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Strength of Materials PPB25403 Lecture 3: Mechanical Properties of Materials

Learning Outcomes;

Tension and Compression Tests Stress-Strain Diagrams Hooke’s Law Poisson’s Ratio

The Tension and Compression Test

The strength of a material depends on its ability to sustain a load.

This property is to perform under the tension or compression test.

The following machine is designed to read the load required to maintain specimen stretching.

The StressStrain Diagram

Conventional Stress–Strain Diagram

Nominal or engineering stress is obtained by dividing the applied load P by the specimen’s original cross- sectional area.

P

A

0

Nominal or engineering strain is obtained by dividing the change in the specimen’s gauge length by the specimen’s original gauge length.

L

0

The StressStrain Diagram

Conventional StressStrain Diagram Stress-Strain Diagram Elastic Behaviour

Stress is proportional to the strain. Material is said to be linearly elastic.

Yielding

Increase in stress above elastic limit will cause material to deform permanently.

The StressStrain Diagram

Conventional StressStrain Diagram Stress-Strain Diagram

Strain Hardening. After yielding a further load will reaches a ultimate stress.

Necking At ultimate stress, cross-sectional area begins to decrease in a localized region of the specimen. Specimen breaks at the fracture stress.

The StressStrain Diagram

True Stress–Strain Diagram

The values of stress and strain computed from these measurements are called true stress and true strain.

Use this diagram since most engineering design is done within the elastic range.

StressStrain Behavior of Ductile and Brittle Materials

Ductile Materials

Material that can subjected to large strains before it ruptures is called a ductile material.

Brittle Materials

Materials that exhibit little or no yielding before failure are referred to as brittle materials.

Hooke’s Law

Hooke’s Law defines the linear relationship between stress and strain within the elastic region.

E

σ = stress

E = modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus

ε = strain

E can be used only if a material has linearelastic behaviour.

Hooke’s Law

Strain Hardening

When ductile material is loaded into the plastic region and then unloaded, elastic strain is recovered.

The plastic strain remains and material is subjected to a permanent set.

Strain Energy

When material is deformed by external loading, it will store energy internally throughout its volume.

Energy is related to the strains called strain energy.

Modulus of Resilience

When stress reaches the proportional limit, the strain- energy density is the modulus of resilience, u r .

u

r

1
2

pl pl

2
1
pl
2 E

Strain Energy

Modulus of Toughness

Modulus of toughness, u t , represents the entire area under the stressstrain diagram.

It indicates the strain-energy density of the material just before it fractures.

Example 3.2

The stressstrain diagram for an aluminum alloy that is used for making aircraft parts is shown. When material is stressed to 600 MPa, find the permanent strain that remains in the specimen when load is released. Also, compute the modulus of resilience both before and after the load application.

Solution:

When the specimen is subjected to the load, the strain is approximately 0.023 mm/mm.

The slope of line OA is the modulus of elasticity,

E

450

0.006

75.0 GPa

From triangle CBD,

E

BD

CD

60010
6
75.0 10
9
CD
CD

0.008mm/mm

Solution:

This strain represents the amount of recovered elastic strain.

The permanent strain is

OC

0.023

0.008

0.0150mm/mm (Ans)

Computing the modulus of resilience,

1
u
r
initial
pl
pl
2
1
u
r
final
pl
pl
2
1
450
0.006
1.35 MJ/m
2

3 (Ans)

1
600
0.008
2.40 MJ/m
2

3 (Ans)

Note that the SI system of units is measured in joules, where 1 J = 1 N • m.

Poisson’s Ratio

Poisson’s ratio, v (nu), states that in the elastic range, the ratio of these strains is a constant since the deformations are proportional.

Negative sign since longitudinal elongation (positive strain) causes lateral contraction (negative strain), and vice versa.

v

lat

long

Poisson’s ratio is dimensionless.

Typical values are 1/3 or 1/4.

Example 3.4

A bar made of A-36 steel has the dimensions shown. If an axial force of is applied to the bar, determine the change in its length and the change in the dimensions of its cross section after applying the load. The material behaves elastically.

Solution:

The normal stress in the bar is

3
8010
6
16.0 10
Pa
0.1 0.05

P

A

z

From the table for A-36 steel, E st = 200 GPa

z

E

st

16.0 10

6

6

80 10

6

20010

mm/mm

Solution:

The axial elongation of the bar is therefore

z
z

L

z

6

8010

1.5

120 m (Ans)

The contraction strains in both the x and y directions are

x
y
v

st z

6

0.328010

25.6

m/m

The changes in the dimensions of the cross section are

 x x L x y y L y
6
6

0.1

0.

05

25.6 10

2.56 m (Ans)

25.6 10

1.28 m (Ans)

The Shear StressStrain Diagram

For pure shear, equilibrium requires equal shear stresses on each face of the element.

When material is

homogeneous and isotropic, shear stress will distort the element uniformly.

The Shear StressStrain Diagram

For most engineering materials the elastic behaviour is linear, so Hooke’s Law for shear applies.

G

G = shear modulus of elasticity

or the modulus of rigidity

3 material constants, E, and G are actually related by the equation

G

E
2 1
v

Example 3.5

A specimen of titanium alloy is tested in torsion and the shear stressstrain diagram is shown. Find the shear modulus G, the proportional limit, and the ultimate shear stress. Also, find the maximum distance d that the top of a block of this material could be displaced horizontally if the material behaves elastically when acted upon by a shear force V. What is the magnitude of V necessary to cause this displacement?

Solution:

The coordinates of point A are (0.008 rad, 360 MPa).

Thus, shear modulus is

G

360

0.008

4510
3
MPa (Ans)

Solution:

By inspection, the graph ceases to be linear at point A. Thus, the proportional limit is

pl

360MPa (Ans)

This value represents the maximum shear stress, point B. Thus the ultimate stress is

u

504MPa (Ans)

Since the angle is small, the top of the will be displaced horizontally by

0.008

d

d

0.4 mm

50mm

The shear force V needed to cause the displacement is

avg

V

A

;

360MPa

V

V

75 100

2700kN (Ans)

*Failure of Materials Due to Creep and Fatigue

Creep

When material support a load for long period of time, it will deform until a sudden fracture occurs.

This time-dependent permanent deformation is known as creep.

Both stress and/or temperature play a significant role in the rate of creep.

Creep strength will decrease for higher temperatures or

higher applied stresses.

*Failure of Materials Due to Creep and Fatigue

Fatigue

When metal subjected to repeated cycles of stress or strain, it will ultimately leads to fracture.

This behaviour is called fatigue.

Endurance or fatigue limit is a limit which no failure can be detected after applying a load for a specified number of cycles.

This limit can be determined in S-N diagram.