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Ww McKay Chess Library “% McKay Chess Library The classic guide to the variations of all ety ee ee ee acd Cte eects The Ideas ae roo dee Oy i THE IDEAS BEHIND THE CHESS OPENINGS By REUBEN FINE avrnon oF ‘Practical Chest Openings (Chen the Kary Wey Basic Chee Endings DAVID MCKAY COMPANY, INC. ww voRK Co, 93, 19007 DAVID MEKAY COMPANY, INC. Repeated Fane 1967 Repeated Angst 1970 Reprned March 1972 ‘Repent October 1972 Prine th la Sat of America PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION thas been sid that dens are weapons. ‘That scortaialy ax ‘rue in chess asin any other field. A mastery ofa litle theory ‘which conveys real understanding ofthe game is infinitely more ‘valuable than a caretlly memorized compilation of endless ‘moves. Parsdoxically, a thorough grasp ofthe ideas behind the openings, which are relatively few in number, is «royal ‘oad to knowledge which eliminates much of the drudgery as- sociated with remembering a long series of variations, My ‘The present work grew out of some articles which I wrote for the CHESS CORRESPONDENT about two years ago. ‘Because so many encouraging letters came tome from so many ‘envhnsiastic readers it was areal pleasure to expand the pre- vious short sketches into a full-length book. ‘As usual, the finished product is about tice a lang as was anticipated, but it did not seem advisable to compres the mae ‘teria any farther. eel confident that the book canbe read with profit without reference to any compilation of moves. However, those who Ihave @ copy of MODERN CHESS OPENINGS, 6th edition, vil be well advised to use the two treatments together. Ideas find moves are complementary, not mutually exclusive. TL wiah to acknowledge a debt of gratitude to Mc. Walter F. James for the orignal suggestion which led to these pages. My ‘aks are also due Miss Nora I. Koosing for her kind as sistance in typing a majo portion ofthe mamuscript. Rewmx Foe Washington, D. C. May 5, 193. PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION ‘This edition has been revised to conform to PRACTICAL (CHESS OPENINGS. As before, this book may be read io dependently, but ideas are most useful in conjunction with ‘variations, and the reader would do best to use the two books ‘gether. ‘Reones Fier New York, N. ¥. Dee. 12,1948, CONTENTS Preface Chapter I, GENERAL PRINCIPLES Chapter I KING PAWN OPENINGS ‘aut: Openings with 1P—K4, P—K4 Chapter I. KING PAWN OPENINGS aur mi: All Replies to 1 PKA Other Than 1... PKs Chapter IV. QUEEN PAWN OPENINGS Peer 1 Queen's Gambit and Minor Openings with 1 P-O4,P-O8 Chapter V. QUEEN PAWN OPENINGS ‘rant: Defenses Where Black Doss Not Play . ‘Pt (Chapler VI. RETI AND ENGLISH OPENINGS Chapter VII. BIRD'S OPENING AND NIMZO- VITCH’S ATTACK Chapter VIIl. IRREGULAR OPENINGS Aphendia: References to Practical Chess Openings Index 102 210 Bee THE IDEAS BEHIND THE CHESS OPENINGS Chapter 1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES, eSsabrays tre, though nt always cla, tht moves inthe ches opmings are based on cain definite ideas. These Went {ocr the background and foundation, while the moves tem selves represent acta construction ‘Tn every fell the man who can merely do things wthoat knowing why inata advantage to the cae who can act oly ‘ull bot alto tall you just why be ie builing in chat way. ‘Thin in especialy noticable when the preserbed cycle docs not obey the laws ts supposed to: then the Inborer mst lt by ‘rl folded bands while the mechanic or engine comes in and ‘jst the delicate mechani. ‘Al this olds ren chen, justo it otro in every fed ‘whichis combination of theary and action. And ines ation ‘mover in chess are much lee standardlaed thn, oy, the ‘conerution of «house, theory ab represented by ies is 20 ‘much mor important. “An apt station coc fn devistons from “oak.” A gue begins with 1F4, PIEBS? The reply ibd, sod [Efact tat will aot be found in any collection of tadard fopeaing mover What to do about 12. The man who ‘moran coe and oodles of moves without undentanting {hem i ate los he wil ot even be able to give a good resco thy ie movels bad Det the man who Know Gat Black bas elected the center, depeved his tof is best square, ed treakend hit King position wl fod its simple mater tore [ates oppoaats faaty play ‘eis paps not generally rind that opening theory In 2_IDEAS BEHIND CHESS OPENINGS chess proceeds on certain definite assumptions, They are ‘simple enough and once leamed they wil never be forgotten. ‘Tey are: 1 In the inital postion White, because ofthe ext move, ‘basa aight advantage. Consequently: 2. White's problem in the opening is to secure the better ‘sition, while ‘3. Black’ problem isto secure quality. ‘The elaboration of these question in each individual case is what is meant by “the theoty ofthe openings” Once either question 2 or 3 is clearly answered, the “theory” Ss satited sd the rests left to morta man. ‘As yet, however, nobody has found a method of determining values which is superior to that of good master practise. That 4s by sticking to well-established rules and principles we get to 8 potition where there are pros and cons for both sides. In that event a game between two experts i the most important cde that we can pousbly have. ‘Thisiscne ofthe chief reasons for quoting gamen. We aba return to this question a Ite Tater but euice It to say fr the time being that in many ex- ‘amples “theory” is nothiag but “good practise” ‘Throughout Peacricar Cass Orexnos and other similar taeatiaes there is continual mention of “normal” moves and “gormul” positions. ‘This “normalcy” arises in the fllowing ‘There are two fundamental concep inthe opening: develop- toent and the center, Development is getting the pieces out ‘The center consists of the four squares in the geometical ‘center of the board. ‘The basic principle is that itis eaenta in the opening to develop all the pisces hamonioasly and in such ‘way a to secure the moet favorable postion possible i the cxnter ‘More elaborately, there are ten practical rules which are usually worth sticking to, though the more expert player will ‘ema ofthe many exceptions, These rules are: 1 Open with either the King’s Pawn othe Queen's Pawn. orNeRAL PRINCIPLI a 2, Wherever posible make a good developing move which ‘threatens someting. 4% Develop Knights before Bishops, 4 Pie th meet mutable equare for a plece and develop it ‘here once and forall Mako one or two Pan moves ia the opening, not moe. & Do not bring your Quen out ex. 7, Castle ws 000 8 posible, preferably o the King se, 1 Play to got contro the center. 9. Always ty to latina easton Pow in th centr. 10, Do not serie withot a clear and adequate reason. Jin number 10 we oan further epeiy that for the oer of Pawn there must be on of four reuon: «) Sear a tang advantage in development; b) defect the enemy Queen; 3) prevent the eneny from casting, either pemanenty or for ever! moves; ) bull up a srng attack. ‘Finally itis worth remembering that there are two questions ‘which mt be anoweed for each move played: 1. How does tafe the center? 2, How doest itn with the development of my other pee snd Pawns? * "Any move which isin accordance with the bel principle a “gorma; any move which acts “abooemal.” Thus 1 P— Kd, which places a Pawn in the omter nd si the develop seit ofthe Keil, i nonmal, wile 1 P—QRS, which blpe aliier devdopment nor the conte, is abnormal.Sinay, ster | PKA, PK; 2 KtKB3, developing and threaten- {nga center Pawn is nacmal,wile7P—-QKS, which develops 1 relatively unimportant pice, and doesnot afect the crater, 4s aboormal ‘The reader wil realy tink of many simi examples Suerte and gambitstometines seem to vite sound opesing procodure.Thisis ina sense tr, ince every sacrifice ‘ges speci jutScaon, However, itis wellnown az “Theda wold th hve oe ala eatin of he dots acl ana Han Can Ta any Wop Caper caalyeatabliabd fact that under certain circumstances extra ‘matecal is useless when tis hampered by an immobile post ‘on, Tn auch cases sarifces are likewise perfectly normal ‘With gaumbits, the eacice isthe easence of tall. Normal procedure must necessarily take that into account and accom {ingly a third factor is introduced. While thie analysis is cor. rect from a purely theoretical point of view, in practise it will be found that the centr is relatively of oss moment, 6 that the exential question to be anewered by oth sides is: Ts the advantage in development sufcient compensation for the ‘material given up or not? Normal moves in gambits are those which help to answer this question. Tn almost all openings there sa well-defined series of normal ‘moves which leds to what is usally called « “normal pos Hon.” “This normal postion is the point of departure for farther opening investigations. If it is favorable for White, ‘theory concer itself with the provement of Black's defen sive possibilities. Conversely, if, us is usually the cae, i is, cevea, the problem is to better White's play. Sometimes—aa {in the Orthodox Defense tothe Queen's Gumbit Deelined—itis, ‘theoretically even, but in practise fllof pitfalls and dificultes, Tn that event theory can and does concern itself with an exami ‘nation for both sides, to give White better winning chances on the one band, and to make Black’ task easier on the othe. ‘An allied pertinent conception which wil be used on ocasion ‘i that of "Ideal postion.” An ideal potion is one which is reached by 2 soguance of normal moves for both sides and ‘which represents the maximum positional superiority which ‘one player or the other can secure, Ttis therefore a worthwhile ‘goal for one man, but something to be avoided for his op- ‘ponent. ‘Ia & number of modern openings—auch as Alekhine's De- fease andthe Catalan System-—the play of one side or the other ‘turns out tobe highly successful even though iis in apparent ‘contradiction with healthy opening princples. ‘The contradic- tion can be resolved only by considering the element of fer GENERAL PRINCIPLES s imanency, Eg, in Alkhine’s Defense Black allows White to ‘id up « powerful Pawn center not because he believes auch a ‘center is bad, but becuse he is convinced that he wil be able ‘tocrack it sooner or later. Consequently, among otber things {in some opening, we must examine how longa given advantage vill last. ‘Another moder nuances transpsiion, which is quite com ‘man in the Queen's Pawn Openings. ‘tis important tobe clear about the question ofthe evalua- tion of «position reached inthe opening. This mast, ofcourse, ‘be based on the general analysis of any position. Such general snalysis involves five factors: Mateil; Pawn structure; Mobility; King safety; Combinations. In most openings (cept gambits) only Pawn structure and mobility are realy Important (the centr isa special case of mobility, for the side ‘which as control of the center automatically enjoys more free- om for his pies). ‘Tt will sometimes be observed thatthe ideas which ae sald tobe at the basis of certain openings are ether avoided or en- tively absent in practise. That is bocause ideas are not dict torial laws but counselling guides. Strategy, the body of ideas, holds only ae framework. “Tactics, the individual variations, fn what goa into ths framework, which is why the reult often ‘yas 80 widely from the orginal conception. Frequently a line which carrie out the basic iden and is therefore strate- ‘Beally sound must be rejected because there isa tactical refa- {ation: i just won't work. Proper timing comes in here Further, in most openings thee are several igeas foreach side, ‘ot all f which may be realized ina single gume. ‘ti obvious that many of the situations reached in Pxac- oat Coss Ormasos are co complicated that cursory analysis ‘ofthis type wil not lead to any conclusive remit. That is why ‘games with master are quoted which continued from those fositions, ‘The argument ie simple enough. ‘Two experts ex. ‘mined thie game and came tothe fllowing conclsion. Thait ‘opinions have been checked by another expert who finds that JEHIND CHESS OPENINGS ‘oth played reasonably well (if not, «comment to that effect ‘willbe found). Unles there is same excellent evidence to sup- ‘ort the contrary, itis therefore to be assumed that the judg ent of the book isto be aoepted as eubstantlly correct. ‘Ths emphatically doesnot mean thatthe Book i inet, Quite the contrary. Chea i fortmately, not « finished science, but steadily growing organi. “Many corrections fod improvements have bom found and will continue to be found.” Stl allthis doesnot do away with the fact that & ‘erin who deiberataly deviate rom “book” lines should have fame good reason for doing so. Uncrtical rejection ofall ‘hoory because tis incomplete and wrong on occasion i folsh snd harmfuly intent exticism of standard material, vo ‘matter how long it has bon accepted, is sensible and whole Chapter 11 KING PAWN OPENINGS PARE I OPENINGS WITH 1 P—K4, PKA ‘Both White's and Black's initial moves here are perfectly natural and normal: both assist development and afect vital central squares ‘As long a8 Black oan retain symmetry, White can lay 20 claim to an advantage. Consequently th tasks to compel the ‘defender to give up his strong center potions, in other words to abandon his P at KA, ‘White can achieve this aim only by playing P—Q4 It ‘Black then repics with .....PX