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HOW 10 TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN JAPANESE PARTICLES Comparisons and Exercises Naoko Chino KODANSHA INTERNATIONAL New York « London D1 NS 2005 in the United States by Kodansha America In. and + Kingdom and continental Europe by Kodansha y Kodansha International Ltd, 17-14 Otowa I-chome, ‘Tokyo 112-8852, and Kodansha America, Inc. Preface 9 I Particles Indicating Time a 1 , 2. 2° (kara), 3. ¥°C (made), 4. ¥ TIE (made ni), 5. 25 EC (kara ... made), 6. £9 (yori), 7. 18 ¥ (hodo), 8. Bv \ (kurai, gurai), 9.2, £4 (koro, goro), 10. 12%) (bakari) apQ— IL Particles that Indicate the Place Where an Action Takes Place or the Place Where Something Is (Exists) B 1, T (de), 2a-b-c. I< (ni), 3. D (no), 4. SI (e/ni) ag— Ill Particles Showing Connections between Words 3L 1. & (to), 2. & (mo), 3. be" B (mo... mo), 4. ¥ (ya), 5. PPE 1 Ya ... nado), 6. I= (ni), 7. £2» (to ka), 8. 4° (yara), 9. T (te), 72 Y--720 (tari... -tari), 11. Tht Cte wa) ay— IV Particles that Indicate Direction 45 ‘~ (nile), 2. 26 (kara), 3. 5+ ¥ T (kara ... made), 4. ED ite a Question or Uncertainty arb. (ka), 2. 2 (ka na), 3.2L (kashira), 4. © (no), 5. 2°T (tte) VIL___ Particles that Indicate a Reason or Cause a 1. T (te), 2. C (de), 3. 25 (kara), 4. OC (no de), 5. 8 DT (mono de) aQ—« VII__ Particles that indicate a Condition or Supposition a 1. 12 (a), 2. 26 (tara), 3. % 6 (nara), 4, & £4°C (tokoro de), 5. C 4, TB (te mo, -de mo}, 6. E (to) anag—s VIII __ Particles that indicate a Limitation or Maximum 2 1. Lab (shika), 2. 2215 (dake), 3. #217 Lah (dake shika), 4. 2% (nomi), 5.81 (kiri), 6 & 9 Lab (kiri shika), 7. 04% La> (nomi shika) angy—« IX Particles Indicating, or Providing Information about, the Subject of a Clause or Sentence & Tae. b& (wa), 2. AF (ga), 3. T (de), 4. & (mo), 5. ELT (toshite), 6. (3 (ni wa) aQ—sn x Particles that Indicate Objects of Desi 1, & (0), 2. #* (ga), 3. (nile) aQ—u we XI Particles that Indicate a List of Objects, Qualities, or Actions 1 1 PR (ya ya) 2. Eee Ea (to ka. to ka), 3, OED (dano... dano), 4. % © (nado), 5. % 2 (nanka), 6. = (ni) aQ—s XI Particles that Indicate an Amount or Quantity u7 1K VN CBW (kurai, gural), 2. HEE (hodo), 3. 8), AL (bakari, bakashi), 4. ¥°> (cutsu), 5.'E & (tomo), 6. 247 (dake), 7 & (mo) ex — vs XIIL The Particle @ (No) Indicates that the Noun Preceding It Modifies the Noun Following It wy 1.0 (no) aag—~ XIV __Sentence-ending Particles Indicating What the Speaker Has Heard 131 1,9 (tte), 2. 2 (dato) eaQ—x XV__ Particles that Indicate Emphasis 139 1. & (mo), 2. 2 (koso), 3. ¥% (sae), 4. $5 (sura), 5. BOS (mono nara), 6. ¢ #12 (kuse ni), 7. Y= 4 (dokoro ka), 8. 8O% (mono 0), 9, © (20), 10. > THE (ttebe), 11. & D2 (mono ka), 12. (E & (hodo) N Yi poty Aly, Ge: <3 Da / XVI Particles Used for Comparison 161 1. E(to), 2. £ Y (yori), 3. 12 ¥ (hodo), 4. ‘t (de) aaQ—1s XVII Particles that Indicate a Means by which Something Is Done ‘or Material from which Something Is Made 157 1, CT (de), 2. CT, 5 (de, kara) aa — 5 XVIII _ Particles that indicate a Purpose or Object of a Verb 16 1.15 (ni), 2. & (0) any — vs XIX Particles that Come at the End of a Sentence and Indicate the Speaker's Feelings or Dictate the Tone of a Sentence 367 1. a (ka), 2. & (sa), 3. Ee A (jan), 4. 17 (kedo), 5. 2. 22a (na, 1n8), 6. 8 © (mono), 7. (no), 8. #2 (ne), 9. + (ya), 10. E (yo), 11 ' (wa), 12. #5 (yara), 13. #* (ga), 14. 5, DC (kara, no de) eaQ—sn Em « Index of Particles (Romanized) 197 Index of Particles (Hiragana) 198 ‘Many students seem to believe that the particle represents one of the most difficult aspects of the Japanese language. However, I believe that if stu- dents study the functions of particles one at a time and do this with proper understanding, it is not as difficult as it might seem to grasp their proper usage. In 1991 I selected the particles needed at an elementary and interme- diate level, provided commentary, and published the results as All About Particles (Kodansha International). In the present book I have taken a new approach to many of the same particles, categorizing them by similarity in function and providing quizzes. T have not covered all the particles and func- tions in All About Particles, but only those that can be usefully compared with other particles, Features of this book. The principal feature of this book is the catego- rizing of particles by function. According to this method, it should be clearer ‘why certain particles are used in certain situations, Instead of studying simi- lar particles independently and without reference to one another, students can now see particles with similar functions arranged together so that they can be easily compared. ‘The quizzes are also a main feature. One or more quizzes are placed at the end of each group of particles, so that students can immediately check and reinforce their understanding after finishing a particle group. There is also a General Quiz at the end of the book for review. For students preparing for the Japanese Language Proficiency Test, or other tests, these quizzes should provide good practice. The quizzes also serve a secondary purpose, filling the role traditionally played by textbook exercises. Organization of this book. Many of the particles that invariably appear ss sen mmams in beginning and intermediate Japanese studies have been categorized into nineteen groups by similarity of function. The number of particles varies from group to group. The order of the particles in a group follows the rule of the more frequent and easier particles coming first. Each group consists of the following parts: 1. Commentary on the function of each particle, with notes about spe- cific differences where necessary; larger differences are often obvious from the general description of the particle, 2. Examples of the particles in full sentences. 3. Quizzes and the answers to the quizzes, as well as translations. At the end of the book is the General Quiz section, which covers all the Particles in the book. Each problem in this section is followed by the group ‘number in which the relevant particle is discussed, for those who wish to refer back to the main text. How to use this book. For those who are fairly confident of their under- standing of particles, as well as for those who are preparing for the Japanese Language Proficiency Test, I suggest that you go immediately to the General Quiz and test your ability. If you find yourself making mistakes and are not sure of which answer is correct, you can follow the number at the end of the problem area and go to the main text to refresh your understanding. For less confident students who wish to approach the study of particles in a methodical ‘manner, recommend working your way through the book from beginning to end, tackling the General Quiz only after finishing the rest of the book. In conclusion, I wish to express my hope that this book will prove itself useful. At the same time, I would like to thank Michael Brase, who provided the translations and made contributions to the commentary from his perspec- tive aa a longtime student of the languaye. My Uanks also go out to Ayako Akaogi and others at Kodansha International for making the book possible. Naoko Chino wo 6. ED (yor!) 7. WE (hodo) 8. 51, €5U) ura gura) 9. £3. ZB (koro, goro) 10. 186 (bakari) 11E (ni) 2. 195 (kara) 3, BT (made) 4, RTIC (made ni) 5, SBT (kara... made) 1. {5 (ri). Used after words indicating the specific point in time (eg, “three O'clock”) at which—or a interval (e.., “one week") during which—an action takes place. English equivalent: “at.” ) MADAME MEN ET. Ashita no kaigi wa sanji ni hajimarimasu. ‘Tomorrow's meeting will start at 3:00. i) LARNCIB ETI OLY AVICFTAET. Isshakan ni ikkai piano no ressun ri ikimasu. I go to have a piano lesson once a week. © Some words that indicate time do not take (< (ni). For example, Days (H hi): yesterday (HEH kind), today (4H ky6), tomorrow (3B ashita) Weeks (il shi); last week (2638 senshi), this week (4 Konshii, next week Ril raisha) Months (/f tsuki): last month (1 sengetsu), this month (4-3 Kongetsu), next month (3H raigetsu) ) FHLRVOATS vs, Konshii wa samui hi ga oi. ‘There have been a lot of cold days this week. iD) WILT INIT <. Raigetsu kaigai-ryok6 ni iku. T'm going to make a trip abroad next month. © Some words indicating time can either take = (ni) or not take it. For example, Seasons (fii kisetsu): spring (# haru), summer ( natsu), fall (@k aki), winter (& fuyu) ) BHM EF A, MINIT TRESS Fuyu wa Toky6 ni imasu ga, natsu ni wa Hawai ni ikimasu. Til be in Tokyo in winter, but I will go to Hawaii in summer. iD LORIE ICVELE. Kyonen no aki wa Kankoku ni imashita was in Korea last fall, 2. #5 (kara). Indicates the point in time from which an action com- mences. 25 is sometimes interchangeable with (= (ni; I), but even then it places more emphasis on the starting point (see third sample below, where 2» could be replaced by (=). English equivalents: “from,” “at.” D PRILIEDE TH. Gakko wa hachiji-han kara desu. School starts at 8:30. i) BTA SOIL, WRG TT. Tohyé ga dekiru no wa, hatachi kara desu. ‘You can vote from the age of twenty. 12 L Particles indieating Time i) WORMS ME YET. Ashita no kaigi wa sanji kara hajimarimasu. ‘Tomorrow’s meeting will start from 3:00. 3, #F (made). Indicates the time at which a continuous action comes to an end, or the moment at which something occurs (such as when one gets tired) that brings a continuous action to an end. English equivalents: “until” ESRF E CES ELI. Kaigi wa sanj-han made tsuzukimashita. ‘The meeting continued until 3:30. i) MPHISIEC ETHEL Kind wa osoku made shigoto o shita, Yesterday I worked until late. BINS ETE 0 Tsukareru made hashiré. Let's run until we're tired out, d 4. ETE (made ni). Indicates the time by which something will or must be finished. Cc is basically setting a time limit, whereas °C (made; 1-3) is simply stating the fact that something continued from this point in time to that. The two are most easily distinguished by remem- bering their English equivalents. English equivalent: “by.” ) BUMIONFE Cie, MIM EST < ESV. Ashita jaji made ni, kik@ ni atsumatte kudasai Meet up at the airport by 10:00 tomorrow. iD) COBMOIL-ERECKCMSEUIMILAV ETA. Kono shorui no kopi 0 hiru made ni toranakereba narimasen, Thave to make a copy of this document by noon, ate 8 CC ae EeOm 5. #6--¥T (kara ... made). A combination of #6 (kara; I-2) and &T (made; 1-3). Indicates the starting point and ending point of an interval of time during which an action takes place. English equivalent: “from ... to.” D HH AAD. SMAEC CH. Shigoto wa getsuyobi kara kin’yObi made desu. ‘Work/my job is from Monday to Friday. i) FN bs BSE CHU TOE To Depato wa joji kara hachiji made aite imasu. ‘The department store is open from 10:00 to 8:00. 6. £4) (yori). Like 25 (kara; -2), indicates the point in time from which an action commences, but £1) has a more formal or official sound. English equivalent: “irom.” D KMRMORBR SIG LY TDN. Daitéryo no kisha-kaiken wa sanji yori okonawareru. ‘The President's press conference will be held from 3:00. iD) AIS ATLORE &Y UNE ETO FE. Nydsha-shiki wa gozen jaji yori jaichiji-han made no yotei, The ceremony to welcome new employees is scheduled to be held from 10:00 until 11:30 AM. 7. A&E (hodo), Indicates an approximate amount of time, with the slight connotation that the figure given is the maximum, It has a formal ring to it. English equivalent: “approximately.” D) PHORM, FRO HG ELBNET. Densha no tochaku wa, jiko no tame sanjuppun hodo okure- masu. Due to an accident, the train will be approximately 30 minutes late. ML Particles indicating Time i) SRUEMET OT, HISELROT HOI AVES, Ima kaisha 0 demasu no de, ato jago-fun hodo shitara sochira ni ukagaimasu. am leaving the office now, so I will arrive there (where you are) ‘in approximately 15 minutes. 8. <569, $669 (kurai, gurai). Indicates an approximate amount of time, with the slight connotation that the figure given is the minimum. This particle does not have the formal sound of 12 (hodo; I:7). <5v» and ¢°\° are interchangeable. English equivalent: “about D RPSRAET MPLBODMVETF. le kara kaisha made, yonjuppun kurai kakarimasu, It takes about 40 minutes from home to the office. i) LEO REAKL BY THEFT OC DUBE EES. Shigoto ga ato gofun kurai de owarimasu no de, sukoshi omachi kudasai, ‘The work will be finished in another five minutes or so, so please wait abit longer. 9. ZB, ZF (koro, goro). Indicates approximation when referring to a point in time. The two particles are largely interchangeable, Compare this with (= (ni; HD, which indicates an exact point in time, and <5 <5 (kurai, gurai; -8) which indicate an approximate amout of time. English equivalents: “around,” “about.” ) ETA, THSIKAMVET. Saniji goro, sochira ni ukagaimasu, I will call on you around 3:00. i) PMO CARSES, Maiasa rokuji goro okimasu. I get up every morning around 6:00, 10. (£24) (bakari). Follows a verb in the past tense and indicates that an action has just been concluded. English equivalent: “just.” DMD: BCAVEL A. BHLELT, THERA BWW A, AEDREEDY TH. Yamaoka: Osoku narimashita. Omatase shite, sumimasen. Tada: lie, watashi mo ima kita bakari desu. ‘Yamaoka: I am sorry to be late and to keep you waiting. ‘Tada: Don’t mention it. I have just arrived myself. i) PERLE) LOK, OIMOPLEOR. BT ot, Bb THURVARED. Haha: Saji shita bakari na no ni, mo chirakashita no ne. Musuko: Datte, omocha de asobitai n’ da mono. Mother: T just finished cleaning and here you are already making ames. Son: But, I want to play with my toys. 16 L Particles inleating Time Fill in the blanks with the choices given below each sentence. X indicates that a particle is not required, Answers are at the end of the quiz, along with English translations. LRPSSAAET. (DP YVETA? Ekikara kaisha made, nanpun( —_) kakarimasu ka? 1. RT (made) 2. $50 (gurai) 3.05 (kara) 4. £D (yori) 2, HENSHATHE ( Ashita wa asa shichiji ( EMI P AI NIZEY ETA. ) kakG e ikanakereba narimasen. 1. TIC (made ni) 2. 50) (gurai) 3.5 (kara) 4.18E (hod) 3. AERIS PRI San ( ) RHRIC MM SETS Shachd wa gogo niji kara yoji( _) kaigi ni shusseki saremasu. 1. 5U @urai) 2.£D (yori) 3. T (made) 4. (< (ni) 4 MEF SHO LIE, OE? SRF: LMBAISIE Liye, BH ( Hanako: Konshii no doyabi, hima? Yoshiko: Doyabi wa isogashii kedo, nichiyobi( —_) wa hima yo. HEBEL 1.ET (made) 2. <5Us (kurai) 3.x 4, 1FE (hodo) ” 5. HHAEMOS HEIL, GRR) OF Fo 10. 8 Shushé-shusai no yashoku-kai wa, rokuji( no yotei. ANZ (ni) 2. (yori) 3.1FE (odo) 4, < 51) (kurai) FRAC) REICREL ET Musuko wa raigetsu(—_) Beikoku ni ryigaku shimasu. 1.1FE (hodo) 2.1E (ni) 3.X 4, 501 (kurai) | K3205 (THAD DET. Ato sanjuppun( —_) de shigoto ga owarimasu, LAE (ni) 2, ¢5U0 ural) 3.05 (kara) 4. #T (made) READ RIOR: — ) BARLAITL, Capote HEED A, OIBTEO. Takeshi: Kin6 no yoru jaji( —_) denwa shita kedo, denakatta ne. Midori: Gomen, mé nete ‘ta no. 1.1BE (hodo) 2. 1S (kara) 3. ZB (goro) 4. FT (made) . HE OBER, (INAS ATE)? BK: WARES. Yasuhiko: Ashita no jugy6, nanji kara nanji( )? Yasuo: Ashita wa jugy6 nai yo. 1.1E (ni) 2.1FE (hodo) 3. KD (yori) 4, #T (made) ATED OWE ( Ya LTELTHETF. Maiasa shichiji kara ichiji-kan( —_) jogingu o shite imasu. 1. RT (made) 2. <5 (gural) 3.1C (ni) 4. 09S (kara) quizt Answers and Translations for Quiz I-1 12, About how long (bow many minutes) does it take from the station to the office? ‘2= L Thave to be at (Go to) the airport by 7:00 tomorrow morning. 3 3. The President will be attending a meeting from 2:00 inthe afternoon to 4:00 4= 3. Hanako: You free this Saturday? Yoshiko: 'm busy Saturday but free Sunday. 5" 2. The dinner being hosted by the Prime Minister is scheduled to start at 6:00, 6~ 3, Next month my son will be going to the United States to study. ‘7= 2. The work will be finished in another 30 minutes or 80. I be finished with ‘work in another 30 minutes or so. ‘8= 3. Takeshi: I called you about 10 oclock lastnight, but you didn’t answer. Midori: 1'm sorry. Ihad already gone to bed. ‘9= 4, Yasuhiko: How long (from what time to what time) is the class going to last tomorrow? Yasuo: There isn't any class tomorrow. 10=2. I go jogging for about an hour every morning from 7:00. Choose the correct particle from among those within the parentheses, X indicates that no particle is necessary. Answers and English translations are given at the end of the quiz, L TAYARATIC Fick ARTs =2- SFI HGS | Cow) 408 ETDWLO? ‘Amerika-ryoks ni itta n’ datte ne. Nydyoku ni wa nannichi (kara | gurai) nannichi (ni | made) ita no? 2 HISAR C, ERM, AER (= | COU) Bae Kind wa tsukarete, hiru-gohan no ato, ichi-kan (goro | gurai) hirune o shita, 3 RAK | ET) ARERRLES, BUTI BML. Raishun (X | made) daigaku o sotsugyé shitara, gink6 ni shishoku shitai quizi 9