the ger have? We heat the sto ve' ltV iln dried dung

r c

Inside the ger there's {J place for the

places [or the beds; and the chests. trun and so on I'zU1/1f! their fixed places,

Th e ge [ do () r (J, 1 H!.fJ ys fa ces so u! 11 . Flow rnQfly livestock d(J1 yOli~ 1l01Jf?

1 have around a hundred sheep' alm sixt» ,gOll ts; se¥e'Tt.l l co w S~I just' on e ca m five khain ag,~ and more than fi horses,

What do yo« g'et t,on1 tne livestockr 1 gel WOQIl'~ cashmere, s ki ns an ,l hid tc., from the livestock,

D'A:V1'D: fulill~MAN~$ wura, MONK.HOO:,






-mRBS Yr' Vocabulary


apran 8p&C(U:) llmP 61lpax

aJP~X (i;yp9IC(B)




chest, box

dried dung

kins and hides to pitch a ger to cover covering

'to fe e 1 cold, ~a.yer

single; 'Simple. mID re, over

capl1!DH T01TOX 1'10]01,01:

TOXIQlOMll[ T¥ImII(n) 1'31tm3 YBB~

cool to. fix

to be suited suitability fuel



yak-cow cross heaLing

to heat




, ,


herdsman cashmere hair 'wool


to nomadise dwelling

&apn 1:0pm: ~ee.H ~ 9crBA

to secure several actually felt almost

XQflJIJI tll xmlaD:'













I l

Ihe ger walls are made of wooden lattice sections (xwa) - five o-f lhem for' the standard-sjzed ger (T!IB8B XlBaTait: :r9,); the xaol, upport the roof poles lor rafters (Jm)~ For key see p, 148.



Key to drawlngs:

1 ';myyF3S 2 WI.ltap 3 BBnlII nm-pg9 caFJ~8Jl low ta bl e and stool s

4 (ij)(a) beds

.5 6,anBl. (5 3JYX 7 apr!IJIhIl!' JIepB8JiIlK S XBxyrp 9 TII.RHyp

10 XtlaJIr8 11 JJLU~m(r) 12 TOCIBO 13 ~~B3p

cupboard chests

roof posts


dung box koumiss bag 8]1 Ives


stove pipe roof ring oof cover

Langluage' points

Approximate numlbers

As' ed by David ]lO'W many livestock he has Ta X»;m:3a: YaJlTd the herdsn an Baljinnyam replies BJI s:rYl'aan: X-OllL(TOH) i '" " ~] ha about 100 sheep . II ,,"" Note the ... r- between the long vowels, 1b giv an appro .imat number Hk 'this." I8Idd the suffix ~~ etc, I to th numeral's stem:

;ltB'!S8;n:'OBor 6loJloo~ . '. om 3 40 days later

The same suffix is used for 'the years '1808 and '90s,. etc.:

JEnULIA CHi t he ~ 80s epS!l;It ttE;;Ll; In the ~ 90s

How to say 'anly' witlh numbers

This is, done 'by adding th e suffix ',,;D.1I!ll (~XOH" -xo." -UB) to the cardinal numb r . t ]]1:

,qepO'UXBa apl.BX8B

only four only ten

The same suffix n1.8,Y also be added to the approximate numbers or the t ens:

D:pa a&AXBB XOPKO;n;xD!l

only abou 'ten only about twenty

only seven together

r ~al nouns of agent

I mgolian has regular ways of forming nouns from verbs Of' other 1 III n l' to describe the' work. or activity of indi viduals, N OUIlS may lurm,Ed by adding &'N to the verb stern:

i'Hlm"TiI'D'V l~l~ ".lL~

to translate to study'

to serve

to, sell

translator student, pupil

. I


shop assistant

to be in charge epXJnr! manager

I lIDS may also be derived from noun stems, by adding ~"I(BB):

reins, steering wheel rade


. I La-WI revolution medicine livestock migration


OmJDlI :alDiM'sllq. TOrooli.

driver' trad r cook

J;yHwrl.JN. rev olutionary

aMI!: doctor

M'8J!1iDIR herdsman

~ IlOIDad

I ittle caution is necessa:ry- beca use the nouns in ~" are not always I -ople: TO~: is a record player and mpr8n is at refrigerator!

.ther methods of noun deriv,.tion

nouns 111 .... nra.~ x~a,


heating, from xanaax 'EO heat

light swi tell, from YBTPaa.x to t urn off


nouns In .. IN:

tly1l1hq D8J1T9lJllI

bracelet, from. ,5,11. 'wrist condom, from ,fieDBF genitals


nouns m ''''Y'YP:

• I •

a-a.JH11P Toa~ooJtJYP


electric plug, from BIJIrIX to connect computer 'from TOOlllI0o,J10X ILo calcula te

d li j ,~~"", to mul ~ 1

up JCaLOr~, rrom xyBEJW![ ·tOI mu tip y

The stove and hearth Most 10 - the r:Jp these days rave a stove ('.,', "')', a rou meta box with a place or a large, basin on top for boill water, a small door below for adding fuel', and a chirnn pipe whi'ch runs out through the TOOHO in the roof (s p. 147). 'The fual for the S O'VB inl the north may be 10 firewood, in the. so th ssxaul or other Gobl shn bs, . m in urban settlernerrts coal or spllt logs,,, bt t Olver ml- ch l'Ao,nQc,Ha the stove fuel ms. aprmJI Dr dry animal dunq. It I gathered from the open steppe where it has dried naturally lt burns with a Igreat heat like coke land is odourless, gath,er a~glal is apran TYYXr and thls is, done' with a wood pitchfork: and special basket on the, gatherer's back,

In. the old days the' ge" had an open hearth (ran rono crafted from iron bV a local blacksmith tuapxm'r and t hearth is the svrnbcl et Mongoll t aditlon: the vounaest w,as the guardia,n of t B hearth, that is, he horne territo '

There are various constructions to, do wit I fire: rWl lIB 'to catc h fi re,' ~I ran -rymJ,X 'to. fu el (feed) ill 11 re', ran raprax 'to -:-_ ake a fire', one can a so say ran raanax 'to make a fire', but this alsc means 'to shoot', and ran ,a~ is 'to op fire' .

,H9M9JlT Yr

Ad·itional vDca-.-ulairy

With their orientation It wards traditional practices and tIl, natur cycle of animal life, country folk have different hcuseh rld eq ui rnent an' fo dstuffs from 'h'~ir _ wn c u ins. 1 e herdsman's '

, uipm .. nt is for hers ' management ..

bridle he bhle saddle whip

,ga, yypra .n p

hitching line Lasso pole

. ',.' lrrup

xaaaap ':1IH,I('(J1 P M3~JI Tllmyy]J

The - omad's maio summer f 01. .' r rtarlAB II;lT;S3 as it is call d ·0 i, t of a variety of home dairy P'-- duce:



- 0 U[ mille curd cliit d cr-eam utter

d ~ d d' 11" ,e· un

iheese sour milk cream

T C(l)

~ eral 0' her kinds of homemade food are als . a regular fie ture " , life:


boiled me a t durn plings for sou p.s

fried pastr-y DOP,JJ;

"1 amed 'meal 1 umplings K}:ry£UYY'

air-dried meat strips fri d meat du rplings

U 6( pC)i'nts

n "me'> I tl1 .".' n ~ ye ,t- r· yl ortoday'- are use d

It h ut case suffixes: 3YB mans 'summer at in ummer' .

Ihe Mongols use the. term ~ JlW\JY HaJJ 'flv 'kind: of live.• r~ to describe their J11am flocks and herds (.·own ac ually

II t ns, muzzle').

ongol eu rd logs can 'b.' fierce, .' d it is a wise pr icaution t I I the own '_f ,'. .ie th m u.p before you get out of the car ~ hence I 1{~ call HOXDirOO xop:& or Hoxoi::opo!:

I r nslate into Mongolian:

[ have only two childr -D.

.', elger as ha~ almo t .. n dogs, tat h .S only abou 7 cow:', Tomor ha '. fewer than 30 sheep.

Mongolia bias more than 29 million livestock,

~--e'cise ,5

t ranslate into English:

MopL, T,3M]S,! xom, HMa.a- yxpmir TaBllE[ xomyy' ,Man T!Hl3r., MOPL --omrirr ~ aHyyrl XOWYYTB ":' M~lJJ rsnsr.

Yxsp, TP-, ,M3!) IMaar x-yiiT:Bfl "'omYYTail MaJI ]l9IWJ,r


3XH3P 3apmrr:HHr panaorcop COHICOmyyT HapJ!A Hi::r xaxaa vr xsnnas: «Yc yyxryH VXPBHH T(UII"OHr O'IT ~"p, yr /3;1Jp!xryilf XV' - TOJITOitr oyy 1IJl63i» T3.)K_.

W11Qt year H;ere J'o.,J born ill?

I was born in the horse year. in the first month of spring. My 'I~ifi was born in the doe _) as: The triplet. are loxe:tl ..

Sitle€! there are man .. y of y,DU it must cost a' lot surely? Wl1at S yo,~'r monthly salary?

I don 't have a salary. I am a herdsman; an indep nd« nt herder. 1m ri '12 in livesto. k but J am quite ill

, 'or 112 n in mone» term ""

How mu. ,I is a hors worth in O~{j'k.han;Qi


A horse is wortb six sheep: Alrhollt~gh I used to get a small wage when I was Q; n sgdel membe 1 have' flOW

had no money for thre - Yc. UT.'. B ut I did get some prize m ,ru::y on .e!

Realiy? What prize'!

I have t.he title 'froni-ranki. 19 herd" man and in 199. the MOllgolial-l Presi deeu ow' rded 'TIf! lite Order ,of the Pole Star. Let' mes how you the "I e id ni l decree. Please do! What does vour decree ,ay?

The decree says that for ma king' an important contribution to the development of livestock l' ro duction

Davaajavyn Baljinl~Y{if.fn is to be awarded the Ordei of the ~~.1' tar.

What did y ,l~'"' wife' ay?

,Ali [5'00.11 as she heard the decree on the radio the '~1!~fe said to me someth ing strange: ilyou can lead a horse

to wale,' .. ,.

l s: TIle proverb in fun says: 'Don't press the head of an ox tha: doesn't drink, d ui'I stroke the head 0 ' a man' hal doesn't know,'

The uegde! or he rding ICOOP sratives were the 'basic SUUCUlf€' for collective 3.ll.i111aJ, iw bandry Imrn the 19505 ooti], tbey were disbanded in the 1990s. TIu: ind:epelldc_D,'f 11 nlers are &P'.' - c,'~ r or 'people's en erprise pe .scns".' ~ Order 0 the I I. Star 1 AMp fBAaC the uclden stak _") i one O~ Mongolia's top awards fo,

r ices to the stat .

Exercisf! 8

Identify these ten articles and ist hem in Mongolian as equip ent orb) herding 1 quipment:

.'1.3, :IP mt.rlau 6araH3" yypra K,,'XYYP TOOHO~ 1:f,a;u;ap~ xana

\ In:


,I. I 3

I-I _ 0- ue ,I

II It :

MUlIJp 6a.m~ Msmweg gltyy' Rich ;n livestockl! p100r in cash


David and Julie . 'antinue their chat with herdsman Baljinny« 11 discuss s' me of the hardship» O!-QUl1Zry life.


Ba'J]~cl"L ... n'.rMi. r~

__ ~_I"~ .l1D.n.l:_.,.I .•

Ta .1M a p 1KHJlT9H B "? B:vr MOllb'foit Xaapsru T~prYYH capn 'lSpCelL M ~Xl . "1' HOXOHTOH.. fypRa ~ I. , "p XYYX8'll YX3P r . O_,'J1aa ~OJJOXODp ]I" M' "r OPEC tiIl3? Ta capn SMa tl2lJIHHTllQ .13. ~ nil' nanBHrYl1. Bfl MaJPnm XVt]~ ap.Il'hlH aJK axya Manaap Q,i m r3E"tJ MeRr6ep flJlYy taa xyH 6 -11 '9no,p', ~aHra.H aiM arr H3r NO ph I.,' lap· 3::9 ... 8

SF M', ';D sypraan OHbTOH T9~3Iig. 13r, I r8WYYH t5,a~aa Gara uannn alfll OOJJO 0)];00 rypBaH JIi{If.U E[,matM XMap '1 M9n.rfl 6a.i'Kl oa.nna. ,;. apaa maraansm MeHTa asr rnaa T HM - V! ilMap m - an! 611 ,apryya, Ii M3.JIT.Imi U;OJIT'O,H~ olac 93 OH~ Mo 1

Y JICbIH Ep a BXMlfJIBr"'I H&MHitr «Anraa ran PI

(l';J:OHFO op ura aac 8, 'i TalIJ]; Epe {X11l1Jr,e ritl1fKI1 3,Bl' J I J Y3VYJIbe?

AJ1u "-H T3r3~q. 3ap.m err TaHb my 'P9Jx: owrc -H ORB T •


""\17 .... -1T'JAr. L&-IU.!.L.U I'


I l.J] NN'YAM':



h I ~ I s:



- -

aJIJKBHlN .:: . :' ap lIIT Man ax< aXyHH yBY.ij],l3,gPJ13_ IHH 1

xe rx{yv J13X31)J: tJrYX-l t X,YB,f~ H~MJ) P opyy nell

tJ:a.Baa.JKaBI~'JH Ba.rIlKKHHBMIdr Airraa ranac onoaro JP nraraacyraa :r9JK 6lPl33,.li;. Thlp~ ,aRb JOy r3C91H ni" .


mBW Yr Vocabula'r"

~"m" 'O'~ l~'-

len terprise livestock herding rich

s sake, pe le to pre's decree

to stroke twins triplets

coo pera tive order

OPDX: 'mPIYfH:(d) p1Jl1JliB~~PJl9jI Dl'lLBK

to cost Ieading; I J I producri n strange run to develop con tribut i 1 \~lage, sa I a r titje important a.w',ard


MIUI ~ u_yi DaJID

r8..I.aC(S) ;o;apo:




rypBllB lEIBP ,Hsr~ o~ol[(r)

Drzyy.JI9X, XJl3i. DSIM3'p IWUlBfr) Qon

~ Wur.HWI

Language points

An'im,al cal- ada I

The dialogue begins with a short exchang , about the years of bi of Baljinnyam and Iris 'wife, using the traditional animal nam Colloquially you, ay the year's animal name in the comitative c, B. MOP:DTDit .. "I hor e-with', 'I 'W;3S bOIrR in the horse year.' Thetwcl yea,fs in the usual order, with the current equivalents, are as follo

l[JJlI"8K8, lifD\EJI YDP lIDIJI DlIll lItM'lf Ty)'JId' lFDIJJl' ny, 1RlIX MDm. BOfJJ MDp!DI JIOJll

1996/7 1997/8 19'98/9 1919'9/0 2000/l 200-U2

2002/31 2003/4 20 0 4/S' 2005/6 200617 2007/8

mouse ox (cow] tiger hare dragon snake horse

sheep (ewe) monkey chicken (hen) dog

pig (SOIW)

Ma'lJfll -~ ,"-" - . Tl."IlIiI lKlm BOIOB)KHJ] .raxai:JKdJI

Th calendar is the lunar calendar" and the y' ar changes with the new m,OOD in late January or early February and. is c I· 'brat d in, a festival called :Qaram cap"

twelve animal years are combined 'with live elements ~)>i each having its own colour, E ell . lement and colour I Idls for two years, 'he colour names having in the fir. t year usual forms and in the second year forms used to describe II ,I I.: animals (in brackets):

wood'fire arth

blue r -~d,

y llow white black

:'B . (! SrOl*CUlH) JJlaaB (:Yna&r*lW'l) map (mapl!l(q]lft]

:lUII'aOH, (~:) up (xapa'IHR)



f II~ suggests that the years are alternately mal. and f smale OT I I raps the animals, although this is disputed, There are special

~ . f .c 1 ~ . ..,.,1 • 'Ii ~~- i;,;:'

I- uu rn current use or rnany rema e arumais, lnc.I,UUJLllg 'pwa 'cow

I rtnr" . , b t, not P 0' for ,~, ew' e· ., Jt!j,'ii._;1' v:o- i'I!:1i"L

I J. .'1,.1 -mmre 'II . U ullJ., ~ .. ~.. u, , ..' - .. '. ~ ,g,QI ~. '.oD~

r h ~ animals aile usually referred to 'by the element 1U, 'male' II: and 'by the colou in 'female' years: '99617 is 'fire mouse' 11, 199718 'red CO'W~ year, 1998/9 'earth tiger' year, and so on, (Ior

~11111er details, see Grammar summary),

I U~ animals, and. Iernent s combin -d . real' at cycl of 60 years II x 5) be E01r'~ the combinations begin to repeat themselves, This " 'I~ is called a lKapm "60'~~ The first lKI.p8ll began in ~027 and 111 1 current cue (XV) in 1987 (yearn- of the hare).

Note that when used attribu tively nouns with fleeting 'D display it: pllH ZHll,. XOHilLlH lImlI~ MBiI!BB ZlIJI,. i(,DAOB .MaX6oJJ:~ "cm MutloA.,

-~ Ii I f h

dltlona names Dr months

111 j traditional ,-,: ames -or the 'months ar als in use with the lunar ~ ulcndar, They a.r.e lin s equence 'the leading', TSPrrYHl middle", ~ BI1 and 'end', ~ months of 'spring' (DBap) , summer' (ayn), uutumn' (BlIMl.p) and, 'winter' (9lI8Jl) respectively:

UPliIlI 'T!!Pryra_ cap ·upam: ,~RA cap Xl-BphIH ~ ca,

S"RbI T3pry-ra, cap 9J1Ud- ;QJ'HA ca.p

9y1lY 8Jtar cap

eBJIHiin' T3pryyB' cap, 8 lUI wi A ~ leap 8BJ1B I; II lAST cap

aMp-.m T3PE1YB ca,p HaMp:JdH ~ capi HaNpldlll BI(ar' cap

I 1 e names of the days of these 'months also r _ tale to the animal cycle, as do U1J. traditional 11 0 ur of the day' (. 'ee page 242),


Baljinnyam says tha ~'fHA ,SO€JD as his wife heard the deere n radio' (saIUDn+dr PSABoroOJ1 COBCO:uryyr) ahe cited a pro' Here. are some more . amples of what is, can d the successt eonverb (stem plus ... Bt)1'T/-BIl1T):

Au~ JIBIllHI7YT ~9l1£ ap;Jm~1.

As soon as (my) fa her had gone (m.y) mother arrived.

The successive converb em also attract tl1 reflexive s~ wh the subjects are the same:

Hp9Bl"Y'r mJ HaJJ; UJI99p;il1l .. Tell me as soon as be arrives,

.Hp:gmyyr33 . = 1Ut num9.Pli~ Tell me am soon as ytlU arrive.

"Let it be 50'

Resolutions, decrees and other official deeislon , add stem the voluntative suffix ''''QYrai~ --CyrBi!. 'Let u ~. ~", 11]e form active, but translates better as passive "X is '0 be . ii .'):

A B··!!:IiI~IiFI<.iiFIt.'1FIf'!i .. ,I;, ........ iGD' r .. ··~····' .~~ o···~-,n.'rrrInnp mTT'l'·D~!i~aJ\t.

- ,- I~~ ~~,.~~ - ~ " . UD-I,UU . ~~rw._Jl'.& .

~'. - - .

L'el us 2IfWB,rd D~ Baljinnyam the Order of the Pole Star.

D~ Baljinnyam is to be awarded 'he Order of the Pole Star,

Fur the r' examples (see below the presidential deer es on arnba sadors) include ~["'f UtUaac. "'I8Jlas.1IGyrgli 'is tc be released fret (Jus) dutis 8, ~ :UO.Dl the verb .8JIa&oo· and TOJdJJJ]cyrd 'is 'to t appointed' from, 'T10MBllOX.


1991 om] 3 Ayr-9~'P Ca.llLIH 24=mlli. 8J];19p


.XOT II,3iASIDJn\JIJdIl. CtxoaaTap:b1F .9Di£iIlI

IC~IP TOJdBJJDX TYXU Menton 'Yncaac fu Bparana, YMapJ]; HpJI~ Hsrncsa BaHT Y'JICM cyyx 'OHJ:J; tJe:r98')l Byp~IH :3PXT !mmJl caim,aap U9'J1:~HlI{aBbm Cvx6,aa 'f apsrr TOXOOII TOWlJlcyr,ili.

MO·~O:-:··'·JI- vlI;C'-''L:rH'' E' ·PB~:f~ft·e·rq

..... _ ·.r-D . '.' . -, fI' ~ ·· .. DImI:'II _. '. ·,~&LLJI,.. .

I ~ II J.U:1111 B'aH']'

II I ~ f5 el'8'O)i; B'YPIHJ spxr J 112111.1 Ii caAJ:~

United Kingdom

Ambassad or Ex traordinary and P'I enipo ten ~j ~lfy



MO····~I'"\J1' vncsm EP8:HXHfme'rrm:rm

.n.I. u. '. . l. .


lJ;yrnap 5

(HtJ,] 1 AYI'33p I (lbra 13 "'l7Ll 9J1,Sp


rnA", ..... rHO ;A' X·,' ·TY··YA.i'x

,_.1 .:_ .... _I~_

MaJE ,a~ axyiB yiJ~S~PJl3J1li1it[' XB:rxYYJI3X9l\ 1llYXaJI XYB.h III M;jP (JIPYYHJl{~ e~ep aurar JllKMT~H 11llIH3 vy~]JKIiH Man I ~I r 60J1 roxon x,e~~.[[MepHti__R ~JIT rapracrnrr YB~,H.lf[ J1:0p

II vpJJlcalI XVM'{\{Cmdr M(UfrOJIY, ICL,mn O,AOHrvreJl;MH!l'

1111 raacyrae.

Cygoaa -r81fblR OjfOI'lrOO p:

. aMoyyr:m1B ;UyrapXCtaB. - Man ~ ,aXYBH ~lpn!3M nDfHJK-

HJIr~3mm X.vP3.Jn:~IInIfJ.II eexropsm :ipXlI~rq

ART-aIl rat{tJ.,,;; 0P;OIJr(Jop:

AaBaa>KaB~tH BaJI.*trBEKM _.,ir et~J]I

Illaax C}']dfiIH MaJI'lmIlI

0TJT"'l10· . n vnc :~:ru ~HXII1iJI9rq

.Di.Jm 1 •• ,... . rz. !il1j. . ;.QI.JD.J GC'U .



ddit;onal lIocablulary


l1mM productivity

IUUM1UJX to 'make use of

."II IDOJIrO:X to create

a~op ,AJPltClB und ermen tion ed

rural district 'to ap pre cia te breed institute



cyM YIUJJmX, ~p XYP~~mlD

I BM: certain some

~am. medal

Exercise 1

Transla te into Eng lish :

1 " P'rlRXBH C~lH VYP~l'T aJI{J]aat: ITYHUanntH. )Kac

- - ...

tf6\J[e an c yr:JD .

2. YTCh r rOYYT~[,paJirYrr Cyx 0 tnllK m.BC au. :3 3iil~ 3apJlHrn:i:r xV'l~umryM 6oJIrocyra .. M-. .•

4 Barsrr eorcoon x.yp9KrYVT .BM~aII np:JI" IIl'C·3H.

S {( CO BrnI:IO» ~Vy'p3:r r~cHHir {C'COHI'KHO x.aipx an» AYYP3r e e pl.HUIlCyr~H.

Exercise IJ

Exercise 9

Match the. animal years and elements e,"g~ 1997/8 ~ red (fue)

1 2003/4 2 2007/8

.3 2000/1 4 2005/6

3 200213

Dialogue for comprehension 1 m

e D88)lfJ P T~Br3<p 5F.M.ap 6atl:HJ;;].?

T ... t: ..

"~Kr!)p caaxan oaana, MOHrO'JI,JI; )KHJlmrn HX

e)l;IBlp ]"lJJE::IT3P ~~lB1:3Jr f5·a~aT. T~r~~~ Monronsrr x T3Hr~p'R1iH open rsnar 10M:!

Mapraarn JJM'~p 6aHx DOH?'

Tsnrsp 'MfyxaHpHa rSC3JI. )_lYfT,ui 601000 O]}OX, f3H Horeaaep T';!lHr.:alj apId'J18.X conos yy? Ma.raWV-i" X yff"r3H IS sen con ox lilllt:DK T~H~ €I B en llyn 8,.3:Xal[ 68XrtSr yy 7

HI aJ01(lfQlUIM: 6']B.e,n: .fYP B rul jta.e·xa.p f)YPA:!JIl" 10M.

~ eU1J;m;: I'a pT }1M,2Il P X 8.]UU1JIT'a T' ail 6 an-,rrar :S!SI'?

M,Mtlllb~ .. sxnsp Msnxee: 3yyxltII' apran TVJIIll9r3pt xanaanar 10M

~,eH~;m;: fax~;J]\~H MElJ1.Tali' 8911

BilHllOIHHHjM·.· ~ ~ ~.-

_ _ _ .D H xoe p ,~yyrll\1JI; XOIThl B as tua.xatMflMaa) a pa B x a J 1

YH3:3rl T.aBali MOPbTU:H. Hanan 1'~M·S'~ 6aixrY1L

Ta DI'8.P 'KHrrr::n\ B3?'

~eBf]:a: }. ([OJIU:

;rleBE.n;: )K1oJlH::

~eBHA': )KWJm:

I JI .. lOIHBifM:

J Hum:

:S,FT XYJIr~,HaTIa,H. M"HHHH sxasp 6apTajl~ To; X~P;3H xV'VX3a;T2ri B'3'?


EC¥Ylt!J3 DOJlOXOOP IfX Maiire OPOJIrYH S,IX :8,37

M aJlIJlpl 6 UH 6 CUIOB'tl ~ju=nITeep H.D,YY O,&1ill,3!. XapHII fiPl T$).];;n"vymmi M.aJI'IIU,],. M,oKroJI 'y JICh,W ·Epeux:HB:J.u3H"I'l EIJUdaHl\ ~M.e~am:rap marnaean, .r~·prd T9HL my r3C'~H r3}JI!)~?

.:3XH:3P Hm-Aa)l~ yc fYXI'YfI 'VXPHb" TOJITo,ir ciyy nap, yr M3~:xrvH xy.rmn TO~rOHr 6'¥v 1l!.u5~ I'3JK Xi)Jl'C~J.lI.,

I lUI }}{llHllJr,M!':

1\ I01TH:

l. J I }XHIllHl14~

·". "',rro': "'J!

- .' - . ",_ -' .. - '

lin thti_ lear on you " ~II learn:

• About shoppinq in shops and markets

• Verb forms for 'whan' and 'while

• Adrnonltorv verb form (don't f'orgetl)

• How to ,say j shou ldn't'

• Russian words in everyday use

MasaiiXaajJ.' ~"'_ .',' ~S3P9Ji! Please call again I

Btu and Delgermaa are out shoppin - and decide to try a H:W gr store.

A~JIT3PM ,8:

BaT: ~:mJ[r~pi'aa :

Tn,~ri .~ w ('

"JJUJ!U~ lll, BE:llli JJ;'JIrYVP .HB ax s r :

illammll A3Jn'iYp~,~,? lOy lB3? me mira A:~Ul"FyVp r!9;0;3r 60JI xopaa p;epu,AII lUlrr1

,Il. 'JIT9pMa a:


. ~

U:Al!J!!_ua. , : ell V1 ty

black (pe> e) [I,~ ,


= ..

aJICm1,nar,aaT,atH XyH CHMlI Jli3.JIr1fVp.

a xoevnaa 10., lOY aaax fh1Jl3a?

~H;n;:lnIJl, aB8.X lOMIW X" caarrr 6aiITfJ,fll.

'. ,el 3yKT3H'. EQ: ,xa.paalaX,~S~ aHXYY o:aM, YX]J1f[&H Max, T9Me, JJYYBaH~ 6a~aa, Tap ril)i ~ 6 SIlKFra ~ Aa (58.e 1 a,p a n aa.tlhl LJJdHn' I nm " ar X3p:3rT9ir 0 6afu:ra. Mans i1 )' OPJl Hl11 r3p3.Jl manlJ'::caB ..

LIn ynnaa, ,Y'YX lOM~,a OJPIHX33 M,apTca T.' caNHa. 3a H9rm'BJI «Barn 6at-fJtH» ,alPXH rsr TImJI naraan ;rn\aLPC, ;n;ep.sBn can pauraan yc ,Hl'B1JX. MUUlH;D; ail 6HH 1O.y?

I ·

I I t ERMA,A,:


I 1':

s 1Ij" 'TI,:

.... _ .~~ l.ft.


Sri" Oml. ,t,nrr;n;epKirn TaJTX gyycaaryu 6aHCaH. Xap I nsr '_.' .10 CaHXa:H r'a;ro:'fll '_ M.. aBnJI.

.srse, T3!'lf.. fa.:,uJIJl -; YH!lT.')H 6 .8 _ llrYV. ll'lr lOIno :D.I.I 91r MIDIra )]Ie DBen 3yy:H, rerpe r r3.)K Gan a. 3 a o~o 0 xc e'YJla,a aaec pyy Oll2.[K}1{ 6 JFJ VV JJ:Le~ SIll: - H T ,.rp·' r 60JJX 6amaa Go.n?'

3ypraaH"JIHT Hai. ::H .,YY , c. lE;rtmH' TerpBr. 38l 6 3llPJtlJ1 aa ! Ii aJIpT, .H!

BaH PTI:H! M Il-laixalap ~aXK~~ 'VR.Tl-JJ1'yy.J1~3pS'H ~

hall we go to the new night shop?

Night shop? What s that?

The nig} ' , hop is Q ,"r-Of7.1 Sf re (f. od shop) which works 24 hours,

So what Qt. the l'wo of us going' to buy] We do have a shoppieg list ..

O}-" risht! Let 111e tak a look: It says bla k tea rice, , om. be 1, potatoes earn ,'ts, cabbage, and sour

ere ant. It and (we) t, ee ' a 60~11/' tt li . hi bulb. TI1l! light in our lavatory has burned (JUt.,

You forg,o& to write down the drink: ~

Welt {1 bottle of I Ha',tJ bandi - vodka, l bottle of white wine and four bottle' of mine» ul water: Do w have any bread?

Yes yes" Yesterday s husnJI been ,fi,n,i hed. Bu: let's odd a kilo of l1iCI(! ban ana»,

OK, 'K', Bananas o re certainly expen ive One kilo (of th,' n) is 1 4fJ'O tuuri " .

SO "~OI\!I fer", the two of us go to' the cashi, I (checkout) (UlU get our bill. How mucn (many , ugriks) migtu that be?


Thank you. ",oodb ,e.

'joodbye. Please call again (lit. be served by u again),

, , g' tune 's bill

an am


Bat says BH ,.p'L~~ -t t me 'lake a. 100 • This fu u-p v Iunta ive fo In us d f .! ' b '" ions ,·8 COD: tructed with d, .rivat onal suffixes allt8X- (-OOAox~/~e;!l;:·:x .. l-99lJI.9'.X- .', plus voluntative suffixes giving ~~,U'1dI ("'OO;AO ..iH/",ea.u;9x"Le/-a..:JI,l.u., y) ad ed to the verb stern (in this case' 'ap fro :mp,u:):

ltD -lP.f9~Jt9ne!! L' t m,. jo it down, (fro DBNifiIX) H,' Dpoo;rto-rLi~ Let me p "p in, from opox)

'or short actions, a '1. with the voluntative tonm abov th· e r

three second-pars .. n im eratives:

~~ ("'OOJl;Q', ",eOA8X~ "~AgX) the stern impera .ive ~aaAa-'Iaa:rl ,'. ""00;0;0 :0011, ~Q9A9IlEJa~ "'U;ttSD3IQ) the polite ~ -. :tI

""aaAaxaapSJi (-oo;O:IO~QOPOiil "'"88!A&xeepaH, -a3~3p:ai:) h·

. uture im p ra tive ... up' :

V''''n'' 'va' ",'!JAR" • -"AJfI!il ""'.', '~- ill

X,apaaq:!1 Xapaa,n;axaaIl1,

Xapaapai:! Xa,~ .. ~ _:':' :,',.1'

The vel bs 5~BX and yjbpmyyJlB '. are cau - ative verbs bas.' respe ctively on t5JrQJIX 'to writ,' and y.lJpumx 'to serve': to have some ne write something (I.e, the bill), land tc ba-' e someone SI' s m_ n( . l, ~ he shopper ..


ri ·h· ." r . c·

candl ': . ~ _ tL contain- :r bread

~!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!-----------------------, '163

II erma _ says,

OAOO ';lo,iYJIU' CC PJY.'·· ,.' ( IS ,·"'-JllJtt

I) n w' t -h· two f U: ~ ,iting the cashier 1,_.~· (th. bill)

wrl't .. n out

I l n th,e c ' hier tho ,nk· her and sa '.

.. '.' P-~I rro,~g1'l 11t:lllJJIYfJlli7IiPa.

u..nJ!_&.I:' iIbA.lUI"_' _ ~~~ .. . " - . ,-: . "',' Q. II

, se have yourselves served by OUI people agai

.nsive verbs

I II pre, ti v:_ ' .. r'- al noun ma1£'YlHXCBK i' d erived from 11l.TIX ~'t ~ 1111 out 'burn up' by in sertion of the derivational suff ... 1iIJIX!~ cribing a sudden or unexpected action, seepage 87)::

It's rurned out

1JIST3ii .Q'BC(H)



Io . dstuff lamp

]i- ht bull to h ITn

re is a similar f rm based on the pe' feetive onvern; '8'ThIF Bp3XB~' DD.1~qH:x,aq fideD",

When Bat arrived i was (had) burned out,

. her paints

~ II word fiBflI1lX3:J u . d - Iy D elg ~ rrna a if' ~ . nt- rut U re ve r b a l'

11 lUll 6ltux plus th .. , reflexive (accu ative) ending ~93: You hav ~ I 1 g tt n your writing I. f the drinks ~aa yyx ,IOMU being also i I.h refles i e .., - C' •

" in icated by the final fion Del termaa 's question to the cashier I rather tentative (see age 11,·): ~ II I DOJIll Smal, ,dOH? . ( ow ruch) might that be?"

llsrr:isfl. 1

transla : .. into Mongolian:

Potato s :- re not .' xp n ive, n y s 'If T500 or half a kilo . . D,', we have ! ny br ~ .. "~ 'N,",. 1'L'·1· rd· y. br ·_,d Js ·lnill.~d~ I Whe re i '. th" heck ·U'_? Let s go and pay.

4 Hov much w auld that b _., T8." 743?

How many IdoUaIS, is that? TB,743 is about 11 dollars,


It8B caB(R TaIIlX B)

L· nlgluag~ poin s

Vollunt I iva for short actions,

Imp ~"rative for short acti'ons

liE'll BJI1IH;a.D· !

BlIus'II! BlE[Il!9S~X!l:.! B1N98p91! BIA93A9DSPS:A!

Jot lt down! (from OHlfBX)


Give til 'short-acti n voluntativ · d Impe -,ative forms f following:

1 L t'· find out! Find out! 2 . ,._1.1, go! Gol

3 L "f' pop in! P' j'-l 4 Let's akel Take!

:5 Let's givel Giver

r UHn:

I I :

Exercise 3

Reorganize your shopping list to ·ep: " ate focds uff fr irn purchases:

QHHP::';lSTRH:n WHH~ TUX, 3a.nry p, )l{f.PJK, n,,!!JIID!

)K:opnonrHilli UaB' f5a~ .aa, X,aHIJ XOHHHld Ma'" TOMe'S

:.lg,PYYJI, X'.P aHAaa- apxa, IlaFi

I1r IE!

I ~i\T:

Di·-Iogue 2 m

)f8J:n'Tlpssc tllpa1f ':,', . _,., -: -' "1

,Is it II bit chs'ap,er tnen the shop?


. "iI


Bat . It Delgermoa talk to Juli ~ and David' about going 1'1'1ar . et.

t i

r. T· ,1. ..

Y JlB,a:El62UlTap" nsr yes 60 . BOJI xvncnm XHHr FIX caim 60JIlK,,_', Onoo lOY Jl 6oJ1 my liSt{ 'Donox 6aHliUL.

Xa ': J[' __ l1H caaa _,' u'C,RHB' aax 11th JTh B9J? YJ1IlBfd5aaTapT «~9'BH Yf.JI» «)l;IJl' 'ff ::t3»).,

X:OPHH» r3;3~ OJIOH .,YBCHHir. 3,.-X 6KA:.XapI1J

(~AaJ[aD 39l1{» l a,XhIT X3MrmiB: cairn: flfu r3;JJ;3 10 • (naJIai ~~JK» sax xa mal 6aH;IJ;aI' H ~?

{<lIan , .. , .931lO~ ynCI1IH HX ~gJIryyp3~C yp~lrrn u

y, - Lfl~ P IrniiH 6a PYYH T (_ Ji Jl oaii:.n:ar.

JI~!L aa~ 3HJJ aax caan TI).l[{?

Y naa If 6aa TEll P T a1MIl;a;ap;Jl;81f1 ranaansmxas 9H I' • ax pyy Ol]llIX~ T3H)l,!3~C XYKCH-B-H oa.pla.ara! (1-, 8J( KX AYPTaFl. YT.IHp Hb xyaCHIdJl oap' ama HrOJIT call t. X<Hm.i .;),61' JI HH3 5ypnm Max,aH .. ~ CYYB 6YT _ . J -

·i,;li;.' .. ill,'. ~. .

}Kr~'J[if: ,aT-


JJ;eSH;tt: )l.3nr'll'Maa:


}KroJlU: 6aT~


Jl3XYYH~ }KHMC~ norco orm ~T Tap.JI.Htm

.z:HTIj'3M3:r9"C &TIh XY_C3H93 conrosc

A9~ aJtll;apTaH O!lOK TB,PJIBKH

6yr~'.·F~~XVYB 3Hll 6 ~

y as lib HfY[2Lp B3I? )l:9JlrYYP9$tc arpa& XilM)l;xau yy?

Ep Ern r,-,ilryH., . eeueep H~ aBoan 6'VP cab


B n Me p raaur . rJlf.... (~~aJlaH f< 3lK}) 33 - PYY B_M,a _ p 6a.iiua.

Is Hap «Aanal1 33Jl(>~ sax 'Pyy OT.IHHf'OO ({MOHrOJl HOM»- ~:3I.myy'pT POOjL snaapaa. HOABJJ:

Anranr . 'p~JIllliH «MOKroJI-,aurJDJ To.1Ih»- BSJr Hr


3m, 6oJ1HOO OOr-ufO.

"1llIiXE' P ~




iO "

Compared with. b efo re, food supplies in Ulan Bator hav ~ imprt , ved. Now one an buy anything' at all. Whi:"'h ls th, . est ,-10·, d market?

, . .

In Ulan Bator there are. many food markets the 'Four Mo,u'1tains~1 the 'Sea MothF-'. -, the 'Karakorum'. But th.ey say chat the S a Moth. 'r market is the best. Wiler, i: the 'Sea Mather market?

Th - '. ····'ea Mothe»' marl et is soutlr of the state dep« tment . tore In the w,esl side of the' stat circus . Why do they say lhiJ, market ill' eood?

The [oreigners who live in Ulan Bator VeT])' much like to viii this mark et and buy their foodstuffs ther . This is bee tu. e til, i choic l, as tt' . fi odstuffs. For exampte. from all so rts of' m eat an d milk products fr~tit~ vegetables, all kinds of swe'et~s and jams, you can chaos whi ~h you want .. Ther ' are all kinds of world famou food produ. 1/1 there ..

What are the prices like? is it a hit ch .apt!r th'01!1 the eth" 0" 11] .?

ILl - '-r'!Il

A"ctuflfly not bad. If y . u buy in bulk there are' g,(Jlod,

redu cti 011S •

We would like to o u the 'Sea Mother' market tomorrow I iorning,

While you're ('11 ,)lour w,ay to the Sea Mother~ mar" et please drop in, tlf the i Mongo I B 0 o k s h.C?P~ Pleas e buv me' a co:PY o.f Altanger, -tl.~ M,ongol-Ert -lish dictionarv.

. 'enainly.

6eeXfJ9p fi'l[73:9~~ :rB.iltryI:


wna0rln ~ap~ e:p m

bulk, whclesale product

not' ,ad

to caIJ world-Iamous actually

caITd cOm'O-DT COlin'll: rom (B)

good as to selection to choose dietiona 0' supply

to reduce pnc

~u :Q;HPE 'q'IlIJaJP




JKMI l1W9r )kAlIll ))~uD-]JI'



for example market


Language points

Delgerrnaa says: YlIS-8W'WlT,lpr ,H9r ye3 OOJIB'DJI xyBm4HI: .ZaHr-..' ,_ ]Df, caIrB fiDJEJlf9!J1I As DO;oJlOJl (!iif YOLl reckon', conditional converb of tio;o:ox) can mean 'compared wi h' and Dr yB9 fjo~OJI mean 'compared with one (i.e, earlier) time', the sentence reads:

"Compared with before, food supplies in Ulan Bator have greatl improved (become very good),' Delgermaa continues: OI~OD lOy fio[[ my' IJJll 6onoxDop 6atna~ Here my' J1 60D my is 'the obje c of the verbal eonstruction and means "anything at an; while as tlOBOXgOP DaDa. (the verbal noun bOll,OX 'to become 'plus th instrumentat case ending) indicates bow things have turned out: 'Now one can buy anything at all.'

Attributive nouns an fle,eting n

When nouns describing subs .ances 01' materials are used a; tributiv lyfleeting n will app at' (see page 56)~ Further examples:


cyp: fi,yrn~.:r~,xyya:

- - .

meat dish (MU) milk products (cyy)

, ' , ' ,d" u "d f~-' - itu ", (' ,,-, ',- )

woo _ en goo .S, urm re ,uo;o:

horsefhead) fiddle (MOP")


However, an attributive Heeling n is sometimes coined for words which don't have it: YYP!lB yrac 'cell phone' (m). and even for

I u sian words: fiaTO - 0: mp,aam 'concrete garage (6eToB)~

cTMacem ~OBX 'pla 'ti- window' (mIICTMBCC) , tc,

~ .' ing the op;partunity to d'D some, -hing -nraa

I hls is a, form of the verb which suggests thata person, should take III ~ ntage of one action to do another, The subjects of 'the; two luuses h,.2IV6 to be the same .. This so-caned 'opportune converb is II rrrned wi· h the SWllX -araa (-aroo, "'Hr88~ -'iU99):

Ta 3B.J:: :pn 01ll!DrOO AmJIrfYPT OpOO.l: JlBupd!

While you're on YOllI way to the market call in at the shop,

in 'flaB PYl' JIH&DrU Cy:x dB" ,O~'QOP 6AbEl.

. s I'm going to tile bank I'd like to call 0111 the Suld1.s,.

-Iigure numb rs ~lr,e spoken 3_1; three groups of double figures

XX XX d I, fl' b ~ ·X X"X"·'~

. -'~'-.-._:~; ano ive- 19ure num ers as A.A='·'::_-,,::_' ,~:

MOH-Kop TBCB KDMDS,sd; JT8C .' 314299 (l'JIliJJ!B, Dr J1JEJlJBB xcep e]J3H eel, MomoJl TaxCIl K,OMQaari' yrac SS31.5S (TaBRH TO I1P1B TaBlDI TU)~

-f!JK' "~:a11T" " -,' Y]'r" ~ _

" .': - ~:~ . . ~ . . -

_._ - .-' - '. ._

.. dditional vocabula'r-y

MonBo~i.fln has acquired from Russian many everyday words as well as technical and political vocabulary Several have alreac ,y appe a,red, in earli r lessons (IalCC" o 01[Q' 't ,Ulroi5yc) TO]lT),. 0 tten they describe clothing, furni UTe~ "food, etc, introduced into

Moneof duri tl · d' f R' · ~ CiI

ongod:l _ u.rmg '-ll.eperlO _ (Ji_- ~:"USSUIlI1 m~u,uence:


suit, dress shirt boots trousers pocket

URnJItaK TYcPJm: nnarse 'q,eMO~aH 1'lD3M:ep

coat shoes

dress. frock suitcase

size KYP'T.KB jacket


copo~m:K' (l~op01LlKa,) 60THHK ( ~ O't'WJ3lCH) GIUOK (6plolfD'1) KapMal1

Most words beginning 'with the letters x, rr, p and cP have from R ussian, but they have acquired Mon go 1 pronuncia til T1 in som cases their spelling has changed, Note that nap.: can

park' e.g, soomp ,~ but that I.BTOrrapa means: 'vehicle fleet I i


UllHIK (nnarxa) hotplate cooter nnill OaJIJIOH gas cyhnd

K:OcrplOlIh ([iULIG'I,'];:n01l'M) saucepan BaJn3" (Ba.mnt) bathtub

Me 6 e.nb furn it ure I{pe CJKO armch 8.1 r

np.HCT,21BK (npHCTaDKa) video recorder rapaanr (r,apaJK.)gar,age

nO~eJ;O;(H) entrance L1~U~ P036TK (po3~TXa) socket

Iobby (flats)

Like the present-future verbal noun t1~!j (Dialogue 1) t reflexive (accusati ve case) is used wi th 'the pe rfec live ve rbal n 0 U ~~8C wm ,xycmnaa CO!ElrO'Z 50DBO. This means that from am 0 the foregoing list of items (the last 'having the ablative suff .J '0 could chose whichever (~) one wished (xvcc9ma). Note am 'which of them?'; in, ~ ca.iiu: aJIL Db B3'1 'Which of th rn l

the '] est? ~- ~- d "iEii'"ii"Ii'llio.~ - - ----- ~;;. , 'kl4. b ~ f' Ii"'b ~

,,,I,-,,~j. ;j,n .. ~ I. A.&M.l-~: GallO' BL! ' ... , tS 'U.le'f!S!!. CL !L em.

The Mongolians have made a joke of the word 'OBJidD[: OJ] th that it consists of two Russian words :om horse' and 10[ and can, therefore be translated into Mongolian as MC'Pr:. c.apn

B,ap'eJIb ( 6i.!lP eE:M~.) n,ccq¢fib ('tIetLt ~Il]je ) wwnYtf.b


ja III

biscuits shampoo

c Rn~,"'J. s alad

IO;J'H'~eJPB canned food

rrpoxa T hire

E ,. 4" __ ,lten:I,se - ~

Answer the questions in, Mongolian:

l Ynaafl6aaT,IPbm xa1IUH1b1 ca..m' KVBcKl2Ii:1, aax am ITh ,137 2 «)lanai! 3~lK)ol xaaaa 6aH:il;sr H~?

,3 g,~.r3a~ !~),Hi3 sax 'caint f3X'?

4 Yns Hh ~Jlryvp99c apaH .x,H~XaH yy? 5 «AMa.H. ~JlJlK5~ sax PYY .9a>K ssax 'B:a ?



• 1~1I e into Mongolian:

'1Iwi you're in '[he shop buy some banana's ..

III foreigners I iving in In an Bator 'like to go' to that shop and IIlI III +r drinks ther '.

~ II can choose what (which) you want from all sorts of furni'In j! there.

'11 the way to Mongolia I would like ·0 spend two nights in ~ I tSCOW~

hat is 'your phone number? My phone number is 4743!39.

~, Iff:


If 11sl ue the following ,t.· ·t into English:

J. r~Jll1!VPmTn-r J-P ~3J;SXapT xyHC1:1HH 6apa8l 6,~1r. SIT eHee~ep I 10 ranx, cy¥, 'Malt::, ,9JIC3lH quJ[~P ancan ymp T9B;Il3:3C, [(lM I 1~lryA:~ X':_pIKFl 2-p nanxapr rap-q ~' ~] xyJJ~aCHld , I n I rr OqHJK lf~T yn,aau llJlMU vansa. EM: KaCCBu.:tA Mames erean , l t ',lJT,I'U1UJ;C nrlbfll;i,al HBlIil. V1[x Jli)JlI1?YP,,~rHn 3 -1' ;I1a.Bjt,apT 3p9rr~l'at ~I ,1'1'18 xyrmH $[U3 oypm1H xy,mn;a"c 6,MftL BM rypa.a;rnyraap ~amxapT

IIPCtlHryir. l ... p ~~[B:x,a,pT 5YYJIaa. H,aMa:i'r T3Img:3!lC :rap~J Hllax:ajt I Illillll nar fiOJlIK 15~Ib . I'artaa TaHrl)p caaxan oaitrI~Hl. ,:8 lH r3pT~~


JI),lrflJ~" WHH3 lla~,aa ElMOB)K~ 3,XH~PT:3:Hr3!3 xa}dT .K.RHO V33X~ZJp

ruru 'rearp nyy sanaa.

I J mprehension exercise: See how far you, can follow this- cartoon Illry which, illustrates the colloquial use ,0 several verbs in, -1IHX-~ I h imperative and the past eerfect,

'y to cartoon on page 170

f ,~' 1YH MaD yy?

n ] .re aJ] y a man?

'tla xyg :1 U AT' m1J.33JK, ,JlBlI~ Klp1'lDd:Zal. T~ ua~ ,'J'. ':

. .. . I) q., "

~ax yy ~ ~ -1Jl1f8~

Could 'yOll try like a man and g.o and 'buy our 'bread ration?' Yes, 1 could!

I ,«XY¥XSJ;D; 'Daca~ Xfp:r3,ll[, arJJ;81' rElJ[T T9par ,xspBa3 .'!, .»

If there were ,I 'tram taking one back to childhood .. ,,'l (words of a popular song)

TOnroU'lIIXOO;1l XYB ~ai_PJl ,-: J'3J " "lIB!

I ~ng - own an, 10 's head au bumped ill' 0 .. romeone you urblel

1·' M H Ifb XiJJl ~:aBP' rBj) 111"'8'D11J1:99 iI

~ 1 aSB, you trod on l1=lY tootl

itt pig giv . MJ'YP ('. - )ha . taken 11 th looks . f .

It d clear 0' 'f!

uic 'y!

thi ef '8.'_ t ke (it) quicl ly

119! 'R XfB .[our ftlK q~,C&Brfii! ITllly! I wasn't . ble to ",0 like a. man!

really am I is/ar trouble


'.' bbl

r· .. c.' (


. o r OTm a h ad ' .. tr ad

'0 look like

I' l


I 1.' - u1fnax

K.ap"r(n) RIDK11T XV J1TaWf XiI1I»3 .

ration ca d ass donkey thief

to try

XYPI"3JR nrex L he lp) l te, d eli v ..

J",Uli pax to b ump in to

(TOJ;n'OM_1f4:~ to Io m a head quick ly)

(Ji I _mJ~' 41 t . ead uddenly)

(I1ap'lt_ _II. . ~ to suddenly lo ,k like

I re was food rationin for a brief pe iod in the early lY90s.

p "._ valIapl M.Y1TaB' . , .,BBC

. causl t~e qUlllity ;~ 1-5~, g'oad

'avid and Julie go shopping in the 111:arJ t.

I 1-0' """fA •

. " ~[.U";J1.~

I .. ~ Xy ]; lar~l:


I P Xy;::t8Jl;n;ar'Sl::


j - p '\ y;:r.aJl arn:

3n ·e. y.3J1' V33M RMap YH3Tcri B:a?

Yea.n 'V_l. M HaHMTaw HallMalT 3yyn rerper, 6aIJx IIl11B ,[199 .

:'. p aU: XSIMJl)ULH ekfHH,1 yy.

Salmi:! xapan X:KTap;&WX.

XaTa;n;LIBX r9)l\~.r ~HHJi:! [O'f ra C9B -yr B:3?

XKTa I lEX Gono toop al aD qaHa' MYYTaH 6'a11;Di,ar r3Jl~'[" '(OM. TmDf yqaa. I ,apaif '.Kl\Ql ~ amra a l-OM.

sa ' DOn: V1 9T~H Hb nssp 6· 3 331,

R3T' ~ BrSq . a eaMU Y33J1{ aBaapaH. ):lOJIOO '.'KMlKH or-ron l':3:E .' OlfrOJThIH eaaxaa yr 6,I-KrIJ,ar Se aa, 6,a.xpJIlln,a.a. Xapaa Tl'mM myy. 'I'a M, PTYY3a.B!

"a H2liiMaH -'fYE]: T. :per ereap~ ~ .

aspnanaa, E HlJPTiH.

JiH TYl] (rvprsa Y1DP-m:JIr33Ud D:3ir)-:9iC 511 a:BMaap 6dH~1.. Hsr d{aMe,1[» HHlKYYP lUy;IL3H3 eree'~I . .JlMap yH3t<r ··ru ~9? . _call gyyH T. rp . IDVJ:l3H-- oplm TOlrp.], e en 3YYH XOph. H:9 r J121a3. ««Pam a»)' ei 'ildX. «t1)a:n,Ta~> Il;OJIOOH 3YYIf Torper.


. 3, MaR ~l13 TaBaR M.IDIraa rerp

'. apHYJlT M6Br6@ ~ IL pa1l.y . BaH MHH:ra I'

3YYH HJ1Jm .. ' p, _ ~

3 a, fhtH pJlWIa a ~

How much ar .. tlz Sf!' grapes? Grapes . re eight (hundrec tugriks), Are there allY cheaper (r mes)?

es; L ut they'r. . hin Sf. Wh'at do you mean Chinese? ft m ans that because they're Chinese the qualit les .eood Cmore bad') .. That's why they're _ J,le(l~ In- that c sse (if that' how it is') the exp l 'l on es tire certa in (y bette r: Let me h a L)'e (~gi v me a kllo. Take a good lao - before y .IU buy", There is a m Mongolian SCI' ing: 'M east r, seven times b 010

ou (,ulJj J

'·,h w,ell, than',", You can say that again!' Mind you dan. If forget!

So that's ("pIJ,ease, tv . me ) BOO tus -iks .. Thank you.. G:o· dbye.

J wan·! to buy som cigarettes at the 'fo. ~t' f. rvic point' (kiosk). A (packet af). ame! cigarett ~ and a (box 01') matches. How much is that?

<'0 . tugriks: T.h' matches re- . tugriks. Attogetn. _

. ',,21._"'.

Let n" e h: ve" a can o;f Fanta.

2: Fanta is 70' tugriks.

Here take thls 5,00'0 tugrik note.

2: Here; your change, 1380., ,A.h: ,t hank: you ..


;n:eBHtt: )K1O,mf~

1=}J XYJl_: J1 -rq:




2 - P XY].I;a.rr;u;:arq: )KroIOC

2=p X,y~':,:~arq~


S LL R 1:

JUL -- :

SE· H 1:




D'A,VIDm JU" ra:

SEl.LE (;t, 1:

JULl :

S~ELI Fi. 2:

·,1 Yr

- bular,Y

hanknote can. 'Lin

t, u

quick, 'a' 't grlilpe(s) chall'e.

(.. measure (sal ,. "p' tn


tiDal emphatic rnatchn s)

ci arettefs)

~r 1IfI!Ba:p


II P'!-.J

I lyJIT MmlrU

guagl8 pnintt

ani- ory I orm af t_~,e 'verb ~YY3aH

Ii . says to D~ vid, To Mapl),YSaB 'Mind you d n't for et! The III fl'l -"3d ("'Y1'3!'i) is added to the stem (in this case _ aPTU '110 forget'). Other possible translations include "Make

- ;liMak d 't· '!I' I" It

you _ ,e not " . ~ 'I -',' . ..e Siure you ru In ,. .. ... ore slIlr _ no .ro

• !Ii ii

. ~:- ,u, MapTp'J3ait~ Don' ,t forget yO'UT . hingsl

rbal noun plus dative/locative: ·when·

hen may be transla ed by id ing rh . ativr /lo atl .. . ase ending (J ppropriate vowel plu .~) t . y. rb ilnouns: 6a__itx;"'BJl when being', J lit: 'tense is gov .. me d by that of 'th tinal 'Verb. Where the two laus s h v' di'f' r. mt '. ubj cts, a 'W _ have seen, one of them is i ~D the a ccusatlve _ ase . nding:

HllM· '6sra 6~ ,MaB '. :,BAse 6 dcaH "

Wilen I was little, my family lived (were) in the country,

BaTLIr -:.PT3S O'IiI11tO~ ~!uIr9PMaa 6dxry:i 6 . ICBH .. When Iat wen home. Delgerma, wan t th re .


If ,- e subject of both clauses is, the .,. me, a reflexiv ..

a tded . 0 the ver ·31 n un after the c atr :_/.} '" ... ti ~ .....

v.. e S,ll.l..ll1A ~

BaT rnpn3 .·;8pBXJlt-.a xypJXaR De '1"' ',; When Bat w. 11 'h me he walked quickly;

when/while a stud nt,

• I~

In· becomina a stu en t

Vow. lis in Russian words

In 'R " i n word tr' is unmarked an irr gular. The

fOJ 'garage ~ (:rapax), I' tresse . the second yllable, is.

rapaam in Mongolian, The sp lling of words of Russian uri Mongolian often does .110'1 conform to the Mongolian rule hut an: back vowels do not mix in th same word. For I. am pi wo d K)'pC meaning 'c urse' see t I b a back-vowel 'W takes the dural uf -'. ""m Ll ed with out-vowel word: ...... " ....... xy:pe.yyAab: "of th cou .ses', etc. ompare this with the. W.· r

·.Ku'rd(ish)~ 'which bas the regular plural QP~(YII). 14Ysei 'museum form'. ':11· plur ' .MJ3B~.

·.n· ther example f mix d vov els is rl. und m raTU~Yl?l rimean _artars'~ ."11 Mongol words th 1. t r,· : p only In t.h. ccusative and genitive back-vowel .uffixes, Khanate of Crim a. founded in- 1441.' as one of the successor st

o . the Mongols' ,] en Horde be am' a vassal of the 0 t

Turk in 1- 75 and th .. rime an artars "lit· grac ually Turku 111 ,,- rim . a was anm ·d .. R ssia by Cath lin the Great ill I

_ some Mongolians insider that the w' .rd·· P:MM and KP (Kremlin) were both originally Mongol, d -"V'I d from 'k meaning wall o. caad 1 j monern Mongol XSp9M - the wan. hina is called lijD"8.8B D'9M.. he white lirnesto e of the orig ill a! MOB cow Kremlin were buil in 1.' 67 an ,,' by the Mo~.go~s ill 1382., The . ~rimean Tar ars trle - twice L . capt Moscow ill 1571 when they d _.S·ITOY· d everything . '. " ~ L th and in 1··~ _I} when their at' ack f ilec ~


'OJIOH .. &paSRh1 3~ 3LU.1'BLII.&iI.

. >J,()lBPH811 YfJ'l)j. 3/3'p3r ... ~aciil' {X)1Y'mlas;.: 34 JlYf3i3P :3'M11::iB

Ip, I' Url1l"1Y sax xoepJlYfaap ea ), «3tp;u,~ if)iyp9In) (TeMap

t II -~ np; 10-19 n;arYYJl;DJI; 3aMhlH KOJ1Jlc,xmiH 6liPYYu YP;Q Tan~

1111 l I 8- 9-11A aMapua lO-l:laac GaA ·.~ar) «HaXKa» ('" ~Haap]·

II 1 ar~H X}~~aaphT' O~HO. llyr· ap 9MHHH CaB) «Hapan TyyJI .

. QHXOp~"apa.aJlE[ ,.l{yyqIl8SP 3 -.II;Yra_ap caa)

I ~ I i .:< }Cap .XOpKH.», rrex:ulllDiDiB. ~~ e il-H.1l.f.~ 24 qa r ~a.p aJKlUIJIjlllUl.

VP" • » 3,3p:!lr ~HlDrTait aax

I I I' I t C _pnrn 7 -iI)J. 10-17 .. DlI

~nJ ' 'KIDDIiUl~, a, 9, 10, Il-mrii IhIirrmiEt v- " '.rIT' T;' OOJllrw

~')1, aMapql 12-Hooc}~1111:H raspyyJ, )ro:"~'p~ ap caps _- :8~ :.-RJl,

I II ill I xy18.aa:pl~I1P' uutJlnaJE' < xan ~ . aHa p'~I.~ 6yca.;n allPVV'~~'~ PJluiH

D!1J~R'ili XY.Baa·p:HBp BlItHJJfI8.UB.

y il1I.IlB~ p, 6aibyy.rmarn,IH p;~lpr3'll~x. ryan3 ~ rl3pyy~ TYIIIEIrn3C3.R raapsraxaa B.lKHJLllax n;axmiH XfBaapHJir M:8p~0Ile.

pOOlUDdB yamt DAnlM·.

.,11 n y,_. TYr33,'c 6~·. .~ ~I, .. ap C~p'b1H 7 'i lO~B,D; 10-141

, U;aryy)1.~ ,B1GIJIJI8.JK, 8 ~ 91- ~

II 1. ByCa)]\ e;a;pyy~~ 8')]J)rUbI I I xyuaH ap . ... _, _ ' _ rf I,

II 10 60no, ·pOtl cy -~-,

I f'IJlrn~HKi"" ra3p~ YCllbl

~ j II I M JiJI:rfl" X.OJ1EiO r)l,co H cau an ~

\ ". nt __ T 'Yc cyennlR UIIRI"}ULITT.hIH , I um .. ' 5273,_, 4;'10208 rorf.a pldH

u 24 nan lap xyJ13jJH aU3Ha.

AYJla '"- hoI wyraM cyoJl J _ ~ HMit rsap.h1lI

gHcnc"rqep, xapHf.~araTlliK ~p

:2 4 nar aap It»rnOITImK, J]J1Hita II xmr,a1d)I{THH xOJlif)or.o;GOB CaHHlI,~. xyC3JITHJir 343047, 3 '1291:8: P\}TaaphJH YT,c.aap XyJl33B aBREIl,

. ~ T.93B3pl

u 'p 33IDKT:Ji rHCHlD1 A3nIYV1'VYJl ABTo6yc, TPOMCI:J6yc x,oe.lP.D:Yra':D ~l. PlIJTaap C~p'd:fi 8~Wl "atlJ' " 10,lcaphlH 7-f-UL 7~22~.30 8" 9-"""""_ ,..,....

it -un IObl1 uaryy)J;a,n:a)1(-JlJUlHi .. ,a,AP¥1l8,l\ 8~22.30 ~ap;

II, I' ~~~lJ~i XVHcIDIii ~J'II1fYpyy;n;r 8, ~InH3. XOepJ1YI"Hap capbIEE

till; aM.a.p'q~ 10 11"H)JIl 9--.,;11 nar lO-ElR3c tl';D;tlHHH X''lUlrapnap

,P11~J] ascannaaa. 24 narWbJ: aJKIflUnm.a. TaKCH xoep';rJ,yraap capsra

JI~3T~B- xyHcHHli p;~~JrJrrYiP~ 7-1I,l); 7-23. 8; 9-fOt·-J.3 nar XVPT3Jl

paxryH. J\X V~M ~ p:mm 0 . ·ttaIilJl aJlm.n " 24 uara'~ P ;o;Y)7l3fara

I '}lIryyp~ :8; 9-1~ &\tH1IJ,JlJIH, 10-: Jl. XYJI' ~m all] ¥~fl'~

II t 17 uarr 8J{(]iJ1I1 ii.Em 1 -·H:a:J C

JlpmiH xypaapHap a..»LKILJ'UUUl.


,,~_I ,d,tlanal VOC:I~'bul,' ry

q Sf' JI rilK 6aHHa. Axaaca acyycaBI'YH ,~~3 raa, By.5rH:

rax B· axaacaa acyyraapai r3B.. (Yprs, 'JI fJIIH)

~nl' .... jp,lI,l'l



C osed: COVeT· d restaurant

to distri ut to depend ()II tesponsi hi Ii l


T¥11J9X ~JIU:

': :'. PIlJID.J18l".a

h t on pane 175 show -I .~ ervices 13 vailable in _ 1 an Bate I ., -year holiday:

11 wh '. h day! will th ~ f o mark t'~ cl ' .. d?

1 which days will th - f '0, shops b e closed?

. hen will the . rolleybuses run Ion .' til p. bruary?

.1111 . ter distrf ts have a water suppl lover the holiday?

·11 flat dw II 11 be able to register 18. complaint about th 1 ., ting - n· hot w, t supply'?


open open-an



~ Iii .1

punt n view


nctwo ,'k, 'S yste rn

. - 1i'll!1Il!IIi'lll'fif,'ll ~'&iII.

r . quest line, route ,hilt; turn

DQTIM 99J1l1[

CJBBr C¥"" ,9

Cap UIHHIIHH fiaxp: 01" eratin hou s of markets pharmacies

~ -. j

and services OVCt the n ew-year 1._ · lid, Iyr IJ;~ ,.' cap. e

ABCD£JT'Iep (from the English -Id I. , ate],' r ) r- . an 'con ell r E tercise 9 for comprehension practice.

cise 70

Other points

En' tish:

The _ 'p e: sion xa.p c nd1M mn 'but certainly' man 'Y u 8ay that again!' .. r 'You'v said it!' Note also the terms ~lpi!MJ Mome !;. hang ,0' WI ron: y and 3a,.u;rd M9Br8 small chI n

'. H~ X Om:IHHIOO c roy alq amar nanar thI.TI~9.'?' ,[~Ioo .

. ym-T . JI. ,.1 ocoo-' roy xIfflA3 ~V1JT:33? M~ _ . _Ivit

3a T!3rn~Jl, ,_M, na: bTOly ,aapi .~ _ ,C:311

~ ,1 ar-q:: AaBhlH XyyqK8 n aJI]:J TOlrO(lP . ·HKC3 ,

a,~? u~!

E- iii -

xercIs> 7

Translai e into Mongolian:

1 Mind vou don t I 'rink ny vo k ! Mind you don't fall

2 Wh '[) I was smal u ed t .' liv in London.

3 When I went into th hotel my wife wasn't there. 4 Mon ora is a country worth visiting,

5 In winter the mountains are a . a"," cne s h uJ n . g. to.

rcise 7'

vices from

Ian Bator:

7 .. hows

On which days can you, catch the No, I train fOT Moscow? Wh nos the M" SC[}W',_ . eijing train, leave Ian Bator?

Wha I th r train s rvi ", ar the e from Uls B'· to '0 Mosc W and B ijing?

When do _' til, train rrom B: gam ur ;. av, £:01" Ula - Bator?

In which direct jon i' NOF 212 train an overnight service?

Exerr:;·e 8

Tr ans t - the '[ext mto _' neJlis h:


Xalmaoe"p noroon xapaanaaraa 6aHlK3 M. yYlllfl1 HaB

OXHH,fI; HOrOOI-I xapaanaa "_ q 6aHCBltryH. BY1IH oxaa: -HorOOB xapannaaraa 112Aan EI3 erees r-gx~~1 Xaanaa,

-9 I)K~3C acy}ftlHXaa~ 91~ ran, Mapraam Db, XHQ33J1Hfur

~,. E

aaacaprraraap 'rap xoep naxaa yYJI :aaJ\ 'yn [:

- ::r "tJ:jl OC)1l1 ra 6aliH? r~] a cvva ~ X··. a', l:I aa

J J J ~ ~,

U . ror eornprehenaion 8

• JT: 3a xoeynaa wy lOy IllBRX OHn:9~''?

I ~ ~ Jrr3lpMa': lJaM:;n; aBaxo~l JXaJ"caanT Gaitra.a.

I ,IT: 11 xapaan _ sa, ~air, ' sp, rypH.lI }J{aaxaH raxaa




AZt.rrr~ pM~U:r:


Bar ~T~

Kae c 1..11m:


Xy):(,a.u:~arq:' ~3m-gpMaa:





,u, ~!II'Jj PM aa:

Xma,n:;q;arq ;'


Max, TaMe 1 yxaaB J1)l"fn8Hj ynaaB .nOOJ"lD~ aapyy tSatHH,i1.. Aa aae XYPYYH 38R X~fP3f'T3,6f roM MaHaB rapl qn.i#J;;3Brria 3aM C,msrX,3[B JlYyCllH

M iD8''!]; T"irr rr T Q"X o~ U'ij~' l'nu? a,' 1Cl.LII.~ ikL • .u', ",1' .... 11: .!V.i.

EaixTyI(, &mrJ]\fJPI-lHJf Ta.JlX lWYCCJ.lH.. Bae xara ·


CQ.H:xa_l:T yean y:3~,M B:!liM}.K aB"hJ[.

Tarbc:. 'f3.rbe. Yca,H 'Y3~M III: YR~T3H: 6atlnm rnvv

"V"'T.lfJ] 10' , "HfL. n~r' 'JIJi('iULJ"'TI"'LQ 'II1'n ' 1"1' 0' 0 'I' il:i,y\l"'ll' 'fDrp' n...,., T"I~",lJ"

a....t':J_" n I!J R...:;1 U'U';Lll...L q ~V.l,.L' ':..: :IJ ~ r .J"r~ y , I ' 'W'.L ... .!iI!!oiIin._ J

XSt~~t8 Tar-per GOJI:H{ OaHlraa 6o.n'? Taaa t. M:lJtra, rypnan 3Y'YS H BJJt( rerper i 3"i, D ~UI:.m~JI, a. B all]JTa.i ~ BaH.pTaiI. M,eaAxaapl rD;aXPI.a)l y:HJTlJJfyy.r13:gP3M. «Hapaarjvn» 6.apaarihl sax xon OHm. :lax pyy H131lJI. T:;) rse . BEl IIl1[H9 ,MaJITa.i ,IBMatap 6ailli.a. ,MaJITait J1Map YH~T9M DlJ'? XOPHR l-4.I nran 'fEJrpS'rB,ENBC flP B&1, Ta yn:~!JJ ,)ltaak2lH rraTaxrya 10yl]

JKa.axall TaTax 60JIHn mvv. Ta 6~riHa? Apsaa 3ypr.aa.H MJIHra.ap aJj"hH~ Apaif ollra, 6alffia. ApBaTt H,iL':liM:a,H NnIB.raap aa, A'PaQ 'YH~TJjH 6~EII,a,. Ap:oaH J~OJIOOH MmITa.ap as ~la :3 a ,WB,~ an, Jirl. Ir&lp'T~~ x ap ana 11. JIAap~ 6aP1.Ha. Ta i~(~Mai . ~ aax pyy Olt~OO «MoHroJ1 TaSl'B:3"p»' KOMllIJfH

0pooill: HP~3'p3i. BJUt~II;o; 8,B epX21.BTaM aHMar

aaax aBTo6YCBM o;arHitH XYBal~;n~ X~p3IT~~!ui 611T1

Ta MapTyy~aHI

I 'Jp]1Jf Do ur

a a1t ba ttery

(YJf,aB"I~~) nyyeaB: radish

rap YE!~9JJj ( r) torch

For the at tention of rallwa y pas engers (see p., 179):

Apart from the b low-mentioned trains. no changes have bee made to the timetable (for other trains) ii

B.'~Iaa=C1J~UJ !l1l9.P XfYp.n;C8t"1

goo ds- passenger abnve-menti oned

sep '!l:IJ1,lllJ'F M~c~a.6


m ffip· Iii:' ~ ']i, ~ 10, ,0· ~IIJl#O [I b,.I

'~3ZBJI = YJIaanGaa Tap' - 11 ( I( l"l B rHim· lfT!ITn3~ H" 3 rarrr T3p3r 6. ,L\YTRilP

I II U 12-rrooc 9XJI~H

~ n'

I ~ 1I10aa,TapT . Vp3B

1111 Hll!Hx 13 ~ 16I:ta rr HPJIt, o Ita-IT X'B,r],31. M OCXBa -, II ~ I uDaaTap ~ '. ~Bxamr'F1im 4

j IU. JP rarrr 'T 1',P:sJr 6 JIYrail'p,

I II ~J II :8 - I5J,aa C ~xn,!)::

~ ~ u [6a_1i Tap-r HSIM, raplU'BiiR ~I uarr H'PIX{; 8. 08 uarr mU-IIl. Jt:aaH6 aarap .... E~~lKHHlL 'PIM H pOB~ J[B,21X 241'23 .nyralp

I I'~~ TSP3f f5 zyraa;p Ca.PhrH 12- • I ~ c 'XJJ'!JH Y rUtlLH6aa rapaac II \11' B ra pJ.IfT 8. -0 S. llan HBJK, I. 'J )I{FllJ)l Baacaa ra,pH'TIIinI j 3 narr 01JOrJA .6~~)IUIHI'~~C

, yean p capsm 2. Q.~'HOOC ;:JiXJlSt'H t I r Map rapRrBfm 7' i 40 narr lit .-1(" 'y rr a~u::[6 tUllTap:T Jlxarsa

I I II rtIiH 1.3.161 U:,a_rrr ~Em.

" Mocxaa - YJ),r},aHEIaaTap,h1H

h ,~}Taa:pl faJTT T]ip~ r 61 ;Jzyraap It Elm 9 -ne Be 9XH;GH

J~ ~U1H'6a a'rapr Ilaaaa J MJITMa:p I I ~l flTi-ri H 7 ~ 3 81 uarr TfP »t~ vJlaa}1l'i5aaT3];MlaC Ilanaa, 6aM6a I 1 . lrrlfRH 11.,20 ..FJ;,aL" H.EI.Ila.

1 YJI~,U1El,i5,a,aTiap ~ ,IJ:apXaHI.I

(1 up OHJt HB ax .212 ;rmyra.3.\p r anr l'IP:Jf 6- Aj:raa.p eapLm 6"'Baac I'I,W:=;U 9;1l,e'lJ 6yp Ilapxanaac 2,.20 narr g 9}X, Y naaa6,aaTap1' ~ . 30 QarT 11:m:~':8,~" 211 ;r(yr]3P 'lurr T~'P~r Y nm.a.H,6,a,aTap,ai,aC ] 5.50 ~aI'T 51]3:1)[; Aapx:~ 20.25 uarr ()"lHO.

5. YJIaaB6a~."fap '-;aMbllr~ VYATtfit"U xooponn DB,ax 276 .QYlU4aap rarrr T~par

y"Jl[l;allo.aa Ta paae 1.2.,3 3 narr

.m3JK; 3 ,B,l\[[jm,- Y'Y1I\~~ 6.03 JJ;8IT O'-l.'DOJl~ 3aJdJill-E= YY)J;9~C 18,.45 IJ;arT KlJlK" Yn:,aanoaaTapT 10.01 narr HPHll,.

6, Y,JIaruIU'aaTap - Baraayypstn Ql:I:r1[s'n~ IUUIt>;: 27,81277 ;D:;yr,a.ap

ranr T:3p ,;) I' Y Jla;aH6'm,'IT~paac

AOJ[OO XOHO~ ~ap:;

Jlxarsa, nYP3B, B.M6a.. fuM rapprrHifr.R 16.30 ~fLTT XBX{, EarHIYYPT 20.54 UI-IT OqOOrn~ Barar1Y3tpa-Ac 3.02 narr 'lB,)K y J[~taKt5a,3!'Ta.p'T' 7.30 Q;arT HpH~. Y naaffi),811 T,I1\,[J' qOBpfuffi qmJT:aJ]~ JfBi1X 2,82. Jl:yraap rWIT' T3,P:3T Y!luR6 aa rap BJiC 4IO.JIOO

XOB Dl"I1:MB ~aB aa, B aaean

ra p ItlrJ?I:in 16'.3 0 uar-r ,9:R1[t ~

Ll_oit:p1' .21.,25 narr aqoo~~

l:.'TOiITPftl"'i i"" 2-1 2 c '11(1' Oi 'F'I'iII"I 1i!li'l!lir~

-1.! .:J!J. : . UV!L!I " • ,"' ~I ~it_!L.J_ .JJ. ,II.J..U~"L iii

YH3aH6aatTap'T 7',.30 narr HpIH3 .. 7, Ilapxan - Illapsrn rOJlb:m XOOpOH~ anax a~maa-lcyy~l[L.tH ranr T3P3T' Ilapxaaaae 18,10.) 5.40 :u:arr 1m3:, 'illapLm rO.1lJl 20.40, B.1 0 1l aI'T DT-fll OJ!: ma,p~,m rORCOC 22,,00) 9.310 uarr 3HJl(~ Jl:aIJx~ OO~13~ 11~43 narr 1!}1lH':3I•

8. !3PJl3H9T )la.PXaflbl X,OClPOHll HBa x 313 iQ\YT,[Ul D rW]T rapar 3p.m:3H~T~3C ):taJBaa r~l~Ht:IrmiH 14.02 ItaIT IIBJK, ~apxtlHA 11.5··· uarr H]J'B3.,

~9:31P $GfPJm;,C l1H: 30:pl£JITlllUJJm: ranr T~,P sras ~ c 6yc an rarrr f9p9,rHBH D;,arlDIB' 'XYB,aa,pLT eeptUl19J1T opoonrA.



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Having no debt I'~ wtealth and n

·'11 h 'I!!

I, nes, ' ,'IPplnes,s

In thl lesson you will lear :

.. Abou't the 'three manly sports' 'II Decimals and fractions

• Parts of the body and! see'ing a doctor til About a business exhibition

I ..... L.L.I

, 11):

~paA" J7PJJ'U .~, " The three manl'y sp'Drts

Bat and Dels ermae tet! tmvid a ul Julie about naadan, ~ uid 'three manly sports' , ,{ wrestling, ar 'Il·' ry and horse racing.

Monron opo~ XaJ4I'lifiilI HX JI!lJ1ro; P(;9H ClIO .


B ,.

Bex 6 pannax, yp xapsax, M,OPh Yllu.u;a-. ~ ['YPB~I.r·PIdJ::H rvpaa aaBJ.I;aM r9A~, mOM. Ha lllliJl t5yp ,~OJ1~yraapt ca:p'A 6 OJ1:;U;Or, Ta V3~3rV'u ,~31

, TV" ga}!{ "3 B3~' '14' naaurfiaaT,ap

AOIl)zyrsap capA 10 _ )];,8.' ',. A ~ _ '9a U3BT3JIA~X Xyp~3J]!lEll MO'HrOJ1bIB Tynrap I' 6aH-ryynar~camJ' 790~ A PJ1\L m XYU:bCrMblH

lIOUlu:HH aim aaallaM 60J1 co . Y ,_ aM)x_l1.aJI e"

YlI_ aBMrHl1H ann p:qoJIToi 512 6s'x 30,D,rn

Tl3JlT3" Maa:

,, Jt'"

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H3--0H .n;a.saa 3XJla' 3,11; 9VVl a Jl.h' H M, naan

, HrOJ] YJlChIB. '_ JIM. pHis '3," Til I~ JJ:351ap

;nyypc arnax p;aJlaH ~aJIH aa pxar a c apr B 8.5fIDt{ U:X r a paD .fy pl~lh tn ;U,.aH aaI-~'D;; raaan aspara, H3f ape JIa.H 6ap_L1J as» r::HK 6Fl1!:fC~H fiaHHa.

l-Iaa;I{-Mt,m : .~ 9)l;'9p Mo tron Y r IfLr ' 'p'IH' '"'nerq

cYPJim xapnaar COIDrp 0_ ~ apna _: - TaB lTfJI3aB. lJ.IDlCJISJIJllitH Xas-YYJI JlVYIlmfffi 3WIYY xapsaaa ~aHaam:.apra.n 36 cYMal-rrDiaa 32 OH01K TY,lJYVJl3' • «Ap,o;MIl' . X}) coHDH;rt c 1 .. ,IIlII1i ern se spr Atf~acLlff "ltauaaRhT OBOO:r nan aen TOIIpOOJ,J. 630 waX3M xypnaa sapra rapaaasr 3YPxai THlt! -- xenannee.

yp) asaprarua TVP'i¥ .MarHaif ca.pTall xasrap naraaa . OKra:_ 24,6 (XOpKH ,uapea apanrru sypraa) ra4.cnMlill 33~2,8 (ryqnn rypaB 3YfID:r,IOrPlfIH nai1M) MMHyra - YY'JlllG1!t>" T9)X OIflDK3- ..

:. 6ac . omOJI XYP~HH MOp}' )'11'" MfUlP' 61lHRa!

Which are the 111.'(Jst popular sports ill Ad ongotia?

W res ttl -lR, an ~h ry an d horse raci r • -. Th. se thr e a re

"ailed the thy, I manl sports. The n adam is held ever: . ea in Iulv: H aven ~l' , ou seen it?

No, how could I (s e it) ,; I am flell'" in Ulan: Bmor in Juiy.

There WQ'~ ,,- big n adam in Ihi! central ,wdi;:Ulfl " 11 the' 79'Oth anni ersary o] th« fOLl.nding ·1' th· newl»

stablished Mon: olian. state and til - 75th anniver .. saTY of the people's revolution; In accordance with tradition 512 wrestlers l,1\lith national and provincial rank and till s ptu 011 their w' estle s jacket« ..

The newspap. r Ardyn Erkh said. Wh}Il' th first round OJi the powerful WJ~e~ tiers - competition b eaa "everywhere celebrau d whole ocean sacred giaru" Mongolian Hero 'f Labour B'ayQflnlOMkl1 stepped out tM the l- it wing 8 leading wr-e tler: 1 z the third round fiv ' jJ giants' and a 'lion" 'wre' tl, d.'

, /11 th -! firs: day o] Data am. the M', .I,ng lie 11 President

took Qll inter - sr in tile archery and In' f. the archers. Young archer Davaejargelfram the capital's KhanUul district camefir ~t [in 'lb' women" chery] wilh

3.2' hits it h r 3'16 arro'Ws ..


'-84'-' .. -

.. ,

Ardyn Erkh said, i Early in the morning o] II, nearly 630 .fast stallions went clockwise A.idaL~·yn Davaany 01'00 (' fear pas's eairn' moved O;ff~ [back] towards the SUlrtin.g line. Th lot the f(lst stalli. '.M,$ to come in: Q light b'lJ~ H' white nose and a blaze on tts forehead, cope I 24.6 k. i 10 m etre road I rou t .. ]' in ~33. ,28 mu 1 u t es. ' J would like to ride Q fast Mongolian horse [t',

D A. "il. j r n-'"

~v "".!

Nate: Soviet-style urles like XIJ;n;DltMupBlb .sH~nll:p 'Here oJ Labour' and I .......-

MI.tTe-p 'Master of Sport'. ~dopt~d during the communist period, are still at 'TIle anniversary m the 'people's revolution' of 1921 js marked 0'0, 11t'~ July, .Erlch "People's Power' .ns 'l1"H~ JjoV"cr-nmc~l~ da.i[.y.

fflUH3 Yr Voca,bula.ry




;n;wm JJjy_p~

~1Ilr8p:t_x. MOp. JP8JlA;S!X

to wrestle wrestler everywhere whole

to be r~ mous

to spread

horse racin g traditiorral games clockwise


TO~OX 'TlVTn"I'riIlP'


to go round _r18W]Y estahl ish to cover (di:nun

'Tl.ifUli1!'Qi'll" ~~~'!!I-~~

TVP\PtJbX to COInB first

ynaMHWM: eeoop by tradition

yaax to ride; [0 rall

Xll\mp XJ'BIT

.a'II U3~IX


For additional vocabulary see boxes below.

nose powerful title stadium

Dltp aOB

Languagle points Wlr·estlillng gia -lt8;

Wrestling is the Mongols' favourite sport, and 'there a 'e special terms f'OI~ 'the kit and the various levels of skill, During a con pc tition several bOU1S take place simultaneously, and the re are 11 'W,· ight categories" Wrestlers who have won in 'the fiftb round .1 called DatUm 'falcons ~ those who hav won in the sixth or seventh rounds 'become !EI8H 'elephants', and the apCJtID 'lions' are thos

... _. -

H' have survived into 'the eighth and ninth rounds .. The a,para IIlN are the country's top wrestlers who have been the victors t ve r8JJ naadam. Supreme champions are accorded the ti Ue I ;tlVJpc~·ax ~analt J];aJIH ;o:apx;au ,llBspra. ~ ~v:erywherl c el e-

II II whole ocean sacred giant', which i the top grade,

wrestling ~eading wrestler

round second lion falcon

wrestler S trun ·'8


Jlm.Baa JRCwn a.pCJI ~IJI( r) Stt1ll1H




elephant wrestler's jacket

nrvvnar J iJ ~IIrdL .

r ld s eeing fair play for his wre: tl r ( nd hoh ling his hal), H is I jo11 of the i. econd to procl irn his skills and issu ch sllenges on t I ' ln~ half. By tradition til wrestlers enter the arena from the left' I he 'right', the 'left' being the north-east (sunrise] corner. Before 111 I after each bou .. 'the- wrestler performs a short dance with arms utstretched HkJ:~ a bird's wings irl representation of Garuda King l f Birds (IallrapbiEI:).

~1 mgolian archery is a 'port for 'men worn n and children, and, .iE h~, not lost its popularity despite some interest nowadays in I ~ II ~ d ern 0 l ympic target s 110 0 U ng. The archers shoot bo ne-hea ded

II r ws from traditional Mongol compound bows at a target 'J 11 sisting of leather rings (CY]l) stacked in ,,1 'wall 40-50 cerr ;; metres II~h and up to four metres 'wide (xana U1'O&l). Usually men shoot IU arrows from 75 metres and women 20 arrows from 60 metres. III e umpires S' anding to 'ei ther side 01' the. target sing out the score

III tJ long d raw ling It bart t C,21 lle d yyxait

,cyp CyM xapaaa

archery; J e ath er rin ~ tar ge t M3 prsa crack sh at

arrow JzyM bow' x:ap.Bsa,q archer

shooting OHO:X: [0 hi'[ the target

H ,.

orse rac,lng

F he horse races for naadam ar • run cross-country from the horse .. herds' summer camp not far from Ulan Bator's Buyant-Ukhaa


airp rt. TIle rae ... are run . v r distanc -: up tiD ,30 kilornetr · according to the h t, ses' age, For exampl ~ the race f.. r ~t~ ll twice a long as the ra e for colts, T - e ride - re rnostlv bo se ween. ix and, twelvr E The hors " in .. aeh category are" taken

the starting line tOI S m designate d landmark a suitable di

away, and tho race back, The first n·ve horses in each L

(the rkoumi 'S five or .IF'Il·M,1 H TaB.· , re Jed a s pecial eer

in which koumiss is poure over th h, ad and crupper, n winning horse i I honoured with SOD,gS in praise of it owne trainer,

with a blaz amble ..

____ ..... r

aaap'ra(II, .oa'lI'Op

rapaa lIb] aYllxai

, tal lion light : 831 tartiug 1 in. JOI

ta -raCu) , .]lTaD



TIle t x c antains I WO exampl of the us. of decimal : 24 fj SaM ~2, ~6 tnt road' nd 33,2,8 MJlH,YTSJJ:· 'in 33.28 minutes', Mong ls .. nit a comma were we write a decimal point, but

don t say 'I omma' as We . y point ~ Ithough sometimes the

6yxsn 'whole' is used. Thr numbers 1. ss than on, an broken . into tenths hundredths, thousandths. etc:

24 .. 6 ]COll· ~epeB (:IOPO »;SPB8H 6YDJI) apamn.1 3JPraa

24 (wbelej six tenths ('f ten I ix ): 24.6

3,3,28 [')IUD ryP'aB (ryqHII l"fiJBBH 6v.Dn) I· '. XOPHB ---~. 33 (wn· ·1 .) 2S,h,u.ndr· Itbs (~of 1 ·0 28"): 33.,28


A,ilnilar practic is follow, d in forming fractions, Although word XBro·C ,is, sam times used for hal' (e.g, D.rIC ~ ~'llalf a hour xarac Gab· e~8p 'Saturday'), 'one h.anf' is .xoepBld mJ1r e

two one )-one third' rp]J"&1DW' ~ r ('of thn c' 11e~) ~'6v. i h 'n. •

B,afrMm,r '£·":1 I Jive and four ninth, .. T8B8B DYXS,JI ,·CHuA JJ;8peB~ r-

In p'r., etice o ly those for million and billion are in wide use, - ut ther - are special words for' arg numb rs:


0,0 0 DJ!' 100 00 'CD 1,0 .. 0,00. lkHJJWl lO,OOO~O 0 . O~OOO~O·. npoyu: 1, OOO,O[)O 000

eisa' 1

rtte out in full in Mon· -0 ia :

790 2

3 5

7 60

rci~e 2

wo thirds ;2 5

2 six: and 'three eighths

4 17.,89 5 99. ·'7

.' -rc;ss 3

1'1 nuslate into English:

t J U.3HT3 ,A ..... ,- XVP3 JT~I_ n _ yH,ltDC-- .~ YPJilll _ an.osH,I\ HILa)J;MlilH

I flex ~IP .aa xapaaa -XII:9B. BEl·. lKJIJrnHH Baa .~ 200 maxa II Baa'll OpO ItCO'rI~ YJtC:h.m 6a.Mp H8,a.;::{MJillI )XHxyy~S.)l ynChlH M!J.P -II:

I ~ C.IIO·pThlB MAICTep' 98 TfJ1pC6H.. )laT(1[H CYJrIHB"aC ryqEll' ec OHO:m:

l · P lKllJID..HEl Ol\.1H6 ynchm nsan aMJl[HJIT TOITOOCOH~ y]lClilll MSlPr3H 8icyp,:3i'EITmffi xyy B.aTJIt.apraJJ 20 CYM .,. c 18 0 I· X( ... oep ,ll" ~,,"b

;IJ.33 TYPYVIDK OHOCOH CYJ'VlHbl - yyxa' H<·_~R·~rVJ~ fL ,XM OM

sapr .R m 20 C~_Haac 19 OHO>K OX14~Lnt xapsaann T~pryyJLIT3111'.

·Iague 12

..... LLI

- 'my 8l\lfB.Z l1atl:lm?

lJ£i,t's fh'e maHer 'with VOu?'

I 1 H id ts feeling sorry for himsel] and I e .ides to see th·, hotel doctor.


elm i5airH8, yy? T ama lOY 8»;n;em oaifma~· MirID]H xerr OUJlBe;o: 6aHB a.

Hx eB~e)K 6aJn-13l yt?Xa;ma 191BA81K ·6al4lia B3?

'~ IBB..u;e~· 6ail'- a, . If: .. :t. rrnap MOpU,. oocoo YEI~ , ..

enneree r:!)M1" ~ ~r~w ~ n~3.


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_ ·H,11;. 8B.D;} 6aiiH yy'?

ra.ii.ryI']..:.a .. HH :M1?IKRiI 'rorrro - ,9IP ,3"1 €l '"' . i B,u ynTll)K 'tEa)J;aJU'YiI 6aJlHa~

Tar~rn napanrur y3be. AJIHB~ rapLl t]JIHI, (lpOOrOOITI;o Tonrcaroo fla,~ rnMT33qm{SSi TOV?

Ris. ht. You; have ·light 1C,(}I"1,·' ussion (YQur brain move, ). Mu: ~ I ·~tay b bel 'not I." u·)?

You don 't need to. l'l! writ. ' ~'U Q prescripti 11. Thank .yo u,.

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r abu'lary


HIm r~MT3:tqma[33.

sa, DJl;oo .X~JI9H ~oopoo X,B,.Jl}'YHhl III IT ·aB1:J:YYJl., 3yrrJ3p.

3,· .. XI.J1YYH x!t)DxVra 0. aA;.o:a.n ~ 6 aft aa, One 0 611 UY,[{IDIr xa P'Jb.1i. n 3:3 99.., ,naomo 0, 3'YlB mm.u I.' Tmbnt3, I .-ap naa,

BH 6 C y;:om::ix33 m . ~.Hi2rr X,aTa.JI1DIXJ1S a.

3,0.. Onoo ~YV1] ~xaHJJ; Hff& nar 6aphH., Ilar

.Q,OXMJIT ·~r COHeO.)K 6aKlErl yy? _ apyyn '~3Ii~?

Coacoac oaiffia"

,B. TaHLl Tap·' lKaaxall' '9n;9JlC6l-1 GallI a .. n,H OOC! OOJIOxryFI lOY? DOll oxry.lJ,. T,3l-IA 3MJ1H.FI lItOp 6~m}K erne, Bag P,JIaJI aa,

'ell 1 What}, the matter 'with 'U' (wh t hurtint )7 M leg hurts. Does it hurt a lot' Where' doe'! it l'tUft? It hurts here. Ye I rday / jeU ,f}.lr· my horse and inju ll1.y " ne,!).

The pr ' a er thing Il,. auld be to h. we an x-ray. It's a swollen. Does it hurl hi re? Not much. But J feel 'l.izzJI (my lh ead is oing round And 1 can 'it sleep,

J want to take your (blood) pn ssure. LeI m .' just ~vra (this) rOlJ1Za your arm. Di,1 you bangyour head Q' ~)V(!lI Ye~\~ I did.

Right. NOH) pu! the thermomet r und 'f you» tongue, ·.·,·K

Right. Temp ratur - IS 11,(J'I'T1al~ Now 1 want to examin ~ you· eyes. ,: ook up" down, le.ft, right ..

I ln o Ice' my glosses, too.

Right. 1 am holding a watah ne I to your left ear. Con you h. 'ClJ the watch': tick? Right ear?

Yes, I can hear it.

,XaBlQY.1t Druax

to insert, tuck if) to reak thermomete

leg fo. t

n . rrm 1 (state) watch

tickin l'


t· r so round

. 0 get up LO inju. e

t hav an x-ray

• !Ii

prescript 'on

) eye

1"...u.~fIo.i2'···3 mom s pectacle 5

to wr p 'round ro hu L

(H brain

I' ):lax to swel 1.

I i11i1J1


DB.ili a_an



TIIJ1(B '.

. gU·. 'gl points

I he verbal TI, un ere, .. used as an auxiliary (h elper verb when I he action ['1. main ver is carrie' out for th,· b. nefit 0 s· m one 'Iller than the subject (I.e, doing'. icthing ~ r someon )~ Whe n I he doct I~. y:' to Davitt Tla;n: ... ':op OU'lWW; amB ~] n write you II prescription' I he combines erex with tm'llll:m Mor ex unples:

Mo~oJl " DOPTYH TYXaH HP ere . . : I. my~?

Won t y' u tell me abou Mongo r~11 ·,POTt?

Till .M'kUitUa DRm!l-or enrelK ereIl"yA lOyl!

. auld you (couldn't you) bang up 'my coat (for me)?

HaY'am 3Hb3mJrr ' . Take me t h spin !

Ta r~8A :ESt: DJD)9~ erosq1

Please gay that (once) again ~

----- -