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UNIGRAPHICS

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
OF UNIGRAPHICS
STUDENT MANUAL
September 2002
MT10050 - Unigraphics NX

EDS Inc.
Proprietary & Restricted Rights Notices

Copyright

Proprietary right of Unigraphics Solutions Inc., its subcontractors, or its suppliers are included in this
software, in the data, documentation, or firmware related thereto, and in information disclosed
therein. Neither this software, regardless of the form in which it exists, nor such data, information, or
firmware may be used or disclosed to others for any purpose except as specifically authorized in writing
by Unigraphics Solutions Inc. Recipient by accepting this document or utilizing this software agrees
that neither this document nor the information disclosed herein nor any part thereof shall be
reproduced or transferred to other documents or used or disclosed to others for manufacturing or any
other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Unigraphics Solutions Inc.

2002 Electronic Data Systems Corporation. All rights reserved.

Restricted Rights Legend

The commercial computer software and related documentation are provided with restricted rights.
Use, duplication or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to the protections and restrictions as
set forth in the Unigraphics Solutions Inc. commercial license for the software and/or documentation
as prescribed in DOD FAR 227-7202-3(a), or for Civilian Agencies, in FAR 27.404(b)(2)(i), and any
successor or similar regulation, as applicable. Unigraphics Solutions Inc., 10824 Hope Street, Cypress,
CA 90630.

Warranties and Liabilities

All warranties and limitations thereof given by Unigraphics Solutions Inc. are set forth in the license
agreement under which the software and/or documentation were provided. Nothing contained within
or implied by the language of this document shall be considered to be a modification of such warranties.

The information and the software that are the subject of this document are subject to change without
notice and should not be considered commitments by Unigraphics Solutions Inc.. Unigraphics
Solutions Inc. assumes no responsibility for any errors that may be contained within this document.

The software discussed within this document is furnished under separate license agreement and is
subject to use only in accordance with the licensing terms and conditions contained therein.

Trademarks

EDS, the EDS logo, UNIGRAPHICS SOLUTIONS, UNIGRAPHICS, GRIP, PARASOLID,


UG, UG/..., UG SOLUTIONS, iMAN are trademarks or registered trademarks of Electronic
Data Systems Corporation or its subsidiaries. All other logos or trademarks used herein are the
property of their respective owners.

Practical Application of Unigraphics Student Manual Publication History:

Version 15.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 1999


Version 16.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . January 2000
Version 17.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . December 2000
Version 18.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . September 2001
Unigraphics NX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . September 2002
Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Course Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1
Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1
Course Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1
How to Use This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -2
Classroom System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -2
Class Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -3
About Part File Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -3
Class Part File Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -4
Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -4
Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -5
Seed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -5
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -6
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Starting Unigraphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Unigraphics Site Specific Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Unigraphics Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
The Gateway Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Cue/Status line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Menu bar pull down menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Platform Specific Dialog Box Variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Shared Features of Windows File Dialog Boxes . . . . . . . . 1-7
Activity 1 - Creating a New Part file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Opening Multiple Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
To Change The Displayed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Activity 2 - Open an Existing Part File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Mouse Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-24
Mouse PopĆup Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Selection Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
Preselection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30
Multiple Selection Candidates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30
Layer Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32
Layers and Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34
Model Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34

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Drafting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34


Engineering Disciplines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34
Moving Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35
Class Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-36
Class Selection Filter Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-37
Activity 3 - Save Part As (Copying a Part File) . . . . . . . . 1-39
Activity 4 - Closing Part Files and Exiting Unigraphics . 1-41
Activity 5 - Establish Toolbar Environment in Modeling 1-43

Introduction to Solid Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1


Coordinate Systems in Unigraphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Absolute Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Work Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Manipulating the WCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Dynamic WCS Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Defining Points for Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Utility Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Activity 1 - Manipulating the WCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Origin, Edge Lengths Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Activity 2 - Additional Toolbars in Modeling Application 2-20
Activity 3 - Creating a Primitive Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Defining Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Diameter, Height Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Activity 1 - Creating a Primitive Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28

Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
The Placement Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
The Horizontal and Vertical Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Feature Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Positioning Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Positioning Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Positioning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Examples of Horizontal, Vertical and Angular Positioning
Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Hole Creation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Activity 1 - Creating Hole Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21

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Rectangular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Activity 2 - Creating Slot Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30
Rectangular Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30
Activity 3 - Creating Pocket Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
Boss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-33
Activity 4 - Creating Boss Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-34
Pad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-38
Rectangular Pad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-38
Activity 5 - Creating and Positioning a Pad . . . . . . . . . . . 3-39
Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Understanding Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Creating and Editing Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Creating Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Editing Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Using Information"Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Used by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Activity 1 - Getting Familiar with Expressions . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Face Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Face Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Hollow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Wall Thickness Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Activity 1 - Performing a Hollow Operation . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Activity 2 - Hollow and Selection Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Activity 3 - Creating a Hollow Feature with an Offset . . . 5-9
Edge Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Edge Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Edge Blend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Edge Blends Using Dynamic Input Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Activity 1 - Creating Edge Blends with Dynamic
Input Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Chamfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Single Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Double Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Offset Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Activity 2 - Performing a Chamfer Operation . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Model Construction Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Visually Inspect the Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2

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Inspect the Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2


Model Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Information"Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Information"Expression"List All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Information"Expression"List All by Reference . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Playback & Suppress/Unsuppress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Expression Used by option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Analysis Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Start Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Activity 1 - Model Construction Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8

Introduction to Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


Definitions and Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
SubĆAssembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Component Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Component Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
General Assembly Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
TopĆDown Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
BottomĆUp Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Combining Both Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Designing in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Bottom Up Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Introduction to Load Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Load Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Load States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Fully Loaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Partially Loaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Unloaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Load Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Component Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
The Displayed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Selection Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15
The Work Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
Selection Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
Make Work Part icon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
Repositioning Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18
Dragging Components Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20
LeftĆRight UpĆDown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20

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Dragging along an axis of the coordinate system . . . . . . . . 8-20


Rotation about an axis of the coordinate system . . . . . . . . 8-21
Point to Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21
Translate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-22
Rotate About a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-22
Rotate About a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23
Saving the Work Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24
Activity 1 - Adding and Repositioning a Component . . . . 8-25
The Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
The Assembly Modeler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
The Master Model Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Master Model Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Master Model Drawing Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Activity 1 - Exploring a Master Model Assembly . . . . . . . 9-6
Activity 2 - Creating a Master Model Assembly . . . . . . . . 9-12

Introduction to Drafting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1


Uses of the Drafting Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Drawing Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Editing a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Activity 1 - Editing a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
Adding a View to a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
Create Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
Removing Views From a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
Activity 2 - Adding a View to a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11
Setting the View Display Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14
Button Specific Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15
View Option Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15
Activity 3 - Setting View Display Preferences . . . . . . . . . . 10-18
Creating Utility Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19
Automatic Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
Associativity of Utility Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
Deleting a Utility Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
Creating a Cylindrical Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21
Activity 4 - Creating a Cylindrical Centerline . . . . . . . . . 10-22
Creating Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-29
Dimension Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30
Vector Definition for Angular Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-31
Line and Point Definition for Cylindrical Dimensions . . . 10-32
Dimension Local Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-33
Appended Text Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-34

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Precision Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-35


Tolerance Type and Tolerance Value Options . . . . . . . . . . 10-36
Tolerance Value Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-37
Placement Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-39
Arrow Line and Extension Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-40
Leader Direction Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-41
Text Justification Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-42
Activity 5 - Creating Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-44
Annotation Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-48
The Tool Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-49
Placing the Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-50
Creating text Without a Leader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-50
Creating Text with a Leader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-51
Editing Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-52
Editing Existing Dimension Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-52
Activity 6 - Using the Annotation Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-53
Datum Plane Reference Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Reference Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Datum Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Relative Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Creating Datum Planes by Inferred Selection . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Datum Plane User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
Dual Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Datum Plane Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Offset Datum Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Center Datum Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7
Datum Plane Through Cylindrical Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Datum Plane at an Angle Through a Cylindrical Axis . . . 11-9
Datum Plane at an Angle to a Face or Datum Plane
Through an Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10
Datum Plane Tangent to a Cylindrical Face . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
Datum Plane Through Three Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
Datum Plane Defined by Point and Direction . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
Activity 1 - Creating Relative Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . 11-14
Selecting and Using Datums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
Editing Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
Deleting Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
Activity 2 - Cylindrical Faces and Datum Planes . . . . . . . 11-21
Activity 3 - Feature on a Relative Datum Plane . . . . . . . . 11-27
Activity 4 - Creating a Hole Corner to Corner . . . . . . . . . 11-33
Datum Axis Reference Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Datum Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2

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User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3


Relative Datum Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
Datum Axis Through Two Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
Datum Axis Through an Edge or Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Datum Axis Through a Cylindrical face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
Datum Axis Through the Intersection of two Faces . . . . . 12-8
Editing Datum Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
Deleting Datum Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
Activity 1 - Constraining Locations using Datums . . . . . 12-10
Activity 2 - Relative Datum Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-19

Sketching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
What is a sketch? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
Why sketch? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
When should a sketch be used? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
Sketches and the Model Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Sketches and Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
Creating a New Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
The Sketch Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Sketch to Define the Base Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Sketch Associative to Existing Base Feature . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Defining the Reference Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
Naming a Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12
The Active Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13
Sketch Creation Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14
Sketch for a Base Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14
Sketch on an Existing Face or Datum Plane . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14
Activity 1 - Sketch Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15
Sketch Curve Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22
Sketch Curve Tool Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22
Infer Constraints Setting Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22
Locking a Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23
Snap Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23
The Infer Point Tool Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23
Alignment Lines While Creating Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24
Profile Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24
Creating Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26
Creating Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-27
Creating Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-28
Activity 2- Using the Sketch Profile Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-30
Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-39

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Quick Trim and Quick Extend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40


Quick Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40
Quick Extend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-42
Activity 3 - Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-43
Activity 4 - Sketching a Gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48
Activity 5 - Using Quick Trim and Quick Extend . . . . . . 13-55
Sketch Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-59
DegreeĆofĆFreedom Arrows (DOF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-59
Constraining Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-61
Design Intent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-61
The Sketch Constraints Tool Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-61
Creating Dimensional Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-61
Text Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-64
Dimensional Constraint Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-64
Editing Dimensional Constraints` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-67
Delay Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-68
Evaluate Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-68
Update Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-68
Creating Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-69
Displaying Constraint Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-70
Show/Remove Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-73
Constraint Interrogation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-74
Constraint Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-74
Constraint Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75
Listing Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75
Removing Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75
Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-76
Dragging Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-76
Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-76
Constraint Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-76
Constraining Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-78
Activity 6 - Constraining a Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-80
Activity 7 - Constraining the Gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-89
Convert To/From Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-100
Activity 8 - Constraint Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-101

Swept Features and Boolean Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1


Types of Swept Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Creating Swept Features from Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Extrude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
Rules for Extruding Section String Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4

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Extrusion Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4


Activity 1 - Swept Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5
Boolean Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6
Defining Target and Tool Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7
Unite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-8
Subtract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9
Intersect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9
Swept Feature Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10
Rules for Extruding With Taper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11
Extruding With Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12
Activity 2 - Extruding with Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-13
Sweep along Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-19
Rules for Sweeping Section String Objects Along a Guide 14-19
Guide Strings Containing Sharp Corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-20
Activity 3 - Sweeping Along a Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-21
Defining a Sweep Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-23
Activity 4 - Defining a Sweep Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-24
Revolve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-26
Rules for Revolving Section String Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-26
Body of Revolution Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-26
Activity 5 - Creating a Body of Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-27
Activity 6 - Adding a Body of Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-32
Trimming Face Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-34
Activity 7 - Revolving and Trimming to a Face . . . . . . . . . 14-35
Activity 8 - Extruding to a Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-39

Editing the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1


Common Features of the Edit PullĆDown Menu . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Edit Feature Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Delayed Update on Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Editing Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
Edit Feature Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
Edit Feature PullĆDown Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
Suppress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Unsuppress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Move . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
Delta X, Y, Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
To a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Rotate Between Two Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
CSYS to CSYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8

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Deleting Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-9


Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10
Update Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
Selection Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
Activity 1 - Playback, Move & Delete Features . . . . . . . . . 15-17
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-27
Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-28
Add Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-29
Edit Dimension Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-30
Delete Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-30
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-30
Activity 2 - Edit Features and Positioning Dimensions . . 15-31
Activity 3 - Using the Update Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-35
Model Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-38
Display Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-39
Show/Hide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-40
Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-40
Make Current Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-40
Edit Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-41
Edit Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-41
Suppress and Unsuppress Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-41
Reorder Before/After . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-41
Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-41
Replace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42
Rename . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42
Delete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42
Object Dependency Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42
Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42
Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-43
Activity 4 - Reordering with the Model Navigator . . . . . . 15-44
Reattaching a Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-46
Using the Reattach Menu dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-46
Reattach Menu dialog box Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-48
Activity 5 - Reattaching a Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-50

Instance Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1


Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
Rectangular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Circular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
Activity 1 - Rectangular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6

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Activity 2 - Circular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11


Design Intent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11
Additional Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Project 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Project 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
Project 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
Project 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
Project 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-9
Project 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-10
Project 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-12
Project 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-14
Project 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-16
Project 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-18
Project 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-20
Project 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-22
Project 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-24
Project 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-26
Project 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-28
Project 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-30
Project 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-32
Project 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-34

Point Constructor Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1


Creating Points vs. Specifying Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Icon Methods To Specify a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Inferred Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Cursor Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
Existing Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
End Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4
Control Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Intersection Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-6
Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7
Angle on Arc/Ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-8
Quadrant Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-9
Choosing a Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-10
Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-10
Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-11
Rectangular Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-12
Cylindrical Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-13
Spherical Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-14
Vector Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-14

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Offset Along Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-15

Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Transformation Options Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3
Translate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-6
Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-7
Rotate About a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-10
Mirror Through a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-11
Rotate About a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-12
Using Transformations for Symmetrical Geometry . . . . . . C-13

Curve Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1


Explicit Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
The Work Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
Basic Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3
The Dialog Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4
PreĆSelection Highlighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5
Control Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5
Inferred Point Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6
Status Line Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6
Inferred Selection Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7
General Curve Creation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-8
Point Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-8
String Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-9
Line Creation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10
Between Two Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10
Through a Point and Horizontal or Vertical . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10
Through a Point and at an Angle to the XC Axis . . . . . . . D-11
Through a Point and Parallel, Perpendicular, or at an
Angle to an Existing Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-12
Parallel to An Existing Line at a Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-13
Through a Point and Tangent or Perpendicular to a Curve D-14
Tangent to a Curve and Tangent or Perpendicular to
Another Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-15
Tangent to a Curve and Parallel, Perpendicular, or at an
Angle to an Existing Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-16
Line Creation Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-17
Activity 1 - Creating Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-18
Creating Arcs and Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-26
Creating Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-27
Creation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-27

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Dialog Bar Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-27


Creating Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-28
Center Point, Point on Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-28
Activity 2 - Creating Arcs and Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-29
Arc/Circle Creation Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-32
Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-33
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-34
Simple Fillet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-35
2 Curve Fillet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-36
3 Curve Fillet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-37
Fillet Creation Methods Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-40
Activity 3 - Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-41
Editing Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-45
Edit Curve Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-46
Editing a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-46
Editing an Arc or Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-47
Moving an Arc or Circle to a New Location . . . . . . . . . . . . D-47
Using Parameters Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-47
Using Dragging Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-48
Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-49
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-49
Activity 4 - Trimming Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-50

WCS Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1


Defining Points for Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1

Hot Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-1

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IN-1

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Course Overview

Course Overview

Intended Audience

This course is suited for designers, engineers, manufacturing engineers,


application programmers, NC programmers, CAD/CAM managers, and system
managers who have a need for understanding and using Unigraphics software.

Course Objectives

After successfully completing this course, the student should be able to:

 Apply the standards used in class.


 Demonstrate knowledge of CAD/CAM theory.
 Open and examine models.
 Create and edit parametric solid models.
 Create and modify basic assembly structures.
 Create and modify simple drawings.
 Modify existing geometry.

Prerequisites

There are no prerequisites for this class.

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Course Overview

How to Use This Manual


It is important that you use the Student Manual in the sequence presented
because later lessons assume you have learned concepts and techniques taught
in an earlier lesson. If necessary, you can always refer to any previous activity
where a method or technique was originally taught.

The format of the activities is consistent throughout this manual. Steps are
labeled and specify what will be accomplished at any given point in the activity.
Below each step are action boxes which emphasize the individual actions that
must be taken to accomplish the step. As your knowledge of Unigraphics
increases, the action boxes will seem redundant as the step text becomes all that
is needed to accomplish a given task.

Step 1 Open part file pau_topic_1.

 From the menu bar, select File

 Choose Open.

 Double-click on the parts sub-directory.

 Select the file pau_topic_1 and choose OK.

Classroom System Information

Your instructor will provide you with the following items for working in the
classroom:

Student Login: Username:

Password:

Home Directory:

Parts Directory:

Instructor:

Date:

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Course Overview

Class Standards

The following standards will be used in this class. Standardization allows users
to work with and predict the organization of parts created by others . All work
should be performed in accordance with these standards.

About Part File Naming

In order to facilitate the identification of design models without requiring the


user to open a part file, the user community must establish standard names for
the various files associated with the part definition. The following is a sample
usage of a filenaming standard:

part name revision


(25 characters) (4 characters)

xxx_xxxxxxxxxxxx_xxxx_xxxx•prt

identifier configuration extension


(3 characters) (4 characters) (4 characters)

TIP Currently up to 128 characters are valid for file names. A four
character extension (.prt) is automatically added to define the file
type. This means the maximum number of user defined characters for
the file name is actually 124.

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Course Overview

Class Part File Naming

This course utilizes the following filenaming standard:

underscore unique identifier number


part name
delimiter

pau_ x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x _ x • p r t

course identifier underscore delimiter extension


(3 characters) (4 characters)

Where the student is requested to save a part file for later use, the initials of
the student's given name, middle name, and surname replace the course
identifier pau" in the new filename with the remainder of the filename
matching the original.

Expressions

The student will notice that there is a standard set of expressions resident in
each of the part files as follows:

Expression Name Intended Use


bend_r=.5 identifies bend radius for sheet metal parts
dia=.5 identifies diameter
h=1 identifies height
l=1 identifies length
out_r=.625 identifies the outside radius for sheet metal
parts
rad=.25 identifies Radius
thk=.06 identifies thickness
w=1 identifies width

These expressions could be entered by the user in each file or could be a


standard expression file that could be imported into the part file by the user.
Expression files that are valid for importing carry the file extension of .exp. The
total number of characters allowed in an expression is 132.

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Course Overview

Colors

The following colors are preset to indicate different object types:

Object Valid colors


Bodies
Solid Green
Sheet Yellow
Generating Curves (nonĆsketch)
Lines and Arcs Orange
Conics and Splines Blue
Sketches
Sketch Curves Cyan
Reference Curves Gray
Datum Features Aquamarine
Points and Coordinate Systems White
System Display Color Red

Seed Part

Seed parts are an effective tool for establishing customer defaults or any
settings that are partĆdependent (saved with the part file). This may include
nonĆgeometric data such as:
 Preferences
 Commonly used expressions
 Layer categories
 UserĆdefined views and layouts
 Part attributes

TIP Once a seed part is established, it should be writeĆprotected to avoid


accidental modification of the seed part.

Two seed part files are available for use in this course, pau_seedpart_in for inch
parts and pau_seedpart_mm for metric parts. These files incorporate the
standards described above, and include the TFRĆTRI view as the default view.

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Course Overview

Definition of Terms

Explicit Modeling
Explicit modeling is modeling that is not parametric. Objects are created
relative to model space, not each other. Changes to one or more objects do not
necessarily affect other objects or the finished model. Examples of explicit
modeling include creating a line between two existing points, or creating an arc
through three existing points. If one of the existing points were moved, the
line/arc would not change.

Parametric Modeling
A parametric model is one in which the values (parameters) used for the
definition of the model are stored with the model for future editing. Parameters
may reference each other to establish relationships between the various
features of the model. Examples include the diameter and depth of a hole, or
the length, width, and height of a rectangular pad. The designer's intent may be
that the hole is always as deep as the pad is high. Linking these parameters
together may achieve the desired results. This is not easily accomplished with
an explicit model.

ConstraintĆbased Modeling
A constraint-based model is one in which the geometry of the model is driven,
or solved, from a set of design rules applied to the geometry defining the model
as constraints. These constraints might be dimensional constraints (such as
sketch dimensions or positioning dimensions) or geometric constraints (such as
parallelism or tangency). Examples include a line tangent to an arc, where the
designer intends for that tangent condition to be maintained even though the
angle of the line may change, or a perpendicular condition being maintained as
angles are modified.

Hybrid Modeling
Hybrid modeling refers to the selectively combined use of the three types of
modeling described above. Hybrid modelers allow designers to use parametric
modeling where needed, without requiring that the entire model be constrained
before proceeding. Because of this, designers have more flexibility in modeling
techniques. The Unigraphics hybrid modeler supports traditional explicit
geometric modeling along with constraintĆbased sketching and parametric
feature modeling. All tools are integrated so they can be used in combination.

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Getting Started

Getting Started ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
Lesson 1
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ

PURPOSE This lesson is a fundamental introduction to the Unigraphics


User Interface. Subsequent lessons will reinforce and extend the student's
understanding.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Start Unigraphics.
 Locate the Cue/Status line.
 Execute Menu Bar Pull Down Menus.
 Create a New Part File.
 Dock and Undock Toolbars.
 Open a Part File.
 Work with Layers
 Copy a Part File.
 Close a Part File and Exit Unigraphics.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ Starting Unigraphics


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ Unigraphics
The first step in working in Unigraphics is to log on to a workstation and start a
process. Because this procedure varies from company to company,
and platform to platform, consult the system administrator for a site specific
procedure to follow. The Unigraphics NX Activity Menu shown below will not
be displayed on Windows workstations, and may or may not be displayed at
Unix workstations. It is shown here to describe the options available in case this
is the normal start dialog box at your site.

Unigraphics Site Specific Startup

Unigraphics NX Activity Menu Version

Select xwi" to enable


the display of curve
widths

Select Starbase" to
enable rotatable
shaded images

Select once to start


Unigraphics

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Getting Started

Unigraphics Windows ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
No Part ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
The graphic below shows the No Part" Unigraphics interface. This interface
only allows the user to adjust default options, open an existing part or create a
new part in which to work.

Menu bar:Ă Minimize


Use the first mouse button to
select an option from the Help
Internet Explorer &
pullĆdown menu
History

Cue line Status line

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ The Gateway Application


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Upon opening an existing part or creating a new part in Unigraphics the
Gateway application is entered. Gateway allows the review of existing part files
and the ability to get information on those files. To create or edit objects within
a file, one of the other applications such as Modeling must be entered.

Work and Graphics Window


displayed part Restore Down
names
Resource Bars

Graphics area

Cue line: Status line:


displays user Displays informational
prompts messages

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Getting Started

Cue/Status line ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
The Cue/Status line appears at the bottom of the main application window. The ÉÉÉ
1
purpose of the Cue line is to prompt for user interaction. The purpose of the
Status line is to give the user feedback about system activity.
ÉÉÉ
NOTE: In a Windows environment the Cue line can be relocated to
the top of the user interface.

Menu bar pull down menus

The Menu Bar offers a number of options from which to choose. These options
have pullĆdown menus associated with them that allow access to areas of
functionality. Holding the first mouse button down over a Menu Bar option
causes the pullĆdown menu to display. Arrows to the right of the pullĆdown
listing indicate that further cascading options are available.

Cascade Menu
Menu Bar

PullĆDown
Menu

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ Platform Specific Dialog Box Variance


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Most interaction with dialog boxes is the same on the Windows platform and
the Unix platform. The appearance of some of the controls is slightly different
as shown in the example below. Notice the variance in the display of the slider
bars, check boxes, option menus, etc..

UNIX Windows 2000

Graphics shown in this text are from a Windows workstation, some of the dialog
boxes at your classroom workstation may differ slightly from those shown.

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Getting Started

Shared Features of Windows File Dialog Boxes ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
The New Part File, Open Part File, and Save Part File As dialog boxes have
some very useful common features.
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
The Look in: option menu shows the name of the current selected drive or
directory. Selecting the arrow on the right side of the box (or anywhere within
the box) will list a hierarchy of the available folders and drives.

Choosing anywhere away from the list of the available folders and drives will
dismiss the listing without selecting another folder or drive.

The list in the window below the Look In: box shows the available folders and
files in the currently selected directory. The folder symbol represents a
subĆdirectory, Unigraphics part files have the .prt extension.

The Up One Level button works with the Look in: option menu to
traverse back up through the directory hierarchy.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ The Create New Folder button allows new subĆfolders to be created in
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
the current directory.

The View Menu pulldown button allows the appearance of the listing in
the window to be modified. The default listing is that of a List. Selecting the
Details button will display a more detailed listing of the files and folders
including Name, Size, Type, last Modified date and time, and any Attributes
that may apply to the file. Other options include; Large Icons, Small Icons and
Thumbnails.

Properties can be
accessed by
selected mouse
button three while
in the Details"
view mode

The ? button at the top right of the dialog box changes the cursor to

and allows selection of any of the controls in the dialog box for a short
description of its function.

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Getting Started

Activity 1 - Creating a New Part file ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
This activity demonstrates how to create a new part file.
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Step 1 Create a new part file.

 Choose the New icon.

The New Part File dialog box appears as shown.

Shaded radio"
button indicates
selected option Current
directory path
and file
extension

Step 2 Specify the units of measure for the new part file.

 Choose the Millimeters radio button.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ Step 3 Enter a new part file name.


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
File names are governed by the naming conventions established for the
operating system of the computer. In addition, standards set up by the company
or project will affect naming conventions. Contact the system administrator for
specific information on the number and types of characters for a valid file
name.

 With mouse button 1, click in the File name field.

 Key in ***_new_1, where *** represent your initials. This


will be a standard practice for this class to insure that the
user at each workstation will be able to save his or her own
part files.

 Ensure the directory is set to your home" directory. This


will also be a standard practice for this class. Any part that
you create should be saved in a directory that you have
permissions to.

 Choose OK. The system processes the information and the


part file is created and is loaded" into the current
Unigraphics session. On Windows workstations the dialog
box shown below will be displayed while the processing takes
place.

The creator of a file has read and write access, which means they may modify
the file and save the changes.

Step 4 Save the part.

 Choose the Save icon.

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Toolbars ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
The Unigraphics user interface supports the use of Toolbars to allow quick
access to most of the available functionality via logical groupings of common ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
functionality displayed as Icons. Each application has a set of toolbars which
support functions within that application. In turn, each application can also
have toolbars and icons displayed which allow access to functions which are
most commonly accessed for the specific application (e.g. Modeling vs.
Drafting)

NOTE: When the Unigraphics session is exited, the state of the


Toolbars is saved, this will be the state displayed when the same user
restarts Unigraphics. This is controlled by the Save layout at exit option
under the General tab in the Preferences→User Interface dialog box.

Toolbars may be in one of two states. The first is undocked where they are free
floating on the screen. The graphic below shows three toolbars in an undocked
state, located randomly by the user on the screen. These toolbars are shown
within the Unigraphics window, but may be located outside the window
depending on screen setup.

Undocked
Toolbars

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ÉÉÉ The second state that Toolbars may be in is docked, where they anchor to the
ÉÉÉ main Unigraphics window, either horizontally or vertically. The graphic below

ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
shows several toolbars. The Standard, View and Layer toolbars are docked
horizontally just below the Menu Bar, while some Modeling application
toolbars are docked vertically on the right and left side of the Unigraphics
window. Docked toolbars are always within the Unigraphics window.

Docked Toolbar (Vertical)

Docked
Toolbars
(Horizontal)

Control of Toolbar display may be accessed from one of 3 places:

 Choose Tools"Customize from the main menu.


 Choose View"Toolbars from the main menu.
 Use the Third Mouse Button within the Unigraphics window, outside the
Graphics window.

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The display of each toolbar, as well as each element of each toolbar, is user
ÉÉÉ
customizable. To turn ON or OFF the display of a toolbar choose
ÉÉÉ
Tools"Customize or click MB3 in the toolbar area and select Customize.
Placing a check in the box next to the toolbar name will instantly display the ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
toolbar in the graphics area.

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ÉÉÉ To turn ON or OFF the display of a toolbar element choose the Commands tab.
ÉÉÉ Placing a check in the box next to the toolbar command will instantly display

ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
the command in the appropriate toolbar. Removing the check turns off the
display.

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Getting Started

Opening Multiple Parts ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
More than one part file may be loaded at any time. This means that several ÉÉÉ
1
parts may be worked on interchangeably. There are two designations for loaded ÉÉÉ
part files:

 Displayed - The part file is displayed in the graphics area.


 Work - The part file is accessible for creation and editing operations.

In most cases the displayed part and the work part are the same. There are
times when working in an assembly when it is advantageous that the work part
be other than the displayed part.

To Change The Displayed Part

Unigraphics allows multiple part files to be open in the same session. These
parts may have been loaded explicitly or implicitly, as a result of being
referenced by a loaded assembly. The Window option works in two ways:

In the first method, an option for More Parts is selected. This displays the
Change Displayed Part dialog box and lists all parts being referenced in the
current session, excluding the current displayed part. This listing will include all
components in an assembly structure as well as any loaded parts not contained
in a loaded assembly.

In the second method, a list of up to ten previously displayed parts is generated


as the displayed part is changed. This list contains the latest displayed part at
the top (excluding the currently displayed part) and then each previous part in
the order that they were displayed until a total of ten are listed. To change the
displayed part to any of the parts in the list simply select its name from the list.

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ÉÉÉ Activity 2 - Open an Existing Part File


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1 This activity will demonstrate working with toolbars to establish an efficient

ÉÉÉ working environment in the Gateway application for this course as well as how
to load an existing part file into the work session.

Continue with the previous part file ***_new_1.

Step 1 Display the Standard toolbar in the Gateway Application.

 Click Mouse Button 3 (MB3) in the toolbar area and choose


Customize.

Click MB3 within


toolbar area.

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The Customize Dialog box appears and shows the current toolbars which are
ÉÉÉ
displayed.
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ

 Verify that the Standard toolbar is checked ON.

The Standard toolbar should be displayed on the screen docked in the upper
left corner under the Menu bar.

 Choose Close to dismiss the Customize dialog box.

Step 2 Open the part file pau_intro_1.

 Choose the Open icon.

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ÉÉÉ The Open Part File dialog box appears.


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ

 Check the current directory displayed in the Look in field. If


necessary, choose the proper directory from the option
menu.

Directory List Box Part Preview window


File List Box

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Getting Started

Notice that there are no radio buttons for Inches and Millimeters in the Open
ÉÉÉ
Part File dialog box. The units of the file were determined prior to creation and
ÉÉÉ
may not be changed within an active Unigraphics session. A part file's units can
be converted using a program called ug_convert outside of the active ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Unigraphics session.

 Select pau_intro_1 in the file list box and choose OK, which
opens the file (or doubleĆclick on the file name).

Notice the Status Line. It displays useful information as to what the system is
doing while the part file is retrieved, as well as other information pertaining to
the operation being performed.

 Choose OK in the Warning dialog box to dismiss the Read


Only message.

Once the part is open the following actions occur:

 Options for viewing the contents of the file are available on the menu bar.
 The graphics area is now active, showing the model in the condition in
which it was last saved.
 The title bar of the Unigraphics window displays the current work part in
brackets [pau_intro_1.prt] and that its status is Read Only, meaning that
changes may not be saved in this file.

It is important to keep in mind that a loaded part file is only a copy of what is
stored on disk. Any new work that you do is not permanent until the part file is
saved on disk.

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ÉÉÉ Step 3 Display the View, Selection and Utility toolbars.


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
 Click MB3 in the toolbar area and verify the View, Selection
and Utility toolbars are checked ON.

The toolbars are displayed on the screen in an Docked state. Remember that
toolbars may be docked horizontally on the top or bottom and vertically on the
left or right. Locate the toolbars.

View

Selection

Utility

NOTE: Icons may vary for each


toolbar

Step 4 Undock and Dock the Utility toolbar.

NOTE: This portion of the activity is simply meant to show how


to undock and dock toolbars. Whether toolbars are in docked or
undocked conditions the process for moving them is very similar.

 Place the cursor on the handle portion of the Utility toolbar


and press and hold down mouse button 1 (MB1).

Select on the
Handle

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 Drag the toolbar onto the graphics window, note that the
ÉÉÉ
ghosted display of the outside of the window changes in size.
ÉÉÉ
 Release MB1.
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Notice the toolbar in an undocked condition displays a header with the name
of the toolbar.

 Place the cursor on the header portion of the Utility toolbar


and press and hold down MB1.

Select Here

 Drag the toolbar such that the header portion falls within the
main menu bar as shown below, note that the ghosted display
of the outside of the window changes in size as the cursor
leaves the graphics window.

Locate Here

 Release MB1.

The Utility toolbar is docked to the Unigraphics window.

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ÉÉÉ Step 5 Move a docked toolbar.


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
 Place the cursor on the handle portion of the Utility toolbar
and press and hold down MB1.

Select Here

 Drag the toolbar such that it is aligned under the Standard


toolbar completely to the left side of the window.

 Release MB1.

The Utility toolbar remains docked to the Unigraphics window in the proper
position.

 Select the View toolbar on the handle and drag the toolbar
such that it is aligned to the right of the Standard toolbar.

Locate Here

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 Select the Selection toolbar on the handle and drag the


ÉÉÉ
toolbar such that it is aligned to the right of the Utility
ÉÉÉ
toolbar.
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Locate Here

Step 6 Leave the part open, it will be used again in a later


activity.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ Mouse Navigation


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
The mouse may be used as well as the keyboard to make selections. Examples
of two different mouse devices are shown. The mouse buttons are referred to as
the first, second, or third mouse buttons, starting from left to right. (This order
can be reversed, for users who prefer that orientation, in most terminal control
panels.)

3-BUTTON MOUSE 2-BUTTON MOUSE

Both buttons
together execute
1 2 3 1 3 the second
mouse button
action

The mouse may be used to perform various actions as shown in this chart.

Mouse Button Action


First Mouse Button (left Selects or drags objects
only) MB1
Second Mouse Button (center OK while in an operation. Press and hold
or both buttons) MB2 down while in the graphics area to Rotate the
view. Hold down Shift+MB2 to Pan and hold
down Ctrl+MB2 to Zoom In/Out.
Third Mouse Button in Displays popĆup menu for Back, Apply,
graphics area MB3 Cancel, Pan, etc. Also displays action
information for objects selected with MB1.
Mouse arrow over icons or Displays either the icon or option label.
option menu in a dialog box

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Getting Started

Mouse PopĆup Menu ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
As mentioned in the previous chart, the mouse may be used to perform various
kinds of actions depending upon placement and position in the steps of the
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
process. When the cursor is in the graphics area and the third mouse button is
depressed, the Quick View PopĆUp menu shown in the graphic below is
displayed. The popĆup menu provides a shortcut to many of the functions that
are frequently used in Unigraphics.

NOTE: The View toolbar may also be used to perform many of the
view manipulation functions found in the View Pop-Up Menu.

Refresh Zoom Rotate Wireframe Wireframe


Fit Zoom Pan Shaded View
In/Out Settings
Settings Orientation

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ÉÉÉ The following table gives a brief summary of some of the options in the popĆup
ÉÉÉ menu.

ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ Option Description
Apply Performs operation displayed in the current dialog box.
Back Goes back to a previous dialog box.
Cancel Terminates the current operation.
Refresh Refreshes the entire graphics window. Erases temporary
display entities.
Fit Fits the entire part to the view. Utilizes the fit percentage
found on the Preferences→Visualization→Screen dialog
box. Generally used in a modeling view.
Zoom Changes the view scale via a user specified rectangle.
Zoom In/Out Changes the view scale via specification of a reference
point and dragging the size using the mouse.
Rotate Rotates the model using the XĆY method.
Pan Pans the view in the direction you pull the mouse.
Update Display Performs a Refresh operation as well as redisplaying
silhouette curves of faces and hidden edges of solids.
Restore Restores the original view that was in effect before one of
the following operations was performed: zoom, pan, rotate.
Display Mode Specifies the shading method in which the solid model is
displayed.
Hidden Edges Specifies the method of display of hidden edges in the
graphics window.
Expand Expands a drawing's member view to the full graphics area.
This is a toggle. The affected view becomes the work view
and remains the work view until the expand is turned off.
Orient View Redisplays the current view in a canned view orientation.
The original visualization settings and view modifications
are retained. Active only in a modeling view.
Replace View Replaces the current view with one of the canned views.
Active only in a modeling view.
Undo Reverses the effect of the last single operation performed.
Any operation or edit performed prior to the last one will
not be affected by undo.

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Getting Started

Selection Toolbar ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
The selection toolbar may be used anytime the selection of an object for
modification or the extraction of data is required. There are three major
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
categories of objects that a user may focus on: General Objects, Features, and
Components.

Components
General
Objects Features

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ÉÉÉ Depending on which category the user has selected, the Type Filter may be used
ÉÉÉ to narrow the band of selectable objects.

ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ

General
Objects

Features

Components

The remaining options of the toolbar may be used to further discriminate in the
selection of objects.

Deselect All
Color
Layer Reset
Class
Selection Select All Name Selection

Once an object has been selected, mouse button 3 (MB3) may be used to select
an available operator for that object.

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Getting Started

NOTE: When depressing MB3 the cursor must be on top of the


ÉÉÉ
selected object for the shown pop-up dialogs to appear.
ÉÉÉ
General Objects Components Operations
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Operations

Features Operations

NOTE: Options may vary based upon application and object selected.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ Preselection
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Preselection allows highlighting of objects that are selectable for various
operations as the selection ball is moved over them. Preselection by default is
ON in Unigraphics. Preselection may be controlled by choosing
Preferences"Selection from the menu bar. The color of the highlighting is
specified in the Color option menu. Preselection also applies to highlighting
objects that are being deselected, usually through use of <Shift> first mouse
button. The state of the Preselection setting is not saved with the part, and lasts
only through the current session.

Multiple Selection Candidates

During the graphics area selection process it is common to have more than one
selectable object contained in the selection ball. QuickPick is a selection
confirmation interface that allows immediate selection of a single object or an
easy method for browsing through multiple selection candidates.

During selection the act of moving the selection ball over a selectable object
causes the object to preĆhighlight in the preselection color. Selecting during this
preĆhighlighting phase causes the highlighted object to be chosen for the action
to be performed.

Should there be more than one selectable object at the selection ball location
and the cursor lingers for a short period of time, the appearance of the cursor
changes to a cross followed by an ellipsis (+...) indicating that there is more
than one selectable object at this position. Selection after the cursor changes
display will result in the presentation of the QuickPick dialog box shown below.

NOTE: The amount of time the cursor must be stationary for the
ellipsis (+...) to appear can be adjusted by choosing
Preferences"Selection and adjusting the Confirmation slider.

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Each selectable object beneath the cursor is represented by a number. Moving


ÉÉÉ
the cursor over the number highlights the object in the graphics area and
ÉÉÉ
displays the type of object in the Status area. The desired object may be
selected by selecting its numbered button. The maximum number of buttons ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
displayed at once is six. As shown in the previous graphic, when there are more
than six objects in the selection list, the end button is shown truncated. Placing
the cursor in the area outside the truncation causes the buttons to scroll in the
direction indicated.

NOTE: When the Quick Pick dialog box is presented upon selection
of an object, Mouse Button 1 can also be used anywhere on the graphics
screen to progress through the multiple candidates. This will also
progress the highlighted number in the Quick Pick dialog box and give
feedback in the Status line displaying the type of object being
highlighted.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ Layer Control


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Unigraphics offers users the control of visibility and selectability of objects by
the use of layers.

A layer is a systemĆdefined attribute that all objects in Unigraphics must have.


Some other required attributes are color, font, and width.

A layer may be thought of as a partition in the part file that objects reside in, or
on for the purpose of organization. There are 256 usable layers in Unigraphics,
one of which is always the Work Layer. Any of the 256 layers can be assigned to
one of four classifications of status:

 Work
 Selectable
 Visible Only
 Invisible

The Work Layer is the layer that objects are created on and is always visible
and selectable while it remains the Work Layer. Layer 1 is the default Work
Layer when starting a new part file. When the Work Layer is changed to
another, the previous Work Layer automatically becomes Selectable and could
then be assigned a status of Visible Only or Invisible.

The number of objects on one layer is not limited. Each user has the freedom to
choose which layers they will create objects on and what the status will be.
However, it should be mentioned that the use of company standards in regards
to layers would be beneficial.

To assign a status to a layer or layers, choose Format→Layer Settings or select


the Layer Settings icon, which may be turned ON in the Utility toolbar as
shown below.

Work Layer can also


be changed here Layer Settings

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Getting Started

The following dialog box appears:


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
Work Layer
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Text Box

Select a layer from the Layer/Status listing and choose one of the four buttons
below the listing.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ Layers and Categories


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
The following layer and category standards will be followed in this class.

Model Geometry

Object Type Layer Assignment Category Name


Solid Geometry 1-20 SOLIDS
InterĆpart Modeling 15-20 LINKED_OBJECTS
Sketch Geometry 21-40 SKETCHES
Curve Geometry 41-60 CURVES
Reference Geometry 61-80 DATUMS
Sheet Bodies 81-100 SHEETS

Drafting Objects

Object Type Layer Assignment Category Name


Drawing Borders 101-110 FORMATS

Engineering Disciplines

Object Type Layer Assignment Category Name


Mechanism Tools 121-130 MECH
Finite Element Meshes 131-150 CAE
and Engr. Tools
Manufacturing 151-180 MFG
Quality Tools 181-190 QA

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Getting Started

Moving Layers
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
In the process of creating a model, there are times when it is necessary to move
an object to a different layer. This option is available using Format→Move to
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Layer. The objects which need to be moved are then selected using the Class
Selection menu. Once all of the objects to be moved are selected, the Layer
Move dialog box appears.

To complete the process, the destination layer may be entered in the


Destination Layer or Category field, or the layer may be selected from the list.
Choose OK or Apply to move the object(s). If Apply is chosen, more objects
may be selected to move by choosing the Select New Objects button.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ Class Selection


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
The Class Selection dialog box is used to filter for certain types of objects
during graphics area selection. Normally direct selection using the selection ball
in the graphics area is enough to get the desired object. There are times when
filtering using the Class Selection options is necessary or very helpful to ensure
that only desired object/types are selected. This often occurs in complex parts.

Name filter

Filter methods

Area filters

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Getting Started

Class Selection Filter Types ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
 The Name filter allows selection by object(s) by entering an assigned
name attribute. ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
 Filter Methods allows control of the selection of objects according to
attributes such as features, type, color, and layer.
 Features allows features (e.g. block, hole, datum, sketch) to be
selected for various operations (e.g. delete or information). Once this
option has been selected and features have been identified, choosing
OK will perform the operation which introduced the Class Selection
dialog. This option is not available for all operations (e.g. edit object
display and Move to Layer).
 Type allows the object types (e.g. curve, edge, body, datums) to be
included or excluded from the selection process.
 Color allows objects to be included or excluded from the selection
process based on their color. All colors are initially selectable as the
default.
 Layer is used to specify the layer(s) on which to allow selection. Valid
layer selection may include a single layer, an existing category, or a
layer range.
 Other is used to filter for font (line type), width, and userĆdefined
attributes.
 Reset is used to return all fields to the default state.

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ÉÉÉ  Rectangle/Polygon Method is an option menu used to specify how objects


ÉÉÉ are selected relative to an area defined by a rectangle or a polygon as

ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
discussed below. The rectangle or polygon is oriented in the current view
plane and may be used in any view. A rectangle may be used by selecting
a cursor location and dragging the cursor to another cursor location. The
Polygon button must be selected prior to specifying the boundary with
rubberĆbanding line segments in the graphics area.
 Inside - Objects completely inside the rectangle/polygon are selected.
 Outside -Objects completely outside the rectangle/polygon are
selected.
 Crossing - Objects crossing the boundary of the rectangle/polygon are
selected.
 Inside/Crossing - All objects inside the rectangle/polygon as well as
those crossing the boundary of the rectangle/polygon. This is the
default method.
 Outside/Crossing - All objects outside the rectangle/polygon as well
as those crossing the boundary of the rectangle/polygon.
 Up One Level allows selection of the next level component or group if
components or groups are enabled for that operation. This is useful in
assemblies work.
 Select All selects all objects in the work view by current filter methods
settings.
 All but Selected selects all objects in the work view except for those
currently highlighted by selection.
 Chain allows the selection of a sequence of contiguous curves or solid
edges.
 Polygon allows the selection of objects using a polygon that is specified in
the graphics area. (See Rectangle/Polygon Method above.)

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Getting Started

Activity 3 - Save Part As (Copying a Part File) ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
This activity shows how to make a copy of an existing part file by saving it using
a different name. ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Continue with the previous part file pau_intro_1.

Step 1 Create a copy of a part file.

 Choose File→Save As...

The Save Part File As dialog box appears.

Directory where part is Up One Level


to be saved

Enter new
filename
here

Step 2 Save a copy of the file in the desired directory.

 In the Save Part File As dialog, use the Save in: option menu
to navigate to the proper directory to save the part file.
(HINT: should be one level up from the parts folder)

Step 3 Enter a new part file name.

 Click in the File name field.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ  Key in ***_intro_1 as the new part file name where ***
ÉÉÉ represent your initials.
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ

Type filename
here

 Choose OK.

The Status Line states that the part file is being saved. When the save is
complete, the message Part file saved" displays. Work in Unigraphics may be
resumed.

Step 4 Save the work.

 Choose the Save icon.

Once again, Unigraphics informs you in the Status Line that it is saving the
part file. When the save is complete, the message Part file saved" is displayed.

TIP You can save your work and exit Unigraphics all at once by choosing
File"Close"Save All and Exit.

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Getting Started

Activity 4 - Closing Part Files and Exiting Unigraphics ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
This activity shows how to close a part file and exit Unigraphics.
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Continue with the previous part file ***_intro_1.

Use File→Close→Selected Parts to close one or more of the loaded parts. Close
All may be used to close all parts loaded in the current session from the Close
Part dialog box.

Step 1 Close the part file.

 Choose File→Close→Selected Parts.

The Close Part dialog box appears showing a list of all open part files, which
currently are ***_intro_1 and ***_new_1 part files.

***_intro_1
List of open ***_new_1
part files

 Select the ***_intro_1 part file and choose MB2.

Since the part was not changed since it was last saved, it is immediately closed.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ If the part had been changed, the system displays a warning message letting you
ÉÉÉ know that the part has been modified since it was last saved.

ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
***_intro_1

Closing the part file does not save the part, it only clears the part file from the
local memory in the workstation. Changes that have been made to the part file
will be lost if the close operation is continued.

Step 2 Learn how to end the Unigraphics work session.

 Choose File→Exit. A dialog box displays.

If part file(s) are still open and have been modified, a message displays:

To end Unigraphics, from either Exit message window, you would choose OK.

 Choose Cancel to dismiss the message and keep the session


open. Do not Exit Unigraphics at this time.

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Getting Started

Activity 5 - Establish Toolbar Environment in Modeling ÉÉÉ


ÉÉÉ
This activity will establish an efficient toolbar working environment in the
Modeling application for this course. Other toolbars can be added as needed. ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Step 1 Change the displayed part to ***_new_1 (HINT: Window
from the menu bar)

Step 2 Display the Application toolbar in the Gateway


Application.

 Click MB3 in the toolbar area and check ON the Application


toolbar.

Click MB3 within


toolbar area.

Locate the Application toolbar in the Unigraphics window, it may be docked or


undocked.

NOTE: Icons may vary.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ Step 3 Customize the Application toolbar.


ÉÉÉ Click MB3 in the toolbar area and choose Customize.
ÉÉÉ

1
ÉÉÉ

 Select the Commands tab and highlight Application in the


Toolbars column.

Select these
options

A listing with the commands for the Application toolbar is displayed. The
commands displayed on the toolbar are checked in the Commands column.

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Getting Started

 Scroll down to see all of the options in the Commands


ÉÉÉ
column. Turn ON the Modeling, Drafting and Assemblies
ÉÉÉ
commands and turn OFF all others options. Also, turn ON
the Separator above the Assemblies command. ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ

Scroll
down
here

Note that the display of the toolbar changes immediately upon selection of
commands.

 Choose Close to dismiss the Customize dialog box.

 Locate the Application toolbar as shown below.

Locate here

These toolbar settings will be retained for the Gateway application for the rest
of the course.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ Step 4 Enter the Modeling Application.


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ  Select the Modeling icon in the Application toolbar.

Entering a different application will introduce a new set of toolbars. The


toolbars that were established in the Gateway application may move and have
different commands in them.

Step 5 Display the common toolbars from the Gateway


application.

 Click MB3 in the toolbar area and verify that the Standard,
View, Selection, Utility and Application toolbars are checked
ON. Turn OFF all other toolbars. Other toolbars will be
turned ON throughout the course as they are needed.

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Getting Started

 Dock the toolbars in similar locations as defined in the


ÉÉÉ
Gateway application.
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ
Step 6 Customize the toolbars.

 Click MB3 in the toolbar area and choose Customize.

 Select the Commands tab and adjust the toolbars to match


the commands in the table below.

Toolbars Standard View Selection Utility Application


New Refresh Select Work Drafting
General Layer
Objects
Open Fit Select Layer Assemblies
Features Settings
Save Zoom Select Separator Gateway
Components
Separator Zoom Separator WCS
In/Out Dynamics
Commands Delete Rotate Type Filter Orient
Undo Pan Reset WCS
Separator Separator Separator
Information Wireframe Select All
Settings
Shaded Deselect All
Settings
Wireframe Separator
View Up One
Orientation Level
 Choose Close to dismiss the Customize dialog box.

Step 7 Close the part file, do not save.

 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

 Choose OK in the Question window.

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Getting Started

ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
1
ÉÉÉ

SUMMARY

In this lesson you:


 Started Unigraphics and were made aware
that the user interface appearance may be
slightly different on UNIX and NT
platforms.
 Executed Menu Bar Pull Down Menus and
saw how these tools can save time.
 Created, retrieved, and saved parts. By
performing these functions you were made
aware of that parts are only loaded into
memory and are not saved until performing
a save" or save as" operation.
 Copied a Part File.
 Closed a Part File.
 Were introduced to the layer system in
Unigraphics, and saw how this convention
aids in part file organization.
 Exited Unigraphics.
 Activated toolbars and adjusted the
commands within them.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Introduction to Solid Modeling


Lesson 2

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
PURPOSE This lesson is a fundamental introduction to the Unigraphics
Modeling application. Subsequent lessons will reinforce and extend the
student's understanding.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Define the Absolute Coordinate System (ABS).


 Define the Work Coordinate System (WCS).
 Manipulate the WCS.
 Define Points for Locations.
 Create and Edit a Primitive Block.
 Create a direction vector.
 Create a primitive cylinder.

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Practical Applications of
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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Coordinate Systems in Unigraphics

Before any portions of the solid model may be defined, it is important to


understand the options Unigraphics offers for location and orientation of
objects. Since solid modeling takes place in a 3Ćdimensional environment,
model space is defined as the infinite extension of a 3Ćdimensional field
represented in the views of your graphics area.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
Start here and go
this direction."

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
There are many coordinate systems in Unigraphics, all are rightĆhand,
Cartesian coordinate systems, made up of a set of X, Y, and Z axes, 90° apart
from each other.

A threeĆaxis symbol is used to identify a coordinate system. The intersection of


the axes is called the origin of the coordinate system. The origin has the
coordinate values of X=0, Y=0, and Z=0. The figure below illustrates that,
starting at the origin, each axis has a positive direction and a negative direction.

+Z
-X
+Y
-Y +X

-Z Origin

This manual will primarily discuss the following different coordinate system
types used in Unigraphics modeling.

 Absolute Coordinate System (ABS)


 Work Coordinate System (WCS)
 Feature Coordinate System (Discussed in Form Features Lesson)

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Absolute Coordinate System

The Absolute Coordinate System (ABS) is not mobile. It defines a fixed point
and orientation in model space. The Absolute Coordinate System is necessary
to relate location or orientation between any two objects, solid models,
Unigraphics part files, or even a Unigraphics part file to any other CAE
system. An object positioned at Absolute X= 1, Y=1, and Z=1 in one part file
is the exact same absolute position in any other part file.

Work Coordinate System


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
Since the ABS is not mobile, Unigraphics uses the Work Coordinate System
(WCS) to establish a mobile coordinate system to facilitate geometry
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
construction in different orientations. The WCS can be located and oriented
manually anywhere in model space. The WCS is not a selectable entity.

Most solid modeling operations in Unigraphics do not require manipulation of


the WCS, since features are added to a model relative to existing geometry of
the model, not relative to positions and directions in model space. In those
cases, the WCS is handled automatically by Unigraphics. However, certain
functions are dependent on the WCS, and require the WCS to be positioned
prior to performing the operation. Curve and Primitive creation are two
functions dependent on the WCS.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Manipulating the WCS


The WCS options are accessed by choosing WCS on the menu bar or from the
Utility toolbar (a part file must be displayed).

In general, there are four ways to manipulate the WCS. They are origin,
rotation, orientation and dynamics. WCS Dynamics will be the focus in this
lesson.

WCS Dynamics: Provides a dynamic interface to control the location and

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
orientation of the WCS by entering values or dragging handles of the WCS in
the graphics screen.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
After choosing WCS Dynamics, the WCS displays with handles. The Point
Constructor icon also appears in the upper left hand corner of the graphics
window.

Handles

Point
Constructor

NOTE: WCS Dynamics may also be accessed by double-clicking


directly on the WCS on the graphics screen. When the cursor is
placed directly over the WCS there will be a temporary display of
rotation planes shown to indicate that the WCS can be directly
selected. If there is another object coincident with the WCS the
temporary display of rotation planes may not appear. In cases where
the WCS cannot be double-clicked, WCS Dynamics can be accessed
from the Menu bar or the Utility toolbar (as shown below).

WCS Dynamics

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Dynamic WCS Handles

Vertex Handle: If the square handle is selected the WCS can be relocated to any
point on the graphics screen (e.g. control point, cursor position, arc center, etc.)
and help indicators will display next to an object to help you predict where the
WCS will relocate to.

The Point Constructor option is also available on the graphics window to


position the WCS, when selected this option will bring the Point Constructor
dialog box up. This handle will also allow the coordinate system to be dragged
in any direction. ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Vertex
Handle

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Defining Points for Location

To determine the location of the WCS, Primitives or any other geometry, the
definition of specific points in space is necessary, and is a common function in
any CAE system. Unigraphics offers a standard dialog box that provides
multiple point methods to define location. Using the Point Constructor dialog
box, you can define origin points, start points, endpoints, etc. based on existing
geometry or coordinate values.

ÏÏÏ
Existing Point End Point
Control Point

ÏÏÏ
Cursor Location
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ Inferred Point
Intersection Point

Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Point on Surface


Center
Angle on
Arc/Ellipse Point on Curve/Edge

Quadrant Point
None
Rectangular
Cylindrical
Restores Base Spherical
Point values Vector
to zero and
Along Curve
Offset to none

NOTE: For more information on Point types, see Appendix B.

Axis Handle: If one of the three axis handles is selected a Dynamic Input Field
appears on the graphics window next to the WCS, which allows input of specific
distances or snap increments. This handle will also allow the coordinate system
to be dragged along its axis.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Rotation Handle: If one of the three rotation handles is selected a Dynamic


Input Field also appears next to the WCS, which allows input of specific angles
or snap increments. This handle will also allow the coordinate system to be
rotated about the axis.

Rotation
Handle

Axis
Dynamic
Input Field ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
Handle
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Distance/Angle: When the Dynamic Input Field appears next to the WCS the
Distance/Angle fields display the offset distance or rotation that results from a
dragging operation. You can also use these fields to directly enter a distance or
rotation angle.

Snap (Angle/Distance): Using a Rotation handle, you can snap the WCS 45
degrees when you rotate within the Snap (angle) tolerance. The default value
for a tolerance is 45°, but you can change the Snap field to adjust the tolerance.
For example, if the Snap (angle) tolerance is set to 5° and you rotate the WCS
anywhere between 40 and 50° from its original position, it will snap to 45°. The
Angle field will update to the angle moved as the handle is dragged.

Using an Axis handle, you can snap the WCS incremental distances when you
drag the handle. The default value for a Snap (distance) is 0 (zero), but you can
change the Snap field to adjust the tolerance. The Distance field will update to
the distance moved as the handle is dragged.

Finished Moving: Use the middle mouse button (MB2) to confirm the location
or orientation of the WCS and exit WCS Dynamics.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

NOTE: Undo is available and can be used during WCS movement to


restore the WCS to a previous location or orientation.

Utility Toolbar

The WCS options may also be accessed through the Utility toolbar.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Display
Orient
WCS WCS
WCS Save
Dynamics WCS

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Orient WCS: Allows the location and the rotation of the WCS to be altered in
one step. The menu shown below contains the various options to accomplish
WCS orientation.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

Before After
XĆaxis
Using the XĆaxis, YĆaxis
option to change origin YĆaxis
and rotation in the same
step.

NOTE: The Orient option is commonly used to move the WCS back
to the Absolute origin and orientation.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Activity 1 - Manipulating the WCS


In this activity, the WCS will be moved to different positions on a model. By
default, the WCS location and orientation in a new part file coincides with the
Absolute Coordinate System. During model construction, Unigraphics usually
manages the WCS automatically. However, some construction and Info
functions depend on the WCS, so it is helpful to learn how to manipulate the
WCS.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Step 1 Open part file pau_wcs_1 and start the Modeling
Application.

Step 2 Change the Work Coordinate System origin.

 Choose the WCS Dynamics icon from the Utility


toolbar.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

 Select the various points shown. Do not select any of the


WCS handles.

Select this elliptical edge


(Quadrant Pt. or Ellipse Ctr.)
Select here
(End Pt.)

Select this circular edge


(Quadrant Pt. or Arc Ctr.)

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

Select this elliptical edge


(Quadrant Pt. or Ellipse Ctr.) Select here
(End Pt.)

Select here
(End Pt.)

The vertex is selected by default when entering WCS Dynamics, therefore you
can simply pick points in the graphics window to move the WCS. The relocated
WCS has the same XC, YC, ZC directions as the prior WCS location.

 Choose MB2 when finished moving the WCS to exit WCS


Dynamics.

Step 3 Change the direction of the Work Coordinate System


axes.

 Choose the WCS Dynamics icon.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

 Move the WCS to the arc center shown below.

Select this circular


edge when the
center is high
lighted.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ  Select the Rotation Handle shown below.

Select this
handle

The Dynamic Input Field appears allowing an angle or snap (angle) to be


entered.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

 Enter -905 in the Angle text entry field and press Enter.

Before After

The origin of the WCS is


unchanged, the coordinate
system is rotated about the
XC axis, from the ZC axis
toward the YC axis 90

The direction of rotation is based on the Right Hand Rule. ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
2
 Choose MB2 when finished rotating the WCS. ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Step 4 Change the orientation of the WCS.

The image below has be rotated for clarity. Feel free to shade and rotate the
view for better viewing of the part.

 Choose the WCS Dynamics icon.

 Move the WCS to the location shown below.

Select this
corner

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

 Select the XC Axis Handle as shown below.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ Select this
Handle

 Orient the XC Axis Handle to the edge shown below.

Arrow should
point in this
direction

Select
here

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

 Select the YC Axis Handle.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Select this
Handle

 Orient the YC Axis Handle to the edge shown below.

Arrow should
point in this
direction

Select
here

 Choose MB2 when finished orienting the WCS.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Step 5 Move the WCS back to the Absolute CSYS.


 Choose the Orient WCS icon as shown below.

Orient WCS

The following menu appears, listing the various ways to specify a new location
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
and orientation for the WCS.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

 Choose the Absolute CSYS icon.

 Choose OK.

Step 6 Choose File"Close"All Parts and choose OK in the


Question dialog.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Primitives

A Primitive is a solid object that is analytic in nature. A Primitive may be


thought of as raw stock", to which material will be added or removed to
achieve the finished part. There are multiple ways of defining each of the four
Primitive types. Primitives may be used as the basic shape at the start of the
solid modeling process. Using one of the Primitive types as the base feature
eliminates the need to create and sweep curve geometry.

When a Primitive is created, its type and its size must be specified as well as its
location and orientation in model space. ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
The four types of Primitives are: ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Block
 Cylinder
 Cone
 Sphere

NOTE: Although Unigraphics continues to allow the use of multiple


Primitives in one solid body, the practice is not recommended because of
the advantages and associativity of other solid modeling functionality. If a
Primitive is used in a part file, the Primitive should be used as the initial
solid feature.

NOTE: Primitives are positioned explicitly. Their origins are set by a


specified point in model space. However, they can be moved manually by
either Transforming or, preferably, using Move Feature. A primitive's
creation parameter values may be edited and made associative to each
other.

This lesson will concentrate on the Block feature. Another type of Primitive will
be discussed later.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Block

A Primitive block may be created by specifying the size and location of the
block in model space. The orientation will be implied from the orientation of
the WCS.

There are three different methods that may be used to create a block. The
middle portion of the dialog and the Selection Steps change depending on the

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
type of block creation method you choose. This manual will discuss the first
method, Origin, Edge Lengths.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ Two Points, Height
Two Diagonal Points
Origin, Edge Lengths

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Origin, Edge Lengths Method

 Choose the Block icon. (Insert→Form Feature→Block)


 Choose the creation method of Origin, Edge Lengths
 Define the length for each edge.
 Define the Point Method for the corner's origin.

NOTE: When no solid exists, no selection will place the corner at ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
Absolute 0,0,0.

The corner used for the origin is the vertex of the edges used to
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
define the size of the block.

 Choose the desired boolean operation

(Although Unigraphics continues to allow the use of multiple Primitives


in one solid body, the practice is not recommended because of the
advantages and associativity of other solid modeling functionality. If a
Primitive is used in a part file, the Primitive should be used as the initial
solid feature.).

NOTE: All of the X, Y, and Z values of the edge lengths are


measured relative to the WCS, and must be positive values since
they are used as the length, width, and height parameters of the
block.

 Choose OK or Apply.

Once the block has been created, its size may be changed by editing the values
that were used for edge lengths during creation.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Activity 2 - Additional Toolbars in Modeling Application


This activity will establish additional toolbars in the Modeling application for
this lesson and future lessons.

Step 1 Create a new inch part file and name it ***_prim_exp_1

and choose the Modeling icon.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2 Step 2 Display additional toolbars in the Modeling application.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ  Click MB3 in the toolbar area and turn ON the Form
Feature, Feature Operation, Edit Feature and Modeling
Toggles toolbars.

Form Feature

Feature Operation

Edit Feature

Modeling Toggles

NOTE: Icons may vary for each


toolbar

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

 Dock the toolbars horizontally or vertically in the locations


defined below.

Modeling
Feature Edit Feature Toggles
Operation

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

Form
Feature

Step 3 Customize the toolbars.

 Click MB3 in the toolbar area and choose Customize.

 Select the Commands tab and adjust the toolbars to match


the commands in the following table.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Toolbars Form Feature Edit Modeling


Feature Operation Feature Toggles
Form
Edit Feature
Sketch Taper Feature
Parameters
Toolbar
Feature
Edit
Extruded Body Edge Blend Operation
Positioning
Toolbar
Edit
Revolved Body Edge Chamfer Move Feature Feature
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
Toolbar

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Sweep along
Guide
Hollow Separator

Instance Suppress
Separator
Feature Feature
Hole Unsuppress
Offset Face
Feature
Commands Boss Separator Separator
Delay Update
Pocket Unite
on Edit
Pad Subtract Update
Slot Intersect Separator
Feature
Groove
Playback
Separator
Datum Plane
Datum Axis
Datum CSYS
Separator
Block
Cylinder
 Choose Close to dismiss the Customize dialog box.

Step 4 Continue to the next activity.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Activity 3 - Creating a Primitive Block


In this activity, a Primitive Block will be created using the Origin, Edge Lengths
method. Only numerical values will be used for the size of the block.

Continue with the previous part file ***_prim_exp_1.

Step 1 Orient the WCS.

Choose the Trimetric icon from the View toolbar.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ


 Place the cursor over the WCS and double-click on it to ÏÏÏ


enter WCS Dynamics.

 Select the YC-ZC Rotation Handle and drag the WCS to to


orientation shown below.

Select this
handle

 Choose MB2 when finished rotating the WCS.

Step 2 Create a Block.

 Choose the Block icon.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

 If necessary, choose the Origin, Edge Lengths icon.

 Key in the following parameters:

Length (XC) = 8 (Tab)

Length (YC) = 6 (Tab)

Length (ZC) = 6/2 (an example of algebraic entry)


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2  Choose MB2.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Choose the Fit icon from the View toolbar.

Step 3 Move the WCS back to the Absolute CSYS orientation.

 Choose Orient WCS icon .

 Choose the Absolute CSYS icon.

 Choose MB2.

Notice the WCS rotated back to the absolute orientation but the block stays in
the same orientation. The WCS is only referenced when creating primitives and
is not created associative to it.

Step 4 Change the size of the block.

 Ensure the Select Features icon is ON in the


Selection toolbar.

 Place the cursor over the block an double-click on it to


enter Edit Parameters.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

 Select the parameter shown below to edit.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

Select this
parameter

 Change the parameter value to 4 and choose MB2 twice.

Step 5 Choose File"Close"Save and Close.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Defining Vectors

Some of the primitives require a direction vector to define in what direction the
primitive will be created. The direction, reference, and destination vectors may
be defined using the Vector Constructor dialog box shown below.

At Angle Edge/Curve
Vector
Between Two
Points On Curve

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
Inferred
Vector
Vector

Face

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Normal

Datum Plane
Normal ZC Axis

Datum Axis

YC Axis
XC Axis

NOTE: The XC, YC, and ZC Axis options are sufficient for the
purpose of this course.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Cylinder
A Primitive cylinder may be created by specifying the orientation, size and
location of the cylinder. The methods to create cylinders are shown in the next
figure.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Diameter, Height Method
This method is used to create a cylinder by specifying the diameter and height
values. The location and axis direction vector must also be specified. After
choosing this method:
 Define the cylinder axis vector using the Vector Constructor.
 Enter the diameter and height.
 Define the cylinder origin using the Point Constructor.

In the example below, the direction vector is the ZC Axis. The origin is shown
with the cylinder being created at the specified height in the direction of the
vector.

Direction vector

Origin

ZC
YC

XC

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Activity 1 - Creating a Primitive Cylinder


In this activity, a primitive cylinder will be created utilizing the direction vector
menu.

Step 1 Open the part pau_seedpart_mm.

Step 2 Choose Modeling.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
Step 3 Create the Cylinder.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ  Choose the Cylinder icon.

 Choose the Diameter, Height method.

 Choose the YC Axis direction icon from the Vector


Constructor.

 Choose OK.

 Enter the following Values:

Diameter = 75
Height = 200

 Choose OK.

 Locate the cylinder at XC=0, YC=0, ZC=0. Choose Reset in


the Point Constructor menu if needed and choose OK.

 Choose Cancel.

 Choose Fit from the third mouse button PopĆUp Menu.

ZC
YC
XC

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Step 4 Edit the size of the cylinder.

 Place the cursor over the cylinder and double-click on it to


enter Edit Parameters.

 Choose Feature Dialog.

 Change the values as follows:

Diameter = 15
Height = 150
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
 Choose MB2 twice. ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

 Choose File"Close"All Parts, do not save the part.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

SUMMARY

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
2
In this lesson you:

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Were taught that the Absolute Coordinate
System is a stationary coordinate system that
defines a fixed point in model space.
 Were taught that the Work Coordinate
System is a mobile coordinate system that
may be moved and reoriented as necessary
to support other Unigraphics functions.
 Relocated, rotated, and reoriented the WCS.
 Created a Block. You were also taught that if
using a Primitive feature, it should be the
base feature and that Primitives should be
limited to one in a part file because they
cannot be associatively positioned.
 Changed the size of a Primitive after
creation.
 Created a Primitive Cylinder.
 Edited a Primitive Cylinder
 Reviewed the Vector Constructor dialog.

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Form Features

Form Features
Lesson 3

PURPOSE To introduce Form Features.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Create Boss, Pocket, Hole, and Slot Form Features.


ÏÏÏ
Position Boss, Pocket, Hole, and Slot Form Features . ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

3
 Create a Rectangular Pad.
ÏÏÏ

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Form Features

Form Features

Form features are used to add detail to the model during creation. These
features include holes, slots, bosses, pads, pockets and grooves. Form features
are fully associative to the geometry and parameter values used to create them.

The Placement Face

ÏÏÏ All form features require a placement face. For a groove, the placement face
ÏÏÏ must be cylindrical or conical. For all other form features, the placement face
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
must be planar. This planar placement face defines the XĆY plane of the
coordinate system for the feature being created. Features are created normal to
the placement face.

A datum plane may be used as the planar placement face. The creation and
use of datum planes is covered in a later lesson.

Datum Plane used


as Planar Placement
Face for Hole feature
through cylindrical
face of boss.

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Form Features

The Horizontal and Vertical Reference

The Horizontal Reference defines the X axis of the feature coordinate system.
Any linear edge, planar face, datum axis, or datum plane that may be projected
onto the planar placement face may be selected to define the horizontal
direction. The Horizontal Reference is required to define the length direction
of form features having a Length parameter (slot, rectangular pocket and pad).
If no edge in a true horizontal direction is available the user can specify a
vertical reference from which the system will infer horizontal as perpendicular
to the selected vertical direction.

X+ Vector

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

The Horizontal Reference is also required to define horizontal or vertical types


of positioning dimensions for features that do not initially require a Horizontal
Reference (holes bosses, and cylindrical pockets).

Feature Coordinate System

During creation of features of a Unigraphics model, the system will manipulate


the WCS automatically to facilitate creation of the feature specified based on
the user input provided. The manipulated coordinate system is called a Feature
Coordinate System (FCS) and is stored as part of the feature definition.
Unigraphics will manipulate the WCS back to the FCS orientation during
subsequent feature editing.

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Form Features

Positioning Form Features

Positioning Dimensions are distance values measured along the planar


placement face. They may be used to place the form feature at the proper
location on the placement face. These dimensions should be considered as
constraints, or rules, that the geometry must obey.

There are nine different positioning methods available on the Positioning dialog
box, as shown below.

Parallel
Vertical Parallel at a
Perpendicular
Distance
Horizontal

Angular

Point Line

ÏÏÏ onto onto

ÏÏÏ Point Line

ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ Point
onto
Line

NOTE: When positioning a form feature, only applicable dimension


types will be displayed.

It is not necessary to add positioning dimensions to form features, but it is


recommended that positioning dimensions be added at the time of creation for
ease of later editing.

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Form Features

Positioning Terminology
 Fully Specified -The feature is uniquely located by the positioning
dimensions specified.
 Underspecified - The feature is not yet uniquely located.
 Overspecified - The feature has had more positioning dimensions
applied to it than are necessary.
 Target Solid - The solid body that a Boolean operation acts upon. In the
context of a Form Feature it is the solid body that the Hole, Slot, Pocket
or Groove will subtract from, or a Boss or Pad will unite with.
 Tool Solid -The solid representation of the feature being defined by the
current operation. In the context of a Form Feature it is the
representation of the Hole, Slot, Pocket, Pad, Boss, or Groove that will be
subtracted from or united with the Target Solid.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

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Form Features

Positioning Methods

Horizontal - Specifies the horizontal distance between two points, one


point on the target solid and the other point on the tool solid. Horizontal is
measured along the XĆaxis of the feature coordinate system (i.e. the Horizontal
Reference). As edges are selected, the nearest valid point is selected (midpoints
are not selectable).

Feature
Coordinate
System

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ Target edge
Horizontal reference

ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ Tool edge
(datum plane)

1.50

Horizontal
positioning
dimension

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Form Features

Vertical - Specifies the vertical distance between two points, one point
on the target solid and the other point on the tool solid. Vertical is measured
along the YĆaxis of the feature coordinate system (i.e. perpendicular to the
Horizontal Reference). As edges are selected, the nearest valid point is selected
(midpoints are not selectable).

Feature Coordinate System

Vertical
positioning
dimension
1.50 Target edge
(arc center)

Tool edge
(arc center)

Horizontal reference

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Angular - Specifies that a linear edge on the target solid (also datum
planes or axis) and a linear edge on the tool solid must be at a given angle to
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
each other. The angle is measured in a counterĆclockwise direction (with
respect to the feature coordinate system), from the ends of the edges nearest to
where they are selected.

Feature
Coordinate
System
Tool edge
(center line)

30
Angular
positioning
dimension

Horizontal reference Target edge

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Form Features

Examples of Horizontal, Vertical and Angular Positioning


Dimensions

Fully Specified by
Horizontal, Vertical and
Angular Positioning
Dimensions

15

.500

Target edge for Horizontal Tool edge for Horizontal


and Vertical Dimension and Vertical Dimension Horizontal
.500 reference

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ Fully Specified by
Horizontal and Vertical
Positioning Dimensions

1.00
Tool edge
(arc center)

Target edge for Horizontal


and Vertical Dimension
(arc center) 1.00 Horizontal reference

NOTE: When positioning Holes, Bosses, and Cylindrical Pockets the


Tool Edge is automatically selected and defined as the arc center.

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Form Features

Parallel - Specifies the shortest distance between two points, one point
on the target solid and the other point on the tool solid. As edges are selected,
the nearest valid point is selected (midpoints are not selectable).

Tool edge Feature


(arc center) Coordinate
System

1.375

Parallel
positioning
dimension
Target edge
(arc center)

Perpendicular - Specifies the shortest (normal) distance between a


linear edge on the target solid (also datum planes or axis) and a point on the tool
ÏÏÏ
solid. The linear target edge is always the first pick.
ÏÏÏ
Target edges
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
1.50
Feature
Coordinate
Perpendicular System
positioning
dimension

Tool edge
(arc center)

2.00

In the above example the feature (hole) can be fully specified with two
Perpendicular dimensions. Features with length, such as slot, pocket and pad,
will require an additional positioning dimension to control rotation.

TIP Using Perpendicular positioning instead of Horizontal or Vertical can


save time since no horizontal or vertical reference is needed.

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Form Features

Parallel at a Distance - Specifies that a linear edge on the target solid


(also datum planes or axis) and a linear edge on the tool solid must be parallel
and at a given distance. This is typically used for features with length (slot,
pocket or pad).

Feature
Coordinate
System

2.00
Parallel
positioning Tool edge
dimension (center line)

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Target edge These two edges are
Horizontal reference constrained parallel
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ Using Parallel at a Distance will solve two of the three degrees of freedom
necessary to fully specify a feature with length, rotational and distance in one
direction. Adding another Parallel at a Distance or Line onto Line dimension
would overspecify the location of the feature. To fully specify the feature in the
above example an additional positioning dimension is required to solve the final
degree of freedom (i.e. Horizontal, Perpendicular, or Point onto Line).

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Form Features

Point onto Point - Specifies that the distance between a point on the target
solid and a point on the tool solid is zero. This is most commonly used to align arc
centers of cylindrical or conical features and fully constrain their location since rotation
is not a degree of freedom for cylindrical or conical features.

Point on tool solid

Point on target solid

Point onto Point is the same as the Parallel positioning dimension only the
ÏÏÏ
value is automatically set to zero. This zero value can be edited to a non-zero
ÏÏÏ
value through the Edit→Feature→Positioning dialog.
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

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Form Features

Point onto Line - Specifies that the distance between an edge on the target
solid (also datum planes or axis) and a point on the tool solid is zero.

Point onto Line


positioning
dimensions

Feature
0 Coordinate
System

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
0

ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
Target edges
(Datum Planes)
Tool edge
(arc center)

Point onto Line is the same as the Perpendicular positioning dimension only the
value is automatically set to zero. This zero value can be edited to a non-zero
value through the Edit→Feature→Positioning dialog.

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Form Features

Line onto Line - Specifies that the distance between a linear edge on the
target solid (also datum planes or axis) and a linear edge on the tool solid is zero and
they are constrained parallel to each other. This is typically used for features with
length (slot, pocket or pad).

Point onto Line


positioning
Horizontal reference
dimensions

Feature
Coordinate
System
0

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Target edge
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
(Datum Plane)
Tool edge
(center line
of slot)

Using Line onto Line will solve two of the three degrees of freedom necessary
to fully specify a feature of length, rotational and translation in one direction.
Adding another Line onto Line or Parallel at a Distance dimension would
overspecify the location of the feature. To fully specify the feature in the above
example an additional positioning dimension is required to solve the final
degree of freedom (i.e. Horizontal, Perpendicular, or Point onto Line).

Line onto Line is the same as the Parallel at a Distance positioning dimension
only the value is automatically set to zero. This zero value can be edited to a
non-zero value through the Edit→Feature→Positioning dialog.

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Form Features

Hole

This option is used to create simple, counterbore, and countersink holes in an


existing solid. The middle portion of the dialog window changes depending on
the hole type that is selected.

Placement face Thru face


Simple Counterbore Countersink

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

Hole Creation Method


 Choose Insert→Form Feature→Hole (or the Hole icon.)
 Choose the hole type.
 Select the placement face. If a datum plane is selected choose the
Reverse Side button as required.
 Select the thru face if applicable.
 Key in the required values (or statements).
 Choose OK or Apply.
 Create positional dimensions as required.

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Form Features

Simple

Hole Depth

Hole Diameter

Counterbored

CĆBore Diameter

Hole Depth

ÏÏÏ
CĆBore Depth
ÏÏÏ
Tip Angle
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

Countersunk

CĆSink
Angle CĆSink Diameter

Hole Depth

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Form Features

Activity 1 - Creating Hole Form Features


This activity will show the creation of a thru hole feature.

Simple Thru Hole


Diameter = 1.50

Step 1 Open the part file pau_seedpart_in.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
 Ensure that the Modeling Application is active.

Step 2 Create a Block.

 Choose the Block icon.

 If necessary, choose the Origin, Edge Lengths icon.

 Key in the following parameters:

Length (XC) = 10 (Tab)

Length (YC) = 4 (Tab)

Length (ZC) = 2

 Choose MB2.

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Form Features

 Choose the Fit icon from the View toolbar.

Step 3 Create a simple thru hole.

 Choose the Hole icon.

 Ensure the Simple hole icon is selected.

 Select the top face of the block as shown below. Confirm the
selection if necessary.

Select top face here

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

If incorrect geometry is selected, select the Placement Face icon again


and then reselect the correct geometry.

 Select the bottom face as the Thru Face.

Select thru face with one


pick in this region or select
and confirm

ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ

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Form Features

 Enter 1.5 for the diameter and choose OK.

The hole is temporarily represented as a long tool solid that extends beyond the
thru face, as shown in the figure below.

Step 4 Position the hole feature.

ÏÏÏ The Positioning dialog box is displayed.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ  The system defaults to the Perpendicular icon and
the Cue line prompts you to select a Target Edge.

Select this edge as the


Target Edge

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Form Features

 Key in the name of the expression (dim_1) and the value (2)
as shown below.

NOTE: The system applied expression names may be accepted,


however, it is a good practice to give expressions a meaningful name,
doing so will make interrogation of the part easier.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Choose the Perpendicular icon.
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
 Select the left edge of the top face as shown in the figure
below.

Select this edge as


the Target Edge

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Form Features

 Key in the name of the expression and the value as shown


below.

 Choose OK.

Since the location of the hole is completely specified, it is moved to the new
position and the Boolean operation is performed. The part now looks like the
ÏÏÏ following figure.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

Step 5 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Form Features

Slot

This option allows you to create a slot in a solid body as if cut by a milling
machine tool. In each case, the shape of the imaginary cutting tool corresponds
to the slot type and dimensions.

The slot feature will be created so that the axis of the imaginary cutter tool is
normal to the face or datum plane selected. The path of the slot will be parallel
to the horizontal reference selected.

The system prompts for all necessary slot parameters, depending upon the
specific type of slot feature chosen. The slot types are shown in the dialog box
illustrated below.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

For all slot types, the Thru slot option extends the slot length along the
placement face in the direction of the horizontal reference through the faces,
specified by the user.

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Form Features

Rectangular

This option allows creation of a slot in an existing solid body using a tool that
has cylindrical end faces and will leave sharp edges along the bottom of the slot.

Rectangular slot parameters are Slot Width, Slot Depth, Slot Length, as shown
below.

ZC

YC XC

Width Length

ÏÏÏ Depth

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ The width of the rectangular slot represents the diameter of the cylindrical
cutting tool.

The depth of the slot is measured in a parallel orientation to the tool axis, from
the origin point of the slot to the bottom of the slot. Depth values must be
positive.

The length is measured parallel to the horizontal reference (X in the feature


coordinate system). Length values must be positive.

NOTE: The system will not prompt for slot length if the Thru
option has been toggled on. Instead, it prompts for selection of the
two thru faces.

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Form Features

The figure below illustrates a T-slot using the Thru option.

Placement
Face Second Thru face

Centerline
First Thru face

The four other available slot profiles are illustrated below.

Depth Depth

ÏÏÏ
Ball Diameter Width

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
BallĆEnd Slot Corner UĆSlot
Radius

Top Width
Top Depth
Bottom Depth Width

Angle

Bottom Width

TĆSlot Dovetail Slot

NOTE: The value of the corner radius of the U-Slot must be less
than 1/2 the width of the slot.

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Form Features

Activity 2 - Creating Slot Form Features


In this activity, you will create two different types of slots in the top of a solid.

Step 1 Open the part file pau_slot_1.


 Ensure that the Modeling Application is active.

Step 2 Create a rectangular slot.

Use the information provided in the figure below for your work.

Rectangular slot
width = 2.00
depth = 0.50
length = 3.00

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
 Choose the Slot icon.

 Then choose the Rectangular option.

The Cue line prompts you to select the planar placement face.

 Select the top of the block at the approximate position


shown in the figure below. The top edges change to the
system color.

Select top face here

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Form Features

 If the Cue line asks for a selection confirmation, and the top
edges are highlighted, choose the correct number from the
QuickPick dialog box.

If the wrong face is highlighted, select the Back button in the active dialog box.

The Cue line asks for a horizontal reference. The object selected can be a linear
edge, solid face, datum axis, datum plane. Or, a vertical reference could be
specified instead using any of the fore mentioned objects. The horizontal
direction selected will determine the direction in which the slot length will be
placed in the part.

 Select the bottom front edge of the block, as shown in the


following figure, or any edge parallel to it.

ÏÏÏ
Select this edge
ÏÏÏ
as the horizontal
reference ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
A conehead displays the direction of the length of the slot.

 Enter the parameters for the rectangular slot:

Width= 2

Depth= .5

Length= 3

 Choose OK.

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Form Features

The rectangular slot will appear and be placed at the location of the screen pick
on the top of the block.

 Choose the Parallel at a Distance icon.

 Select the target edge as shown below.

Select this edge.

 Select the slot's centerline that is parallel to the selected

ÏÏÏ edge.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
 Key in 2 and choose OK.

 Choose the Perpendicular icon.

 Select the target edge as shown below.

Select this edge.

 Select the slot's centerline that is parallel to the selected


edge.

 Key in 3.5 and choose OK.

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Form Features

The Boolean operation is performed. The finished rectangular slot should now
look like this.

Step 3 Create a TĆslot.

 Select Back.

 Toggle the Thru option ON.

 Choose the T-Slot option.

ÏÏÏ
 Select the planar placement face as shown.
ÏÏÏ
Select top face here
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

 Select the horizontal reference.

Select this edge

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Form Features

 Select the thru faces for the T-slot.

Starting thru face


Ending thru face

 Enter the following values for the parameters:

Top width = .5

Top depth = .5

Bottom width = .75

Bottom depth = .5

ÏÏÏ  Choose OK.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ  Choose the Parallel at a Distance icon.

 Select the target edge as shown below.

Select this edge.

 Select the slot's centerline that is parallel to the selected


edge.

 Key in 2 and choose OK.

Since thru faces have been defined the slot does not need to be positioned
along its length.

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Form Features

 Choose OK.

Your part should look like the following figure.

Step 4 Optional: Add a third slot, a dovetail Thru slot, that


intersects both of the other slots.

Step 5 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

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Form Features

Pocket

The pocket feature is used to create a cavity in a solid body.

There are three types of pockets:

 Cylindrical
 Rectangular
 General

The Rectangular Pocket will be discussed in this lesson.

Rectangular Pocket

This option allows a rectangular pocket to be defined to a specified depth, with


ÏÏÏ or without a floor and/or corner radius, having either straight or tapered sides.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
The following parameters may be specified:

Positioning
X Length Origin point
Centerlines

Y Length

Corner Radius
Horizontal
Reference Taper Angle

Z Length
Floor
Radius

Pocket features may be positioned from a tool edge, or from the centerlines
provided for this purpose.

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Form Features

Activity 3 - Creating Pocket Form Features


In this activity, a rectangular pocket will be created on the block. The finished
part will look like the figure below.

Step 1 Open the part file pau_pocket_1.

 Ensure that the Modeling Application is active.

ÏÏÏ
Step 2 Create a rectangular pocket.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
 Choose the Pocket icon.

 Choose Rectangular.

 Select the placement face as shown in the figure below.

Select placement face here

Select this face as


horizontal reference

 Select the horizontal reference as shown in the same figure.

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Form Features

 Enter the parameter values as follows:

X Length = 3

Y Length = 1.5

Z Length = 1

Corner Radius = .5

Floor Radius = .25

Taper Angle = 0

 Choose OK.

The rectangular pocket appears at the location where the planar placement
face was selected.

ÏÏÏ  Fully position the pocket using your own methods, and
ÏÏÏ parametric values.
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ Step 3 Use a similar method to create the second pocket shown
at the beginning of the activity.

Step 4 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Form Features

Boss

The Boss feature allows the addition of a cylindrical shape to a specified height,
having either straight or tapered sides. The parameters of the boss are
diameter, height and taper angle.

Diameter

Height

X
Z
Tapered boss
Y

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
X

ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
Diameter is the distance across the required boss.

Height is measured from the placement face.

Taper angle is the angle at which the cylinder wall of the boss inclines. A
positive or negative value may be entered depending on which way the wall is to
incline. A zero value results in a vertical cylinder wall.

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Form Features

Activity 4 - Creating Boss Form Features


In this activity, two bosses will be created and positioned on a cover plate for a
modular telephone jack as shown below.

Before

Boss diameter=0.20
Boss height=0.075

After

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
Step 1 Open the part file.

 Choose File→Open.

 Select pau_coverplate_1.

NOTE: The dimensions shown are from the outside of the part, be
sure to select the proper edges to dimension from.

 Save the part as ***_coverplate_1 where *** represent your


initials.

Step 2 Create a boss feature.

 Ensure that the Modeling Application is active.

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Form Features

 Choose the Boss icon.

 Select and accept the planar placement face as shown below.

Select top inside face


approximately here

 Enter the parameters for the boss:

Diameter = .2

Height = .075
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Taper Angle = 0
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
 Choose Apply.

The boss is temporarily placed on the face where you selected it. The
Positioning dialog box is displayed.

Step 3 Position the boss.

 The system defaults to the Perpendicular icon and


the Cue line prompts you to select a Target Edge.

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Form Features

 Select a right side edge on the outside of the part for a target
edge for the perpendicular dimension, as shown below.

Front
Select either of the right
outside edges as the
target edge.

A temporary display appears that shows the distance from the center of the
boss to the target edge.

 Enter 1.5 for the new value.

ÏÏÏ  Choose the Perpendicular icon again.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
 Select a front edge on the outside of the part for the target
edge for the second perpendicular dimension, as shown
below.

Target edge

 Enter 1 for the new value and choose OK.

The boss is moved into the correct location and the Boolean operation is
performed.

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Form Features

Step 4 Create the second boss and position it.

 Repeat Step 2 and Step 3 for the second boss. Use the same
positioning values, this time use the back, outside edge to
locate the boss.

Step 5 Choose File"Save. Do not close the part.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

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Form Features

Pad

This option allows a raised pad on a solid body to be created, with or without
taper and corner radii. The parameter values of the pad feature are X, Y, and
Z lengths, corner radius, and taper.

The two types of pads are:

 Rectangular
 General (Not covered in this course)

Rectangular Pad

The Length, Width, and Height values of the Pad feature relate directly to the
displayed vector indicating the Horizontal direction. Length is measured along
the displayed vector, Width is measured perpendicular to the displayed vector,
ÏÏÏ and Height is measured normal to the Placement face.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
The Corner Radius specifies the blend radius for the vertical edges of the pad
feature (along the Height). This number may be positive or zero. A zero radius
results in sharp corners on the pad feature.

The Taper Angle is the angle at which the four walls of the pad feature incline
inward, and must be positive or equal to zero. A zero value results in vertical
walls.

Tapered Pad

Positioning
Length Centerlines

Width

Height Horizontal reference


Corner Radius

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Form Features

Activity 5 - Creating and Positioning a Pad


In this activity, two pads will be centered with respect to the two existing bosses.
When complete, the part should appear as shown below.

Step 1 Continue working with ***_coverplate_1.

Rectangular pad
length 2.9
width 0.1
height 0.0375

ÏÏÏ
Step 2 Create the first rectangular pad.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
 Choose the Pad icon.

 Choose Rectangular from the dialog box.

 Select the top surface at a location which approximates the


position shown.

Location for pad

It is now necessary to define the horizontal reference. This determines the


direction of the Length parameter of the pad as well as the direction for a
horizontal Positioning Dimension.

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Form Features

 Select one of the edges or faces shown below to establish the


horizontal direction of the feature coordinate system.

Select back edges or face


for Horizontal Reference

Select front edge or face


for Horizontal Reference

A vector arrow displays the horizontal direction of the pad.

 If the vector is not pointing in the desired direction, choose


Back and respecify the horizontal reference.

ÏÏÏ  Enter the parameters for the pad:


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
Length = 2.9

Width = .1

Height = .0375

Corner Radius = 0

Taper Angle = 0

 Choose OK.

The pad is temporarily positioned at the location selected for the placement
face.

Step 3 Position the pad.

 Choose the Line onto Line icon on the Positioning


Method dialog box.

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Form Features

 Select the target edge (an inside edge as shown below).

Tool edge

Target edge

 Select a tool edge (the small edge at the top end of the pad)

The position is specified in one direction, another positioning dimension is


required to fully specify the feature's location.

 Choose the Vertical icon.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Select the target edge (circular edge of the boss) as shown in
the figure below. ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

Target edge

 Choose Arc Center.

 Select the pad's horizontal center line as the Tool Edge.

 Enter a new value of 0.

 Choose OK.

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Form Features

The pad moves into position and the Boolean operation is performed. The part
should look as shown below:

Step 4 Create the second pad and position it in the same way to
the other boss.

When completed the part should look like the figure shown below.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

Step 5 Save and close the part file.

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Form Features

SUMMARY In this lesson you were introduced to Form


Features. Form features are used to add detail
to the model during creation. Form features
are fully associative to the geometry and
parameter values used to create them. The
different form features are:

Hole
Boss
Pocket
Pad
Slot
ÏÏÏ
Groove
ÏÏÏ
This lesson you: ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ
 Identified a Placement Face.
 Identified a Horizontal Reference.
 Identified Target and Tool Solids
 Applied Positioning dimensions to a form
feature.
 Created a Hole Form Feature.
 Created Slot Form Features.
 Created Pocket Form Features.
 Created Boss Form Features
 Created a Rectangular Pad.

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Form Features

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
3
ÏÏÏ

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Expressions

Expressions
Lesson 4

PURPOSE This lesson is a fundamental introduction to Expressions.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Create Expressions.
 Edit Expressions.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
4
ÏÏÏ

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Expressions

Expressions

Expressions are algebraic or arithmetic statements used to control the


characteristics of a part. Expressions define the dimensions and relationships of
a model.

Unigraphics automatically creates expressions when:

 a feature is created.
 a sketch is dimensioned.
 a feature or sketch is positioned.

Understanding Expressions

All expressions have a name, a statement, and a value.

NOTE: The total number of characters allowed for the name, equal
sign, statement, and comments in an expression is 132.

The name is the portion of the expression on the left side of the equal sign.
Expression names are alphanumeric strings of text that begin with a letter.
Expressions are case sensitive.

The statement is the portion displayed on the right side of the equal sign. The
statement may be a numeral or an algebraic function and may contain

ÏÏÏ
preĆexisting expression names.

ÏÏÏ
4
ÏÏÏ The value is the result of the evaluation of the statement portion of the
equation within the expression.

Example of an Expression
Length=.5+2*cos(60) 1.5

Name Statement Value


Length is the name of the expression
and represents the value 1.5.

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Expressions

Creating and Editing Expressions

To work with expressions, choose Tools→Expression.

Name
Creation order
Reverse creation
The Name Filter

Expression List

Expressions editor
and calculator

ÏÏÏ
Used By
ÏÏÏ
4
ÏÏÏ
Saving changes to
the expressions

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Expressions

Creating Expressions
There are three methods to create expressions:
 System generated expressions (p#).
 User defined expressions created during text input (Rad=5.00).
 Predefined, user created expressions (Thk=0.60, Thk used as a text entry
in a parameter field).
Procedure:
 Click in the expression editor field and key in the entire expression (for
example: rad=1.5).
 Press the <Enter> key. The expression is then added to the Expression
List.
 Choose Apply or OK to save the expression.

Editing Expressions
Procedure:
 Choose the expression to modify from the expression list. It is displayed in
the expression editor field.
 In the expression editor field, modify the statement (right side of the
equal sign). If the name (left side of the equal sign) is modified, a new
expression will be created.
 Press the <Enter> key.
 Choose Apply or OK to save the expression.

ÏÏÏ Using Information→Feature

ÏÏÏ
4 Many times there is a need to determine what expressions control what features
ÏÏÏ in the model. By choosing Information→Feature, and selecting the feature(s) in
question, a listing window will show information about the selected feature(s).

Used by
The Used by option provides a means of finding out if an expression is
referenced in another expression and what feature(s) use the expression. To use
this option, choose Tools→Expression, select the expression and then choose
the Used by icon.

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Expressions

Activity 1 - Getting Familiar with Expressions


This activity will demonstrate how expressions were created when the block was
created in the previous activity. The same block will then be created with the
same dimensional values. However, this time logical names for the expressions
will be used.

Step 1 Open the part file pau_prim_exp_1 and save as


***_prim_exp_1. Start the Modeling application.

Step 2 Examine the Expressions for the Block created in the


previous activity.

 Choose the Tools→Expression option.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
4
ÏÏÏ
The Edit Expression dialog box shown above lists all of the expressions in the
part file. Notice the p0, p1, and p2 expressions. These are default expression
names given to the block.

Step 3 Delete the Block.

 Choose the Delete icon from the Standard toolbar.

 Select the block in the graphic window and choose OK.

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Expressions

Step 4 Create a new Block.

 Choose the Block icon.

 Choose Origin, Edge Lengths.

 Key in the following expressions:

Length (XC) = Length=8 (Tab)

Length (YC) = Width=6 (Tab)

Length (ZC) = Height=6/2

 Choose OK.

Step 5 Examine the Expressions for the newly created Block.

 Choose the Tools→Expression option.

The display on the Edit Expression dialog box should be similar to the one
shown below. Notice the expressions Height, Length, and Width. These
expressions were created during the creation of the block.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
4
ÏÏÏ

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Expressions

Step 6 Find information about the newly created Block.

 Choose the Information→Expression→List All option or

select the Information icon at the bottom of the


Expressions dialog window.

The graphic shows the listing window with the information about the feature
selected.

Notice that the Height is tied to the numeric value 6/2. This is not the true
intent of the design. The true intent is that the Height grows proportionally
with the Width. This relationship could not be established upon creation as the
Width expression was not in existence.

Step 7 Change the expression.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
4
 Close the Information window.
ÏÏÏ
 Select the Height expression from the Expressions window.
The expression is displayed in the expression text editor
field.

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Expressions

 Place the cursor in the text editor field just to the right of the
numeral 6 in the 6/2 expression field.

Text Editor Field

 Backspace once to delete the numeral 6 and replace it with


Width and press Enter.

The value for the expression Height is now changed to Width/2. Any time that
the Width changes the value will change accordingly.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
4
ÏÏÏ

Step 8 Change the Width value.

 Select the Width expression.

 Backspace once to delete the numeral 6, replace it with 4


and press Enter.

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Expressions

 Choose OK.

Step 9 Save and Close the part.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
4
ÏÏÏ

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Expressions

SUMMARY Expressions are algebraic or arithmetic


statements used to control the characteristics
of a part. Expressions define the dimensions
and relationships of a model. Expressions are
created when:

a feature is created.
a sketch is dimensioned.
a feature or sketch is positioned.

All expressions have a name, a statement, and


a value.

In this lesson you:


 Created Expressions.
 Edited Expressions.
 Retrieved information through
Information→Expression.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
4
ÏÏÏ

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Face Operations

Face Operations
Lesson 5

PURPOSE To introduce the Hollow face operation.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Hollow a solid body.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
5
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Face Operations

Face Operations

Face Operations are available to provide additional definition to the faces of a


model. The Face Operations are Taper, Hollow, and Offset Face .

In this lesson, the Hollow operation will be discussed.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
5
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Face Operations

Hollow

The Hollow operation creates a cavity inside, or a shell around an existing solid,
based upon a specified thickness. The entire solid body is hollowed during this
operation.

In the figure below, the top face has been selected as the face to be pierced.

Face to be Thickness
pierced

Before After

Wall Thickness Value

Positive or negative values may be used as follows:

 Positive values will hollow the existing solid so that the wall thickness is
measured inward from the original faces of the solid.
 Negative values for the wall thickness will result in a hollow that forms a
shell of the specified value around the original solid.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
5
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Face Operations

Choosing Insert"Feature Operation"Hollow from the main menu will display


the following dialog box for hollow creation.

Region

Face Body

Pierced Offset
face face

Type
Filter Default
Thickness

Alternate
Thickness

A hollow may be created in three different ways:

 The "Face" button may be chosen to select pierced faces individually.


 The "Region" button may be selected to quickly select a region of faces to
be pierced. Since a region of the body is pierced rather than individual
faces, any changes in the region are automatically reflected in the hollow.
 The "Body" button may be selected to create a void region in a body
without piercing any faces.

A unique thickness may be assigned for each face with the Offset Face option.
When Offset Face is selected the Alternate Thickness text box becomes active.
Using variable thickness hollows reduces the number of features in the part, as
the offset features are not required, and results in more compact models that
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
are easier to comprehend.
5
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Face Operations

Activity 1 - Performing a Hollow Operation


In this activity the Hollow operation will be used to take material away from the
model of a plastic molded part.

Step 1 Open the Part File.


 Open the part file pau_hair_dryer_1, and start the Modeling
application.

The figure below illustrates the solid that will be hollowed.

Right

Step 2 Inspect the Part.

 Set the Display Mode to Shaded and Rotate the part


to verify that the solid requires hollowing.

Step 3 Hollow the solid and pierce the proper faces.

Set the display mode back to Wireframe and Restore


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 5
the view (third mouse button). ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Face Operations

 Choose the Hollow icon from the Feature Operation


toolbar.

 Enter a Default Thickness of 2.

 Select the right, and back side faces to pierce.

 After both of the desired faces are selected to be pierced,


choose OK twice. The finished part is shown below.

Back side face

Right face

Step 4 Inspect the Part.

 Set the Display Mode to Shaded and Rotate the part


(third mouse button).

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Step 5 Choose File"Close"All Parts.
5
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Face Operations

Activity 2 - Hollow and Selection Practice


In this activity the Hollow operation will be used to create a sheet metal part.

Step 1 Open the Part File.

 Open the part file pau_hollow_1, and start the Modeling


application.

The figure below illustrates the solid that will be hollowed.

Front

Step 2 Create a hollow feature.

 Choose the Hollow icon.

Enter a Default Thickness of .12.


ÏÏÏ


Select the 5 following faces to pierce: front, back, left, right, ÏÏÏ
5
ÏÏÏ

and bottom.
ÏÏÏ
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Face Operations

 After all the desired faces are selected to be pierced, choose


OK twice. The finished part is shown below.

 Choose Edit→Undo List→Hollow.

 Repeat the operation with a thickness of -.12 and examine


the result.

Step 3 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
5
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Face Operations

Activity 3 - Creating a Hollow Feature with an Offset


This simple activity will demonstrate the application of a hollow feature with an
offset face.

Step 1 Open the Part File.

 Open the part file pau_hollow_2, and start the Modeling


application.

Step 2 Hollow the solid.

 Choose the Hollow icon.

 Enter a Default Thickness of 4.

 Select the faces to pierce as shown below.

Select the 3
faces that are
NOT shaded.

 Choose the Offset Face icon.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
5
 Key in an Alternate Thickness of 8. ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Face Operations

 Select the face to offset as shown below.

Select this face


to offset.

 Choose OK.

Step 3 Close the part, do not save.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
5
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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5-10 Practical Applications of
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Face Operations

SUMMARY The Hollow operation creates a cavity inside,


or a shell around an existing solid, based upon
a specified thickness. In addition, selected
faces may be assigned various offset thickness.

In this lesson you:


 Specified a Default Thickness.
 Specified a Alternate Thickness.
 Specified Faces to be Pierced.
 Specified Faces to be Offset.
 Created a Hollow Feature.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
5
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Face Operations

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
5
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Edge Operations

Edge Operations ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
Lesson 6
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ

PURPOSE To introduce Blend and Chamfer edge operations.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Create Blends.
 Create Chamfers.

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Edge Operations

ÏÏÏ Edge Operations


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ Edge Operations are available to provide additional definition to the edges of a
model. The Edge Operations are Edge Blend and Chamfer.

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Edge Operations

ÏÏÏ
Edge Blend ÏÏÏ
This option creates cylindrical or conical faces in place of an edge on a solid
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ
body. The system adds or subtracts material depending on the topology of the
solid body and shortens the faces intersecting at the edge selected.

Blend
radius
Selected
edge

Blend
radius Shortened faces

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Edge Operations

ÏÏÏ Edge Blends Using Dynamic Input Field


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ With the cursor selection set to General Objects, an edge may be blended by
first selecting the edge(s) in the graphics window, then the third mouse button
is used to access a pop-up menu. From this menu, the Blend operation is
chosen and a Radius value may be input directly on the graphics screen. The
edge blend is automatically created as a preview.

When you achieve the desired radius value, choose the checkmark in the upper
left corner of the graphics screen.

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Edge Operations

You can also access the full Blend Dialog by choosing the Blend Dialog icon at
ÏÏÏ
the upper left corner of the graphics screen. By choosing the Blend Dialog, you
ÏÏÏ
may make changes to the Blend default settings.
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ

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Edge Operations

ÏÏÏ Activity 1 - Creating Edge Blends with Dynamic Input Fields


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
6 In this activity you will create Edge Blends using the MB3 pop-up menu and

ÏÏÏ onĆscreen Dynamic Input Fields.


Step 1 Open the part pau_edge_blend_1 and choose the
Modeling application.

You will create Edge Blends using the new functionality.

Step 2 Create the first Edge Blend.

 Ensure the Select General Objects icon is ON in the


Selection toolbar.

 Choose the edge shown above, click MB3 and choose the
Blend option.

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Edge Operations

 Highlight the Dynamic Input Field and enter .75. Watch the
ÏÏÏ
previewed radius to make sure it looks as desired.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ

.75

 Choose the Checkmark at the upper left corner of the


graphics window to apply the radius.

Step 3 Create the second Edge Blend.

 Choose the edge shown below , click MB3 and choose the
Blend option.

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Edge Operations

ÏÏÏ  Highlight the Dynamic Input Field and enter .5 . Watch the
ÏÏÏ previewed radius to make sure it looks as desired.
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ Notice that the tangent edges were automatically selected. That is because the
Add Tangent Edges toggle is on in the Blend dialog.

.5

If you chose OK at this point, only part of the edge would be blended. Instead
you would like to blend the entire left side of the part. To do this, you must
manually select the additional edges.

Note: At this point, if you wanted to make changes to the Edge


Blend default settings, you could choose the Blend Dialog icon from
the upper left corner of the graphics screen and make the desired
changes.

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Edge Operations

 Select the two additional edges at the left side of the part. If
ÏÏÏ
Enable Blend Preview is toggled ON in the dialog, you will
ÏÏÏ
see a preview of each blend as the edge is selected. If Blend
Preview does not display, you can choose the Blend Dialog ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ
icon in the upper left corner of the graphics screen and
toggle Enable Blend Preview ON.

 Choose the Checkmark icon to apply the blends.

Step 4 Close the part without saving.

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Edge Operations

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ Chamfer
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ This option bevels the edges of a solid body by defining the desired chamfer
dimensions.

There are five methods of creating a chamfer:

 Single Offset
 Double Offset
 Offset Angle
 Freeform Single Offset (Outside scope of class)
 Freeform Double Offset (Outside scope of class)

The system adds or subtracts material depending on the topology of the solid
body and shortens the faces intersecting at the edge selected.

Outside Inside
Chamfer Shortened faces Chamfer

Selected
edge

Selected edge

Chamfer
Chamfer

Shortened faces
Removes Material Adds material

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Edge Operations

Single Offset ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
This option allows a chamfer to be placed with an offset that is the same along
both faces, as shown in the figure below (offset 1 and offset 2 have the same
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ
value). This value must be a positive value.

Offset 1
Selected
edge

Face 2

Offset 2

Face 1

The single offset shown below is measured along the path of the curved face
and is not necessarily a linear distance.

Offset
Selected
edge

Face 2

Chamfer

Face 1

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Edge Operations

ÏÏÏ Double Offset


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ
This option allows different offsets to be placed along the faces. Both of the
offset values must be positive and applied as shown below.

Second
offset Selected edge
Face 1

First offset

Chamfer
Face 2

Offset Angle

This option allows an offset value and the chamfer angle to be entered. Note
that the chamfer angle is measured from the second face selected.

NOTE: The option of flipping the chamfer is available if the


display is not what is desired.

Angle
Selected
edge

Face 1
Offset

Chamfer

Face 2

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Edge Operations

Activity 2 - Performing a Chamfer Operation ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
In this activity, a chamfer will be placed on different edges of the model.
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ
Step 1 Open the part file.

 Open pau_chamfer_1 and make sure you're in the Modeling


application.

Step 2 Create a chamfer using offset and angle.

 Choose the Chamfer icon.

 Choose Offset Angle option.

 Select Edge 1 as shown below.

Edge 1

 Choose OK.

 Key in the following parameters:

Offset = 1.75

Angle = 30

 Choose OK.

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Edge Operations

ÏÏÏ The model should appear as shown below.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ
Edge 2

Step 3 Create a double offset chamfer.

 Choose the Double Offset option.

 Select Edge 2 as shown above.

 Choose OK.

 Key in the following parameters:

First Offset = .25

Second Offset = .5

 Choose OK and note the option to Flip Last Chamfer.

Step 4 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Edge Operations

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ

SUMMARY The Edge Blend and Chamfer Operations are


available to provide additional definition to the
edges of a model.

In this lesson you:


 Blended different edges.
 Chamfered edges using Offset Angle
 Chamfered edges using Double Offset.
 Became aware of the Flip Last Chamfer
option.
 Became aware that all blended edges or
chamfered edges created in a single
operation are considered one feature.

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Edge Operations

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
6
ÏÏÏ

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

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Model Construction Query

Model Construction Query


Lesson 7

ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
PURPOSE To demonstrate different methods available to query a part file.
Querying a part file is useful in that a user may gain an understanding of the
part's design intent and how the part was created.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Retrieve Layer Information.


 Open and close the Model Navigator.
 Retrieve Feature Information.
 Retrieve Expression Information.
 Playback the model construction.
 Suppress & Unsuppress Features.
 Identify where expressions are used.
 Measure the distance between objects.

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Model Construction Query

Visually Inspect the Part

Visual inspection of the solid model may be accomplished by rotating the model
to view the different features. At times this is very beneficial in order to see
clearly what is displayed on the screen. The model may be rotated by using the
middle mouse button or the Rotate icon in the View toolbar. Depending upon
the graphics driver being used, this may be done with the model shaded or
displayed as wireframe. These display modes may also be controlled using the
View toolbar.

ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
Refresh Zoom Rotate Wireframe Wireframe
Fit Zoom Pan Shaded View
In/Out Settings
Settings Orientation

Inspect the Layers

Layers are used to organize a part file. They work like invisible containers to
house the different objects used to create a Unigraphics solid model.

Things to look for:

 Object Count: Enabling Show Object Count using the checkbox will
change the display in the Layer/Status listing window to a
Layer/Status/Count listing window that shows the number of objects
contained on each layer.
 Category Names: Unigraphics offers the ability to name layers or groups
of layers using Categories. The Category Names are listed in the Category
listing window on the Layer Settings dialog box as well as in the
Layer/Status listing window next to assigned layers when Show Category
Names is enabled.
 Layer Listing: There is a filtering option menu at the bottom of the dialog
box that allows the Layer/Status listing window to display All Objects,
Layers with Objects, or All Selectable Layers.

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Model Construction Query

Model Navigator
The Model Navigator may be used to identify the different features of the
model. Selecting a feature from the Model Navigator window will highlight the
selected feature in the graphics area and will also highlight the parent and/or
child features of the selected feature in different colors. Conversely, selecting a
feature from the graphics area will highlight the selected feature and its
parents/children in the Model Navigator window.

The Model Navigator allows the display of features to be temporarily removed


(suppressed) from the graphics screen by selecting the check box associated
with the feature name. When a check is displayed in the box, the feature is ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
ÉÉÉ
displayed in the graphics area.

The Model Navigator also allows various editing functions to be performed


from a central location. Holding down the third mouse button causes a feature
ÉÉÉ
specific popĆup menu to be displayed offering pertinent editing options.

To access the Model Navigator in UNIX use the Navigator toolbar and to access
the Model Navigator in Windows use the Resource bar. Both, by default, are
located vertically on the right side of the Unigraphics window.

UNIX:
Icon from
Navigator toolbar

Windows:
Icon from
Resource Bar

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Model Construction Query

Information
The Information pull down from the main menu offers a number of options for
obtaining information about the model. Some of the most useful menu options
when trying to interrogate a model are listed below with a brief description of
what they do.

Information→Feature
Information→Feature may be used to identify Parent/Child relationships
between the selected feature and the other features in the model. In addition,
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
expressions that control the feature may be displayed in the graphic screen by
toggling Display Dimensions on.
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ TIP When using Information→Feature, the feature may also be selected
in the graphics window. The feature will then be highlighted in the
Feature Browser window. Choose OK or Apply to bring up the
Information window which will display the relative expressions.

Information→Expression→List All
Examining the expressions may reveal associativity that is built between
features or the expressions associated to them.

Information→Expression→List All by Reference


Information→Expression→List All by Reference allows expressions that
reference other expressions to be identified, as well as identifying to what
features these expressions belong. The Edit→Find option within the
Information Window allows easy navigation through the listing.

Playback & Suppress/Unsuppress


In regards to investigating how a model was created, the Playback and
Suppress/Unsuppress functions (found under Edit→Feature from the Menu
Bar or in the Edit Feature toolbar) will allow the user to reconstruct the model
and watch the progress graphically. On very large models, users will have to
weigh the invested time vs. the amount of information that can be learned to
determine if it is an acceptable practice for a particular model. The main
differences between these two methods is that Playback does not suppress
reference features or sketches. However, Playback does allow editing of
features during update, where Suppress/Unsuppress does not.

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Model Construction Query

Expression Used by option

Features may be identified that have an association to a particular expression by


using the Used by" option found in the Expressions dialog window.

To use:

 Choose Tools→Expressions
 Select the expression.
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
 Choose the Used by icon.
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
An Information window pops up identifying the features that are using the
selected expression.

Identified feature

Used by

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Model Construction Query

Analysis Distance

The Analysis→Distance function obtains the minimum distance between any


two Unigraphics objects such as points, curves, planes, bodies, edges, and/or
faces.

The system calculates the three-dimensional distance and the


two-dimensional distance relative to the XC, YC plane. In addition, it returns

ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
the closest point on each object and the delta distances in absolute and work
coordinate systems. The graphics window will indicate the distance measured by

ÉÉÉ
a temporary line.

ÉÉÉ

All data in the Information window is converted to the current units. You can
change the units of measure in the Information window using Analysis→Units,
and then choosing OK. Once the Information window has displayed the results,
you can verify the distance between one of the selected objects and a new
object. Just select a new first object, and then select one of the previously
selected objects. The new distance is then displayed in the Information window.
You can continue verifying distances between one of the selected objects and
any other object as long as you specify the new unselected object first.

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Model Construction Query

Start Points

In cases where multiple closest points exist, you may wish to specify a point to
indicate the region of the selected object in which you'd like the system to
calculate the distance. Use Start Point lets you indicate a start point for a
selected curve or face object.

Use Start Point toggles from No to Yes. When you set the toggle to Yes and
select a curve or face, the system displays the Point Subfunction menu, which
allows you to select the desired start point for the curve or face.
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
Use this option to distinguish between multiple points on an object when the
selection of more than one is possible. For example, if there exists more than
one pair of points that are normal to both objects, the system may not produce
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
the desired results unless you indicate a start point to use, as shown below.

In this case, you want to specify the


minimum distance between point A
and a certain area of spline B. If no
start point is specified, the system may
But if you specify a start point
indicate the minimum distance here.
as shown, the system knows
which minimum distance you
Point A are looking for,

Spline B


Specified
start point

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7-7
Model Construction Query

Activity 1 - Model Construction Query


This activity deals with identifying different feature relationships and design
intent. Although detailed instructions are supplied, it may be beneficial to
attempt to navigate through the interface without using them.

Step 1 Open pau_arm_1 and start the Modeling application.

ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ

Step 2 Visually Inspect the Model.

Inspect the model. As the part is rotated, try to identify different features and
the possible methods used to create them.

 Rotate the model (hold down MB2 and drag in graphics


window).

 Choose the Shaded icon. (View toolbar)

 Rotate the model (MB2).

 Orient the view back to trimetric using the Trimetric icon

in the View toolbar.

Step 3 Inspect the Layers.

Viewing the layers may help gain an understanding of how complex a model
may be. If there is only 1 object on a solids layer and just a few objects on a
curves layer, the model may be a simple extrusion.

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Model Construction Query

 Choose the Layer Settings icon. (Utility toolbar)

 Toggle ON the Show Category Names options.

 Review the listing for category names and object count.

Notice that there is 1 object on a Solids layer, 8 objects on a Sketches layer and
3 objects on a Datums layer.

Step 4 Identify the Different Features using the Model Navigator.


ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
 Choose the Wireframe icon if required to better view
interior features (View toolbar).

 Make layers 1, 21, and 61 selectable so that the construction


aids may be seen.

 Choose OK in the Layer Settings dialog box.

 Choose the Fit icon in the View toolbar.

 Choose the Model Navigator icon from the Navigator


toolbar (UNIX) or from the Resource Bar (Windows) and
size as required. Either option should be located vertically on
the Right side of the graphics window.

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Model Construction Query

 Windows ONLY: Choose the tack icon in the upper left


hand corner to permanently display the Model Navigator.
This will also adjust the graphics window to fit the part
within the viewing area.

 Starting at the top of the Model Navigator feature list, select


the first feature with MB1. The corresponding feature will be
highlighted in the graphic window as well as the parent
(pau_arm_1) and its children (S21_SKETCH(3)). Continue

ÉÉÉ
through all features to see which is which.

ÉÉÉ
7
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ Step 5 Review the model construction using Playback.

 Choose the Feature Playback icon from the Edit


Feature toolbar.

Feature Playback

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Model Construction Query

All of the solid features are suppressed except the reference features and the
sketch. The Edit during Update dialog box informs you that the
FIXED_DATUM_PLANE(0) feature has been updated, this is the base feature
of the model.

ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ

 Choose the Step icon.

The next feature, FIXED_DATUM_AXIS(1), is updated. You may have to


move the slider to read the entire message displayed in the Edit during Update
dialog box.

 Choose the Step icon again.

The next feature , FIXED_DATUM_AXIS(2), is updated.

 Continue to Step through until the model has been


completely updated.

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Model Construction Query

Step 6 Review the model construction using


Suppress/Unsuppress.

 Starting at the top of the Model Navigator feature list, select


the checkbox in front of the first feature with MB1 to
suppress the feature.

Note that all of the features in the list, except for two fixed datum axes, become
suppressed. This is due to all of the other features in the model sharing some
sort of associativity with these reference features. To get a better idea about
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
direct associativity to features we will change the listing method of the Model
Navigator.

ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ  Place the cursor over the Feature Name header in the Model
Navigator, select MB3 and choose the Quick Look option
from the drop-down list.

Click MB3 here

Notice that all of the features in the list, except for the two fixed datum axis,
branch out under the first feature in the list. The Quick Look option shows the
parent/child relationships in a tree structure format.

 Suppress the two Fixed Datum Axis by selecting the


checkboxes to remove the checkmark.

Before unsuppressing the features we will change the listing method back to
Timestamp Order. This will give us a true creation order listing and will show
what features where created from first to last.

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Model Construction Query

 Place the cursor over the Feature Name header in the Model
Navigator, select MB3 and choose the Timestamp Order
option from the drop-down list.

 Starting at the top of the Model Navigator feature list, select


the empty" checkbox in front of the first feature with MB1
to unsuppress the feature.

 Continue down the list and unsuppress the remaining


features, one at a time, by selecting on each of the empty
checkboxes with MB1.
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
TIP You can also use the Shift and CTRL keys to select multiple features
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
from the Model Navigator and then use MB3 one any of the selected
features to Suppress/Unsuppress them together.

Step 7 Find the values that control the Thickness of the Web
Extrusion.

 In the Model Navigator, place the cursor on


WEB_EXTRUSION(4), press MB3 and select Information.

 Scroll through the Information window to see the various


parameters and controlling expressions.

The expressions p8 and p9 are identified as limits 1 and 2, these expressions


control the start and end distances from the generator geometry for the
extrusion. The values of -.125 and .125 produce a web thickness of .25. Note
that the Parent of this feature is the sketch S21:SKETCH (3).

 Close the Information window.

Step 8 Identify the Expression that Controls the Distance from


the Large Hole Center to the Small Hole Center.

Since the web feature was generated from the sketch geometry, the obvious
place to look for the expression that controls the hole to hole distance is in the
sketch.

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Model Construction Query

 In the Model Navigator, place the cursor on


S21:SKETCH(3), press MB3 and select Edit Parameters.

 Orient the view to the Front using the View toolbar.

Click here and select


the Front icon

ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ

The expression in question can clearly be identified,


arm_length=8.5

 Orient the view back to the Trimetric using the View toolbar.

 Choose Cancel in the Edit Sketch Dimensions dialog box.

Step 9 Close the Model Navigator.

 Choose the Model Navigator icon again (UNIX) to


close the Model Navigator or select the tack icon again
(Windows) and drag the cursor off the Model Navigator to
collapse it.

Step 10 Determine how the Large Hole Feature is located.

To find the answer to this question, you will select a feature directly from the
graphics screen rather than from a list, which can take more time when trying to
identify a specific feature.

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Model Construction Query

 Choose Information→Feature.

 Select the Large Thru Hole feature in the graphic window


and accept it if necessary. You can zoom, pan or rotate the
part to get a better look at the feature.

 Choose MB2.

The information window pops up. It can be seen that p17 is a parallel
positioning dimension with a value of 0 (zero). The logical assumption can be
made that the hole is located Point to Point relative to the Large Knuckle
extrusion.
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
This finding can be further confirmed by the following actions.
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
 Close the Information window.

 Choose the Edit Positioning icon from the Edit


Feature toolbar.

 Select LARGE_THRU_HOLE(7) and choose MB2.

The p17 expression appears at the arc center of the extrusion and hole. If you
don't see the expression, rotate the part.

 Cancel the Edit Positioning dialog box.

Step 11 Identify where an expression is used.

 Choose Tools→Expression.

 Select the expression, small_dia=1.25.

 Choose the Used by icon.

The information window appears and the expression is identified as one used
on an object A2 in the S21:SKETCH(3) feature.

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Model Construction Query

 Close the Information window and cancel the Expression


dialog box.
 Choose Information→Feature.
 Select S21:SKETCH(3).
 Choose the Object Dependency Browser button.

The child objects of the sketch are listed; notice that A2 is present.

ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ

 Select ArcĆA2.

The arc is highlighted in the graphic window. The expression's associated


feature and object has now been identified.
 Cancel the Object Dependency Browser dialog box.

Step 12 Measure a distance.

 Using the Layer Settings icon , make layer 21 the work


layer and all other layers invisible.

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Model Construction Query

 Choose Analysis"Distance.

 Choose the Point Constructor button.

 Choose the Quadrant Point icon.

 Select the arc as shown below.

ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
7
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
Select the
arc here.

 Choose the Point Constructor button again.

The Quadrant Point is still selected.

 Select the other arc as shown below.

Select the
arc here.

The Information window appears and the 3ĆD and 2ĆD distances should report
a value of 10.625.

Step 13 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Model Construction Query

SUMMARY In this lesson you were instructed on how to

ÉÉÉ
query a model to determine creation method

ÉÉÉ
and design intent. These skills are important
7 because of the need to review part files that
ÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
have been created by other users.

In this lesson, you:


 Opened the Model Navigator.
 Identified Expressions.
 Reviewed the model construction using
Playback.
 Reviewed the model construction using
Suppress & Unsuppress.
 Identified where an expression was used.
 Measured a distance.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Introduction to Assemblies
Lesson 8

PURPOSE To introduce the Unigraphics Assembly Modeling application.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Activate the Assemblies application.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Set your Load Options. 8



Add Components to an assembly.
Reposition Components in an assembly.
ÏÏÏ

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Introduction to Assemblies

Definitions and Descriptions

Assembly

An assembly is a part file which contains component objects. It is a collection of


pointers to piece parts and/or subĆassemblies. In the figure below, the toy laser
gun is an assembly consisting of many components.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ SubĆAssembly

ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ A subĆassembly is an assembly used as a component within a higher level
assembly. The figure below shows the subĆassembly of the Integrated Circuit
board for the toy laser gun. A subĆassembly has components of its own.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Component Objects

A component object is the entity that contains the pointer that links the
assembly back to the master component part.

A component object can also be a subĆassembly made up of other component


parts and/or component objects.

Shown below are component objects of the sub-assembly. Every piece of the
Integrated Circuit board is a separate component object.

Component
Object
Component
Objects

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ

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Introduction to Assemblies

Component Parts

A component part is a part file pointed to by a component object within an


assembly. The actual geometry is stored in the component part and is
referenced, not copied, by the assembly.

The term piece part is used to refer to master geometry as it exists outside of an
assembly.

Top level assembly


component component
piece part piece part

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
SubĆassembly
This is a
component part of
the top level
assembly.

component component component


piece part piece part piece part Component
parts of the
subĆassembly

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Introduction to Assemblies

General Assembly Concepts

There are two basic ways to define an assembly model.

 TopĆDown Modeling
 BottomĆUp Modeling (Demonstrated in this manual)

TopĆDown Modeling

As the name suggests, an assembly is created at the top level hierarchy and
parts are filed down the hierarchy, creating subĆassemblies and components.

BottomĆUp Modeling

A BottomĆUp assembly modeling approach starts by identifying the lowest level


piece parts that will make up the assembly. Component parts and
subĆassemblies are created as the process moves up the assembly level
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
hierarchy.

Combining Both Approaches


ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
It may be more practical for the methods to be combined. For example,
purchased or existing hardware for the assembly may be added using the
bottomĆup method, new subassemblies and piece parts may be defined in a top
down mode as the design progresses, and finally existing fasteners may be
added in a bottom up mode from a standard parts library.

Designing in Context

The ability to make a component of an assembly the work part while leaving the
assembly itself as the displayed part allows the assembly to be designed in
context. All new geometry that is created is added to the work part. Edits can
be made to the features and expressions residing within the work part.

If a component exists several times in the assembly (i.e. a fastener), any change
to the component while it is the work part will affect all the other occurrences
as well.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Bottom Up Design

In the BottomĆUp approach, component parts are designed separate from the
assembly and later added to the assembly. This approach applies to purchased
parts or existing parts.

First, the pin is created in a Then, the pin is added to the


separate part file outside assembly as a component.
the assembly.

locator_pin.prt

ÏÏÏ All assemblies are automatically updated, when opened, to reflect changes
ÏÏÏ made to the component parts. If hole features are added to the solid in a
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
component part they will be seen in all occurrences of the components in the
assembly when it is opened.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Introduction to Load Options

When an assembly part file is opened using File→Open, the system must find
and load any component parts that are referenced by that assembly. Load
Options establish how and from where the system loads the component parts.

The Load Options dialog box is accessed by choosing File→Options→Load


Options.

Where to look for


component parts
Which components
will be loaded

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Controls whether
components are fully
or partially loaded
Controls what to do if
a component is not
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
found

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Introduction to Assemblies

Load Method

The Load Method determines where the system will search for the component
parts when an assembly is opened. There are three possible settings.

 The As Saved method looks for each component part in the same
directory it was in when the assembly was last saved.
 The From Directory method looks for each component in the same
directory as the assembly part.
 The Search Directories method looks for each component in directories
specified in a userĆdefined list.

Load States

The Load Options also controls whether component parts will be fully loaded,
partially loaded, or unloaded when an assembly is opened. These are referred
to as load states.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
Fully Loaded

A part is fully loaded if all of its data is loaded into system memory.

All components can be fully loaded by changing the Load Components option
to All Components and toggling Use Partial Loading to off before opening the
assembly.

Partially Loaded

When a part is partially loaded, the system pulls only the data required to
display the part into memory. Components will be partially loaded if Partial
Loading is toggled on when the assembly is opened.

Partially loading components reduces the memory requirements and improves


performance. This is beneficial when working with large assemblies.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Unloaded

A component part is unloaded if it is not loaded when the assembly is opened.


Component parts may be refrained from loading by changing the Load
Components option to No Components before opening the assembly.

This will drastically reduce the amount of memory required and improve system
performance but no component geometry will be seen. Individual components
or subassemblies may be opened as desired to work on them using File→Open.

Load Failure

The Abort Load on Failure option controls how the system behaves if a
component part is not found based on the current load method.

 When toggled On, the system will not load any parts unless all of the
components are found. The first component it is unable to find will be

ÏÏÏ
listed in an Open Error window.
 When toggled Off, the system will open the assembly and load any of the
ÏÏÏ
components that it can find. Those components that are not found will be
listed in an Open Warning window and left unloaded. ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ

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Introduction to Assemblies

Component Editing
A component part may be added to an assembly by choosing the Add Existing
Component icon from the Assemblies toolbar or the Add Existing button in the
Components PullĆDown menu under Assemblies. Turn ON the Assemblies
application to access the Assemblies toolbar or the Components PullĆDown
menu. This toolbar/menu contains most of the functions that affect the
hierarchical structure of the assembly and the relationships between
components. The Assemblies toolbar and the Components PullĆDown menu
will be available as long as the Assemblies application is turned ON.

1
3

4
5
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
2

or 2
1

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Introduction to Assemblies

The component part to add is specified in the Select Part dialog box.

ÏÏÏ
There are several ways to identify the part in this dialog box: ÏÏÏ
 Select the Choose Part File button to retrieve an unopened part.
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
 Select a previously loaded part from the list.
 Enter the name of a previously loaded part.
 Select an existing component in the graphics window.
 Select an existing component in the Assembly Navigator display.

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Introduction to Assemblies

After the part is identified, the Add Existing Part dialog box appears so that it
may be established how the existing part will be added as a component object to
the assembly and what information is stored with it. At this time, the only
change from defaults will be the placement of the part on the Original layers.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ Reference Set Ć Allows you to control the amount of data that is loaded from
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
each component and viewed in the context of an assembly.
 Default reference sets are, Empty and Entire Part.
 Reference sets may be manually created or automatically created.

NOTE: In order for a BODY" reference set to be created


automatically the following line must be set in the ug_english.def
and ug_mectric.def environment files.

Assemblies_ModelReferenceSet: BODY

Layer Options - Defines which layer the objects in the new component will be
added to in the current work part.
 Work - Places all objects from the component part on the current work
layer.
 Original - Places each object from the component part on the same layer
in which it resides in the component part file.
 As Specified - Places all objects from the component on the layer
specified in the Specified Layer entry field.

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Introduction to Assemblies

The Displayed Part


Unigraphics allows multiple part files to be open at the same time either
implicitly as a result of being referenced by a loaded assembly or explicitly
through the use of File→Open. The part file, whether it be an assembly or
component, that is currently displayed in the graphics window, is called the
Displayed Part.

The Displayed Part can be changed by:


 Using the Selection toolbar and the Select Components option.
 Choosing Window→More Parts (Change Displayed Part dialog box)
 Choosing the Window Loaded Part List, which contains up to the last ten
loaded parts for selection to be the displayed part.
 Using the Assembly Navigator pop-up menu. (this will not be covered in
this manual)

Selection Toolbar
The selection toolbar may be used anytime the selection of a component for ÏÏÏ
modification or the extraction of data is required. This method of editing uses
ÏÏÏ
an Object/Action approach, where the object needing editing is selected first
from the graphic window and then the necessary action is defined. This lesson
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
will focus on the use of the Select Components option.

Select
Components

Depending on which category the user has selected, the Type Filter may be used
to narrow the band of selectable objects.

Components

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Introduction to Assemblies

The remaining options of the toolbar may be used to further discriminate in the
selection of objects.

Reset Select All Deselect


All Up One
Level
All icons not shown

Once an object has been selected from the graphic window, mouse button 3
(MB3) may be used to select an available operator for that object.

NOTE: When depressing MB3 the cursor must be on top of the


selected object for the pop-up dialog to appear.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ

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Introduction to Assemblies

Window

Choosing Window→More Parts will activate the Change Displayed Part dialog
box, listing all loaded parts except the one currently displayed.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ

When this dialog box is active, a part may be selected by:

 Choosing it from the list of loaded parts.


 Entering the name in the Part Name entry field.
 Selecting geometry from the graphics area (if the current displayed part is
an assembly).

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Introduction to Assemblies

The Work Part

The part in which geometry is created and edited is termed the Work Part. The
Work Part may be the displayed part or any component part which is contained
in the displayed assembly part.

When a part file is opened, it will initially be both the displayed and the work
part. The displayed part and the work part do not need to be the same. In a
case where the displayed part is not the work part, the work part will be
displayed in color and the other component parts will be deĆemphasized.

The Work Part can be changed by:

 Using the Selection toolbar and the Select Components option.

 Choosing the Make Work Part icon on the Assemblies tool bar.
 Choosing Assemblies→Context Control→Set Work Part.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ  Using the Assembly Navigator popĆup menu. (not covered in this

ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
manual).

NOTE: When a component is made the work part, the


component's reference set is changed to Entire Part. When the
component is no longer the work part, the reference set is returned
to its original condition.

Selection Toolbar

Select
Components

Once an object has been selected from the graphic window, mouse button 3
(MB3) may be used to select an available operator for that object.

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Introduction to Assemblies

NOTE: When depressing MB3 the cursor must be on top of the


selected object for the pop-up dialog to appear.

ÏÏÏ
Make Work Part icon ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
Choosing the Make Work Part icon will activate the Set Work Part
dialog box.

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Introduction to Assemblies

When this dialog is active, a part may be identified by:


 Choosing it from the list of loaded parts.
 Selecting geometry from the graphics screen.
 Entering the part name in the Part Name entry field.
Choosing the Displayed Part button changes the work part back to the whole
assembly. This makes the displayed part and the work part the same.

Repositioning Components
To access the Reposition Components dialog, the Assemblies application must
first be turned ON. The Reposition Components dialog can be accessed by:

 Choosing Reposition Component icon on the Assemblies tool bar.


 Choosing Assemblies→Components→Reposition Component.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ

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Introduction to Assemblies

After Reposition Component is chosen and a component object is selected the


repositioning dialog appears and a dynamic repositioning coordinate system
appears in the graphic window.

Rotate Rotate
Translate About A Between
Line Two Axes

Rotate Reposition
Point to About A
Point Point

Rotation
Handle

ÏÏÏ
Vertex
ÏÏÏ
Handle
Axis
Handle
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
Dynamic Repositioning
Coordinate System

Component objects may be repositioned by using the six options at the top of
the dialog window or interactively dragged using the dynamic coordinate
system.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Dragging Components Objects


Component objects may be dragged three different ways:
 LeftĆRight UpĆDown
 Along an Axis of the coordinate system
 Rotated about an axis of the coordinate system.

LeftĆRight UpĆDown

After the component object has been selected, it may be dragged left or right
and up or down, simply by placing the cursor any where in the graphic window
and holding MB1 down. If one of the coordinate system's axis or rotation
handles is currently selected, you must first select the vertex handle to deselect
the other handles. To move the component in the third dimension, while the
object is selected, rotate the part using your spaceball or MB3 Rotate (F7), exit
the rotation mode and continue to drag the object.

ÏÏÏ Dragging along an axis of the coordinate system


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
After a component object has been selected, it may be dragged along an axis of
the coordinate system by selecting on one of the axis handles. In addition the
Distance and Snap Increment text fields become active.

Axis Handle Distance field

Snap
Increment
field

Snap Increment
toggle

Keying in a positive or negative value in the distance text field and pressing
return will cause the object to be moved that distance value along the selected
axis. The Snap Increment value acts as a detent, which causes the object to snap
to the incremental value as the object is dragged along the axis. The Snap
Increment option may be toggled off and on as desired.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Rotation about an axis of the coordinate system


After a component object has been selected, it may be dragged about an axis of
the coordinate system by selecting on one of the rotation handles. In addition
the Angle and Snap Increment text fields become active.

Rotation
Handle Angle field

Snap
Increment
field

Snap Increment
toggle

Keying in a positive or negative value in the angle text field and pressing return

ÏÏÏ
will cause the object to be rotated that value about the respective axis. The
Snap Increment value acts as a detent, which causes the object to snap to the
incremental value as the object is dragged about the axis. The Snap Increment ÏÏÏ
option may be toggled off and on as desired. ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
Point to Point

Point to Point allows a component to be translated by indicating a first point


and a second point. The orientation of the translated component with respect
to the second point will be identical to that of the original component with
respect to the first point.

First Point
Second Point (arc center)
(arc center)

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Translate
Translate provides a means to move a component a delta value with respect to
the reposition coordinate system. Translated components maintain the original
orientation relative to other parts.

Rotate About a Point


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ This option may be used to rotate components about a vector parallel to the ZC

ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
axis and passing through a specified reference point, as shown below.

A positive rotation direction is counterclockwise.

Axis of
Component Rotation
being
repositioned

Reference
Point
ZC

YC
XC Angle = 90 degrees

ZC

YC
XC

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Introduction to Assemblies

Rotate About a Line

This option allows components to be rotated about a defined vector which is


not necessarily parallel to the ZC axis.

To use this method:

 Define a point that the vector is to pass through.


 Define the vector using the Vector constructor.
 Key in the desired value of rotation.
 Choose Apply.

A positive rotation direction is counterclockwise relative to the defined vector.

Component being
repositioned
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Defined
vector ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
Axis of
Rotation

Angle=90 degrees

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Introduction to Assemblies

Saving the Work Part

After editing, the work part must be saved to keep the modifications. The
File→Save option allows the saving of the work part without saving all of the
parts in the displayed assembly.

 If the work part is a piece part (lowest level component), only that part
will be saved.
 If the work part is an assembly or subassembly, any modified component
parts below it are also saved. Higher level assemblies will not be saved
even if they were modified.

TIP File"Save All saves all loaded parts in the session that have been
modified regardless of the work part designation.

TIP Open files for which the user does not have write privilege may not be
ÏÏÏ saved.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ

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Introduction to Assemblies

Activity 1 - Adding and Repositioning a Component


In this activity components will be added to an assembly. These components
will then be repositioned to the proper locations. The Load Options must be set
properly before loading the assembly.

Step 1 Set the Load Options.

 Choose File→Options→Load Options.

 Ensure Load Method is set to From Directory.

 Ensure Use Partial Loading is turned ON.

 Choose OK.

Step 2 Open the test stand assembly.

ÏÏÏ
 Choose the Open icon. ÏÏÏ
 From the laser_gun subdirectory, open the part
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
pau_test_assm_1.

 Save the part as ***_test_assm_1 where *** represent your


initials.

 Choose the Modeling icon.

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 Choose the Assemblies icon.

Step 3 Add the test stand to the assembly.

The test stand is the part that the circuit board fits in for assembly and circuitry
testing.

 Choose the Add Existing Components icon from the


Assemblies toolbar.

 Choose Choose Part File.

 From the laser_gun subdirectory, select


pau_mounting_block.

 Choose BODY from the Reference Set pull down and


choose OK.

ÏÏÏ  Choose Reset and OK.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
 Choose Cancel in the Select Part dialog box.

 Fit the view.

The illustration below shows how the mounting block is to be oriented to the
circuit board. The next step will direct you through the repositioning of the
mounting block.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Step 4 Reposition the mounting block.

 Choose the Reposition Component icon.

 Select the mounting block and choose MB2.

 Select the rotation handle shown below.

Select this
rotation handle.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Change the Snap Increment to 15.
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
 Ensure that Snap Increment is toggled ON.

 Drag the selected rotation handle with MB1 until the angle
text field indicates -90.

 Choose the Point to Point icon.

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Introduction to Assemblies

 Select the first and second points as directed by the CUE


line and shown below.

Second point

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
First point

The mounting block moves to the new position.

 Choose OK.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Step 5 Add a new component to the subassembly.


 In the graphic window, select the pau_ic_board_13 as shown
below and confirm if necessary. (Verify the component name
in the Status line)

Select here

 Place the cursor over the component and select MB3.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Choose Make Work Part from the Pop-Up menu.

ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ

 Choose OK to acknowledge the Read Only warning.

 Choose the Add Existing Component icon.

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 Choose Choose Part File.

 Select the part pau_c2_13 and choose MB2.

 Change the Positioning method to Reposition.

 Choose BODY from the Reference Set pull down and


choose OK.

 Press Reset in the Point Constructor dialog box, followed by


OK to locate the part at Zero.

 Fit the view.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
Newly added
component.

 Choose the Point to Point icon.

 Choose the Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center icon.

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Introduction to Assemblies

 Reposition the component as shown below. It may be


necessary to rotate and zoom in on the view so that the
proper arc centers are selected (Remember: Holding down
MB2 and dragging the cursor on the graphic window rotates
the view).

Select this arc


center as the
Second point

Select this arc


center as the
First point

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
The component moves to the new position.
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ
 Choose OK.

 Choose Cancel.

Step 6 Save the subassembly.

Since you do not presently have write access to the subassembly you will
perform a saveĆas on it.

 Choose File→Save As.

 In your home directory save the circuit board assembly by


keying in ***_ic_board_13 and choose OK.

The system now prompts you to perform a saveĆas on the top level assembly.
You already own this part file, so this step is not necessary.

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Introduction to Assemblies

 Choose Cancel.

 Choose OK to continue the SaveĆAs.

 Choose OK to acknowledge the SaveĆAs Report.

 Close the Information window.

Step 7 Make the Work Part the Displayed Part.

 Choose the Make Work Part icon from the Assemblies


toolbar.

 Choose Displayed Part.

Step 8 Save and close the assembly.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ  Choose File→Close→Save All and Close.
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ  Choose OK to confirm the close.

Step 9 Reopen the saved assembly.

This step will demonstrate the importance of Load Options.

 Choose File→Recently Opened Parts→***_test_assm_1.

A warning message appears. Currently the load options are set to look for the
component parts in the same directory as the assembly part file. Your assembly
file is saved in your home directory while the component parts are stored in the
course parts directory.

 Choose OK to accept the warning.

 Choose File→Close→All Parts.

 Choose OK.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Step 10 Set the Load Options.

 Choose File→Options→Load Options.

 Toggle the As Saved option ON.

 Choose OK.

Step 11 Reopen the saved assembly.

 Choose File→Recently Opened Parts→***_test_assm_1.

This time all of the components are opened.

Step 12 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
8
ÏÏÏ

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Introduction to Assemblies

SUMMARY An assembly is a part file which contains


component objects. It is a collection of pointers
to piece parts and/or subĆassemblies.

Assemblies may be created using the


TopĆDown, BottomĆUp, or a combination of
the two methods.

Assemblies provides the ability to design in


context.

ÏÏÏ In this lesson you:


ÏÏÏ Activated the Assemblies application.
ÏÏÏ

8
ÏÏÏ 


Set your Load Options.
Added and repositioned a component in an
assembly.

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The Master Model

The Master Model


Lesson 9

PURPOSE To introduce the Master Model concept.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Review an existing Master Model.


 Create a new Master Model.

ÏÏÏ
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9
ÏÏÏ

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The Master Model

The Assembly Modeler

The Unigraphics assembly is a file containing stored links to the part files that
are pieces of the assembly. The geometry that defines the piece parts of the
assembly resides in the original part file only, there is no duplication in the
assembly file.

A link in the assembly file is referred to as a component object. A component


object stores information about the piece part such as its location, attributes,
origin, orientation, permissions, degree of display, and its relationship to other
parts.

The Master Model Concept

Applying the Master Model Concept in a Drafting situation is simply the


creation of an assembly consisting of one component part. It is valuable as a
means of promoting concurrent engineering. The person responsible for the
design of a part is not the same person responsible for all of the downstream
applications performed on the part. These downstream applications may
include drafting, manufacturing, analysis, etc.

The Master Model Concept is also valuable in protecting the design intent of
the part from inadvertent corruption by a downstream user. The downstream
user will have write privileges to the assembly file, but only read privileges to
the model. The solid model is referenced for the application work, but the
downstream user will not have the ability to change it.

ÏÏÏ Because the application information in the assembly or non-master file is


ÏÏÏ
9 referencing the original master model part, edits to the master model will be
ÏÏÏ updated in the non-master part file.

Implementing Master Model theory allows diverse yet dependent design


processes to access the same master geometry during development. Therefore,
the entire part creation process becomes more efficient allowing many
disciplines to work at the same time and allowing master model edits to be
automatically updated in non-master parts.

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The Master Model

The power of implementing a Master Model is that the independent design


processes are dependent on the same master geometry during development.

Drafting Assembly

Master Model

Analysis N/C

Each application uses a separate assembly file. When the Master Model is
revised, the other applications will automatically update with minimal or no
associativity loss.

The design intent of the various design applications can be maintained through
protection of the Master Model.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
9
ÏÏÏ

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The Master Model

Master Model Example

Manufacturing engineers have the need to design fixture devices, define


machining operations, and designate cutter tools and save this data in their
models.

By creating a manufacturing assembly" and adding a component to it, they can


then generate their application specific geometry or data in a separate part file
which references the master geometry:

 This avoids duplication of model geometry


 Different users can work in separate files simultaneously

abcd1234_mfg.prt
(owned by manufacturing engineer)

Contains manufacturing data


and a component object which
references master model part

abcd1234.prt

ÏÏÏ
(owned by designer)

ÏÏÏ
9
ÏÏÏ
Contains master model geometry

The manufacturing engineer has ownership of the assembly file without


necessarily having write access to the master model which is owned by the
designer.

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The Master Model

Master Model Drawing Guidelines


 1. Create the 'drawing' file
(Open seedpart_mm or seedpart_in, FILE→SAVE AS, xxxxxxx_dwg)
 2. Start the Assemblies application
(APPLICATION→ASSEMBLIES)
 3. Add the part to be detailed as a component
(ASSEMBLIES→COMPONENTS→ADD EXISTING)
 4. Change to the Drafting Application
(APPLICATION→DRAFTING)
 5. Adjust the paper; name, units, size, projection angle
(DRAWING→EDIT)
 6. Add the drawing formats; title block, border, revision block, standard
notes (Site dependent)
 7. Set View Display Preferences; hidden line removal, section
backgrounds, threads
(PREFERENCES→VIEW DISPLAY)
 8. Add the first 'Imported' view; typically top or front
(DRAWING→ADD VIEW→IMPORT VIEW)
 9. Add more views; orthographic, detail, auxiliary, section, isometric,
exploded
(DRAWING→ADD VIEW→ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW)
 10. Adjust the views; scale, move, align, remove
(DRAWING→EDIT VIEW)
 11. Adjust the View Display Preferences, per view
(PREFERENCES→VIEW DISPLAY)
ÏÏÏ
12. Clean up individual views with view dependent edits; erase object, edit ÏÏÏ
9
ÏÏÏ

entire object, edit object segment
(EDIT→VIEW DEPENDENT EDIT)
 13. Add the Utility Symbols; centerlines, target symbols, intersection
symbols
(INSERT→UTILITY SYMBOL)
 14. Add the dimensions
(INSERT→DIMENSION)
 15. Add the notes, labels, and GD&T's
(INSERT→ANNOTATION)

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The Master Model

Activity 1 - Exploring a Master Model Assembly


This activity will demonstrate the advantages of a Master Model Assembly.

Step 1 Choose File"Options"Load Options and ensure that


the Load Method is From Directory.

Step 2 Open the part file pau_tapedisp_dwg.

Make sure that you are selecting pau_tapedisp_dwg.

Step 3 Choose Drafting.

Step 4 Inspect the drawing for dimensional values.

 Zoom in on section view A-A and note the slot width of .88
and the corner radius of .12. Both dimensions have been
rounded from the model dimensions to two decimal places.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
9
Slot Width

ÏÏÏ

Corner
Radius

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The Master Model

 Restore the view and note the drawing name, SH1, at the
lower left corner.

Step 5 Investigate the model.

 Choose Modeling.

 Choose Information→Feature and note that there are no


features.

 Choose Tools→Expression and note that there are no


expressions.

 Choose Assemblies→Reports→List Components.

An information window appears showing the assembly file structure for the file
pau_tapedisp_dwg and indicates that there is one component named
pau_tapedisp. This part contains the Master Model definition.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
9
ÏÏÏ

 Close the information window.

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The Master Model

Step 6 Examine the display.

 Choose Information→Object. Place the cursor over the solid


body. When the cursor changes to the cross with the ellipsis
(+...) select once. Pass the cursor over the numbers in the
QuickPick window until the solid body is highlighted, then
select it.

 Choose OK.

An information window appears with information regarding the solid, its


owning part, and confirmation that it is a component.

 Dismiss the information window.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
9 Step 7 Retrieve the Master Model file.
ÏÏÏ
 Choose Open.

 Choose pau_tapedisp from the list box.

Step 8 Edit the expression for Roll_width to .75

 Choose Tools→Expression.

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The Master Model

 Select the Roll_width expression.

 Replace the .875 value with .75 and choose OK.

The opening for the tape roll changes in width to accommodate the modified
dimension.

Step 9 Edit the blend on the inside of the spool cavity.


ÏÏÏ
 Choose Edit→Feature→Parameters.
ÏÏÏ
9
ÏÏÏ

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 Select the Blend(21) feature at the bottom of the list.


Confirm the selection with OK.

 In the Radius Dynamic Input Field, key in a new value of


.06.

 Choose OK.

ÏÏÏ  Choose OK.

ÏÏÏ
9
ÏÏÏ Step 10 Change Displayed Part to pau_tapedisp_dwg.

 Choose Window→pau_tapedisp_dwg to change the


Displayed Part.

 Choose Drafting.

Notice the drawing name now shows (OUT-OF-DATE) to remind you the
views are not updated.

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The Master Model

Step 11 Update the drawing.

 Choose Drawing→Update Views.

 Choose All in the Update Views dialog box and choose OK.

Step 12 Zoom in on section A-A again to see the changes to the


master model reflected on the drawing

Slot Width

Corner
Radius

Step 13 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
9
ÏÏÏ

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The Master Model

Activity 2 - Creating a Master Model Assembly


This activity will demonstrate creation of a Master Model Assembly.

Step 1 Open the part file pau_seedpart_in.

Step 2 Save the part as ***_dwg_1 where *** represent your


initials.

Step 3 Add the part pau_dwg_1 to the discipline specific


assembly file.
 Check to see the Assemblies application is toggled on
(Choose Application→Assemblies, if it is not on).

 Choose the Add Existing Component icon.

 Choose the Choose Part File button.

 Choose pau_dwg_1 from the parts directory, then OK.

 Change the Positioning option to Absolute.

 Choose BODY from the Reference Set pull down and


choose OK.

 Press Reset in the Point Constructor dialog box, followed by


OK to locate the part at Zero.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
9
ÏÏÏ

Step 4 Choose Save.

Step 5 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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The Master Model

SUMMARY This Master Model approach offers many


benefits to Unigraphics customers. If these two
files were readĆprotected by different
departments, distinct responsibilities would be
enforced by the protection and yet all of the
appropriate model data is shared by each of the
departments concerned. Users can access
whatever they want, whenever they want with
full confidence that no data or revision work
can be lost without active confirmation by the
users.

ÏÏÏ
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The Master Model

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

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9
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Introduction to Drafting

Introduction to Drafting
Lesson 10

PURPOSE This lesson will introduce the fundamentals of the Unigraphics


Drafting application.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Edit drawings.
 Add Views to Drawings.
 Modify Preferences.
 Create Utility Symbols.
 Create Dimensions.
 Create Annotations.

ÏÏÏ
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10
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Introduction to Drafting

Uses of the Drafting Application

The Drafting application can be used to rapidly create drawings of solid parts.

Some of the features of the Drafting application are:

 Views may be added to the drawing just by indicating their location with
the cursor.
 As orthographic views are added, they will automatically be aligned with
the parent view.
 Every view is fully associated with the solid. If the solid is updated, the
views will also update.
 Drafting annotations (dimensions, labels, and symbols with leaders) are
placed directly on the drawing.
 Drafting annotations are fully associative to the geometry selected and
will update automatically to changes in the solid part.
 Fully associative view boundaries automatically calculated when the
drawing is updated.

Drawing Display

Drawings may be displayed two different ways, full color or monochrome.

Full color is the default setting. In this mode objects are displayed in the color
that they appear in the modeling application and the background is the color
set by the Preferences"Visualization"Color Pallet"Edit Background dialog.

Monochrome Display provides a means for a drawing to appear more like an


actual drawing (black-on-white). Monochrome is toggle on or off by choosing
Preferences"Visualization"Color Pallet"Color Settings and then toggling
Monochrome Display. The foreground and background colors may be set in this
dialog. Show Widths may also be set here but only applies to drawings. When
Monochrome Display is toggled off, drawings will be displayed in full color.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Introduction to Drafting

Editing a Drawing

The Drawing"Edit option may be chosen to change the creation parameters of


a current drawing such as name, size, scale, units of measure, or projection
angle.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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The current state of the displayed drawing affects the edit options available.
The following are things to be aware of:

 The projection angle can only be changed if no projected views exist on


the current drawing being modified.
 The drawing may be edited to a larger or smaller size. However, if the
drawing is edited to a size so small that a view falls entirely outside the
boundary of the drawing, an error message will appear.

ÏÏÏ
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ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Introduction to Drafting

Activity 1 - Editing a Drawing


In this activity, the current drawing name, size and scale will be modified.

Step 1 Open the file pau_edit_1.

Step 2 Choose Drafting.

Step 3 Choose Drawing"Open and select 93A12345-5 from the


listing as the drawing to open and choose OK.

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ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Introduction to Drafting

Step 4 Rename the current drawing.

 Choose Drawing"Edit.

 Change the drawing name in the Selection text field to


93A12345Ć6.

 Choose Apply and notice the drawing name update in the


graphics area.

Step 5 Change the current drawing size.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Change the values so that Height= 594, Length= 1100.
10
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Choose Apply and notice the drawing size update.

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Introduction to Drafting

Step 6 Change the current drawing scale.

 Enter a new drawing scale in the text fields (1/1) and choose
OK.

93A12345–6 (DWG) WORK

Multiple drawing edits may be performed before choosing Apply or OK.

Step 7 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

NOTE: In order to save the drawing information or edits, the part


file must be saved.

Adding a View to a Drawing

The first view added is based on the view orientation selected from the list box
in the upper portion of the Add View dialog.

Once this view is added to the drawing, it determines scale, layer settings, as
well as the orthographic space and alignment of subsequent orthographic views.
It also establishes the part orientation on the drawing.

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ÏÏÏ
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Any modeling view may be used as the first view placed on a drawing.

View direction

ZC
YC
XC

Choosing Drawing"Add View displays the following dialog.

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Introduction to Drafting

View Type Icons

View Creation Steps

Viewpoint
Selection
List

View
Specific
Options

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Introduction to Drafting

Create Centerline

When toggled ON, this option automatically creates linear, cylindrical, and bolt
circle centerlines (with a circular instance set) for views where the hole or pin
axis is perpendicular or parallel to the plane of the drawing view.

Removing Views From a Drawing

You can use the Drawing"Remove View option to remove one or more views
from a drawing.

Once a view is removed from a drawing, all drafting objects or view


modifications associated to that view are deleted.

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Introduction to Drafting

Activity 2 - Adding a View to a Drawing


In this activity, a view will be added to the drawing previously created.

Step 1 Add a view to the drawing.

 Choose File→Options→Load Options and select As Saved.

 Open the part ***_dwg_1 or open pau_drawing_1_assm and


save as ***_drawing_1_assm.

 Choose Drafting.

 Choose Drawing→Edit; select B" size drawing.

 Choose OK.

 Choose Add View to Drawing.

The Top viewpoint is the default view orientation. Any one of the listed
viewpoints could be imported as the first view on the face of the drawing.

 Ensure that the Create Center Line option is toggled On.

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 Use the first mouse button to indicate a location near the


lower left corner of the drawing as shown.

View

View Center

View bounds are


ghosted to assist in
view placement

DWG1 (DWG) WORK

If there is a need to reposition the view after placement, choose the Move
button from the dialog box, then specify a new view center.

Note that the Top viewpoint of the part as it relates to model space is being
placed on the drawing such that it depicts an orthographic front view of the
part. This flexibility assures that the drawing views necessary to depict the part
may be placed on the drawing independent of the orientation of the part in
model space.

Notice the creation of the centerline.

Step 2 Place an orthographic View on the Drawing.

 Choose the Orthographic View Icon.

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 Select the imported view as the parent view.

View bounds are


ghosted to assist in
view placement

Orthographic
View

Parent View

DWG1 (DWG) WORK

 Use the first mouse button to indicate a location above the


parent view.

The location of the cursor relative to the base view determines the
Orthographic view projection from the parent view.

Step 3 Choose File"Save, do not close the part.

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Setting the View Display Preferences

Choosing Preferences"View Display produces the View Display dialog box.

The View Display dialog box may be used to define and edit the display of such
things as hidden lines, silhouettes, smooth edges, etc..

View
Selection
Box

View
Option
Buttons

Button
Specific
Options

Global
View
Options

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The View Display dialog box may be used to preset preferences for subsequent
views added to the drawing, or this dialog box may be used to edit the settings
of existing drawing views. To edit the View Display preferences of an existing
view, select the view(s) from the drawing, or choose the view(s) from the
selection box.

Button Specific Options

The Button Specific Options area of the dialog box varies to support the
different View Option Buttons available. When each View Option Button is
selected the appropriate choices for the option are displayed in this area.

View Option Buttons

Hidden Lines

If the Hidden Line option is toggled Off, Hidden Line removal is not performed
and all hidden lines in the view will appear.

If the Hidden Line option is toggled On, the color, font and width of the hidden
line display is determined by the settings in the Color, Font, and Width option
menus.

Hidden Lines=Dashed

Hidden Lines=Invisible

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Smooth Edges

Smooth edges are those edges that their adjacent faces have the same surface
tangent at the edge where they meet.

If the Smooth Edges option is toggled to the On position, the Color, Font and
Width option menus may be used to determine the appearance of the smooth
edges. The End Gaps option may be used to vary the edge intersection
appearance.

Smooth Smooth
Edges=On Edges=Off

Smooth Edges=Dashed

Visible Lines

The appearance of visible objects may be determined by using the Color, Font,
and Width option menus.

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Virtual Intersections

Virtual Intersections are the theoretical sharp intersections that occur where
blended faces would intersect, where the display of smooth edges may cause
confusion.

If the Virtual Intersections option is toggled to the On position, the Color, Font
and Width option menus may be used to determine the appearance of the
virtual intersection display. The End Gaps option may be used to vary the edge
intersection appearance.

Virtual Intersections

Extracted Edges

The Extracted Edges option allows the edges of an assembly to be shown


without loading all of the component parts. Edges are extracted at the
component level and remain associative to the component.

Automatic Update

The Automatic Update option may be used to control whether a drawing view
is updated after the model has been changed.

If Automatic Update is turned on, hidden lines, smooth edges, and silhouettes
are updated after changes are made to the model. If Automatic Update is
toggled off, these edges are not updated.

This option does not affect section views, or detail views made from section
views. These views always automatically update after the model is changed.

NOTE: If the Preferences"Drafting"Suppress View


Update option is turned On, no automatic update will occur during
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Activity 3 - Setting View Display Preferences


In this activity, you will practice setting the view display preferences.

Step 1 Continue using the part ***_dwg_1 or


***_drawing_1_assm, whichever is applicable.

Step 2 Change the view display preferences for the imported view
added to the drawing.

 Choose Preferences→View Display.

 Select the imported view.

 With the Hidden Lines View Option Button depressed, make


sure Hidden Line is toggled on.

 Set the Hidden Line Font to Dashed.

 With the Smooth Edges View Option Button depressed,


toggle the Smooth Edges option off.

 Choose OK.

Step 3 Save and close the part file.


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Creating Utility Symbols

The Utility Symbols option creates various centerlines, offset center points,
target points, and intersection symbols. The utility symbol dialog is activated by
choosing Insert→Utility Symbol in the Drafting application.

The Utility Symbols dialog box consists of four distinct areas: symbol icons,
position options, symbol display parameters and preference options.

Symbol Display Parameters control the creation of each utility symbol as it is


placed. These parameters may also be used to modify existing drafting symbols.

Symbol
Icons

Point Position
Options

Symbol
Display
Parameters

Preference

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Options

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Automatic Centerline

This option automatically creates centerlines in any existing view(s) where the
hole or pin axis is perpendicular or parallel to the plane of the drawing view. If
a series of holes in a circle (bolt hole circle) are not a circular instance set, then
a linear centerline is created for each hole.

The following views are not supported:

 Faceted representation view


 Unfolded section view
 Revolved section view

Associativity of Utility Symbols

A utility symbol's placement is controlled by a position on an object. The system


will automatically size the symbol components to the objects used to create it,
based upon the symbol display parameters.

Deleting a Utility Symbol

A utility symbol may be deleted by choosing Edit→Delete and selecting the


symbol to delete. The symbols may be selected at any position.

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Creating a Cylindrical Centerline

A cylindrical centerline that conforms to ASME Y14.5M-1994 standards may


be created through points, arcs, or cylindrical faces. The point position options
allow a centerline associated to objects other than cylinders to be created.

The following associativity rules apply to cylindrical centerlines:

 A cylindrical centerline must be associated to two point positions.


 A cylindrical centerline is updated when the data to which it is associated
is moved or reĆsized.
 If one of the objects to which a cylindrical centerline is associated is
deleted, the centerline will conform to the Retain Annotations setting
setting found under Preferences→Drafting.

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Activity 4 - Creating a Cylindrical Centerline


In this activity, cylindrical centerlines will be created using both the arc center
and cylindrical face options.

Step 1 Open the part pau_symbols_1.

Step 2 Rename the part ***_symbols_1 where *** represent your


initials.

Step 3 Create a Cylindrical Centerline symbol.

 Choose Drafting.

 Choose Insert→Utility Symbol

 Select the Cylindrical Centerline icon.

 Set the Point Position option to Arc Center.


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 Select two positions, indicated below, for placement of a


single centerline symbol. Repeat for the other two pairs of
positions.

Select this pair of edges.

Select this pair of edges.

Select this pair of edges,


confirming your selections if
needed.

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The resulting cylindrical centerlines are shown.

Step 4 Create a centerline symbol using the Cylindrical Face


option.

 Continue using the Cylindrical Centerline icon.

 Change the Point Position option to Cylindrical Face.

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 Place the cursor over the cylindrical face as shown and select
the face using the first mouse button.

 Indicate end points 1 and 2 of the cylindrical centerline,


using cursor locations as shown. The indicated end points are
projected to the axis of the cylindrical face, and two drafting
points are created that are associated to the selected face.

1* *2

Step 5 Repeat the procedure for the two counterbored holes in


the orthographic view.

This time, the face selection will need to be confirmed, as the system will select
the main, or outside face first. This face will highlight in the view that the face
was selected, as well as in the adjacent view.
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 Use the numbers from the QuickPick window to select the


inner cylindrical face.

Select this
face

 Indicate end points 1 and 2 of the cylindrical centerline,


using cursor locations as shown.

1* *2

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 Make a similar centerline through the lower counterbored


hole by selecting the counter bored face shown below.

Select this
face

Notice how you did not have to select the endpoints for this centerline, this is
because Multiple Centerlines was turned on. The completed centerlines are
shown below.

Step 6 Create Automatic Centerlines. ÏÏÏ


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 Choose ***_symbols_1.

 Choose OK twice.

 Dismiss the Information window.

 Choose Insert"Utility Symbol.

 Choose Automatic Centerline.

 Hold the Ctrl key down and select the following views from
the list:
FRONT@16
ORTHO@26
RIGHT@10
SX@25

 Choose Apply.

Step 7 Choose File"Save, do not close the part.

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Creating Dimensions

The various dimensions types may be accessed two different ways. One way is
by choosing Insert→Dimension and then selecting the desired dimension. The
other way is by choosing the dimension from the customizable Dimension
toolbar.

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Dimension Dialog

Whenever a dimension type is selected a dimension dialog specific to that type


of dimension is displayed.

Second Fold
Name of First selection Location Origin
dimension type selection

Line and point


type definitions
for Cylindrical
Point type dimensions

Vector definitions
for Angular
dimensions Annotation editor
for appended text

Local
Preferences

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Vector Definition for Angular Dimensions

The Vector Definitions options are only available when creating an angular
dimension. An angle dimension is the measurement between two vectors. The
various options provide a means of defining the vectors

Existing Line

Two Points

Extension Line

Arc Center

Enter Angle

Horizontal Right

Vertical Up

Horizontal Left

Vertical Down

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Line and Point Definition for Cylindrical Dimensions

These options are only available when creating a cylindrical dimension. The
various options provide a means of defining the lines or points that the
dimension measures.

Existing Line

Inferred Point

Control Point

Intersection Point

Arc Center

Tangent Point

Baseline

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Dimension Local Preferences

The Dimensions dialog box contains options that control the display and
placement of dimensions. These local preference settings may be changed with
each dimension created.

Local
Preferences

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Appended Text Controls

Text or symbols may be added to dimensions via the Annotation Editor and
toggling on Use Appended Text.

Annotation Editor

To create appended text:

 Select the desired dimension type.


 Choose the Annotation Editor button.
 In the annotation editor select the required position button. One or all
four positions may be used on the same dimension.

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Below
Before After Above

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 Enter the desired text for the different positions as required and choose
OK.
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NOTE: If the position arrow displays solid, that is an indicator


that text is present and will be displayed in the dimension. If that
text is not desired, select the position button and delete the text.

 Toggle Use Appended Text on.


 Dimension the object.

Any text entered in the appended text fields will continue to be added to any
new dimensions created unless the Use Appended Text option is toggled off.

Precision Options

The Precision button activates the Dimension Precision dialog box which is used
to independently control the precision of both dimension values and tolerance
values. Both single (Primary) and dual (Secondary) dimensional precision is
supported.

If the dimension display format is set to fractional values (instead of decimal


values) then the Dimension Precision dialog box will show fractional values for
the nominal precision option.

This pull down is active when


using dual dimensions.

OR

For decimal For fractional


precision precision

Example: X.XXX Example: X.X ÏÏÏ


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R 2.195 R 2.2
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Tolerance Type and Tolerance Value Options

The display of tolerance values may be controlled using the Tolerance Types
shown below.

Click here

Bilateral

Unilateral+

Unilateral-

Bilateral

No tolerance

+Limit, 2 Lines

Tolerance Types -Limit, 2 Lines

+Limit, 1 Line

-Limit, 1 Line

Basic

Reference

Diameter Reference

Not to Scale

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Tolerance Value Options

The Tolerance Value fields are active in respect to the units button, Inches or
Millimeters, that has been selected. The units buttons are active depending on
the dual dimension format that has been selected by
Preferences→Annotation→Units.

Use the Tolerance Value fields to enter upper and lower tolerance values for
both Inch and SI units. Any value entered in these fields will be interpreted as
positive unless a negative (-) value is specified.

Tolerance Values

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Some examples of different tolerance values and displays are shown below.

nominal size= 5.50 inches


upper tolerance = .030
lower tolerance = -.010
Equal Bilateral
Only the upper tolerance value
is used; the lower value is ignored.

5.50 ".03

nominal size= 5.50 inches


upper tolerance = .030
lower tolerance = -.010
Unilateral -
The negative limit below (-TOL) will
show value while the positive limit
above (+.000) will be zero.
5.50 ) .00
* .01

nominal size = 5.50 inches


upper tolerance = .030
lower tolerance = -.010
+ Limit 1 Line

Limits are calculated by adding the


positive tolerance value to the
dimension value for the upper limit of
5.53 – 5.49
your dimension, and subtracting the
negative value for the lower limit

Basic

Displays a basic dimension


enclosed in a rectangular box
around the dimension. No
tolerance values are displayed.
5.50

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Placement Options

Dimensions placement on the drawing may be controlled using the options


shown below.

Auto Placement

Manual Placement, Arrows In

Manual Placement, Arrows Out

Auto placement automatically centers the dimension between the extension


lines if space allows, or moves the text outside the extension lines if necessary.
Auto placement also controls whether the leader lines come from left or right.

When using the Manual Placement, Arrows In or Arrows Out options, the
dimension is placed at the cursor location specified. The leader line placement
is controlled manually using the Leader From option.

Initial Position
Cursor Initial Position Cursor
Movement Movement

ÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Final Position

ÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
cursor Final Position
position
cross hairs ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ cursor
position

In Auto" placement, the cursor is In Manual" placement the cursor is


insensitive to the horizontal direction sensitive to cursor position

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Arrow Line and Extension Line Options

The display of arrow lines and extension lines for dimensions may be controlled
using the Arrow Line Display and Extension Line Display options shown below.

Display Arrow Display Arrow


on Side 1 on Side 2
Display Extension Display Extension
Line on Side 1 Line on Side 2

Example: 2 Arrows & 2 Extension Lines


8.0000

Example: Arrow 1 & Extension 2


8.0000

NOTE: Side 1 refers to the first object selected and Side 2 refers
to the second object selected.

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Leader Direction Options

The dimension leader direction may be controlled by selecting one of the three
leader options. The leader option may be set prior to creating the dimension or
changed during placement of the dimension.

Example: Left R 2.000


Infer

From Left Example: Right R 2.000

From Right

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Text Justification Options

Text justification may be controlled using the Horizontal and Vertical


Justification options. These are used when there is more than one line of
dimension text and/or symbols, such as appended text or GD&T symbols.

Vertical Justification Options

Horizontal Justification Options

6.000 Left/Top Justification


12 Places

6.000 Center/Middle Justification


12 Places

6.000
12 Places Right/Bottom Justification

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The origin of the dimension may be changed simply by selecting it and dragging
to the new position. The dimension will drag within the constraints that it was
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will remain centered between the arrows.

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In addition to the Dimension Local Preferences, there are Global Preferences


governing drafting views and entities. These are the Preferences found in the
Preferences pullĆdown menu shown below.

Global
Drafting
Preferences

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Activity 5 - Creating Dimensions


In this activity, several dimensions will be created using various local settings on
the Dimensions dialog.

Step 1 Continue using the part ***_symbols_1.

Step 2 Set the work layer to 111 (category DIMS).

 Choose Format→Layer Settings.

 Choose layer 111.

 Choose Make Work and OK.

NOTE: It will be necessary to set Dimension local preference


settings and the Global preferences to create each of the following
dimensions.

Step 3 Create a Horizontal dimension.

 Choose Preferences→Annotation→Lettering. Set the


Lettering Types option menu to Dimension, and the
Character Size to .25. Choose OK.

 Choose Insert"Dimension"Horizontal.

 In the Horizontal dialog window choose the

Annotation Editor icon.

 Choose the Appended Text Below icon.

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 Enter 6 EQ SPACES in text field and choose OK.

Notice that Use Appended Text was automatically toggled on.

 Set the Precision for 2 decimal places.

 Set the alignment methods to Center and Middle.

 Set the Placement option menu to Auto Placement.

 Select the two centerlines as shown in the figure below.

 Select a cursor location to place the dimension on the


drawing.

Notice the extension lines are spaced from the linear centerlines, not the arc
centers.

Step 4 Create a Vertical dimension. ÏÏÏ


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 Choose Insert"Dimension"Vertical. ÏÏÏ
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 Toggle Use Appended Text off.

 Set the tolerance type to Equal Bilateral Tolerance.

Accept the default value in the Upper Tolerance field (.005).

 Set the Precision to 3 decimal places.

 Select the objects shown below.

 Place the dimension on the drawing.

Step 5 Create a Cylindrical dimension.


 Choose Insert"Dimension"Cylindrical.

 Set the Precision to 1 decimal place.

 Set the tolerance type to No Tolerance.

 Select the outer edges of the cylinder to dimension as shown


below.

Select this edge

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 Place the dimension on the drawing.

Step 6 Create a Radius NOT to Center dimension.

 Choose Insert"Dimension"Radius.

 Set the Precision to 2 decimal places.

 Set the Placement Option to


Manual Placement, Arrows Out.

 Select the arc and place the dimension on the drawing as


shown below.

Step 7 Create a Hole dimension.

 Choose Insert"Dimension"Hole.

 Set the Precision to 3 decimal places.

 Select the arc and place the dimension on the drawing as


shown below.

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Annotation Editor

The Annotation Editor is used to place other information on the drawing such
as notes, labels, GD&T symbols, and User Defined Symbols. Any of these
symbols can be placed on the drawing with a leader or as a standalone note
without a leader.

Tool Bar

Text Entry
Window

Preview
Window

Symbol
Display and
Text
Preference
Options

Placement
Options

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As text and symbols are entered, the text and control characters appear within
the Text Entry Window. In this window the formatting options available within
the Tool Bar may be used to customize the appearance of the text. The preview
window displays the text as it will appear when it is placed on the drawing.

The Tool Bar

The Tool Bar contains several buttons that allow various text formatting
operations to be performed.

Insert Reset Text


from Preview and Dialog
Copy Delete Text
File Clear Preferences
Attribute

Save As Cut Paste Select Next Fit to


Symbol Preview
Window

Text
Bold Underline Superscript
Font Justification

Character Italic Overline Subscript


Scale Factor

TIP To reveal the function of any button, hold the cursor over the icon
until the name of the button appears.

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Placing the Text

Notes and labels may be placed on the drawing either with or without a leader
line, depending on the placement option chosen.

Create with Create without


Leader Leader

Creating text Without a Leader

When the Create without Leader option is selected, the Origin Tool dialog box
is displayed. This dialog box allows you to specify the placement and alignment
method for the text.

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Creating Text with a Leader

To create text with a leader line, choose the button to display the Create Leader
dialog box. This dialog box allows one or more leaders to be specified as well as
the display characteristics of each leader.

Plain
Plain with All Around
Symbol
Plain with Aligned Arrow

Plain with Aligned Arrow


and All Around Symbol

Extension Line

ASME 1994 / ISO 1983


Datum Feature

ASME 1994 / ISO 1983 Options


Datum Feature With Available For
Datum on Extension Line ASME
Text Annotation Y14.5M-1994
Alignment ASME 1994 / ISO 1983 Standards
Options Datum Feature On
Datum on Dimension
Top Stub

Middle

Bottom

Below Bottom, Extend to maximum

Below Bottom, Extend to maximum, Underline

Below Bottom

Below Bottom, Underline

Below Top, Extend to maximum

Below Top, Extend to maximum, Underline

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Below Top

Below Top, Underline


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To create a leader, simply select the reference geometry for the leader end
point, indicate up to seven intermediate leader points (if necessary), select the
preferred leader type, leader side placement, and leader/text alignment. Once
all selections are made for the Create Leader dialog box, choosing OK will
proceed to the Place Annotation dialog box discussed earlier.

Drafting objects may be created with more than one leader by selecting the New
Leader button anytime during the leader creation process.

The default placement method is Drag, but the Point Constructor option may
be used to tie the text location to a control point, arc center, or intersection
point. Text may also be aligned either horizontally or vertically with an existing
drafting object using the Align Text option. The Offset Distance option may be
used to indicate an origin position offset from an existing drafting object. A
horizontal and vertical distance is given as multiples of the current character
size when using the Offset Character option.

Editing Text

Text may be edited in a previously created note or label by selecting it from the
drawing. When a note or label is selected, it is captured in the Text Entry
Window so that changes may be made. When editing is completed, simply
choose the Apply button to accept and display the changes on the drawing.

Editing Existing Dimension Preferences

The Annotation Preferences of existing dimensions may be edited simply by


doubleĆclicking on the dimension. The Annotation Preferences dialog will
appear and the following types of preferences may be edited.

 Dimension
 Line/Arrow
 Lettering
 Units
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ  Radial
10
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Introduction to Drafting

Activity 6 - Using the Annotation Editor


In this activity, the Annotation Editor will be used to create a label.

Step 1 Continue using the part ***_symbols_1.

Step 2 Make layer 101 the Work Layer.

 In the Utility tool bar, key in 101 for the work layer.

Step 3 Create the Label Shown to define the chamfer.

 Choose Insert→Annotation.

 Ensure that Drafting Symbols is selected.

 Enter the text, as shown in the illustration above, in the text


entry area using the appropriate degree symbol.

 Choose the Text Justification button from the Control


Character Area.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
10
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Introduction to Drafting

 Choose Left Justify.

Left Justify

Center Justify
Right Justify

 Choose the Create with Leader option.

 Select the edge shown to place the arrow leader.

Select this
edge

 Choose OK to indicate that no intermediate points are


required.

 Locate the Label in the proper location.

Step 4 Choose File"Close"Save and Close.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
10
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Introduction to Drafting

SUMMARY The Drafting Application provides for the


creation of drawings. Views and dimensions
that are placed on a drawing are associative to
the solid model and update when changes are
made to the model.

In this lesson you:


 Modified a drawing.
 Added views to a drawing.
 Created Utility Symbols.
 Created Cylindrical Centerlines.
 Created Dimensions.
 Added annotation to a drawing.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
10
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
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Introduction to Drafting

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
10
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Datum Plane Reference Features

Datum Plane Reference Features ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
Lesson 11
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

PURPOSE This lesson will define datum plane reference features.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Create a Datum Plane.


 Create a hole feature on a tangent datum plane.
 Move a hole feature location by changing a datum plane angle.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ Reference Features


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ and
Reference features are construction tools that assist in the creation of features
sketches in locations and orientations where planar placement faces do not
exist, or as associative linear objects. Reference Features are theoretically
infinite in size, but the display is limited to a size slightly larger than that of the
solid model. Reference Features may be created relative to an existing solid
model or fixed in model space. This lesson will only discuss relative datum
planes.

In the case where a hole must pierce a cylinder to a certain depth from the
outside of the cylinder, construction tools are necessary. These tools are needed
because the hole feature requires a planar placement face for creation rather
than the cylindrical face of the base solid. The amount of control desired over
placement of a feature sometimes dictates the number of reference features
required. Two examples below show a hole in the side of a cylinder, normal to
the axis of the cylinder. The example on the right requires an additional datum
plane to position the hole perpendicular to the slot.

Plane 3B
Plane 1A Plane 1B

Plane 2A
Plane 2B parameter

Example A Example B

In example A above, Plane 1A defines a position through the cylinder axis,


while Plane 2A defines a placement plane that is tangent to the cylindrical face
and perpendicular to Plane 1A. This allows the hole to be placed on the tangent
datum and be relative to both the cylinder and Plane 1A.

Datum Plane reference features are accessible by choosing


Insert"Form Feature"Datum Plane from the menu bar while in the Modeling
application.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ
Datum Plane ÏÏÏ
The datum plane option allows a planar reference feature to be created that
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
may be used:

 To define a sketch plane.


 To act as the planar placement face for the creation of form features (ie:
hole, slot, pad, boss, pocket, etc.).
 As a target edge for positioning features.
 As a horizontal or vertical reference.
 For the mirror plane in Mirror Body and Mirror Feature.
 To act as the 'trim to' face (extruded and revolved bodies).
 To trim a body.
 In assemblies, as mating TO or FROM object.
 In Drafting, as a hinge line for a section or auxiliary view.
 To help define a relative Datum Axis.

Relative Datum Planes

Relative datum planes are constrained (associated) to other geometric objects.


A constraint is a restriction on a datum that positions it relative to some existing
plane, face, or feature.

Many constraint combinations can be used to create relative datum planes.

Creating Datum Planes by Inferred Selection

Relative datum planes are created by selecting an existing object. The


constraint type is determined (inferred) by the objects selected.

Generally, whatever is necessary to describe the relationship of the plane to


other objects determines the constraint type(s) to be used. One, two, or three
constraints may be necessary. Simply selecting the objects will present the
applicable constraint types.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ A Single Constraint associates the datum plane to the target solid using either
ÏÏÏ one of the following creation methods:

ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
 Offset From Face or Datum Plane (Select a face or Datum Plane)
 Through Face Axis (Select cylinder, cone or revolved feature)
Using Dual Constraints means that the constraints must be specified in pairs to
create the datum plane. The possible combinations of selections are shown on
the next page.

The Triple Constraint method is inferred by selecting three points on a single


solid body. The Datum Plane is associative to the body and constrained to the
selected points. Only Endpoints and Midpoints on linear edges are selectable.

Datum Plane User Interface


Most of the datum planes created in this course can be created with the Static
Datum Plane Dynamic Input Field by inferred methods.

The Datum Plane Dialog may be used to create datum planes that are more
specific than those you can create with the Inferred method.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Dual Constraints ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
First Constraint (selection)
Offset From Face
Second Constraint (selection)
Offset From Face (Center Plane)
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
Through Edge
Through Datum Axis
Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face Axis
Through Point
Parallel to Face/Datum Plane
Tangent to Face
Tangent/Normal/Binormal to a Curve/Edge
Through Point
Through Edge
Through Edge Through Datum Axis
Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face Axis
Angle to Face/Datum Plane
Through Point
Through Edge
Through Datum Axis Through Datum Axis
Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face Axis
Angle to Face/Datum Plane
Through Point
Through Edge
Normal to Edge
Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face
Normal to Datum Axis
Axis
Through Datum Axis
Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face Axis
Angle to Face/Datum Plane
Angle to Face/Datum Plane Through Edge
Through Datum Axis
Angle is 0 Through Point
Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face Axis
Angle is 0 or 90 Tangent to Face
Through Point
Tangent to Face Angle to Face/Datum Plane (Angle is 0,
0 90)
Tangent to Face
Through Curve Through Point

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ Datum Plane Types


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
The following is a list of the datum planes that will be covered in this lesson:
 Offset
 Center
 Angle
 Tangent
 Through Control Points
 Point and Direction

Offset Datum Plane


To create an offset datum plane

 Choose the Datum Plane icon.


 Select the face to offset from.
 Do one of the following:

 Choose OK to accept a value of 0 (zero).

 Key in a value, press Enter, and choose OK.


 Select the base of the normal, drag the datum plane to the desired

location and choose OK.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Center Datum Plane ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
To create a center datum plane ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
 Choose the Datum Plane icon.
 Select two parallel faces or datum planes.
 Choose OK.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ Datum Plane Through Cylindrical Axis


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
To create a datum plane through a cylindrical axis:

 Choose the Datum Plane icon.


 Select the cylindrical axis symbol.
 Choose OK.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Datum Plane at an Angle Through a Cylindrical Axis ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
To create a datum plane at an angle through a cylindrical axis, an additional
datum plane must be created.
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
 Choose the Datum Plane icon.
 Select the cylindrical axis symbol.
 Choose OK.

 Choose the Datum Plane icon.


 Select the cylindrical axis symbol.
 Select the previously created datum plane.
 Do one of the following:
 Choose OK to accept the default value of 90.
 Key in a value, press Enter, and choose OK.
 Select the rotation drag handle and drag the datum plane to the
desired location and choose OK.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ Datum Plane at an Angle to a Face or Datum Plane


ÏÏÏ Through an Edge
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ To create a datum plane at an angle through an edge, do the following:

 Choose the Datum Plane icon.


 Select the edge that the datum plane is to pass through.
 Select the planar face or datum plane that the angle will reference.
 Do one of the following:
 Key in a value, press Enter, and choose OK.
 Select the rotation drag handle and drag the datum plane to the
desired angle and choose OK.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Datum Plane Tangent to a Cylindrical Face ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
To create a datum plane tangent to a cylindrical face, an additional datum plane ÏÏÏ
11
must be created. ÏÏÏ
 Choose the Datum Plane icon.
 Select the cylindrical axis symbol.
 Choose OK.

 Choose the Datum Plane icon.


 Select the cylindrical face (not on the axis).
 Select the previously created datum plane.
 Choose Alternate Solution from the Datum Plane toolbar until the
correct tangent datum plane is previewed.

 Choose OK.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ Datum Plane Through Three Points


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
To create a datum plane through 3 points, do the following:

 Choose the Datum Plane icon.


 Select the control points as desired (edges or curves).
 Tab through and set the U Parameter as required.
 Choose OK.

NOTE: The U Parameter is a value that indicates a position


along a theoretical infinite curve. Values between 0 (zero) and 1
define locations on the selected edge or curve. Values less than 0
(zero) or greater than 1 may also be used.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Datum Plane Defined by Point and Direction ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
To create a datum plane defined by a point and direction, do the following: ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
 Choose the Datum Plane icon.
 Choose Datum Plane from the Datum Plane toolbar.

 Choose Point & Direction.


 Select a point through which the datum plane should pass.
 Define the normal of the datum plane using Inferred Vector or Vector
Constructor.

 Choose OK twice.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ Activity 1 - Creating Relative Datum Planes


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
In this activity, three relative datum planes will be created. The datum planes
created are shown below.

Datum plane 1
Datum plane 2

Datum plane 3

Step 1 Open the part pau_ref_1.

Step 2 Choose Modeling.

Step 3 Create a Datum Plane Offset at a distance of 1 inch above


the upper face of the block.

 Choose Datum Plane.

 Select the top face of the block and confirm the selection if
necessary.

Pick this top face.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

The top face highlights and a direction vector points normal to the face, in this
ÏÏÏ
case, the positive ZC direction. The vector displays the positive offset direction.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

 Key in 1 and press Enter.

 Choose OK.

Datum plane

Datum planes have infinite bounds even though they are displayed with visible
boundaries.

Step 4 Create a second datum plane through three points.

The second datum plane will be created diagonally through the block.

 Choose Datum Plane.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ  Select the first point and confirm any of the edges. Any of
ÏÏÏ the edges are acceptable because they share the end point.
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
First Point

Third Point
Second Point

 Carefully select each of the two midpoints.

 Choose OK.

The datum plane is created and positioned through the three selected points.
The relationship of this datum plane through the points will remain if the block
parameters are changed.

Step 5 Create the third datum plane midway between the left
and right faces.

 Choose Datum Plane.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

 Select the right planar face.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

Right Face

 Select the left planar face.

Left Face

 Choose OK.

The datum plane is created and located at the center of the part and is parallel
to the faces selected.

Step 6 Edit the block to verify the parametric relationship of the


datum planes to the block.

 Choose Edit→Feature→Parameters.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ  Select BLOCK(6) and choose OK.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
 Choose Feature Dialog.

 Change the Block Dimensions values to:

X Length = 2

Y Length = 2

Z Length = 5

 Choose OK.

The revised values are displayed in the graphics area. Again a dialog box
displays options to edit the feature. The feature may still be modified without
updating the model.

 Choose OK in the dialog box.

If there were more features that needed to be edited, those features could be
selected at this time. In this case, there are no more edits desired.

 Choose OK in the Edit Parameters dialog box to complete


the change.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

 Fit the view.


ÏÏÏ
Notice that the constraints applied to the datum planes at the time of creation ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
continue to control the positioning of the datum planes after the block is edited. ÏÏÏ

Step 7 Close the part, do not save.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ Selecting and Using Datums


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
Selecting Datum Planes - When selecting a datum plane in the graphics area,
one of its displayed boundaries must be selected.

Creating Features using Datum Planes - Form Features created using datum
planes for the planar placement face are created normal to the datum plane.
These features are positioned in the center of the datum plane as a default if no
positioning dimensions are specified.

When a datum plane is selected for the planar placement face, the system will
display a direction vector showing the side of the datum plane on which the
feature will be created. The side shown can be accepted by selecting the Accept
Default Side option. If it is desired that the feature be created in the opposite
direction of the default vector, the Flip the Default Side option must be
selected.

Editing Datum Planes

Datum planes may be edited three different ways:

 Select the datum plane, and with the cursor over the selection, click MB3
and choose Edit Parameters.
 DoubleĆclick on a datum plane.
 Choose Edit→Feature→Parameters and select the datum plane.

Deleting Datum Planes


 Use Edit→ Feature→Delete
 Select the datum plane. With the cursor over the selection click MB3 and
choose Delete from the popĆup menu.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Activity 2 - Cylindrical Faces and Datum Planes ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
This activity will demonstrate the creation of relative datum planes as they
apply to a cylindrical face. ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
Step 1 Open the part pau_ref_2.

Step 2 Save the part as ***_ref_2 where *** represent your


initials.

A hole is required through the cylindrical face at the bottom of the part,
centered in the feature. Relative reference features are required to accomplish
this task.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ Step 3 Start the Modeling Application.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ Step 4 Choose Datum Plane.

Step 5 Create a Datum Plane through the feature axis, at an


angle to the existing plane of 90 degrees.

 Move the cursor over the outside cylindrical face of the


feature at the bottom of the part. Select the cylindrical axis
symbol.

 Select the existing Datum Plane.

 Choose OK to accept the default value of 90.

Step 6 Create a datum plane tangent to the outside of the same


cylindrical face to use as a placement face for the hole
feature.

 Choose Datum Plane.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

 Select the original Datum Plane.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Select the cylindrical face of the feature at the bottom of the
part.
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
 Choose Alternate Solution until the new tangent
datum plane is in the orientation shown below.

 Choose OK.

Step 7 Create a center datum plane.

 Choose Datum Plane.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ  Select the two faces shaded below.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

 Choose OK.

Step 8 Create a hole feature.

 Choose Hole.

 Choose Simple.

 Specify a diameter of 10.

 Select the tangent datum plane as the placement face.

 Ensure that the direction arrow is pointing into the part.

 Choose the cylindrical face of the hole through the center of


the bottom of the part as the thru face.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

 Choose OK.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

Location
Datum

Placement
Datum

Thru Face Location Datum

 Use Point onto Line positioning to locate the hole centered


on the two datum planes shown above.

Step 9 Move the datum planes to another layer.

 Choose Format"Move to Layer.

 Select all the datum planes.

 Choose OK.

 Key in 62 and choose OK.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ The newly created hole will remain centered in the part due to its relationship
ÏÏÏ with the datum planes that are constrained to the solid body.

ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

Step 10 Choose File"Close"Save and Close.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Activity 3 - Feature on a Relative Datum Plane ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
In this activity, a relative datum plane will be created, which is to be used as a
placement plane for a hole at an angle to, and through a block. ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
Design Intent

Create a simple hole that will have its angle parametrically controlled.

Step 1 Choose File"Recently Opened Parts and select the part


pau_ref_1.

Recently Opened Parts allows switching back and forth between parts opened
recently, in the current Unigraphics session or previous sessions. The Recently
Opened Parts list may contain up to ten parts.

Step 2 Create a datum plane through an edge and at an angle to


a face/plane.

 Choose Modeling.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ  Choose Datum Plane.
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ  Select the right edge (not the mid point) and confirm the
selection if necessary.

Edge

 Select the top face, and confirm the selection if necessary.

Face

 In the Angle Dynamic Input Field, key in 20 and press Enter.

 Choose OK.

A datum plane is created at a 20 degree angle from the top of the block and
passes through the selected edge.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Step 3 Create the hole perpendicular to the datum plane.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Now a Simple Thru Hole will be created using the datum plane. The hole will
be normal to the datum plane, but will pass through the block at an angle ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
because the datum plane is angled to the block.

 Choose Hole.

 Choose Simple for the hole type.

 Key in .5 for the diameter.

 Select the boundary of the newly created datum plane for


the placement face.

 Select the bottom face of the block as the Thru Face.

Bottom Face

 Choose OK.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ Features are initially positioned in the center of the datum plane. If no other
ÏÏÏ positioning dimensions are specified, the hole will stay in this position. In this

ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
case the hole will be positioned to the front and right edge of the model.

The Perpendicular icon is already selected for the first positioning


dimension.

 Select the edge of the block shown as the target edge.

Select Edge

 Key in -.75 as the positional expression value.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

 Select the edge of the block shown as the target edge.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

Select edge

 Accept the value of 2.0 by choosing OK.

The hole is positioned to the newly constrained location.

Step 4 Modify the angle parameter of the datum plane.

 DoubleĆclick on the datum plane.

 Change the angle from 20 degrees to 75 degrees.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ  Choose OK.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

 Try 80 and 90 degrees. Can you explain the results?

Step 5 Close the part, do not save.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Activity 4 - Creating a Hole Corner to Corner ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
In this activity, you will create a relative datum plane using the Point and
ÏÏÏ
11
corner of a block and comes out the opposite corner and maintains associativity. ÏÏÏ
Direction option. The intent is to create a hole feature that goes through one

Step 1 Open the part file pau_seedpart_mm and save it as


***_hole_corners, where *** represent your initials.

Step 2 Choose Modeling.

Step 3 Create a block that is 200 x 100 x 100 on layer 1.

Step 4 Change the work layer to layer 61.

Step 5 Create a datum plane with the point and direction


method.

 Choose Datum Plane.

 Choose Datum Plane Dialog from the toolbar.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ Choose Point and Direction.
ÏÏÏ

11
ÏÏÏ  Select the end point as shown to define a point on the datum
plane.

Select this
end point.

 Change the Inferred Vector to Vector Constructor.

 Set the Vector Method to Two Points.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

 Select the end points shown below.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Select this
end point.
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

Select this
end point.

 Choose OK twice.

Step 6 Create a simple hole perpendicular to the datum plane,


through the block.

 Choose Hole.

 Choose Simple for the hole type.

 Key in a diameter value of 25.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ  Select the datum plane as the placement face.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ
Thru Face

Placement Face

 If the hole is not going into the block, choose Reverse Side.

 Select the far side of the block as the thru face and choose
OK.

 Choose Point onto Point as the positioning dimension.

Point to Point

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Datum Plane Reference Features

 Select the end point as shown.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

Select this
end point

 Change the work layer to 1 and make layer 61 invisible.

Step 7 Modify the size of the block.

 Select the block.

 With the cursor on the block, click MB3.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ  Choose Edit Parameters.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

 Click on p2=100.000.

 Key in 400.

 Choose OK twice.

 Fit the view and note the associativity of the features.

Step 8 Save and close the part.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

SUMMARY Datum planes are reference features that are


used as construction tools to assist in the
creation of features and sketches in locations
and orientations where planar placement faces
do not exist. Reference Features are
theoretically infinite in size, but the display is
limited to a size slightly larger than that of the
solid model.

In this lesson you:


 Created associative datum planes.
 Created a hole feature from an associative
datum plane.
 Created an associative datum plane by
defining a point and direction.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
11
ÏÏÏ

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis Reference Feature


Lesson 12

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
PURPOSE This lesson will define another type of reference feature, the
datum axis.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

 Create a Datum Axis.


 Locate a hole feature using a datum axis.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis

This option allows a linear reference feature to be created that may be used as
a(n):

 Axis of rotation for revolved features.


 Axis of rotation for circular arrays.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
 Pivot axis for datum planes.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ



Directional reference.
Dimensional reference for feature position.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

User Interface

When you first open the Datum Axis option, the Datum Axis static toolbar
displays in the upper left corner of the graphics window. The static toolbar uses
the Inferred method to let you quickly create a datum axis based on your object
and constraint selections.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
The main Datum Axis dialog is used to create datum axes that are more
complex than those you can create with the Inferred method. To open the main
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Datum Axis dialog, click its icon on the Datum Axis Static toolbar.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Relative Datum Axis

The four relative datum axis methods that will be covered in this lesson are:

 Through Two Points


 Through Edge
 Through Cylindrical, Conical or Revolved Face Axis
 Intersection of Two Faces/Datum Planes
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12 The important function of these Reference Features is that they are associative
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
to existing geometry.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis Through Two Points

To create a datum axis through 2 points, do the following:

 Choose the Datum Axis icon.


 Select the control points as desired (edges or curves).
 Tab through and set the U Parameter as required.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
 Choose OK.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

NOTE: The U Parameter is a value that indicates a position


along a theoretical infinite curve. Values between 0 (zero) and 1
define locations on the selected edge or curve. Values less than 0
(zero) or greater than 1 may also be used.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis Through an Edge or Curve

To create a datum axis through an edge or curve, do the following:

 Choose the Datum Axis icon.


 Select the edge or curve.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
 Choose OK.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis Through a Cylindrical face

To create a datum axis through a cylindrical face, do the following:

 Choose the Datum Axis icon.


 Select the face.

 Choose OK. ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis Through the Intersection of two Faces


To create a datum axis through the intersection of two faces, do the following:

 Choose the Datum Axis icon.


 Select the faces.

ÏÏÏ
 Choose OK.

ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

TIP There is no option to create a datum plane at the intersection of two


faces/planes from the datum plane dialog box. This requires creation
of an associative linear reference feature (datum axis) at the desired
intersection to serve as the pivot position. A datum plane may then be
created through the axis using whatever other constraint that applies.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Editing Datum Axes

To edit datum axes parameters, use any of the following methods:

 Select a datum axis, and with the cursor over the selection, click MB3 and
choose Edit Parameters.
 Double-click a datum axis in the graphics window.
 Use Edit→Feature→Parameters.

Deleting Datum Axes


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
 Use Edit→ Feature→Delete
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Select a datum axis. With the cursor over the selection, click MB3 and
choose Delete.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Activity 1 - Constraining Locations using Datums


In this activity, a datum axis and datum planes will be added to constrain the
pivot location of a hole feature.

Design Intent

A 0.5 inch diameter hole is to be located in a block. The origin of the hole will
be on the top face and located from the right face. The hole is to remain
centered in the block along the YC axis. The angle of the hole shall be editable
in a plane parallel to the front face.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ZC
YC
XC

A/2

Step 1 Open the part file.


 Choose File→Recently Opened Parts.
Select pau_ref_1.

 Choose Modeling.

Step 2 Create the Reference Features.


 Change the work layer to 61.

 Choose Datum Plane.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

 Select the right face on the block as shown.

ZC
YC
XC

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
Right Face ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 In the Offset Dynamic Input Field key in -2 and press
Enter.

 Choose OK.

 Choose Datum Plane.

 Select the back face of the block as shown and confirm.

ZC Back Face
YC
XC

Front Face

 Select the front face of the block as shown and confirm.

 Choose OK.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

A center datum plane is created.

 Choose Datum Axis.

 Select the top face as shown below.

 Select the datum plane as shown below.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12 Top Face

ÏÏÏ
ZC

ÏÏÏ
YC
XC

Datum Plane

 Choose OK.

A datum axis is created at the intersection of the top of the block and the
associative datum plane.

 Choose Datum Plane.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

 Select the right face of the block as shown.

ZC
YC
XC

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
Right Face
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Select the Datum Axis.

 In the Angle Dynamic Input Field key in 45 and press Enter.

 Choose OK.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

 Choose Datum Plane.

 Select the newly created datum plane.

 In the Offset Dynamic Input Field key in 1 and press Enter.

 Choose OK.

ÏÏÏ
 Fit the view.

ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

Step 3 Create a Thru Hole.

 Choose Hole.

 Choose the Simple icon.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

 Enter .5 for the Diameter.

 Select the edge of the datum plane as shown.

The tool solid for the hole appears in the display.

Datum Plane

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ZC
YC
XC

Bottom Face

 Select the bottom face of the block as the Thru Face, confirm
and choose OK.

 Choose Point onto Line.

 Select the datum axis as the target edge.

A positioning dimension appears in the graphics area with a value of 0.

 Choose the Point onto Line.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

 Select the center datum plane as shown and choose OK.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
ZC

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
YC
XC

Select this
Datum Plane

The hole is located. The hole will always remain on the datum axis and stay
centered in the block.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Step 4 Modify the angle parameter of the datum plane.

 DoubleĆclick on the datum plane indicated below.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
ZC ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
YC
XC

 Change the angle from 45 degrees to 20 degrees.

 Choose OK.

The angle of the hole changes, but the point of entry remains the same.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Step 5 Change the Location of the Datum Axis.

 DoubleĆclick on the datum plane indicated below.

ZC
YC

ÏÏÏ
XC

ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

 Change the Offset from -2 to -3 and choose OK.

ZC
YC
XC

Step 6 Choose File"Close"All Parts. Do not save the part file.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Activity 2 - Relative Datum Axes


This activity will demonstrate the difference in positional associativity between
Point Direction and Datum Axis when either is used to define the rotation axis
of an instance array.

Step 1 Open the part pau_datumaxis_1 and start the Modeling


application.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

Step 2 Investigate the model.

 Use the third mouse button popĆup menu to change the


Display Mode to Wireframe.

 Choose Format"Layer Settings and make the display of


ALL layers Selectable.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

The model contains two identical hole patterns. The central hole in each
pattern is located associatively to the relative datum planes in the part. The
hole pattern on the left in the graphic was created by specifying a point in space
and a vector to revolve the pattern about. The pattern on the right was created
by specifying the relative datum axis to revolve the pattern about.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

Step 3 Modify the model.

 Choose Edit"Feature"Parameters from the main menu


bar.

 Select the BLOCK(0) feature and choose OK.

 Choose the Feature Dialog button.

 Change the X Length to 5 and press Tab.

 Change the Y Length to 10 and choose OK.

 Choose OK to dismiss the feature Edit Parameters dialog


box.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

 Choose OK to update the model.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

The model updates to reflect the change. Notice that the hole pattern on the
left does not update as expected. This is due to this hole pattern being created
with a nonĆassociative reference point and direction vector.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

The left hole pattern maintained its relationship to the objects used to define it,
but the nonĆassociative specified point in space does not change. The hole
pattern on the right that depends on the relative datum axis to define the
rotation point and vector updates as expected.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

Step 4 Choose File"Close"All Parts. Do not save the part file.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

SUMMARY A Datum Axis is a linear reference feature that

ÏÏÏ
is used as an aid in the construction of other

ÏÏÏ
features.
12
In this lesson you: ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Created a Datum Axis.
 Positioned features using a Datum Axis.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
12
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

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Sketching

Sketching
Lesson 13

PURPOSE To introduce the method of creating a sketch and free


hand sketching of curves.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
 Create a sketch.
 Create sketch curves.
 Apply dimensional constraints to sketches.
 Apply geometric constraints to sketches.
 Identify constraints.
 Convert a sketch curve to reference.

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Sketching

What is a sketch?

A sketch is a feature that is intended to contain a collection of two dimensional


curves. Using a set of rules applied by the user, a sketch parametrically controls
the two dimensional profile. These rules, called constraints, constitute the
essence of constraint based modeling, a very powerful portion of Unigraphics
solid modeling.

Profiles may be used to produce extruded or revolved features, or to define


sections for free form features such as a swept feature or a through curves
lofted surface.

A profile may contain some, all, or none of the constraints required to fully
capture the design intent. Dimensional and geometric constraints may be used to
establish a design intent as well as provide the ability to perform parameter
driven changes.

Geometric relations may be established between the curves within a profile as


ÏÏÏ well as with curves in other profiles and model geometry such as edges or
ÏÏÏ datums.
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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Sketching

Why sketch?

Sketched profiles possess a higher level of control over features, thus


automating the propagation of changes. The most obvious reason for sketching
is when a design intent is well known and constraints can be quickly applied to
capture that intent. Another reason is when there is a need to iterate through a
number of various solutions to validate a certain design intent.

Once a sketch is placed on a face or datum plane, it will automatically move


when the position of the placement face/datum is changed. Since sketches do
not require constraining, this approach is the quickest way to build features and
still have a sufficient level of associativity.

The inherent ability to solve a sketch in real time means that, as rules are
applied, the sketch objects change and move to reflect the effect that the
assigned rule has on the geometry. This gives the user the ability to quickly
change profiles of features created using sketch curves.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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Sketching

When should a sketch be used?


Unigraphics users should sketch whenever they have a need for parametrically
controlled curves.

Most features of solid models can be created using combinations of form


features. The Unigraphics sketcher gives the user the ability to sketch shapes
that are not available as standard form features. This could be accomplished
with explicit curves, but there would be no parametric control over the shape.

The user might also consider sketching when a combination of features used to
create the desired shape makes the shape difficult to edit.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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Sketching

When there is a commonly used shape that varies in size from part to part, a
sketch as part of a user defined feature should be considered.

Sketches may be used as base features of a model if the shape lends itself to
extruded or revolved geometry.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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Sketching

Sketches may be used in a number of different ways. Consider them for guide
paths for swept features, or as section curves for free form features.

The added advantage of being able to quickly and easily change the geometry
based on rules that the designer applies should be a large part of the
determination of when to sketch.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
An important aspect of modeling that helps the user decide when to use a
sketch is defining the design intent of the model. The design intent consists of
two items:

 Design Considerations - The geometric requirements on the actual part,


including engineering and design rules that determine the detail
configuration of the part.
 Potential Areas for Change - Known design changes or iterations, and
their effects on the part configuration.

As a general rule, the more design considerations and potential areas for
change, the more likely there are benefits from sketching.

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Sketching

Sketches and the Model Navigator

Since sketches are features of the solid model, they are listed in the Model
Navigator and any edits supported by the Model Navigator that are germane to
sketches are available.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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Sketching

Sketches and Layers

Organizing part files is a very important part of modeling. The sketcher helps in
this endeavor by automating layer control as sketches are activated and
deactivated. This automated layer management is designed to ensure that the
user does not accidentally construct objects in the active sketch across multiple
layers.

Unigraphics assigns the current work layer at creation to the sketch. As the
user subsequently activates the sketch, the work layer is set to the layer assigned
to the sketch.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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Sketching

Creating a New Sketch

Choosing the Sketch icon starts the sketch function.

The Sketch Plane

The first thing that needs to be defined is the plane that the sketch curves will
be placed on. But, before this can be done you must consider the state of the
model. Since our goal is to develop a parametric model, all of the features need
to be associative. Is the sketch going to define the base feature or has a base
feature already been created?

The tool bar shown below is used to define the sketch plane.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
1 Sketch Plane 5 Datum Plane
2 XC-YC Plane 6 Datum CSYS
3 YC-ZC Plane 7 OK
4 XC-ZC Plane 8 Cancel

Sketch to Define the Base Feature

If the sketch is going to define the base feature then you may define the plane
of the sketch by choosing one of the following:

 XC-YC Plane
 ZC-YC Plane
 ZC-XC Plane
 Datum CSYS

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Sketching

After the plane is chosen the plane is highlighted in the graphic window. You

then chose OK to accept and enter the sketcher function. The sketch
plane is then oriented normal to the graphics screen.

Sketch Associative to Existing Base Feature

If a base feature already exists, then you will define the sketch plane on a
planar face or a datum plane of the base feature. The datum plane may already
exist or may be created on the fly.

If you are choosing a face or an existing datum plane:

 Choose the Sketch Plane icon.


 Select the face or datum plane.

ÏÏÏ  Define the horizontal or vertical reference


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ  Choose OK.

If you are defining a datum plane on the fly:

 Choose the Datum Plane icon


 Select the required objects to define the datum plane.

 Choose OK.
 Define the horizontal or vertical reference

 Choose OK.

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Sketching

Defining the Reference Direction

The reference direction is used to specify the horizontal direction on the sketch
plane. There are times when no linear object is pointing in the desired
horizontal direction. At these times a vertical reference may be defined,
because vertical is by definition ninety degrees from horizontal; the system is
able to interpret where the desired horizontal direction is when using a vertical
reference.

Desired YC
Horizontal
Direction
ZC XC

ÏÏÏ
Vertical Reference
Resultant
Planar Placement Face
Sketch Orientation
ÏÏÏ
The direction of an axis may be changed as follows:
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
 To flip the direction of an axis, doubleĆclick on it.
 To specify a new direction, select the axis to redirect then select a straight
edge. The straight edge is projected to the sketch plane to define the new
direction.

In addition, the normal of the sketch plane may be changed by doubleĆclicking


on the ZC axis. This only applies when the sketch plane is being defined by a
datum plane.

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Sketching

Naming a Sketch

The system requires a unique name for each sketch, and therefore will select
the next available sketch name in the queue as the default. The system default
from Unigraphics is SKETCH_###" where the pound signs are replaced by
the next available number counting up from 000 (SKETCH_000, SKETCH_001,
etc.). A sketch name may be defined during or after the sketch has been
created by clicking on the default sketch name and then typing in the new
name.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ The sketch can also be renamed by:
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ  Choosing Task→Sketch Properties
 Using the Model Navigator

TIP It is highly recommended that sketches be named in a descriptive manner


rather than accepting the default. This allows downstream users to
understand the function of the sketch at a glance.

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Sketching

The Active Sketch

In any given part there may be numerous sketches of different features at


different orientations. When using the sketcher, only one sketch may be worked
on at a time. This sketch is called the active sketch. Curves created while a
sketch is active become associated with the active sketch. When returning to a
sketch to add to or modify a profile, the sketch must be activated. There are
three ways to activate a sketch:

 DoubleĆclicking on a sketch curve.


 In the Model Navigator doubleĆclick on the sketch feature node.
 Select the Sketch icon and from the Sketch Name pullĆdown, select the
desired sketch.

There are two ways to deactivate an active sketch as follows:

 Select the Finish icon.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Choose Task→Finish. 13
ÏÏÏ

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Sketching

Sketch Creation Steps

Sketch for a Base Feature


 Set the work layer for the sketch.

 Choose the Sketch icon.


 Define the sketch plane by one of the following.
 XC-YC Plane
 ZC-YC Plane
 ZC-XC Plane
 Datum CSYS
 Name the sketch.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
 Choose OK.

Sketch on an Existing Face or Datum Plane

 Choose the Sketch icon.

 Choose the Sketch Plane icon.


 Select the face or datum plane.
 Define the horizontal or vertical reference
 Name the sketch.

 Choose OK.

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Sketching

Activity 1 - Sketch Creation


In this activity you will practice the creation of a sketch for a base feature, a
sketch that is to be defined on an existing face and a sketch where the datum
plane is created on the fly.

Step 1 Open pau_seedpart_in and start the modeling


application.

Step 2 Create a sketch for a base feature.


 Make layer 21 the work layer.

 Choose Sketch.

 Choose the YC-ZC Plane.

 Click on the sketch name, key in base and press Enter.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Choose OK.
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
The sketch is created.

Unigraphics created a fixed Datum Plane on the specified sketch plane and two
fixed Datum Axes along its major axes to support the new sketch.

Notice the WCS. The system has manipulated it so that XC is parallel to the
horizontal direction and YC is vertical.

 Choose Finish.

Step 3 Close the part do not save.

Step 4 Open pau_skt_creation and start the modeling


application.

Step 5 Create a sketch on an existing face.


 Make layer 21 the work layer.

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Sketching

 Choose Sketch.

The Sketch Plane icon is already selected.

 Select the Face shown below.

Select this face.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ Horizontal
Reference

The 2D sketch plane indicator appears and the XĆAxis is active (highlighted).

 Select the horizontal reference at the location shown above.

 Click on the sketch name, key in skt1 and press Enter.

 Choose OK.

Step 6 Create a curve on the sketch plane.

 Choose Line.

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Sketching

 Create the line as shown below.

Click here . . .

then

Click here.

 Choose Finish.

Step 7 Change the orientation of the face that defines the sketch ÏÏÏ
plane.
ÏÏÏ
 Choose Tools"Expression. ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
 Select the expression, Change_Me=1, and change the value
to 3.5.

 Choose OK.

 Rotate the part and notice how the line remained associative
to the face.

Step 8 Create a sketch on a datum plane.

 Replace the view with the TFRĆTRI view.

 Make layer 22 the work layer, layer 21 invisible, and layer 1


selectable.

 Choose Sketch.

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Sketching

 Choose Datum Plane.

 Select the 2 shaded faces shown below.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ  Choose OK.

ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ A center datum plane is created.

The 2D sketch plane indicator appears and the XĆAxis is active (highlighted).

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Sketching

 Select the horizontal reference at the location shown below.

Horizontal
Reference

 Click on the sketch name, key in skt2 and press Enter.

ÏÏÏ
 Choose OK.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

 Choose Finish.

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Sketching

Step 9 Activate existing sketches.

This step will demonstrate 2 ways of activating existing sketches.

 Make layer 21 selectable.

 DoubleĆclick on the sketch curve (1) shown below.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ  Fit the view (MB3).

Sketch SKT1 is activated and oriented in the graphic window.

 Choose Finish.

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Sketching

 Choose Sketch.

 Choose SKT2 from the sketch name pullĆdown.

Sketch SKT2 is activated and oriented in the graphic window.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

 Choose Finish.

Step 10 Close the part, do not save.

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Sketching

Sketch Curve Creation

Sketch curves are created via the Sketch Curve tool bar. As curves are created
geometric constraints are assigned to the curves relative to the Infer Constraint
Settings.

Sketch Curve Tool Bar

Profile Line
Arc
Circle

ÏÏÏ Infer Constraints Setting Dialog


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
Vertical
Perpendicular
Midpoint
Tangent
Horizontal Parallel

Collinear Coincident

Point on
Curve

Equal Point on Equal


Radius Concentric Length
String

As you create the curves a symbol will appear near the curve being created to
represent the constraint that will be applied, if any.

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Sketching

Locking a Constraint

When a constraint symbol appears during curve creation you may lock in that
constraint by pressing MB2. For example, you are creating a line and the
parallel symbol appears, you press MB2. Now as you move the cursor, the new
line that is rubber banding, is doing so parallel to the reference curve.

Snap Angle

The snap angle is a global preference set in the Sketch Preferences dialog box
that is applied any time curves are being created. It is used to snap" a line to
horizontal or vertical. When creating lines outside of the sketcher, snap angle is
only applied when using inferred cursor location. The default snap angle is set
to 3° and is user definable between 0° and 20°. This angular tolerance is
defined on either side of horizontal or vertical from the first specified location,
effectively creating a 6° tolerance zone by default.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Snap Angle
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

The Infer Point Tool Bar

The Infer Point tool bar is displayed when creating most of the curve types in
the sketcher, so that you have more control over the selection of locations.

When the Infer Point toolbar is active, regardless of the point types turned on,
Cursor Location is always available.

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Alignment Lines While Creating Curves

In the process of creating a curve, if you are horizontally or vertically opposite a


control point, the system will display an alignment line.

New curve
being created.

Existing
Curve

Alignment
Lines

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
Profile Tool

The Profile tool allows creation of a string of lines and arcs, without having to
specify a start for each curve after the first curve is created. Profile is accessed

by choosing the Profile icon on the Sketch Curve tool bar.

The icons at the upper left corner of the graphics screen allow you to switch
between lines and arcs, and allow you to switch between entering X-Y
locations and entering parameters.

Line Arc

XY Parameters

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Sketching

The default settings are:

 Line creation
 X-Y location

Once you have created the first curve (line or arc), the system will revert to
creating a line. You can change this any time you wish.

You can also switch to arc creation by using press-drag-release with MB1.

The circle-X" symbol controls the direction in which the arc will be created.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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If the desired arc is in the wrong direction, re-cross the end of the line (with
the cursor), and exit in a different quadrant of the symbol.

Circle-X
Symbol
Arc originating
from top quadrant

Arc originating from


Left quadrant

Arc originating from

ÏÏÏ right quadrant

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

Arc originating from


bottom quadrant

As you are creating curves with the profile tool, the string mode can be broken
by clicking MB2.

Creating Lines

Line creation is accessed by choosing the Line icon on the Sketch Curve
tool bar.

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Once in line creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphics screen
give you two options: Location (by cursor location or entering an X-Y
location), and entering parameters.

There are several combinations of methods for creating a line:


 Locate the start, and then locate the end.
 Locate the start, and then enter the length and angle parameters.
 Locate the start, enter one parameter, and then locate the end.
 Enter the parameters and then locate the start.

Once you indicate a start location, the system will switch to the Parameters
mode. But you can still give an end location without changing back to XY.

Creating Arcs
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Arc creation is accessed by choosing the Arc icon on the Sketch Curve ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
tool bar.

Once in arc creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphics screen
give you two sets of options. The first is creation method, and the second is for
the XY-Location/Parameters choice.

For Arc by 3 Points: there are several combinations of methods for


creating the arc:
 Locate the start, locate the end, and then locate a point on the arc.
 Locate the start, enter a radius value and press Enter, locate the end
point and then determine which of the 4 options you wish to create.
 The same as the previous, but enter the radius value after locating the
end point, but before the point on arc.

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For Arc by Center and End Points: there are also several combinations of
methods for creating the arc:
 Locate the center, locate the start point, and locate the end point. (The
start point location determines the radius.)
 Locate the center, locate the start point, enter a radius value and press
Enter, locate the end point.
 Locate the center, enter radius and sweep angle values and press Enter,
locate the start of the sweep, and locate the direction for the sweep.

Once you indicate a first location, the system will switch to the Enter
Parameters mode. But you can still give a location without changing back to
XY.

Creating Circles

ÏÏÏ Circle creation is accessed by choosing the Circle icon on the Sketch

ÏÏÏ Curve tool bar.

ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ Once in circle creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphics screen
give you two sets of options. The first is creation method, and the second is for
the location/parameters choice.

For Circle by Center and Radius: there are several methods for creating
circles:
 Locate the center, and then locate a point on the circumference of the
circle.
 Locate the center, enter a radius, and press Enter. The circle is created.
You are then in multiple circle creation mode - just indicate another
location for a circle center.
 Locate the center, drag the radius until you get the size you want. Press
Enter. The circle is created, and you are in multiple circle creation mode.
Indicate another center.

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For Circle by 3 Points: there are also two methods for creating the circle:

 Locate three points on the circumference of the circle.


 Locate two points on the circumference of the circle, enter a radius value
and press Enter, then choose which of the two options you want by cursor
location.

Once you indicate a first location, the system will switch to the enter
Parameters mode. But you can still give a location without changing back to
XY.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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Activity 2- Using the Sketch Profile Tool

Step 1 Open pau_seedpart_in and save it as ***_skt_profile_1


where *** represent your initials.

Step 2 Change the Work Layer to 21.

Step 3 Create a sketch on the XC-YC plane.

 Start the Modeling application.

 Choose the Sketch icon.

ÏÏÏ Choose OK to accept the XC-YC Plane.


ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ Step 4 Set the Infer Constraints Setting.

You are going to set the Infer Constraints Setting to make available only the
constraints that you may want to apply during curve creation.

 Choose Infer Constraints Settings.

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Sketching

 Set the dialog as shown below.

 Choose OK.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Step 5 Create a Profile.
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
In this step you will create the sketch curves shown below using the Profile tool.

 Choose the Profile tool and then move the cursor into
the graphics window.

 Key in -4 for the XC value and press Tab.

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 Key in -2 for the YC value and press Enter.

 Move the cursor so that the rubberĆbanding line snaps to the


horizontal orientation as shown below.

Horizontal Symbol

Notice the horizontal symbol indicating the constraint that is going to be


applied to the line.

 Press MB2 to lock in the horizontal constraint.

Now notice that as you move the cursor around the rubberĆbanding line
remains horizontal.

 Move the cursor to a position that defines a Length of

ÏÏÏ approximately 3 inches and click MB1.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
Next, you are going to create the first arc.

 Hold MB1 down and drag the cursor straight up from the
end point of the last line and then release.

You are now in arc creation mode.

 Create the arc by indicating a location with MB1 as shown


below.

Notice the alignment line that aligns the center point and
end points.

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 Create a horizontal line approximately 2 inches long by


indicating the end point with MB1.

Next you will create another arc just like the first one, but you will use a
different method.

 Hold MB1 down and drag the cursor up and to the right
from the end point of the last line and then release.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
 Key in .5 for the Radius and press Tab 2 times.

 Key in 180 for the Sweep Angle and press Enter. Click in the
graphic window to apply.

 Create a horizontal line approximately 1 inch long by


indicating the end point with MB1.

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 Create the line as shown below.

 Start the creation of an arc in the orientation shown below


by holding MB1 down, drag and release.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

 Key in 1.875 for the Radius and press Tab 2 times.

 Key in 145 for the Sweep Angle and press Enter. Click in the
graphic window to apply.

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 With MB1 indicate a cursor location, as shown below, so that


horizontal and tangent constraints will be applied to the line.
The line should also be approximately 2 inches long.

 Start the creation of an arc in the orientation shown below


by holding MB1 down, drag and release.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

 Key in 1.5 for the Radius and press Tab 2 times.

 Key in 90 for the Sweep Angle and press Enter. Click in the
graphic window to apply.

The next line to be created is to have a perpendicular constraint relative to the


35° angle line.

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 Move the cursor over the line indicated below.

Move the cursor


over this line.

 With MB1 indicate a cursor location as shown below. Note


the alignment lines and the perpendicular constraint symbol.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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 Create a horizontal line approximately 1.5 inches long as


shown below.

 Move the cursor over the lines indicated below.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Move the cursor over these lines.
13
ÏÏÏ

 With MB1 indicate a cursor location as shown below. Note


the alignment line and the parallel constraint symbol.

 Close the profile by selecting the end point of the first line.

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 Choose Finish.

Step 6 Save and close the part.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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Sketching

Creating Fillets

Fillet creation is accessed by choosing the Fillet icon on the Sketch Curve
tool bar.

Once in fillet creation, there is a single icon in the upper left corner of the
graphics screen. It is for controlling whether or not the original curves are
trimmed.

You can create fillets between lines, arcs or conics. You can also create a fillet
between two parallel lines.

There are several methods for creating Fillets:


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
 Select two curves with a single selection (at their intersection), and then 13
drag the size and quadrant.
 Select two curves individually, and drag the size and quadrant.
ÏÏÏ
 Select one curve, enter a radius value, and select the second curve.
 Select two curves individually, enter a radius value, and the indicate the
desired quadrant.
 Drag (with MB1) across the two curves you want to fillet. The size of the
fillet is governed by where the curves are selected.

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Quick Trim and Quick Extend

Quick Trim

Quick Trim will trim any curve to the closest curve in the sketch. The
system will preview the results in pre-selection color.

You can also trim multiple curves at one time, by using the crayon" select
ÏÏÏ method. Hold down MB1 and drag across the portion of curves you want to
ÏÏÏ trim away.
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

You can also select a specific curve to trim to, by using ctrl-select to select the
desired boundary curve.

You can also select more than one bounding curve using the ctrl-select
method.

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In the example below, both the arc on the left and the spline on the right were
control-selected as boundary curves. With the cursor on the top line, (between
the two boundary curves), the center section is previewed as the portion to be
removed.

When a curve is trimmed, appropriate constraints are automatically created. In


the example above, two Point on Curve Constraints, and one Colinear
constraint would be added. If one of the boundary curves is later trimmed to
the line, the Point on Curve constraint would change to Coincident.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

If you trim an arc to a line that is tangent. . .

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the tangency constraint will be retained.

Quick Extend

Quick Extend will extend lines, arcs and conics to the closest curve in the
sketch. The system will preview the results in pre-selection color.

The curve being extended must extend to an actual intersection with the
boundary curve.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ You can extend multiple curves at one time, by using the crayon" select
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
method. Hold down MB1 and drag across the ends of curves you want to
extend.

Before After

You can also select specific boundary curves by using the control-select
method.

As with Quick Trim, when you use Quick Extend, appropriate constraints are
automatically created.

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Sketching

Activity 3 - Creating Fillets


Step 1 Open the part file pau_skt_fillet_1, and start the
Modeling application.

You will be using this sketch geometry to create fillets.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Step 2 Activate the sketch.
 Double-click with MB1 on any of the sketch curves.
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
Step 3 Choose the Fillet icon.

You first want to create 4.0 millimeter fillets in the upper left and lower left
corners of the sketch.

Step 4 Make sure Trim Inputs is on (depressed).

Step 5 Create a 4 millimeter fillet using lines L16 and L20,


trimming the lines, and do it with a single select.
 Enter 4 in the Radius field on the graphics screen, and press
Enter.

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 Select both lines at the same time, by selecting at their


intersection.

 Drag the cursor around the screen and notice that you can
select which quadrant you want.

 Select in the lower right quadrant to place the fillet in the


desired quadrant.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
Step 6 Create a four millimeter fillet using lines L16 and L17,
with a single select, and this time do not trim the lines
being filleted.

 Turn off Trim Inputs.

 Select the two lines at their intersection.

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 Select in the upper right quadrant.

Step 7 Create a 4 millimeter fillet between lines L17 and L18.


Select by dragging across the two lines.

The 4.0 Radius value should still be in the text field on the graphics screen.

 With MB1 held down, drag across the two lines as below:
(This is another method of selecting the curves to be filleted.
The curves crossed with the crayon" are the curves
selected.)
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

Notice that the 4 millimeter radius was used.

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Step 8 Create another fillet between lines L18 and L20 by using
the crayon", but his time do NOT use a radius value.

 Use Backspace to erase the 4 in the text field.

 Drag (with MB1), as shown below:

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ It used the selection location of the curves to determine the radius.
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

Step 9 Create a fillet between lines L18 and L19, and drag the
size and quadrant.

 Individually select the lines L18 and L19.

 Drag the cursor around the screen.

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 Select a location to create an arc similar to the one shown


below.

 Choose Finish.
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Step 10 Close the part file. ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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Activity 4 - Sketching a Gasket

Step 1 Open pau_seedpart_in and save it as ***_gasket_1 where


*** represent your initials.

Step 2 Change the Work Layer to 21 so that the part file will be
compliant with class standards.

Step 3 Create a sketch.

 Enter the Modeling application.

 Choose Sketch.

 Click on the sketch name; key in s21_profile and press Enter.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
 Choose OK to accept the XC-YC Plane.

Step 4 Set the Infer Constraints Setting.

In this sketch we do not want to apply any constraints at this time, so you will
toggle all constraints off.

 Choose Infer Constraints Settings.

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Sketching

 Set the dialog as shown below.

Choose OK.
ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
Step 5 Create the sketch curves to define the main profile. ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
 Choose Profile.

 Create the 4 lines as shown below.

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 Choose Fillet.

 Turn on Trim Inputs.

 Select the lines, as shown below, at positions 1, 2, and then a


cursor location at 3.

2 1
3

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ A fillet is created and the lines are trimmed to the tangent points. The system
also displays tangent symbols at the 2 tangent points.

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 Select the lines, as shown below, at positions 1, 2, and then a


cursor location at 3.

3
1 2

 Key in 1 for the Radius value and press Enter.

 Select the lines, as shown below, at positions 1 and 2.


ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
1

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The 1 inch radius fillet was created and the lines trimmed to the tangent points.

 Select the lines, as shown below, at positions 1 and 2.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ 2

Step 6 Define the holes of the gasket.

 Choose Infer Constraints Settings.

 Toggle Coincident on.

 Choose OK.

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 Choose Circle.

 At the approximate center of the profile, click and drag to


create a circle similar to the one shown below.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ

ÏÏÏ
13
Move the cursor over and along the arc on the left side of the ÏÏÏ
profile, until the arc center symbol (1) appears, then click
and drag to create a circle with a diameter of approximately
0.75.

The system now will infer a constraint of coincident between the arc and the
circle.

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 Create the circle for the opposite side using the same
method.

ÏÏÏ The sketch of the profile is now complete. The shape and design intent will be

ÏÏÏ further refined in a later activity with the application of dimensional and

ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
geometric constraints.

 Choose Finish.

Step 7 Move the reference features to the appropriate layer to


conform with class standards.

 Choose Format→Move to Layer from the main menu.

 Select the datum plane and 2 datum axes.

 Choose OK.

 Enter layer number 61 as the destination layer to move the


objects to and choose OK.

Step 8 Choose File"Close"Save and Close.

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Sketching

Activity 5 - Using Quick Trim and Quick Extend

Step 1 Open the part file pau_skt_quick_1, and start the


Modeling application.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
Step 2 Trim curves with Quick Trim.
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
 DoubleĆclick on one of the sketch curves to activate the
sketch.

 Choose Quick Trim.

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 Select the line where the arrow is pointing in the illustration


below.

ÏÏÏ  Hold MB1 down and drag the cursor across the 2 curves as
ÏÏÏ shown below.
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ

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 CtrlĆSelect the curves labeled 1 and 2 for boundaries. Select


on curves 3 and 4 to trim the center portion.

3
4

Step 3 Extending curves with Quick Extend. ÏÏÏ


ÏÏÏ
 Choose Quick Extend.
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
 Place the cursor on the arc at location 1 as labeled below.

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The status line informs you that the system cannot extend the curve. This is
because there is no other curve that would intersect with the arc.

 Place the cursor on the arc at location 2 as labeled below.

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
This time notice how the system provides a preview of the extension.

 Select the arc at location 2 to create the extension.

Step 4 Continue to experiment with Quick Trim and Quick


Extend until the instructor is ready to continue.

 Choose Finish.

Step 5 Close the part file.

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Sketching

Sketch Points

Sketch objects are defined by theoretical points. A line, for instance, is defined
by two points. The sketcher attempts to mathematically solve for the location of
the points by analyzing the constraints (rules) that are placed on objects.

The points that the sketch solver analyzes are referred to as sketch points. By
controlling the locations of these sketch points the line itself may be controlled.
There are various ways to control these points. The sketch points associated
with different types of curves are illustrated in the graphic below.

Line Fillet
Arc
Circle

+
Spline
Point
ÏÏÏ
Ellipse
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
DegreeĆofĆFreedom Arrows (DOF)

Degree of freedom arrows occur at sketch points to indicate that the solver is
unable to fully define where the sketch point exists on the sketch plane. DOF
arrows are only displayed during the creation of dimensions or constraints; they
are yellow, and their base emanates at the sketch point with arrowheads
pointing in both the horizontal or vertical directions (when the sketch point has
no constraints).

An arrow pointing to the right means that the sketch point in question is free to
move in the horizontal direction, both to the right and left. An arrow pointing
up means that the sketch point in question is free to move in the vertical
direction, both up and down. Should there be DOF arrows at a given point in
both directions, the point is free to move in both directions.

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These arrows provide visual feedback to the user while in the process of
constraining the sketch.

(no display)

Undefined in X and Y Undefined in Y Undefined in X Defined in X


Directions Direction only Direction only and Y Directions

The system removes DOF arrows as rules are written that define the location of
the sketch points.

 Arc - Arcs have sketch points at the center and at either end. These
sketch points as well as the radius of the arc may be defined if the user so
desires.
 Circle - Circles may have the center point as well as a radius or diameter
defined.

ÏÏÏ  Ellipse -An ellipse may have the location of its center defined; also, the
ÏÏÏ parameters for the size and orientation of the ellipse are stored for future

ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ 
editing.
Fillet - Fillets are a specialized case of arc; by definition a fillet is tangent
to the objects with which it is associated. The system applies this rule as
the fillet is created. Fillets may have the same information defined as
other arcs, and in some cases the tangency that is assigned will define the
endpoints.
 Line - Lines may have the sketch points at either end defined.
 Point - Points may be defined relative to other objects or at specific
locations in space.
 Spline - Degree three splines may have their defining points located.
Slopes of the spline at the defining points may also be defined. Splines
that are of a degree other than three may be added to sketches; however,
since their defining points are not located at their knot points, there is no
way to locate their defining points using constraints.

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Sketching

Constraining Sketches

Design Intent

The power in sketching is derived from the ability to capture design intent. This
is accomplished by setting up rules that dictate how sketch objects will react to
changing input. These rules are called constraints. As many or as few constraints
as necessary may be applied to cause the sketch profile to update in the manner
desired. Unigraphics sketches are not required to be fully constrained. A group
of these rules may be thought of as a constraint set. The constraint set is
comprised of two types of constraints, dimensional and geometric and are
accessed from the Sketch Constraints tool bar.

The Sketch Constraints Tool Bar

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
Create Constraints

Dimensions

Creating Dimensional Constraints

A dimensional constraint establishes the size of a sketch object (such as the


length of a line or radius of an arc) or the scalar relationship between two
objects (such as the distance between two points).

Dimensional constraints appear in the graphics window. Unlike drafting


dimensions, changing the value of the dimensional constraints changes the shape
and or size of the sketch objects that are controlled by the sketch points. This
changes the feature of the solid model that the sketch curves control.

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The Dimensions icon accesses the Dimensions dialog.

You can use the dialog to create and edit dimensions, as well as change some of
the preferences.

There are nine icons located near the top of the dialog box. The top leftĆhand
icon is the most useful as it infers the dimension type based on the objects that
are selected and where their dimension text is located. It is also the default

ÏÏÏ icon. The other eight icons are supplied for times when the system is unable to

ÏÏÏ
infer the desired dimension type. These different options are filters" that when

ÏÏÏ
13 selected will only allow a specific dimension type to be created. Because of this,
certain types of geometry may not be selectable if they do not coincide with the
ÏÏÏ dimension type selected.

As dimensional constraints are being created, the dimension, its extension lines,
and arrows are displayed as soon as the geometry has been selected. Drag the
dimension to the desired location and place it by clicking the left mouse button.

During some dimensioning the system infers a dimension type before all of the
geometry has been selected. In these instances continue to select geometry until
the correct dimension type is displayed, or select the icon for the dimension
type desired and reselect the geometry.

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As dimensional constraints are being created, the system creates an expression.


This expression's name and value are displayed in the current expression fields
of the Constraints dialog box. This places the value field in overstrike mode so
the user may enter the desired dimensional constraint. A slider is also provided
below the value text and may be used to change the value.

Enter new Enter new statement


name or numeric value

Use slider bar to


change value

Below the value slider are two option menus for manipulating the appearance
of the dimensional constraint.

ÏÏÏ
The leftĆhand option menu is for defining how the text and arrows of the
ÏÏÏ
dimensional constraint will be displayed. Options are for automatic text
placement where the system decides the appearance, manual text placement ÏÏÏ
13
ÏÏÏ
with the arrows inside the extension lines, or manual text placement with the
arrows outside the extension lines.

Auto Placement

Manual Placement,
Arrows In

Manual Placement,
Arrows Out

The rightĆhand option menu is for definin