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aed rire at Tara ] NST eo IN 8th Edition. April 1995 IATA AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT REFERENCE MANUAL 8th Edition. Effective April 1995 International Air Transport Association Montreal - Geneva NOTICE DISCLAIMER. The information contained in this publication is subject to constant review in the light of changing govemment requirements and regulations. No subscriber or other reader should act on the basis of any such information without referring to applicable laws and regulations and/or without’ taking appropriate professional advice. Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, the Intemational Air Transport ‘Association shall not be held responsible for loss. ‘or damage caused by errors, omissions, misprints, ‘or misinterpretation of the contents hereof. Furthermore, the Intemational Air Transport ‘Association expressly disclaims all and any liability to any person, whether a purchaser of this publication or not, in respect of anything done or omitted, and the consequences of anything done of omitted, by any such person in reliance on the contents of this publication. No part of the Airport Development Reference Manual may be reproduced, recast, reformatted or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission from: Airports and Regions Intemational Air Transport Association 2000 Peel Street Montreal, Quebec CANADA H3A 2R4 Airport Development Reference Manual ISBN 92-9035-729-0 © 1995 International Air Transport Association. Alll rights reserved Montreal — Geneva ‘Acknowledgement.. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 - PLANNING — 1.1. Aifline Participation. 1.2 Airport Consultative Committee (ACC) 1.3 Project Cost Analysis 1.4 IATA Airport Traffic Forecast 1.5 Data Acquisition 1.6 Assessment of Capaci 1.7 IATA Guide to the Simplified Assessment of Airport Capacity. 1.8 _ IATA Facilities Planning Questionnaire 1.9 Future Aircraft Development... Chapter 2 - AIRPORT MASTERPLAN 21 General. 2.2 Land Use Plan 23 Airfield Configuration. 2.4 Environmental Impact Chapter 3 - PASSENGER TERMINAL 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 Traffic Data/Planning.. Passenger Flows. Major Functional Areas .. Government Controls Disabled Passengers Signpesting.. Ancillary Services Public and Non-Public Areas Chapter 4 - CARGO TERMINAL 44 42 43 44 45 46 48 4.9 4.10 4a General Considerations Pre-Design Considerations Cargo Operations. Installation and Systems Checks. Evaluation Studies. Express Cargo Facilities Airmail Facilities S, “Tara Airport Development Reference Manual Chapter 5 - APRON 51 General Considerations 5.2 Planning Parameter 53 Aircraft Stands.. 54 Aircraft Servicing Installations Chapter 6 - AIRPORT ACCESS 61 General Considerations .. 62 Environmental Factor 63 Traffic Data. 64 Road Systems. 65 Car Park Facilitie 66 — Rail Systems 67 Interface Points Glossary. List of Reference Material ATA Publications. Other Publications. Page — Vata FOREWORD The Airport Development Reference Manual (ADRM) has been developed by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and is based on the vast experience of its members, the intemational airlines operating scheduled international air services. The subject of airport planning is of vital importance to support air transportation, This &th edition of the ADRM has involved a major revision of the 7th edition which was previously called the Airport Terminal Reference Manual (ATRM). The name was changed to reflect the modified scope of the manual which now includes more information on the airport master plan and airfield planning. It also includes a new section on an IATA Guide to Simplified Assessment of Aiport Capacity. $400 billion will be spent on airport development between now and 2010. This huge capital investment in airport infrastructure will be necessary to support the major increase in passenger traffic anticipated during this time period. Several aircraft manufacturers have estimated that between 1994 and 2010, over 11,000 aircratt will be delivered to the airlines at a cost of over $800 billion. According to industry analysts, the traditional rule of thumb is that for every billion dollars spent on new aircraft, half a billion dollars is required for supporting infrastructure. These new aircraft will be’ required to replace ageing fleets and to meet the growing passenger demand for air transportation. Many of these new aircraft will be new large aircraft (NLA) that will have a major impact on existing airport infrastructures. . Many airports are already congested and a major effort will be required by airport authorities to increase airport capacity to correct the present deficiencies. In addition, they must also meet the increasing demand for more runway capacity, more aircraft stands, more check-in counters, more baggage claims, more CIP lounge space etc. Itis a major challenge for the airlines, the airport and government authorities, the consultants and everyone associated with the dynamic aviation industry. What are the major design features needed by an international airport to be ranked up at the top with Singapore Changi, Amsterdam Schiphol or Zurich? If an airport can meet most of the following list of “top ten” items from both passenger and airline viewpoints, this should ensure that it will support an efficient airline operation and meet the expectations of airline passengers to make it one of their favourite international airports: Passenger Viewpoint: (a) Easy access to/from the airport by road and rail (b) Short walking distances from curbside to check-in and from check-in to aircraft gate with no level changes. Similarly short walking distances from the aircraft to the baggage claim area and then from Customs to the curbside or the rail station; (c) Attractive architecture and landscaping to provide a pleasant relaxing atmosphere; (d) Short queues at Security and Passport Control; (©) Good aircraft on-time departure performance; (1) Fast baggage delivery and ample baggage trolleys; (g) Clear and concise signage; (nh) Good variety of retailers; (I) ‘Attractive CIP lounges conveniently located near the aircraft gate; (i) Good selection of moderately priced eating establishments. Airline Viewpoint: (a) Amaster plan that optimizes the location of key functions on the airport and allows for orderly expansion; () A runway layout that maximizes runway capacity and allows adequate space for apron and terminal expansion; - — (c) Arunway layout that minimizes aircratt taxing distances; (d) An apron layout with energy efficient aircraft ground support equipment, sufficient and well located staging areas for baggage, cargo and ground equipment, and no cul de sacs that impede aircraft manoeuvring; 8 rie Airport Development Reference Manual ) es (hy vi An attractive work place for airline staff but with a terminal that doesn't put architectural design ahead of an efficient airline operation and a terminal that provides sufficient and suitably located airline ‘accommodation space; ‘A passenger terminal building with an efficient outbound baggage sortation system; A passenger terminal that allows 90% of passengers to use loading bridges, with aircraft parking on remote stands using buses to meet peak demand; Excellent airport shopping for airline passengers that does not interfere with passenger flows between the Check-in area and the aircraft gate and yet provides the airport with commercial revenues that help reduce airline user charges; ‘An airport with reasonable user charges; ‘An airport authority that can see the mutual benefits of working with the airlines in planning major facility changes. PURPOSE AND SCOPE manual is intended to assist the airlines, airport and government authorities, architects, consultants and designers in planning the intemational airport complex. It has been written by airline facility planners based on many years of experience with airport developments world-wide. The recommendations in this manual are not intended to apply to purely domestic airport terminals. The terminal complex is assumed to include both passenger and cargo terminal buildings, as well as adjacent airside and landside areas with their associated facilities. Throughout the manual, the various facets of airport development planning are considered in relation to the present and future generation of aircraft with particular emphasis on the airlines requirements that airport capital costs are kept to a minimum and new runways, aprons and terminals are efficiently designed for airline operations. {ss the “perfect” design for a passenger or cargo terminal adaptable to all airports has not yet been designed, it will be necessary to adapt the guidelines in this manual to local situations. It is therefore essential to that the airlines and the airport authorities with their consultants work together to establish close and regular Consultation from the earliest planning stage right up until “day 1 of operations”. Based on experience from the IATA perspective, this consultation process is mutually beneficial to both the airlines and airport authorties. IATA will give all possible assistance in co-ordinating aiifine participation and in arranging consuttation with airport authorities. Requests for information may be addressed to: Technical Director, Airports and Regions, IATA, 2000 Peel Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A 2R4, Teletype: YULMAXB Fax: +1 (514) 844 6727 or to the appropriate Regional Technical Director as shown below. Airports in Europe Airports in Africa Regional Technical Director (EUR) Regional Technical Director (AFI) Sceptre House, P.O. Box 47979 75-81 Staines Road Hounslow, Nairobi, Kenya Middlesex TW3 3HW Teletype: NBOERXB England Fax: 254 272 3978 Teletype: LONEEXB Fax: +44 (181) 572 4929 Airports in North Atlantic and North America Regional Technical Director (NAT/NAM) Airports in Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Technical Director (LATAM/CAR) Avenida Rio, Branco, 181, Sala 1908 Sceptre House, 20040 Rio de Janeiro 75-81 Staines Road Hounslow, Brazil Middlesex TW3 3HW Teletype: RIOELXB England Fax: +55 (21) 262 9386 Teletype: LONENXB Fax: +44 (181) 572 4929 Airports in Middle East Regional Technical Director (MID) Sceptre House, 75-81 Staines Road Hounslow, Middlesex TWS 3HW———___azia-s England ies Teletype: LONEBXB Fax: +44 (181) 572 4929 Airports in Asia/Pacific Regional Technical Director (AS/PAC) 331 North Bridge Road 20-00 Odeon Towers Singapore 0718 Teletype: SINESXB . Fax: +65 339 0855 BSS ee vil & Airport Development Reference Manual ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IATA wishes to express its appreciation to the members of the Airport Development Advisory Sub-Committee (ADAC) who have contributed substantially to this new edition and overseen its production. IATA also wishes to express its appreciation to BAE Automated Systems, Inc. of Dallas Texas and Toyo Kanetsu K.K. Company (TKK) of Tokyo for their assistance in developing information on baggage handling systems and to Lea & Elligtt of Arlington, Texas for information on automated people mover systems. vil we TATA CHAPTER 1 - PLANNING Ww 1.2 1.24 1.2.2 2.3 AIRLINE PARTICIPATION When a major airport development project is proposed by an airport authority, experience has shown that the most effective and mutually beneficial course of action is to establish consultation with the airport authorities and their consultants as early as possible to explore alternative airport plans and terminal concepts. The IATA forum for this consultation is the Alrport Consultative Committee or ACC. IATA strives to obtain information as-soon as possible regarding any proposed international airport development projects from Airline Operators Committees (AOC), airline rapporteurs, and other sources, Upon receipt of such information, the Regional Technical Director (RTD), in co-ordination with IATA Airports, contacts the national airline and the planning specialists of the major ‘operating to that airport to determine if there is sufficient interest in the proposed airport project. If 's0, IATA will endeavour to obtain the agreement of the airport or government authority concerned for consultation with the airlines on all aspects of the proposed development. Once the principle of joint consultation has been agreed, an ACC will be established (See Fig. 1-1). AIRPORT CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE (ACC) ACC Objective The objective of an ACC is to consolidate airline views and to provide a focal point for corisultation between the airlines and the airport authority conceming the planning of a major airport expansion or a new airport in order to input airine functional requirements. ‘When considering proposals for new or additional airport facilities, ACC members must bear in mind that capital and subsequent maintenance and operating costs of airport developments are ultimately reflected in user charges. Furthermore, airline operating costs are adversely affected by an inefficient airport or terminal design. In the analysis of an airport development project, the ACC should ensure that it provides additional capacity to meet projected demand in a cost-effective manner. ACC Formation ‘An ACC will normally be formed under the guidance of the Regional Technical Director in consultation with the Regional Airports Steering Group (RASG) and the Regional Coordinating Group (RCG - where flight operations related matters are concerned, e.g. new runway or new airport). If there are only one or two airlines interested in the development of a particular airport, an ‘ACC mission may be conducted to the specific location instead of convening an ACC. Normally, the IATA Secretariat (Regional Technical Office or IATA Airports) will participate directly in ACC meetings and will maintain close contact with its activities at all times. It is essential that ACC activity is separate from the AOC because of the scale of the projects involved and the facility planning expertise required. ACC Membership Membership on the ACC is open to all airines serving the airport involved. Each airline may nominate a suitably qualified planning specialist to participate in ACC meetings. The expertise required will be dependent upon the scope of the project concemed. Airport Development Reference Manual we IATA Figure 1-1 AIRPORT CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE ACTIVITY CHART ‘cavinosu — aaweano wens uvarwaonassvé| Diaavus aunvs swawuno Ss, tin Planning To ensure that local airline views and requirements are included in the ACC proposals and effect appropriate co-ordination, the AOC is invited to nominate a representative to participate in all ACC meetings. It is the duty of this AOC representative (usually the AOC Chairman) to keep the full AOC informed of all ACC deliberations. Because the ACC is the recognized forum for consultation with the airport authority on all aspects of airport expansion programs, it may be necessary to obtain participation of representatives from ‘other related disciplines where specific problems exist as follows: © Facilitation — Facilitation representatives may be requested to participate regarding Customs and Immigration matters which affect airport terminal design and passenger/cargo flow. This is ‘arranged through the IATA Director, Traffic Support. ‘* Security - A security advisor is assigned to an ACC earfy in the terminal planning process to provide input on security matters which may affect terminal design. This is arranged through the IATA Director, Security. ‘* Flight Operations - If ACC discussions are likely to involve fight operations matters (e.g. new runway, taxiways, docking guidance systems, etc.), the respective Regional Coordinating Group will be requested to nominate a suitably qualified representative to participate in ACC meetings. A specialist working group of the ACC is often formed to undertake detailed studies of flight operational matters. 5 ‘© User Charges - As airport development projects normally impact on airport user charges, a representative of the User Charges Panel (UCP), may be requested to participate in the early planning stages of major airport projects. The IATA Technical and User Charges Secretariats jointly liaise regarding locations where UCP participation is appropriate. 1.2.4 ACC Scope ‘While the majority of ACCs are concemed with airport passenger terminal development, the scope of ACC activity includes the following: Airport Masterplan - includes airfield layout, airport land use and access systems; * Passenger terminal - planning and design of new terminals and major expansion of existing terminals including passenger and baggage handling systems; ‘© Apron - aircraft layout and related docking guidance systems; * Cargo terminal - expert assistance of cargo terminal planners as required. ACCs seek to achieve a rational balance between: © The level of service to passengers and shippers, taking the long-term interest of all parties into ‘account and guarding against the growth of ground handling monopolies; © Improvement in airport capacity; ‘© The resultant capital and projected operating costs to airlines over an agreed period; * The combined airline space requirements; © Matters such as concession facilities and resulting commercial revenue. ACC activity includes an assessment of the capacity of existing facilities and a comparison with current and projected demand. The ACC must seek as much financial information as possible to facilitate an economic assessment of various planning options in terms of layout, space requirements, staffing, equipment, etc. Airport Development Reference Manual 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7 ACC Operation Once consultation between the airines and airport authority has been agreed, IATA endeavours to obtain copies of the proposed airport development plans to circulate to participants in advance of the first ACC meeting. If this is not possible, then the initial ACC meeting with the airport authorities includes a detailed presentation of the proposed plans. ‘The ACC will meet independently to analyze the plans and develop an airline position including alternative proposals regarding the proposed project. A useful analysis tool is APEM - Airport Project. Evaluation Methodology which may assist the ACC in comparing altemative plans. The ACC fecommendations, which reflect the majority point of view, are presented verbally to the airport authority following the intemal closed session. Every effort is made to resolve airline differences of opinion and to agree to a joint unified position. Presentation of the airline position is made by a suitably qualified spokesperson or if desired, by the IATA representative. The ACC recommendations are subsequently confirmed to the airport authority in writing. ‘ACC meetings normally take place at the location of the proposed project. In certain circumstances, it may be preferable for a working group meeting to be conducted at an altemative site which is convenient to a majority of participants. The dates of all proposed ACC meetings are carefully co- ordinated to ensure adequate representation. Regional Airports Steering Groups (RASG) . Regional Airports Steering Groups in Europe and Asia/Pacific meet twice a year to review airport developments within their regions. The review includes: Status report of ACC activity within the region; Proposals for new ACCs; Determining the need for assistance of an IATA Airports Advisor, Determining the need for airport traffic forecasts; Setting the priorities for future ACC activity in the region. The Regional Airport Steering Groups report to the Airport Development Advisory Committee (ADAC) who has the responsibility for overall management of the IATA ACC program world-wide. Primary participation in Airport Steering Group Meetings is mainly from the airport planning discipline. At least four or five airport planning experts who regularly participate in ACCs within the region attend the meeting. In addition, one or two representatives from the Regional Coordinating Group, UCP, Facilitation and Security disciplines also participate in the Steering Group meetings. eeeee Co-ordination with Other Groups ‘The UCP is responsible for representing the IATA airlines in negotiations with airport authorities regarding the charges for the use of the airport including but not limited to landing fees, terminal building charges, passenger-related elements, lighting charges, air traffic control and monopoly-type user charges. It is therefore very important that the activities of ACCs and the UCP are closely co- ordinated so that the UCP is fully aware of costs emerging {rom ACC discussions to assist them in future negotiations with airport authorities regarding user charges. Gui for the establishment of the AOC are contained in the IATA Airport Handling Manual ‘AHM 073. These committees are concemed with the day-to-day operation of the airport for which they are established. Usually information conceming a proposed airport development is first received from the airport authority at AOC meetings. Liaison between the AOC and ACC must be continuous and therefore, the chairman or @ representative of the AOC is invited to be a member of the ACC and participate regularly in all ACC meetings. ACC representatives must ensure that their local airport managers are fully briefed regarding the work covered at each ACC and the planned action for future meetings. ‘As development proceeds and the construction stage is reached and/or systems are installed, the ‘AOC becomes more directly involved and at an appropriate time will assume responsibility for Planning “subsequent action. The timing of this handover {rom the ACC to the AOC should be flexible depending upon local conditions and expertise available. In this connection, some of the major areas, together with the stage of devalopment when the transfer of action should take place, are: © Apron — on completion of the design phase for parking layout, hydrant system, taxiway ‘approaches, etc. + Terminal structure — on commencement of major construction phase. © Terminal systems — on completion of major construction phase. “4.3 PROJECT COST ANALYSIS 1.3.1 General Airport charges account for about 5% of airline costs. In certain regions of the world this figure can increase to 10 - 12% and user charges in the 90's ara ascalating faster than other aitfine costs. Higher user charges are expected as new airports become operational since investments in new airports must be paid for through user charges. About 60-70% of airport revenues (depending on the size of the airport) come from aitine user charges while 30-50% come from commercial airport activities such as leases, duty free, car parking, alfport ground handling services and supplies. A problem associated with user charges is that there does not exist one world-wide standard on airport costs and user charges. Every airport has its own way of charging which makes it very dificult to understand the undettying relationship between costs and airline user charges. It is impossible to compare charges between airports. ICAO provides general recommendations for how charges should be levied. These recommendations are acceptable from an airline viewpoint but they are not always followed by airport authorities. Airport costs are to a large extent capital costs for investments in the infrastructure, The operational costs are basically to maintain these investments in good shape to prevent so called capital deterioration. This leads to a fundamental contradiction - airports costs are very litle related to the volume of traffic, but user charges are directly traffic volume related. “1.3.1.4 “Alrport Costs For established airports, with continuous expansion plans, capital costs account for about 30 - 50% of total costs. With new airports up to 90% of total costs could be capital costs. An ofticient, wolt planned airport can save the airlines a fot of money. Therefore cutting capital costs is too narrow an approach. The goal should be to minimize the sum of alrport user charges and fine operational costs. To optimize a masterplan in organizing the runway and terminal area layout to minimize taxing distances is an accepted part of almport planning. Airline operating costs nead to be considered whan determining the terminal design. A good design of the terminal building ‘will permit optimum airline staffing and quicker aircraft turnaround times. “1.3.1.2 “Investments For new airports, investment costs are the most significant cost factor. The cost structure of aimort projects have changed in recent years. Previously, capital costs were for construction of runways, terminals and support facilities. Airports were buit where it was cheapest to construct. Today, with the lack of suitable land close to city centers and environmental restrictions, new airpon sites are often located on land with poor and hilly conditions or even into shallow water areas. A major cost item has become the cost to prepare the site by levelling surrounding hills or creating man-ma islands, The most extrome-example of such airports is Kansai (Osaka), ___ & “Airport Development Reference Manual “An example of capital costs for a new airport (one runway already exists) is provided by the naw airport at Garderméen in Oslo, Norway. Land Purchase i Basic infrastructure Technical installations Passenger Terminal ‘The most important factors for how the investment costs will ranslate into airline costs are: © Amortization per ¢ Government subsi * Sources of financing; . Depreciation and interest rates; . ¢ Historic or current costs; © Prefinancing of cash flow financing. ‘The amortization period has a major impact on airine user charges. The ICAO Airport Economics Manual (Doc 9562) deals with the depreciation periods for airport assets. ICAO indicates that Periods can vary because of diversity of climatic, physical, functional, or economic factors that determine the economic life of airport infrastructure. However, major assets tend to be depreciated ‘over the fotlowing time periods: * Buildings - 20 to 40 years or else over the period of the land ease; © Runways and taxiways - 15 to 30 years; Aircraft aprons -'15 to 30 years: Airport fumiture and fittings - 10 to 15 years; Electronic equipment, including telecommunications equipment - 7 to 15 years; © Computer equipment 5 to 10 years; * General equipment - 7 to 10 years. The Build, Operate, Transfer (BOT) project is bacoming a popular method of financing airports. With this method private companies or airport developers finance the construction of the airport in exchange for the operating rights for an extended period before transferring ownership to the Airport Authority. These BOT projects have an major impact on raising airine user charges sinca the amortization period is usually reduced to coincide with the period of the operating contract. The costs for a new aiport today are so high that many airports will never be able to recover their full costs based on normal airfine user charges. A decision to build a new airport is to a large extent 8 political decision. The benefits of building the new airport include increased regional economic growth and increased tourist revenues. For this reason, govermments must support the new airport Project with attractive financing. Airport sources of financing include: © State budget; State financial institutions; Pension funds; no - : Bonds; foes - Eo Banks, including World Bank; ———-——_-—.. an Ra et Contractor financing, Developer financing; Aidines (own terminals); Airports (from profits). sewer ens . = Sa ara Planning oa _—ROOOO 1.3.2 1.3.3 ‘The long-term low risk character of airports projects should-translate into a generous long-time depreciation period of up 25-40 years for terminal facilities. Airports are monopoly businesses with very low risk and interest rates should reflect this fact. Guidelines Joint participation by the airport authority and the aitlines in the initial stages of the planning process is indispensable to the development of a successful programme. Early evaluations of airport projects wil reduce the number of changes to the final programme and thereby minimize increased design costs. Such action will also contribute to the probability of meeting scheduled completion dates. The ultimate cost of any facility, both in terms of capital expenditure and annual user charges, will depend to a large extent, on its size; it is important that an accurate assessment of the required dimensions is made in the early planning stages. ‘Any cost evaluation must be carried out in two separate and distinct phases. The phases are related directly to the quality and quantity of the information and the data that has to be obtained. The first phase should consist of a broad cost evaluation to be carried out almost immediately after the ACC technical assessment on demand and facility requirements has been carried out. The second phase should be completed immediately after plans and cost details become available to the airlines for analysis and comment. It is hoped that early assessments will establish the fevel of costs to the airlines. . The guidelines contained in this section are specifically designed to assist ACs in preparing broad cost evaluations prior to the in-depth evaluations which will take place when detailed cost data become available. Forecast and technical sub-groups will establish the demand and facility requirements for both the above mentioned phases. An economic sub-group will then evaluate the project throughout the planning stage. ‘A proper appreciation of airport projects requires a concerted approach irrespective of whether it concems new projects or major extensions to existing airports, passenger terminals and cargo terminals. To achieve this the following must be considered: © Current and future growth rates; = Aircraft movements; - Passenger traffic; = Cargo traffic; © Current and future facility requirements; = Current facilities (including airfield and flight technical requirements); Future facilities required; ~ Preferred concepts and handling facilities; = Impact on airline costs, e.g. staffing plus equipment; © Current and future costs; - Current facilities; - Proposals and alternatives; ~ Unit cost e.g. cost per aircraft movement, cost per passenger, etc. The result of a cost evaluation is indicative of the cost base on which any subsequent charges might be founded and will provide the UCP with essential data for its subsequent consultations with the airport authorities. Financial Cost Considerations For each-programme-alternative,-the-following capital costs. and annual_variable-cosis-must-be. determined: we tTA Airport Development Reference Mani “1.3.3.1 ” Capital Costs Capital investment for an airport project include: * Site acquisition costs; 2 Bullding construction and site work costs - order of magnitude, ¢.g, cost per unit; ‘+ Financing costs during construction period; * Various-equipment costs (loading bridges, atc.). ~The total amount of these items plus the interest rate and depreciation over the economic lifetime of {he project will determine the fixed costs which, in one form or anther, wil be changed to the users For large projects, the financial solution may require a flexible scheme with lese payments in we Carly years of a new facilty and gradually increasing the charges. It is important not 70 overburden {he early market and in the worst case pravent air trafic development at the airport, “1.3.3.2 ” Annual Variable Costs Maintenance and operating costs ofthe terminal bulding should be calculated for the intial year and {or subsequent years by allowing for inflation factors and offsetting for increased productivity. Operational costs are mainly personnel costs, perhaps 50 - 75%, Operational costs are aiecthy ‘elated to the size of the sitpor, 60 as the airport grows to add capacity, the operational costs of the airport will also increase. Maintenance and operating costs for operational systems, @.9, loading bridges, baggage systerns, ele. associated with each concept must be calculated including allowance for inflaton, In addition, costs to the airlines e.9. extra staft/equipment etc. must be determined for each terminal concept. The tote! annual cost package will consist of the annualized capital costs plus the annual variable costs. “1.3.4 “Economic Evaluation Procedure 1.3.4.1 General The financial data information outlined in ADRM 1.3.3 should be made available to the ACG during ‘the planning process or at an early stage discussed with the airfines through the UCP. 1.34.2 "Purpose and Functions of the Economic Evaluation * Determine cost impact of the airport project; * Evaluation of attematives. This may include a "No Change Allemative", * Monitor cost development during progress of the project: * Provide cost information to UCP and others. “1.3.4.3 “Data Input ‘* Tratlic Forecast Demand, see ADRM 1.4; = Passengers (Enpianed, Deplaned, Transfer, Transit, intemational, Domestic, atc.); = Aircraft movements by aircraft type; * Facility Requirements; — Airfield and landside facility requirements; ~ Overall size of faciities; ‘* — Historical administrative costs; * Existing airport financial obligation, e.g. previous development costs; * _ Aiport revenue from non-airline sources, e.g. concessionaires; ~ * Financial principles used by airport: ~ Funding shortiong term; — Source; 1344 13.45 1.3.5 1.4 Planning — Depreciation policy (economic lifetime of assets, historical or replacement values); — Airport revenues employed for non-airport purposes (where applicable); = Economic and financial recognition of community benefits; ‘Accounting principles used by the airport: = Cost allocation; = Rate of interes} charged. Output ‘® Annual fixed charges (for each alternative); Project maintenance, operation and administrative costs; ‘* Projected annual non-airline sources of revenue (concessions, rents, etc.), and deficit bome by airport operator where relevant; ‘¢ Annual cost impact on airlines; ‘* Annual costs expressed as units (for each alternative), e.g. cost per passenger, cost per aircraft operation, etc.; Note: Unit cost shall be based on a standard utilzation of the facility e. during the facility lifetime. ‘Submission And Recommendations . ‘The ACC proposals and recommendations on the selected project and its related costs should be ‘submitted to the airport authority. ‘The ACC and the airport authority shall, during the period of the project, monitor the programme for ‘any cost changes and recommend corrective action, as necessary. ‘The UCP should be involved early in the economic evaluation procedure and throughout the development of the project. Two Airports Policy ‘The IATA aitines prefer to operate from only one airport per city. Where more than one airport is ‘operated there is always a major problem conceming how passenger traffic will be split between the airports. Some of the major problems include: Loss of intertine traffic for the airines; ‘* Unacceptable minimum connecting times between flights; * Added operating costs to the airlines, especialy the base carrier. It more than one airport must be built, then the airport authority should consult with the airlines to determine how the passenger traffic can best be split to minimize the negative impact of operating multi-airports. Airline passengers try to avoid airports where they must connect between two airports. A decision on the traffic distribution policy should be made before the detailed planning of the new airport commences. IATA AIRPORT TRAFFIC FORECAST ‘An important input to the planning process is the airport traffic forecast. An accurate forecast is essential since the sizing and the phasing of the airport project is dependant on the accuracy of the forecast. If the forecast understates demand, the facilities will be built too small and the airport will ‘experience a capacity problem. If the forecast overstates the demand, the facilities will be over-sized ‘and the airlines will needlessly pay for under-utlised facilties. IATA has developed a standardized methodology for airport forecasting. There are several advantages to using-an4ATA forecast: a ® Includes input from airline marketing departments; '* More than 60 airport forecasts have been complet the average utilization 1.4.1 1441 tg TATA Airport Development Reference Manual ‘© Methodology has proven sound; ‘* Forecasts have proved to be accurate. When forecasting airport activity, three essential components of operations are covered: . In airport tratfic forecasting studies, [ATA employs a combination of trend analysis and extrapolation, ‘expectation surveys and judgement. Extensive knowledge and understanding of the environment in which the airport is situated is required, as well as direct contact with planning and forecasting experts of all major airines operating at the subject airport. Particular attention is also given to ‘comments and forecast inputs from other sectors of the travel industry such as tourist boards, tour operators, financial institutions, etc. whenever possible to ensure that the forecast incorporates a wide range of views. As a result, any forecast produced reflects the views of the travel industry concerning future traffic development and likely changes in operating pattems. IATA’s airport forecast study provides airlines and Airport Authorities with a detailed insight into the likely aircraft runway movement rates, passenger flows, and aircraft stand requirements expected in five, ten and fifteen years time. These forecasts thus provide all parties involved in airport development planning with a common base upon which to produce detailed plans for ensuring that adequate facilities are provided for future traffic flows. . ‘Additionally, IATA prepares a variety of forecasts, based on input from airlines and Airport ‘Authorities ‘which can be specifically associated with the requirements of individual ACs. Formats for such forecasts may vary in accordance with individual circumstances, but standard methods are ‘employed whenever possible. t The IATA Airport Traffic Forecasting system is designed to provide the best possible long-term forecast taking advantage of the knowledge, skills and experience of specialist personnel avaliable within its member airlines, and within the IATA Secretariat. Figures 1-2 to 1-8 give an example of actual Summary Results from a typical IATA Tratfic Forecast. Forecast Methodology Passenger Traffic IATA forecasts three categories of passenger traffic: © embarking; disembarking; © direct transit. Since each of these three groups uses different facilities in the airport, it is necessary to forecast each passenger category separately in order to determine future requirements for passenger facilities. The forecast deals separately with passengers on scheduled flights and those on non-scheduled flights. IATA does not forecast true origin-destination traffic, but on-flight coupon origin-destination. This is defined as the point of embarkation and the point of disembarkation of a passenger covered by one flight coupon (that is, one flight number). On-fight coupon origin-destination passengers represent basically two travel components which are: * local origin-destination traffic; * transfer passengers (those passengers making an aircraft change at the airport under study) land are counted twice, once when they arrive, and another ime. when they depart on another ight a couple of hours later. To produce an accurate forecast of passenger traffic which indicates the number of persons actually passing through an alrpor, it is necessary to take into account market trends and also the ‘evolution of transfer traffic. 14.1.3 1414 1.4.2 Planning Cargo Traftic Cargo traffic may be carried either on pure freighter aircraft, on combi aircraft, where the main deck is shared between passengers and cargo, or in the belly holds of passenger aircraft. Since this affects the requirements for apron facilities, IATA forecasts differentiate between these transport methods. In the forecast, the combined number of tonnes of freight and mail handled at the airport are taken into consideration. Usually scheduled and non-schedulad cargo tratfic are considered together as both are handled in the-same-cargo terminal area. ‘The forecast differentiates between passenger and all-cargo operations, as each will have a specific influence in respect of apron use. Aircraft Movements The future number of aircraft landing and take-off movements expected determines the planning requirements of airport operations airside. Aircraft movements include all commercial scheduled operations. General aviation and military aircraft movements usually have little influence on the planning of runway and apron capacity. I non- scheduled operations are significant they are also taken into consideration. « Aireraft movements are forecast by categories based on aircraft seating capacity. Seven aircraft categories, based on seating capacity, are used: Category 0 Aircraft with less than 50 seats; Category 1 Aircraft with 50-124 seats; ‘The forecast of aircraft movements provides information on future requirements for airside facilities. Projected New Scheduled Operations Where possible, details of projected schedules of future (new) operations are also considered in any airport forecast. Airline scheduling co-ordinators assist by providing information on projected new scheduled operations. The “Busy” Day The “busy” day is defined as the second busiest day in an average week during the peak month. An average weekly pattern of passenger traffic is calculated for that month. Peaks associated with ‘special occurrences such as national holidays, religious festivals, trade fairs, sporting events, are excluded. The “busy” day data is normally obtained from the airport tower log. lt covers each aircraft movernent during the "busy" day and includes: © Airline name; © Arrival time; © Flight number, © Number of passengers disembarked; © Aircratt type; © Number of direct transit passengers (if applicable); © Aircraft registratior ‘© Departure time; “= Seating capacity; Destination of flight; © Origin of flight; ‘* Number of embarking passengers. To identify the peak hour, IATA has designed a model that uses this data to display both aircraft and passenger traffic flow, by time of day. The model is able to identify variations in load factor by time of day and by route area. &, 2, Tata Airport Development Reference Manual 1.4.3 12 A projection of aircraft movements and passenger traffic volume is then calculated. The ratio of the “busy” day to annual traffic volume is also calculated. This is then applied to the forecast of total annual traffic to obtain the projection of total passenger traffic during a typical "busy" day. The relationship of “busy” day to annual traffic is dependent on seasonal variations and passenger characteristics. It is determined separately for short and long-haul routes. When important travel markets are contributing to the peak activity in the “busy” day, the projection of their hourly profile is made for each of them in isolation from the other markets. ‘Seasonal variations affect the relationship of peak month to annual traffic, Among the more ‘common factors that have an influence are: ‘* The state of the economy; * The capacity offered by airines; © The infrastructure capacity. The weekly patter of traffic is projected on the basis of: ‘* The expected evolution of the mix between business and non-business tratfic; * Whether or not airport capacity limitations are constraining the development of airline operations; . * The efforts made by airines to reach a daily service pattern on routes where frequencies are low. Projected Hourly Distribution of Traffic Having obtained a projection of passenger traffic for the whole of the “busy” day, the next step is to analyse its distribution by time of day in order to determine the future evolution of the peak level of incoming and outgoing tratfic. Factors which are taken into consideration in projecting the hourly distribution of traffic. '* Flight Duration - short flight times enable an aircraft to make several round trips during the day; © Connecting traffic - arrival and departures are grouped at certain times of the day forming connecting waves; © Aircraft size - small aircraft operating at high frequency spread traffic more evenly though the day than do large aircraft operating fewer frequencies; : © Route network - transitting fights have more constraints on arrival and departure times than on originating and terminating flight; * Curfews - affect arrival and departure times at both the airport of origin and the destination airport, Local times - condition the hourly pattern of intercontinental flights; Commercial considerations - acceptability of arrival and departure times. ‘The following chart ilustrates the time windows made available for an airline for a long-haul route. It ilustrates the many constraints faced by airlines in setting their schedules and points out one of the many factors that lead to airport peaking: oem] Figure 1-2 EXAMPLE OF AIRPORT TRAFFIC FORECAST SUMMARY TOTAL SCHEDULED PASSENGER AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS Planning na i Total Scheduled Passenger D ae [— Total Scheduled Arrivals "Busy Day Total Anivals ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth Peak HourLevel ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth i i = Total Scheduled Departures ['Busy" Day Total Departures: ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth Peak Hour Level ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth Peak Hour as %of Total ara” Airport Development Reference Manual Figure 1-3 EXAMPLE OF AIRPORT TRAFFIC FORECAST SUMMARY TOTAL SCHEDULED PASSENGER AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS (cont'd) Total Scheduled Passenger Total Scheduled Aircraft Aircraft Arrivals + Departures Stand Requirements ‘NoURLY AMRCRAFFOPEAATa-ToTaLNCEULED TRAC 4 Figure 1-4 Planning EXAMPLE OF AIRPORT TRAFFIC FORECAST SUMMARY DOMESTIC SCHEDULED PASSENGER FLOWS Domestic Scheduled Passenger __Arrival Flows _ Domestic Scheduled Passenger ___Departure Flows | L Na i Domestic Passenger Arrivals i "Busy" Day Total Anivals | ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth \|Peak Hour Level ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth Peak Hour as %of Total Domestic Passenger Departures _] | "Busy" Day Total Departure ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth f Peak Hour Level HI ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth i [Peak Houras %of Total Vara Airport Development Reference Manual Figure 1-5 EXAMPLE OF AIRPORT TRAFFIC FORECAST SUMMARY DOMESTIC SCHEDULED PASSENGER AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS Domestic Scheduled Passenger Domestic Scheduled Passenger Aircraft Arrivals Dey ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth || Peak Hour as % of Total 16 ara Planning Figure 1-6 EXAMPLE OF AIRPORT TRAFFIC FORECAST SUMMARY INTERNATIONAL SCHEDULED PASSENGER FLOWS International Scheduled Passenger International Scheduled Passenger = Arrival Flows ture Flows: | 9S 2 J is 2001 LN 23,798) ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth 74% 68% 61% Peak HourLevel | 1,381 1,801 2,544 3,162]||| ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth 54%| 72%) 44% || 105%| 10.7% 9.9% Peak Hour as % of Total 0 LOE ae Total Int'l Passenger Departures 199% 1996 2001 | ___2006 "Busy" Day Total Departures 12,198] 17,847) 25,014] «33,917 Average Annual Rates of Growth 7.9% 7.0% 6.3% Peak Hour Level 2,179) 3,324 4,383] 5,102| Average Annual Rates of Growth 88% 57% 3.1% Peak Hour as %of Total 17.9% | 18.6 % 175%| 15.0% S, Yara Airport Development Reference Manual Figure 1-7 EXAMPLE OF AIRPORT TRAFFIC FORECAST SUMMARY INTERNATIONAL SCHEDULED PASSENGER AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS International Scheduled Passenger International Scheduled Passenger Arrivals Aircraft Departures [Total international Arivais A Busy Total Intemational Departures | Busy" Day Total Departures || Average Annual Rates of Growth IPeak Hour Level ‘Average Annual Rates of Growth Peak Hour as %of Total Figure 1-8 EXAMPLE OF CARGO TRAFFIC FORECAST SUMMARY CARGO TRAFFIC FORECASTS 1687460 1647810 17.1859 2080570 2139150 1976330 19 ’ vara Airport Development Reference Manual 1.6.3 1.6.3.1 1.6.3.2 Detailed consideration of aircraft types operating at a particular airport may provide a basis for more conomical apron planning, Pitect correlation between groups of aircrat types used for pron capacity planning, and the forecasts of aircratt movements and air passengers, may not always exist. It will be pptvever {0 achieve some level of compatbily between the two and we os usually be established by Geveloping the aircraft movement forecast to provide a brealdan of movements by type of aircraft. Possibilities for flexible use of aircraft operational stands, e ‘9. two small aircraft on one large aircraft stand, should be bore in mind in assessing the maximum Capability of a layout (See Figures 5-11 The parking configuration adopted, e.g. nose-in versus self Manoeuvring, may have a significant impact upon the apron capacity. Availabilty of faclities such me hydrant refuelling, loading bridges Processes {In order to arrive at a single figure to' describe terminal ‘capacity an analysis of the various processes Which take place within the terminal ind around it must |. These processes will vary Capacity Calculation Formulae Mathematical capacity assessment methods can be employed to determine relevant throughput {gures oF conversely, if actual or forecast throughput figures are krowrs facility requirements can be Calculated. The assessment of the capacities of elements of a terminal building is a highly complex Stoclas of vevinG, for example, queuing theory and statistical ‘analyoie together with detailed Studies of the patterns of People movement io, within, and between these elements. Those Imre eter intating a capacity analysis, or for sizing facies, should cary set ee exercise in as apprexirtall as possible in order to eliminate likely sourose of ‘ener et no result from approximations being made. As a general rule, the calculated space should be increased by 10% to take these factors into consideration, but this may vary according to local conditions, ae [ATA Planning 4.6.3.3 Evaluation Existing facilities should be evaluated in comparison with current passenger and baggage flows by an airport facilities specialist in conjunction with the airlines (preferably the ACC) with the object of determining the critical areas, the extent to which they are saturated and the amount of expansion capability, if any available. 1.6.3.4 Different Arrival and Departure Capacities ‘Separate capacity figures for arrival and departure flows should be stated where these differ. Due allowance should also be made for transfer or transit flows. —— 1.6.3.5 Surface Access Limitations imposed by the capacity of the various landside systems (road, rail, etc.), providing access to the airport, should be considered in the determination of overall airport capacity (See Chapter 6). 1.6.3.6 Implementation The capacity evaluation exercise will normally be undertaken by the airport authority or its consultants. The ACC established for the particular airport may also undertake sych an evaluation in the absence of any evaluation by the airport authority. 1.6.4 IATA Airport Terminal Capacity Programm IATA has develped a PC programme (CAPASS) to assist airport planners in (calculating airport terminal capacity. The programme is based on the formulae shown in ADRM 1.6.5. The advantage of putting these formulae into a computer programme jis that it makes the calculations quick and easy and the planner can experiment with many alternatives. This PC programme ¢an be ordered from IATA, Publications Departments in Montreal or Gerjeva. 23 Se TATA Airport Development Reference Manual 1.6.5 Capacity Calculation Formulae Capacity Analysi Data Survey The values of the following variables must be established prior to using the Capacity Calculation Formulae. Airport Name: internationaV/domestic transter passengers Proportion of passengers using carftaxi: a) originating b) terminating Proportion of long-haul departing passengore during peak hour Proportion of short-haul departing passengers during Peak hour Description of Variables For use in formul Peak hour number of originating passengers a 1.2,3,4,5,6 Peak hour number of departing passengers. ec | z Peak hour number of terminating passengers d 11,12,17,18 4 | Peak hour number of transfer passengers not checked b 2,3, 4, 5,6, 11,) airside_ 17 5 | Peak hour numberof terminating and e 13, 14, 15, 16 Proportion of terminating passengers arriving by wide-body aircraft during peak hour 10 [Proportion of terminating passengers artving by narrow- body aircraft during peak hour 11. | Time of arival of first passenger at gate hold rooms (mins. before departure of largest aircraft handled at the gate) 12 | Number of visitors ‘) originating pasenger b) terminating passenger 13. | Maximum number of seats on largest aircraft handled at gate 14 | Maximum number of seats on largest aircraft handled at the airport 18 | Average occupancy time of departure lounge per departing a) long-haul passenger ' ») short-haul passenger 16 | Proportion of passengers to be customs checked = |_16_| Proportion of passenge 17 | Average processing time per passenger at: 2) Checkin desks ' 'b) Passport Control - Departure i ©) Passport Control - Arrival 1) Customs - Arrival } SS) Co Jara Planning 4.6.5.1 Departures Curb Data Required: a= Peak hour number of originating passengers Pp = Proportion of passengers using car/taxi ‘Average number of passengers per car/taxi Average cutb length required per car/taxi (m) Average curb occupancy time per carftaxi (minutes) 3 unoun t Assumptions: —___ 1.7 passengers 6.5m 1.5 minutes — Separate curb length provided for buses ~ Average number of passengers and size of vehicle is same for cars and taxis Curb length required: L. = aplt = 0.095 ap meters (+10%) 60n1 Example: a = 1000 passengers 07 0.095 x 1000 x 0.7 = 67m (+10%) Fs 0.000000 0000000 ts 0 000000 0000000 TES VG: 02 10 2m 25. poe 1aTA Airport Development Reference Manual 1.6.5.2 Departures Concourse Data Required a= Peak hour number of originating passengers b = Number of transfer passenger not processed airside y= Average occupancy time per passenger/isitor (minutes) 8 = Space required per person (m?) © = Number of visitors per passenger Assumptions: - y = 20minutes S = 1.5 (nm) — 50% of peak hour number of passengers arrive within the first 20 minutes ‘Area Required: A = Sxyx3 falt+0)+b] = 0.75 [a(140)+b] m? 60 2 = 1000 passengers = 200 = 1.5 persons = 0.75 (1000 (141.5) + 200) = 2025m? Note: At airports where a large percentage of passengers arive atthe sport greater than 1 ‘hour prior to departure, the variable “y* in the formula above should be checked. 0 000000 000 000 0 0 O00 000 000 000 0 (4 ATA 1.6.5.3 Pianning Queuing Area - Check-In Data Required a = Peak hour number of originating passengers b= Number of transfer passengers not processed airside 8 = Space required per passenger (m) Assumptions: ’ 8 = 1.5m? (separation between check-in counters and thus queues (average 1.9m multiplied by lateral space requirement per passenger (0.8m) = 1.5m? ~ 50% of peak hour number of passengers arrive within the first 20 minutes Area Required: A= 5x 20x( Slasb)- (a +)) = 0.25 (a + b) m? (410%) 6 \ 2 Example: a = 1000 passengers b = 200 passengers A = 0.25 (1000 + 200) = 300m? (410%), 8 ‘say 330m? 0 000000 000 000 0 0 000000 000 000 0 27 “Be - “lita Airport Development Reference Manual “1.6.5.4 "Check-in Desks (Centralized, Common Check-In) Data Required: a Peak hour number of originating passengers: b= Number of transfer passengers not processed airside 1, = Average processing time per passenger (minutes) Desks Required: N= fasbit, desks (+10%) ash - t, = 2 minutes N= (1000 + 200)2 = 40 desks (+10%), say 44 desks 60 Note 1: By providing 40 counters as in this example, one ensures thal the 1200 passengers are checked-in within 60 minutes (provided no counter is idle at any timel). However, possible service standards are no! met Note 2: When different handling agents are employed, the number of check-in positions for each ‘handling agent should be calculated separately for each handling agent employed. This will require estimates of the individual proportions of peak hour flow handed by each agent. Note 3: If separate check-in is provided for business class and first class passengers, then ‘modifications to the calculations are also required. G 000000 O08 000 0 0 000000 600 000 0 “02 “10 “20m Planning Passport Control - Departure Data Required: ‘a = Peak hour number of originating passengers b = Number of transfer passengers not processed airside tg = Average processing time per passenger (minutes) Control Positions Required: N = (a+b) positions (+10%) 60 (1000 + 200) x 0.3 = 6 positions (+10%), say 7 positions 60 Note: Sufficient queuing area must be provided depending upon tratfic characteristics, airport layout, and government contro! requirements. 0 000 000 0000000 0 000 000 O00 000 D 02 10 20m ca oS 29 Airport Development Reference Manual 1.6.5.6 Security Check - Centralized Data Required: a = Peak hour number of originating passengers ak hour number of transfer passengers not processed airside of X-ray Hand Baggage Unit (pes /hour) ‘w = Number of hand baggage items per passenger Assumptions: y= 600 pes/hour w = 2pes X-Ray Units Required: N = (asblw= asb units y 300 Example: @ = 1000 passengers b = 200 passengers N= 10004200 = 4 units 300 i 4.6.5.7 Departure Lounge (excluding Concessions except Bar/Snack Facilities) Data Required: = Peak hour number of departing passengers ‘Space required per passenger (m? ‘Average occupancy time per long-haul passenger (minutes) Average oc¢upancy time per short-haul passenger (minutes) Proportion of long-haul passengers k_ = Proportion of short-haul passengers c s u v ! woud ‘Assumption: s = 2.0m? Area Required: A = 8( auitavk) =6( ule) me (410%) 60 60 30 Example: ¢ = 1500 passengers u = 50 minutes v= 30 minutes 1 =06 k = 04 A = 1500 (50 x 0.6 + 30 x 0.4) = 2100m? (+10%), say 2,310m? 30 O00 O00 000 0 O00 000 000 0 “ws Airport Development Reference Manual 1.6.5.8 Security Check - Gate Hold Room Data Required: m = Maximum number of seats on largest aircraft handled at the gate y= Capacity of X-ray hand baggage unit (pes/hour) w = Number of hand baggage items per passenger 9 = Time of arrival of first passenger at gate hold room (mins. before STD) n= Time last passenger should board (mins. before STD) Assumptions: — Y= 600 pes/hour w = 2pes h = 5minutes X-Ray Units Required: N = _60mw =0.2, m_ units y(g-h) 9-5 Eni 000 0000 : 0 000000 000000 0 Se Jara TA’ Planning 4.6.5.9 Gate Hold Rooms Data Required: m = Maximum number of seats on largest aircraft handled at the gate S = Space required per passenger (m?) Assumption: s = im Area Required: A = msm=mm= = 33 &, ara Airport Development Reference Manual 1.6.5.10 Arrivals Health Check (where required) Data Required: t= Average service time per passenger (minutes) Assumption: t = 0.17 minutes — Facilities for clearance of one full B747 (450 passengers) within 30 minutes will be sufficient. Controt Positions Required: N = 450t = (2.55) or 3 positions 30 0 000 000 000 000 0 0 000 000 000000 0 &, . A Planning b = Number of transfer passengers not processed|airside = Space required per passenger (m?) Assumptions: ’ S_ = 1m® (separation between control positions and thus queues (average 1.8 mubtplied by lateral space requirement per passenger (0.55) =| 1m? 50% of peak hour number of passengers afrive within the first 15 minute: Area Required: A = sx15x ( Ald-+b) - (a) = 0.25(d+b)m? 60 2 = 1000 passengers b = 200 passengers = 0.25(1000+200) = 300m? Note: Assuming arrival rates of peak hour number of passengers as follows: 1) 50% within the first 10 minutes 2) 50% within the first 20 minutes the corresponding formulae would be: : DA =8x10%( 6(d+b) - (ab)) = 0.33(d b)m? = 400m? 60 \ 2 2A = 5x20x( dsb) -(d+b)) = 0.17(d#b)m? = 200m? oo \ 2 0 000 000 0000000 0 000 000 0000000 02 10 35 w& Airport Development Reference Manual 1.65.12 Passport Control - Arrival Data Required: d= Peak hour number of terminating passengers b= Number of transter passengers not processed airside ty = Average processing time per passenger (minutes) Control Positions Required: N= (d+ bits positions (410%) 60 Example: z 0 000 000 0000000 % 0 000000 0000000 36 &, jira Planning 4.6.5.13 Baggage Claim Area (excluding claim devices) Data Required: © = Peak hour number of terminating passengers, including international/domestic transfer passengers, where applicable w = Average occupancy time per passenger (minutes) s_ = Space required per passenger (m?) Assumptions: ——w = 30 minutes ~~~ sess s = 1.8m A= axons te = 0.96 m? (+10%) a Example: © = 2500 passengers A. = 0.9e = 2250m®, (+10%), say 2,475m? 0 000000 000 000 0 0 000 000 000 000 0 02 10 20m Cowl 37 &, rig Airport Development Reference Manual 1.6.5.14 Number Of Baggage Claim Devices Data Required: @ = Peak hour number of terminating passengers, internationalV/domestic transfer passengers, where applicable Proportion of passengers arriving by wide-body aircraft Proportion of passengers arriving by narrow-body aircraft Average claim device occupancy time per wide-body aircraft (minutes) ‘Average claim device occupancy time per narrow-body aircraft (minutes) Number of passengers per wide-body aircraft at 80% load factor Number of passengers per narrow-body aircraft at 80% load factor ‘Assumptions: — y = 45 minutes 2 = 20 minutes 1 = 320 passengers m = 100 passengers Claim Devices Required: Wide-body aircraft N = eqy=eq 60n 425 Narrow-body aircraft N = eg=er 60m 300 Example: @ = 2375 passengers q = 08 r= 02 Wide-body aircraft N= 2375 (0.8) = (4.5) or 5 devices (425) Narrow-body aircraft N= 2375 (0.2) = (1.6) or 2 devices (300) —_—_— Required Claim Length: 02 10 2m Wide-body aircraft: 60-70m Narrow-body Aircraft: 30-40m gaNn 5m - 6 Taxiway =5nm 0 > Half Length 5 Half Length = 10 NO RADAR, 7>20 2 +2 =3nm———+5-—— tor2 +0- Intersection DEPS +5 Rapid Exits (RETs) >2 +5 1or2 +3 ‘Add these values to the appropriate Capacity value in Table ta -iv) Departure Sequencing Pad +2 47 &, Vara Airport Development Reference Manual Table 3 IDENTIFICATION OF REASONS FOR LOW CAPACITY or Ea [TY AIATA. ICAO. INDENTIFICATION OF CAUSES OF LOW VALUES OF CAPACITY Derive from Table 2 ATC Constraint Airport Constraint NO RADAR Oo Limited Taxiway o Approch Spacing o Limited Runway Exits Oo COMPARE ASSESSED WITH DECLARED CAPACITY Assessed Capacity Declared Capacity ‘As derived from ‘As declared Table 1 and 2 by Airport ‘Movements por Hr Movements per Hr OTHER REASONS WHY DECLARED CAPACITY < ASSESSED CAPACITY Ascertain from Airport Administrative Environmental Constraints Lack of Demand Oo Use of r/w(s) oO Reservations for GA 6 Movements Limit 0 Reservations for Military Oo Curlew B To protect Terminal O Operational Factors To protect Apron o ATC Procedures, D Other oO Adjacent airports Oo Terrain Oo ar m Planning ———————— ——————_-_cuo_ei i aaning 1.7.2.4 Variations Between Declared and Assessed Capacity Using Table 3 It the assessed hourly capacity of the runway is greater than the capacity declared by the appropriate airporV/ATC agency, itis useful to identity the underying reasone, ” (a) The assessment itself may be in error because of an erroneous assumption applied to the look- up tables. Therefore the first stage is to validate the assumptions with the airporVATC and/or ines; , (b) Piher reasons that’ may be incorporated, but not explicitly stated in declared ‘capacity may © Lack of demand; ‘* Reservations for non air transport movements; Environmental constraints; * OperationaVATC constraints. These circumstances can only be identified by consultation with those responsible for declaring the runway capacity. In recording both the declared and the assessed runway capacity it is useful to note the reasons for the apparent discrepancies. Table 3 provides a format for this information to be noted. : 1.7.3 Apron Capacity (Tables 4 and Table 5) ‘Apron capacity is infrequently a critical component of airport capacity. Most commonly where there is a shortage It Is ether because of demand by aircraft larger than the available stands or because aircraft remain in occupancy for an extended number of hours. This highlights that the key aspects of stand availabilty are: * The number of stands provided for different types/sizes of aircraft; * The availability of these stands as influenced by occupancy times possibly ranging from less than an hour to in excess of 6 hours; * Availabilty of multiple aircraft ramp stands (MARS). Other important issues, relating to service standards, ar * Which terminal(s) are served by the stands; ‘* Whether the stands are terminal gate or remote. Increasing importance is placed by airlines upon terminal gate stands because they provide for more rapid and comfortable handling of passengers, avoid the need for buses and enable better tumaround times. ‘Some schedules, particularly long-haul require that aircraft remain for several hours at an airport. Home-based aircraft are likely to remain at their stands overnight. However, the majority of flights ‘seek a rapid tumaround of about one hour. In some instances, airlines are scheduling increased tumaround times to serve as a buffer for late arrivals due to ATC delays. This impacts on stand ‘occupancy as does the imposition of ATC delays to departures. At some airports, aircratt subject to an ATC departure delay will actually vacate their stands at their Scheduled departure time and absorb the delay on specially designed remote stands near the . runway. 't is unlikely, but not impossible, that some existing stands may be reserved for specific use by mmiltary or GA (general aviation) aircraft or even for a spectic airline (eg. home based). Other stands may be intended and generally used for freighter aircraft. 49 i) ‘JaTA Airport Development Reference Manual Table 4 ASSESSMENT OF APRON/STAND CAPACITY AIRPORT IATA Icao TERMINAL : International/omestie/Charter NoJ/ident. TERMINAL stanos | 747 | WB |Medium| Small | TOTAL |staTUs No. Pier Served Role: Remote j TOTAL: STATUS TERMINAL STANDS 747 | we |Medium| small | TotaL |starus No. Pier Served Rok Remote Compile'tor each TOTAL : ‘adoitional Terminal ‘and/or CARGO STATUS and/or GA Use additional proforma if required TERMINAL stands | 747 | WB |Medium| Small | TOTAL |/sTATUS ALL Pier Served Roles Remote TOTAL: TOTAL for ALLAIRPORT | status STATUS KEY Note : STATUS = AVAILABILITY , Little or Zero spare Capacity at any time as derived from : = TATA Scheduling Forms & Charts Little or Zero spare Capacity at Peak Times (or from ICAO ANPG Table AOP) _. Spare Capacity at any time 50. semen we IATA Planning Table 5 ASSESSMENT OF APRON/STAND CAPACITY Term, | Stand, UTILIZATION (8) | No. |e Pron remarks (6) w | @ ‘ Compilation Instruction Column 1 Insert Terminal Ident (No. or Letter) UTILISATION 2 Insert Stand Ident BS 3 Tick to indicate Pier served c Constant or Gate served or Remote ° Overflow. 4 Tick in indicate stand size, eg 747 P Parking / Long Term Wide bodied e Medium N Night Parking : Small 5 Tick to indicate ttilization: as in Table R Rarely used 6 Add brief remarks 54 we A IAT, 1.7.3.1 52 Airport Development Reference Manual Unless there are obvious areas in which additional stands can be accommodated, it is not usually valid to assert that there is potential capacity for additional stands - particularly in recognition that stands need to be associated with a terminal. The originally proposed technique of recording stand availability and utilisation is shown in Table 4, A simplified technique is shown in Table 5. Information on, the availability of stands including their size (relative to aircraft types and their disposition in relation to terminals is readily available from a number of sources including: * IATA Summary of Airport Capacities (SAC); © Aeronautica information Publication (AIP); Data on stand occupancy times may not be readily available from individual airports. Table 4 provides a format on which can be recorded the availability of different size stands at each terminal with indications of whether they are terminal gate or remote. A qualitative assessment of utilisation can be compiled by shading in the status boxes of each size of stands according to the key. Simplified Format As an alternative, Table 5 provides a format on which can be noted: + (a) The physical number and (aircraft) size of stands related to — Each terminal; — Whether terminal gate or remote. (©) Acomparatively simple qualitative assessment to indicate the utilisation of each stand in such terms as: Constant use; Used only at peak times; Rarely used; Used only for night parking. 1.74 Planning Simplified Technique Of Assessment Of Terminal Capacity (Table 6) ‘When necessary IATA uses a Terminal Capacity Model (CAPASS) to assess the capacity of an airport terminal or alternatively to assess the sizing of facilities to meet a known demand. This is an analytical model and requires comparatively complex data inputs. Airport terminals consist of a series of disconnected processes, each with its associated queuing area plus linking corridors and a number of waiting areas that may contain ancillary facilities e.g: Process Waiting Area Departures Passenger Check-In Departure Concourse Baggage Check-In Tax collection ‘Customs Security immigration Departure Lounge Gate Check-In Gate Room Bus Toffrom Remote Stands Transfers Security Transfer/Departure Lounge Customs Immigration Arrivals Agriculture Immigration ‘Security Baggage Claim Devices Waiting Area Customs Arrival Concourse For economic reasons airports now include extensive commercial outlets in addition to the essential catering and ancillary services for passengers. These may involve up to 50% of public areas. Detailed quantification of terminal capacity needs to consider: * Areas allocated for passenger processing (including queuing areas); Areas reserved for waiting at various stages between processing (and corridors linking these functions); Security, Customs, Health and Immigration and Agriculture areas; Baggage processing system; ‘Areas allocated for meeters and well-wishers; Retail areas including essential catering; Airing, airport and government support offices; HVAC and electrical power rooms; © Ancillary facilities. Within each terminal there are separate (usually segregated) provisions for arriving and departing Passengers and further segregation between landside and airside activities. Many airports have ‘separate terminals for different categories of operation, e.g. intemational and domestic or scheduled and charter. S, Yara Airport Development Reference Manual Table 6 ASSESSMENT OF TERMINAL CAPACITY TERMINAL CONCEPT Linear/Pier/Satellite/Remote* Other .... Pax Levels .. SURFACE ACCESS Road Access PERFORMANCE OF FACILITIES: X Almost Always a ProblenvConstraint roblem/Constraint (e. Z_ Rarely or Never any Problem/Constraint PI lanning —_——————— ee Table 7 ‘SIMPLIFIED CAPACITY ASSESSMENT FOR SMALL AIRPORTS "AIRPORT NAME - , RUNWAY ~ Length ‘Strength Critical Aircraft Lighting - Radar ‘YesNo* ATC Fire Resoue Category “APRON: “Critical Aircraft Size limit Weight Limit Max No. of A/C Simultaneously “TERMINAL “No. of Passengers per hour No. simultaneously in Terminal 55 Vara Airport Development Reference Manual 1.7.5 Each category has different processing procedures and times and the service standards also To obtain a comparatively simple assessment of terminal capacity it is preferable to concen upon the arpas dedicated to passenger handling. ‘The hourly capacity of airport terminals is often formally declared by the airport authorities ar recorded in such documents as the IATA Summary of Airport Capacities (SAC). A simplified technique, based upon compiling the data for Table 6 is described below. It involves following functions of the terminal: * Processing Check-in; Departure Baggage Securty; FI SFE ui ‘Compilation involves noting: No. of units of each of the above; Noting (not deleting) key characteristics; ‘Adding comments, if required; Indicating performance: = X__ Almostalways a problem/constraint - Y Sometimes a problem/constraint (e.g. peak times) - Z__ Rarely or Never a problenvconstraint Additional notes refer to surface access. Capacity Assessments Of Small Airports ‘The major emphasis in assessing capacity is to identify those airports where there is a leve current or forecast demand that appears to exceed the capacity of one or more of the key s systems at the airport. The inadequate provision of capacity is evident by over-demand schedules and/or the actual occurrence of delays as reported by airlines and airports. ‘At the other end of the spectrum are small airports with their main characteristic being ‘comparatively low proportion of commercial movements. They do not report congestion and i likely that they do not experience any such problems. If indeed they have need for additio capacity it needs to be measured in very different terms to those currently being recorded by IA’ In these cases the emphasis needs to be directed towards: ___* Physical characteristics of runways, aprons and terminals; - ¢ “Instant” capacity i. the ability to handle capacity with a very small number of aircraft (possi wide body) at the same time. eS, Sa TATA Planning CE seer The nature of commercial operations at a small airport may involve very different characteristics of demand. For instance: * Scheduled operations are likely to be arranged at occasional hours of certain or all days of each week. There will probably be large time gaps between successive commercial movements with no overlaps; * Charter operationsimay concentrate upon a limited number of hours on a limited number of days each week and possibly only in part of the year. Although scheduled to operate at different times, the day to day operations may overlap each other to cause congestion on the apron and inthe terminal. -— - ‘Ata small airport scheduled operations may be greater in number than charter operations but the latter will tend to make more intense use of available facilities for shorter periods of time. 1.7.5.1 Units of Capacity Assessment Capacity assessments at smalVuncongested airports are most usefully expressed in the following units: Runway —_Length and strength and/or critical aircraft; Hourly rate (only if @ constraint); © Apron Critical aircraft size; ‘ Number that can be accommodated simultaneously; © Terminal Passengers per hour, Number that can be accommodated simultaneously. The conversion of instant or hourly capacity to annual capacity is a tenuous relationship that is particularly sensitive at low levels of demand. Because the demand may be concentrated within short periods (particularly with charter flights), there is no mathematical formula that provides @ meaningful answer. In the simplest terms, providing that an airport can handle one aircraft at a time and the corresponding passenger demand (twice the seating capacity of the largest aircraft), then the annual capacity is directly balanced with, or equivalent to, the demand. As demand increases, the potential annual capacity may become limited by the capacity of any of the sub-systems that limit the number of aircraft that can be handled simultaneously or per hour. The following aspects of the principal sub-systems are likely to be of most relevance at the smaller airports which experience a low demand of commercial movements (See Table 7): © Runways Length critical aircraft type/size Strength Lighting Nav. Aids/ATC to permit IFR operations Fire & Rescue Services critical aircraft Apron Size critical aircraft size ‘Strength and maximum weight. © Terminal(s) Net size of waiting area ability to hold passengers of largest aircraft Processing facilities ability to process passengers within a reasonable time Itis not effective to undertake more complex measurements of terminal facilities for the smaller type of airports. If more details of terminal capacity are required, it may be useful to attempt to compile a short subjective report that summarises the characteristics and capability of the key facilities within the terminal with items selected from Table 6: (a) number of units in each processing element e.g. 20 Check-In desks (b) characteristics of processing element __ e.g. Dedicated/Shared - Manual (c) performance (selected from) Always/Often/Occasionally/Never a constraint 57 we IATA 1.8 1.9 Airport Development Reference Manual If areas are to be quoted these should refer only to the net areas of dedicated waiting areas, e. departure lounge, and not the gross area of the terminal. IATA FACILITIES PLANNING QUESTIONNAIRE At an early stage in an airport project specific airline space and facility requirements must b determined. The recommended document for obtaining this required information is the IAT. Facilities Planning Questionnaire. See Attachment ‘A’ at the end of this chapter. tt must be anticipated that the contents of the questionnaire may not be completely applicable at a airports, but itis expected that the basic document can be used at all locations, with suitable note indicating items which should be ignored, deleted or possibly added. Therefore, before circulatior the ACC and the airport authority should agree both on the sections to be used, and any variation i their content. The IATA Regional Technical Office will then arrange circulation of the questionnain to all airlines operating at that airport, and to non-airline handling agencies (where applicable requesting completion in as much detail as possible and return to IATA for consolidation an ‘subsequent presentation to the airport authority. Rlesponses from each airline are kept confidential. ‘At airports where more than one terminal building is involved, it may be necessary to complete ‘Separate questionnaire sections for each building. Requirements associated directly with staff numbers should be based on the maximum number o staff on duty on a particular shift. Care should be taken not to use cumulative figures of total staf ‘employed, although provision must be included for shift changeover, when assessing car parking requirements, locker room areas etc. FUTURE AIRCRAFT DEVELOPMENT The growth in aircraft dimensions and passenger seating will impact on the airport infrastructure. The efforts to make new aircraft more efficient from the fuel consumption and environmental points ‘of view and the development of new materials and structural designs are leading to aircraft with larger wingspans with the same capacity. Furthermore, implementation of new wing technology is also under consideration by aircraft manufacturers when studying possible new aircraft types tailored to the needs of future markets and the demands of airline customers for aircraft with greater seating capacity. Aircraft seating over 600 passengers wil have a major impact on the airport terminal facilities There are three categories of new larger aircratt to be considered: (a) Aircraft already in production or launched by the manufacturers - A330, A340, 8747-400, 8777 and MD-11; (b) Next generation derivatives or all new aircraft - A3XX, 8747-400 stretch, NLA and MD-12. It is anticpated that these aircraft will carry 600-800 passengers and have a winspan of 80-85m and a length of 80-85m; (©) A further generation of NLA aircraft including a possible 1000 seat aircraft or a second generation SST. The first category of aircraft are relatively compatible with most existing airports with the exception of aircraft parking positions and related taxiing areas. It is the second category of aircraft, which may ‘operate in the period 2000-2010, which will have a major impact on airport design. During the planning process for the NLAs, the airlines and airport authorities have been given an opportunity to realistically influence the design so thal they may be accommodated at most existing airports with minimal impact. The third category of aircraft will most probably require a radical new airport development strategy. Se Tara 1.9.1 1.9.2 Planning Impact of Aircraft Dimensions The main areas of an airport system which will potentially be affected by the NLAs are: © The runway system; The taxiway system; ‘The apron area; , © The passenger terminal building. Adjustments to the runway pavement may be necessary as a result of larger and heavier aircraft. ‘There is a potential requirement for shoulder widening due to jet blast from outboard engines and provision of wider turn circles at the ends of runways where there is no parallel taxiway. There will also be a requirement to strengthen present infastructure facilities such as tunnels and conduits. ‘The impact on taxiways is related to both pavement width/strength and separation distances to both runways and other taxiways. It will be necessary to widen shoulders due to jet blast from “extended” outboard engines and if an aircraft is developed with an extended wheelbase, additional pavement fillets may be necessary on curves and at intersections. Through good centerline lighting and improved marking, taxiing aircraft should deviate less from the centreline and therefore require less cleararice distance to the next taxiway or object without compromising safety. This reduction in separation standards of only a few meters should be studied to accommodate some growth in aircraft wingspan. The position of service roads, fueling hydrants, loading bridges and other fixed facilities may need adjustments. New piers or even terminals may have to be built. At some airports, solutions may be found to reduce the wingtip clearance or to introduce a mixed use of aircraft stands by smaller and larger aircraft. This will however, limit the flexibility and with that the capacity. (One concept that has been proposed to reduce the need for apron and terminal modifications is the folding wing technology being considered for the B777. This device adds weight and mechanical complexity to the aircraft and its operation which is highly undesirable. So far, no airline has ordered the B77 with the folding wings. NLA aircraft, with seating configurations of over 600 passengers (and potentially up to 1,000 passengers), will put added strain on peak periods at major airports and will require increased terminal processing capacity to handle the departing/arriving passenger flow. If double/muttiple deck aircraft are developed they will need multi-level terminals/piers possibly in combination with over the wing connecting bridges. The NLAs will also have a major impact on baggage handling procedures, aircraft catering and aircraft ground servicing. Reference Document For more information on this subject the Intemational Industry Working Group (IIWG) has prepared a document which provides information on the trends in conventional take-off and landing (CTOL) aircraft design characteristics that may influence general long term airport planning and design. The IIWG is the intemationally recognized forum of airports, aircraft manufacturers and airlines to discuss and resolve airporvaircraft compatibility issues. Projections of aircraft size, dimensions, ‘weight and performance characteristics are given through to the year 2000. The document is entitled CTOL Transport Aircraft Characteristics, Trends and Growth Projections, 4th edition, January 1990 and can be purchased from IATA. 59 we A IATA Airport Development Reference Manual Attachment ‘A’ IATA FACILITIES PLANNING QUESTIONNAIRE Estimates for planning purposes only - not a commitment to rent the required space Airline: z Planning Years to Airport: 4 HANDLING ARRANGEMENTS, 1.1 Passenger Baggage Handling Do you intend to perform your own passenger baggage handling function? YES/NO — If "NO" state name of handling agency/airline now used. — — — If “YES” indicate whether in full or part. FULL / PART = I "PART" indicate which functions you intend to perform and which are to be performed by the handling agency/airiine: Function Peformed by Handling Ag Name of Agency/ Airline 1.2. Apron Handling Do you intend to perform your own apron handling function? YES INO — If "NO" state name of handling agency/airine now used. — If “YES" indicate whether in full or part. FULL / PART - If “PART* indicate which functions you intend to perform and which are to be performed by the handling agencylairine: If Self Handling ‘Name of Agency/ Airline Aircraft Toilet Service ou a 7 " iATA Planning JAMA I “4.3 Cargo Handling Do you intend to perform your own cargo handling function? “YES/NO = I{°NO" state name of handling agency/airline now used. — If "YES* indicate whether in full or part. FULL/PART = lt “PART” indicate which functions you intend to perform and which are fo be performed by the handing agency/airline: + “Function Pertormed by Handling Agency if Self-Handling ~ WYes Tick (v) Tick (¥), [Function Export Goods acceptance/paperwork Cargo processing Container/Pallet build-up “Name of Agency/ Airline Averaft unloading Container/Pallet breakdown, “61 &, ‘Vara Airport Development Reference Manual 2. SPACE/FACILITY REQUIREMENTS 2.1 Passenger Terminal State your existing facilities and requirements for the forecast years specified above. Airlines intending t bbe handled by third parties should only specify those requirements which would not be provided by th handling agent. Staff Desired Requirements Function Location No. Check-in Counters Provision required for computerized facilities? YES(_) NO(_) Check-in Support Offices. No. TicketSales Counters (not included above) ‘Administrative Offices Operations Offices VIP/CIP Louny ‘Communications Facilities Line Maintenance | i mi Offices/Stores Ground Equipment | om | mi 3, 3/3, Em 3) 3 Parking _ Other (specify) Joint Use of Facilities Indicate below whether your airline is prepared to share any of the facilities below with another airline o agency. Yes No Ticke/Sales Counters. Departure Baggage Syst Ge Tara Planning 2.2 Support Facilities Existing Faclities 63 CHAPTER 2 - AIRPORT MASTERPLAN 24 2.2 2.2.4 22.1.1 221.2 GENERAL With the introduction of jet aircraft in the 1960s and major increases in passenger traffic, airports faced a major challenge of expanding their facilities to meet traffic demands. A new style of airport planning was required: Instead of developing piecemeal with a consequent lack of co-ordination, plans needed to be drawn up showing complete airports with a common philosophy and concept running through all the phases of the development of the airport. An airport masterplan was required to bring some planning order to show how the airport would grow over the years to meet anticipated traffic growth. ‘An airport masterplan is necessary not only for a new airport but also for an existing airport that needs to adapt to meet the growing demands of passenger and cargo traffic. Over the years the masterplan will need to be modified to reflect changes that will occur during the life of the airport. ‘The key to a successful masterplan is flexibility so that it can be modified to accommodate new developments in the future. An example of change that will affect the airport masterplan is the anticipated introduction of NLAS. Airport terminal concepts have changed over the years. At one time terminals were designed to minimize walking distances for departing and arriving passengers. Therefore terminals were long linear buildings with a short distance from curbside to the gate lounge. ‘As passenger traffic grew ‘and hub airports developed, the terminal concept changed with a greater emphasis on handling transfer passengers. Today, many terminals have become larger so that fewer terminal to terminal transfers will be necessary. Also, the terminals have become modular so that they can be modified and expanded more easily. ‘The type of airport terminal concept used will depand on the traffic characteristics at each airport. LAND USE PLAN Airport Plans The complexity of an airport layout requires an analytical approach where all fundamental elements are identified and its characteristics defined. ‘The airport characteristics are shown on an Airport Layout Plan (ALP) which will then represent the guiding tool for airport authorities in the planning of any airport development. Airport Access ‘See Chapter 6 on Airport Access. Airport Layout Plan ‘The Airport Layout Plan (ALP) should depict the existing and ultimate airport development and land Uses to scale (See Figure 2-1). The ALP should include: (a) Prominent airport facilities such as runways, taxiways, blast pads, stabilized shoulders and runway safety areas, buildings, navaids, parking areas, roads, lighting, runway markings, pipelines, fences, major drainage facilities, segmented circle, wind indicators and beacon; (b) Prominent natural and man made features such as trees, streams, ponds, rock outcrops, ditches, railroads, power lines and towers; (¢) Areas reserved for non-aviation development such as industrial areas, hotels, motels, duty free zones, etc. (d) Revenue producing non-aviation related property with the current status and usa speciiod; {e) Areas reserved for existing and future aviation development and services such as general ‘eviation fixed base operations, heliports, flight kitchens, cargo facllties, airport maintenance, or service areas, etc.; 65 we IATA 22.1.3 22.1.4 Airport Development Reference Manual (0) Existing ground contours; (Q) Fueling facilities and tiedown areas; (h) Facilities that are to be phased out; (Airport boundaries; @ Runway, clear zones and associated approach surfaces indicating height and location ot controlling objects; (K) Airport Reference Point (ARP) with latitude and longitude to the nearest second based on the WGS-84 (world geodesic system); () Latitude, longitude and elevation of existing and ultimate runway ends and thresholds; elevation of high and low points and runway intersections. For ILS (Instrument Landing System) runways changes in elevation within 914m of the threshold should be shown; (m) True azimuth of runways (measured from the true north); (n) North point true magnetic with the magnetic deciination and epoch year; (0) Pertinent dimensional data such as runway and taxiway widths and runway lengths, runway. taxiway-apron clear zones and parallel runway separation. . Location Map 7 This is a map drawn to scale (1:50,000) sufficient to depict the airport, cities, railroads, major roads, major obstructions and terrain and political boundaries within 15-20 km of the airport. A sectional ‘aeronautical chart may be used. This may be shown on the title page in lieu of the ALP. Vicinity Map This is a map showing the relationship of the airport to the city or cities near the airport. It is important for environmental and political considerations. A vicinity map may be omitted if sufficient detail is covered on the approach and runway clear zone layout. &, se TATA Ain_ Figure 2-1 EXAMPLE OF AN AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN S, Se 1aTA Airport Development Reference Manual Figure 2-1 EXAMPLE OF AN AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN (cont'a) [ ASE DATA TABLE ‘SOURCE : US. WEATHER BUREAU STATION 15 ML.H. CROSSWIND COVERAGE EWALD ARPORT Ww i270 91.4% VICINITY MAP. PERO: 1950-1960. 115 MPM. CROSSWIND COVERAGE. (ALL WS VER. LER) mw 8/23 83.0% 15 MPH. CROSSWIND COVERAGE ALL 7S 96,04 SM CALMS: 0-3 MP OF LER WEATHER 10,0 we TATA Airport Masterplan ———.TT_——-. SSS aero Masterplan 2.2.1.5 221.6 2.21.7 2.2.2 2224 Basic Data Table This table contains the following information on existing and ultimate ru nit Who oe conta 19 informat 9 inway and airport conditions (2) Airport elevation (highest point of the useable landing areas); (©) Airport reference point co-ordinates (WGS-84); (C) Airport magnetic variation; (d) Mean maximum daily temperature for the hottest month; (e) Runway lengths; ()RETs (rapid exit taxiways) and RATs (rapid access taxiways); (9) Airport and terminal navaids; (h) Runway identification, magnetic numerical, (e.g. 19/31, 4/22); () Percent effective runway gradient for each existing and proposed runway; @) Percent wind coverage by runway; (K) Designated instrument runway(s); () Pavement type (sod, asphalt, concrete); (im) Pavement strength of each runway in gross weight and type of main gear (single, dual, dual tandem) using the ACN-PCN system as appropriate; (n) Approach surface for each runway (by each end); ° (0) Runway lighting; (p) Runway marking; (q) SMF/SMGCS (surface movement radar/surface movement guidance and control system). (9) Electronic and visual approach aids and weather facilities, Wind Information ‘Awindrose should be presented, with the runway orientations superimposed. Designated Instrument Runway(s) The runway or runways that are to be planned for precision instrument approach procedures (both horizontal and vertical instrument guidance) must be indicated on the plan and in the basic data lable. "Once the desired runway lengths and orientations have been determined then the airport Perimeter can be determined. Operational Ar and Facilities After the airport perimeter has been fixed for a new airport or an existing airport has to be re- analyzed, it is important to ascertain that all major operational facilities and relative areas are property located within the overall airport boundary. Each facility should be able to expand through the various phases up to the ultimate phase of the airport. The proper balance of these operational facilities is of the greatest importance. Prior to assessing the individual functional requirements it is necessary to subdivide the overall area into optimal sub areas with the aim to reach the maximum capacity of the airport. Ideally one should bbe able to size the airport facilities in relation to the maximum number of aircraft movements and associated passenger flows any proposed runway system can generate. The optimization of these capacities throughout the life span of the airport is the key goal. Aeronautical Area or Airfield This key operational area depends on the choice of the runway system Idyout dependent on a variety of extemal factors which will be analysed under item 2.2.3. This area is technically the aircraft movernent area. The taxiway system links the runway(s) with the the terminal(s) and aprons). ae IATA 2.2.3 22.3.1 2.2.3.2 2.2.4 2.2.41 Airport Development Reference Manual Facility Location Strategy Onee the facilities and functional areas have been identified for a specific airport they mu Positioned on the airport. The optimum location of these facilities must take into account the wc relationships of the different facilities. With the proper postioning of these airport facilities a and vehicle movements can be minimized. Existing ‘Airports There is not a universal rule for masterplan layouts. It is likely that all basic functions exist in layout or-another-and that most of the time the real problem consists of expanding fa eit! the same original site or at a new location. The prime objective is to keep all the functions bala Each of the fac should be able to grow in parallel with the others to maintain optimal cap ‘Some problems associated with a poor location of an existing facility can be corrected in subse phases. New Airports ‘The main functions to be located are the ones with exposure to the apron area such as pass and cargo terminals, maintenance hangars and catering facilities. The apron itself is a key ele in the balanced masterplan. ‘There are various permutations on how these functions are juxtaposed but the solution has ‘operationally viable from day one to the ultimate phase. Normally one determines the maxi runway capacity in terms of movement per hour for each runway and for the airport as a whc major decision must then be made as to the percentage of contact gates versus remote pos (busing). Once the maximum busy hour traffic is known, the number of aircraft, by size of air have to be placed on the apron, Apron Terminal Layout/Concepts Passenger Terminal-Apron Complex Configuration For some airports the area to locate the passenger terminal-apron complex is limited and the cl is narrowed down to a few basic concepts governed mainly by the ability to park as many aircre Possible in a limited space and still allow for aircraft to manoeuvre on their own power to and contact stands. One further requirement is the ability to handle the forecasted mix of ai anticipated to use the airport. Examples of selected airport layouts are shown in Figures 2-2 to 2-8. Airports such as Amsterdam, Zurich, London Heathrow, and Paris CDG1, were planned in jumbo" times and have been adapted to the new requirements. Some ‘airports have ade ‘Successfully and some others are still suffering with outdated concepts. The pros and cons of ¢ of these concepts are reviewed in chapter three. To understand what has happened to later generation airports and “greenfield” airports requi careful analysis of the genesis of these concepts. Some new airports of the last few years adopted generous and flexible concepts of various types, with scope for builtin changes. They have lesser problems and a higher degree of success to survive changes, Examples of this gro’ airports includes Paris CDG2, Munich Il, and Singapore. “Greenfield” or “bluesea” airports have emerged in the past few years and most have characteristics of being “mega” airports. These new airports are sized in the 400,000m? range will open with a capacity for around 30 million passengers per year. Each airport has been desit to be a hub airport and grow in a modular fashion with some planned to eventually handle up to million passenger per year. These airports include new airports, such as Hong Kong's Chek Kok, Denver international Airport, Kuala Lumpur KLIA, Bangkok SBIA, and Seoul NSIA, will bec operational between 1995-2000. & — [ATA Figure 2-2 AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN ZURII Airport Masterplan = TERMINALS = CARGO = FLIGHT KITCHEN © RAIL 1 REzOF ZHR 71 Reference Ma Airport Development ee we - TATA ATA Airport Masterplan en ee Figure 2-4 AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN CHARLES DE GAULLE Airport Development Reference Manual Ge IATA Figure 2-5 AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN LONDON HEATHROW 74 Airport Masterplan Figure 2-6 AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN E CHANG! SINGAPOR S, ara” Airport Development Reference Manual Figure 2-7 AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN MUNICH Tara Airport Masterplan Figure 2-8 AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN HONG KONG CHEK LAP KOK - TERMINAL - SATELLITE Eee olan CLK 2.3.1 23.1.1 2.3.1.2 Airport Development Reference Manual AIRFIELD CONFIGURATION Airfield configuration is defined as the number and orientation of the runways and the location of the passenger terminal-apron complex relative to the runways. The number of runways depends on the volume of aircraft movements. When aircraft were smaller, the orientation of the runway used tc depend on thé direction of the wind. Today with modem aircraft being less susceptible t crosswinds, the terrain and environmental concerns play a major role in dictating the preferre; runway alignment. The passenger terminal-apron complex should be located so as to provide eas; and short access to the runways. — Meteorological Conditions Runway Orientation ‘One of the main criteria for the orientation of the runways is the prevailing winds. Historical data wi have to be collected to determine direction, frequency and strength of winds. As a general rule, th: principal traffic runway at an airport should be oriented as closely as practicable in the direction the prevailing winds. When landing and taking off, aircraft are able to maneouvre on a runway @ long as the wind component at right angles to the direction of travel (defined as crosswind) is nc ‘excessive. The maximum allowable crosswind depends not only on the size of the aircraft, but als: ‘on the wing configuration and the condition of the runway surface. ICAO specifies that runway should be oriented so planes may land with crosswind components of 20krvVhr or less at least 9. percent of the time for runways of 1500m or more. Optimum runway directions are determined b using a windrose. All Weather Operations Visibility and ceiling heights are very much affected by weather conditions and will influence th choice of runway operations e.g. whether to opt for operations under all weather or visual condition only. Fog, turbulence and abnormal rainfall may at times also reduce the capacity of runways. In order for the airlines to maintain regular schedules during adverse weather conditions the airpo is equipped with approach aids. The category of these aids depends on the sophistication of th equipment installed at the airport and on board the aircraft and this determines the minimum visibil required for an aircraft to be able to land, The following table summarizes the commonly accepte approach minima: Limitations of Instrument Approaches Summary of Commonly Accepted Minima Minimum Runway Visual Type of Approach _| Decision Height Visibility Range (RVR) Non-precision (300 ft) Precision Cat | 200 ft 800m >550m |__§ Cat It 100 ft >350m Cat lA, 50 ft >200m_ Cat ne 50m Cat ic <50tt <50m The above minima are acceptable only when full facilifiés are installed and no objects penetra obstacle clearance surfaces. Category Ill requires much more sophisticated equipment which is not commonly installed airports or in the aircraft using them. Given the small benefit that Category Il gives compared to < Se “Sara 2.3.2 2.3.2.1 28.22 “2.3.3 23.3.4 “Airport Masterplan costs it is usually not installed at most airports. Cat IIl is most prevelant in Europe where it Is a necessity for the airlines to maintain normal schedules in poor weather conditions. Obstacles/Terrain Obstacles often represent serious constraints to an optimal layout of runways or may in some circumstances have @ negative influence on the operalion to/from a runway. ICAO Annex 14 ‘specifies the airspace around airports should remain tree of obstacles so as to permit the intended aircraft operations at the airport to be conducted safely and to prevent the airport from becorning unusabie by the growth of the obstacles around the airport. This is achieved by establishing a series of obstacle limitation surfaces that define the limits to which objects may project in the airspace. Objects which penetrate the obstacle limitation surfaces may in certain circumstances cause an increase in the obstacle clearance altitude/height for an instrument approach procedure or any associated visual circling procedure. Criteria for evaluating such obstacles are contained in the ICAO document Procedures for Air Navigation Services- Aircraft Operations (PAN OPS). Obstacle Limitation Requirements The requirements for obstacle limitation surlaces are specified on the intended use of a runway, 16, takeoff or landing and type of approach, and are intended to be applied when such use is made of the runway. In the case where operations are conducted to or from both directions of a runway, the function of certain surfaces may be ruulified because of more stringent requirements of other lower surfaces. in many countries all approaches and departures are conducted under IFR (instrument flight rules) and limited straight-in approaches and defined departure routes. In these circumstances obstacles affecting the visula circling may be less critical. Geological Conditions Some terrain may be of low bearing quality and influence the planner's choice as to where best locate a major runway without incurring additional construction costs. Runways, If not constructed property, risk early cracks due to structural damage and resulting high maintenance costs. Soil Analysis and borings will be very important to determine which areas to map out for runway development. Soil composition quality plays an important cost factor in determining the type of construction materials required. The presence or absence of water on the site is also an important element to take into consideration. “Runway Systems Layout Runway Use Configuration The runways and connecting taxiways should be arran: (a) provide best possible runway capacity given the AT (b) cause the least interference and delay in the landins {¢) provide the shortest taxi distance possible trom th runway; (d) provide adequate exit taxiways so landing aircraft and follow routes as short as possible to the passet {e) avoid having taxi routes crossing active runways; = Tata Airport Development Reference Manual 2.3.3.2 Single Runway 2.3.3.3 This is the simplest of the runway configurations (e.g. Geneva, Gatwick). The hourly capacity in conditions is estimated at 36-44 operations, depending on the composition of the aircraft meteorogical conditions, the navigation aids available and ATC separation standards. Geneva Gatwick Parallel Runways The capacity of parallel runways depends primarily on the number of runways and on the spac between the runways. In Europe two runways are common (e.g. Munich). Three or four pare runways are the exception rather than the rule in the USA (e.g. Los Angeles). There are airports v three sets of parallel runways (e.g. Dallas Fort Worth). Airports with more than four parallel runw: will represent the exception as few locations can generate the demand to match the capacity of { ‘or more parallel runways. Furthermore, the ability of the air traffic control system to supply five more runways at the same time becomes progressively more difficult, and the airspace requirem- becomes very large. Also, the availability of land to expand at airports of this size is very limited. Munich Los Angeles Dallas Fort Worth fe ara 233.4 Airport Masterplan Spacing The spacing between parallel runways dictates the mode of runway operation under IFR and VFR and hence the capacity that can be obtained. The following table summarizes the separation distances of parallel runways: ‘Separation of Parallel Runways To apply under ‘Separation Distance (CiL to CiL) 1525m Independent parallel approaches 915m Dependent parallel approaches 760m Independent parallel departures 760m Segregated parallel arrivals and departures In Visual Meteorological Conditions Notes: () As a design consideration, to sustain independent parallel approaches in all weather conditions the runways should be separated by at least 1525m. If this cannot be achieved then dependent approaches or segregated operations have to be applied thus offering lower runway capacities. (ll) ICAO is investigating the introduction of independent parallel approaches to runways separated by lesser values e.g. 1350m subject to provision of additional radar monitoring, (il) These separation distances are all subject to ICAO Circular 207 on SOIR. Runways may be operated in mixed mode (e.g. arrivals and departures on the same runway) or segregated mode (e.g. arrivals on one runway and departures on the other runway). Segregated mode is a simpler operation with parallel runways but because of wake vortex from heavy jets, it achieves less capacity. Mixed mode has to be used on single runways. On widely spaced parallel runways it produces an increase in capacity providing independent approaches and departures can be established. Recent trials in the USA and Europe may lead to increased capacity at current spacings. Sao Paulo Singapore ie we A IAT: Airport Development Reference Manual 2.3.3.5 2.3.3.6 B2 If the terminal buildings are placed in between two parallel runways, runways should be spaced at least 2500m apart to provide space for the terminals and maintenance facilities, the adjoining apron, and the appropriate taxiways. In the case of four parallel runways, each pair is spaced close, but the pairs are widely spaced to provide space for the passenger terminal-apron complex. In IFR conditions the hourly capacity of close-spaced parallel runways around is 60 aircraft movements, depending on the composition of the aircraft mix, meteorlogical conditions and the navigation: aids available. For intermediate-spaced runways about 80 aircraft movements per hour and for widely paced runways up to 88 aircraft movements per hour (See Table 1 in Chapter 1). Staggering - In certain situations it may be desirable to stagger the thresholds of parallel runways. The staggering may be necessary because of the shape of the land available for runway construction, or it may be desirable for reducing the taxiing distance of takeoff and landing aircraft. The reduction in taxiing distance, however, is based on the premise that one runway is to be used exclusively for takeoff and another for landing. In this case the terminal buildings are located between the runways so that the taxiing distance for each type of operation (takeoff or landing) is minimized (e.9. Munich). Intersecting Runways ‘A number of airports have two or more runways in different directions crossing each other ‘Amsterdam Schiphol). These are referred to as intersecting pattems. intersecting runwa necessary when relatively strong winds blow from more than one direction, resulting in excessive ‘crosswinds if only one runway is provided. When the winds are strong, only one runway of a pair of intersecting runways can be used, reducing the capacity of the airfield substantially. If the winds are relatively light, both runways can be used simultaneously. The capacity of two intersecting runways depends a great deal on the location of the intersection (e.g. midway or near the ends ) and on the way the runways are operated. The further the intersection is from takeoff end of the runway and the landing threshold, the lower is the capacity (e.g. Beirut). The highest capacity is achieved when the intersection is close to the takeoff end and the landing threshold (e.g. Merida, Mexico) (See Table 1 in Chapter 1). Amsterdam ie [ATA Airport Masterplan Leeann EERIE ee 2.3.3.7 23.3.8 2.3.4 2.3.4.1 Open V-Runways Runways in divergent directions which do not intersect are referred to as open-V runways, (e.g. Rio de Janeiro, San Juan). Like intersecting runways, open V-runways revert to a single runway when the winds are strong from one direction. When the winds are light, both runways can be used simultaneously. The strategy which yields the highest capacity is when the operations are away from the V (e.g. closed Vee in opposite direction). The hourly IFR capacity for this strategy varies from 50 to 80 operations depehding on aircraft mix. Rio de Janeiro ‘San Juan T sens = ad au DS, “ on™ ores er" 2 a cuanr a az . Comparison of Runway Configurations From the standpoint of capacity and air traffic control, a single direction runway configuration is the most desirable. All other things being equal, this configuration will yield the highest capacity compared with other configurations. For air traffic control the routing of aircraft in a single direction is less complex than routing in multiple directions. Taxiway System Layout The principal function of taxiways is to provide access from the runways to the terminal area, cargo area and maintenance hangars. Taxiways should be arranged so that aircraft which have just landed do not interfere with aircraft taxiing to takeoff. At busy airports where taxiing traffic is expected to move simultaneously in both directions, parallel one-way taxiways should be provided. Routes should be selected which will result in the shortest practicable distances from the terminal atea to the ends of runway used for takeoff. Busy airports or those operating with limited visibility will require a surface movement guidance system (SMGCS). Exit Taxiways ‘At busy airports taxiways should be located at various points along runways, so landing aircraft can leave the runways as quickly as possible to clear them for use by other aircraft. These are commonly referred to as rapid exit taxiways or turnoffs. Whenever possible, taxiways should be routed so as to avoid the crossing of active runways. During peak traffic periods when continuous fiow of aircraft is arriving, the capacity of a runway is dependent to a large degree on how quickly landing aircraft can exit the runway. An aircraft which has landed delays succeeding aircraft until it has cleared:the runway. At many airports; taxiways are at-right angles tothe runways, with the result that aircraft must decelerate to very low speeds before they can turn off. A taxiway designed to permit higher turnoff speeds reduces the length of time a landing aircraft occupies the runway. This 83 we IATA 2.3.5 2.3.5.1 2.3.5.2 2.3.6 2.3.6.1 2.3.6.2 2.3.6.3 Airport Development Reference Manual permits succeeding landing aircraft to be more closely spaced in terms of time, or it might allow a takeoff to be sandwiched in between two successive landings. Holding Aprons and Bays Holding Aprons Historically holding aprons were designed as run-up pads for piston engined aircraft. Nowadays their most important function is to allow re-ordering of a departure queue awaiting takeoff as determined by ATC.-A holding apron should be designed to accommodate two to four aircraft and allow sufficient space for one aircraft to bypass another. The area allotted for a waiting aircratt will depend on its size and manoeuvrability. Whenever possible, holding aprons should be located as to permit aircraft departing them to access the runway at an angle of less than 90°. Aircraft should enter the runway as close to the end of the runway as possible. Holding aircraft should be placed outside the bypass route so that the blast from the holding aircraft will not be directed toward the bypass route. Peak traffic volumes at many airports exceed the capacity of a holding apron, resulting in aircraft ‘queues on the taxiway leading to the end of the runway. Holding Bays Holding bays are relatively small aprons placed at a convenient location in the airport for the temporary storage of aircraft. At some airports the number of gates may be insutficient to handle the demand during a busy period of the day. If this is the case, aircraft are routed by air traffic control to a holding bay and are held there until a gate becomes available. They can permit a departing flight to vacate a needed gate and to wait near the runway without obstructing the departure flow pending receipt of ATC/ATFM (slot) en-route clearance. Holding bays are not required if capacity matches demand. However fluctuations in future demand are difficult to predict so that a temporary storage facility may be necessary. Airport Capacity and Simulation Models Airport Capacity and Delay Capacity describes the processing capability of an airport within a specific period of time. To operate an airport at the maximum capacity a continuous demand is required. Only a very few airports have continuous demand throughout their operating hours each day. The airport designer should provide for sufficient capacity to accommodate fluctuating demand with an acceptable level of service which can be measured in aircraft delays. This shows that there is a relationship between capacity and aircraft delays. The design of an airport based on zero aircraft delays would result in oversizing of the facilities, For this reason an acceptable level of aircraft delays for both the user and the operator is established. Airport planners must compare the capacty of an airport with the existing and forecasted demand in order to improve the system in time. Very often improvements or investments can easily be justified because aircraft delays are extremely costly. Definition of Capacity There is no standard definition of capacity. Commonly, hourly runway capacity is declared which relates to average levels of delay (e.g. 5 min.). Where service rates are declared, as by the FAA, this refers to the maximum attainable movements rate on the runway assuming no delay. Levels of Tolerable Delay At-most congested airports tolerable levels of average delays are agreed by the airlines with the airport scheduling committee. The maximum delay is usually 5 minutes but at some larger airports it can be up to 10 minutes. 2.3.6.4 2.3.6.5 2.4 Airport Masterplan Factors Affecting Hourly Capacity Factors affecting hourly capacity of an airport include: (a) Runway system; (b) Taxiway system; (©) Apron area, gates; (d) Runway occupancy time; {e) Aircraft mix; () Weather conditions; (9) Ratio arrivals/departures (h) Separation on final approach; () Availability of SIDs & STARS; @ ATC facilities; (k) Noise abatement procedures. Mathematical Models Mathematical models are simple for runways used exclusively for departures or arrivals but more complex for runways used for mixed operations. Airframe is a computer program based on the FAA Airfield Capacity Model. The program has a graphical user interface which uses MS Windows. Simulation Models Simulation models are not designed to determine a specific airport capacity, however, they are very Useful to find a bottleneck in an existing or planned airport system. Furthermore, by varying the input parameter possible solutions for improving capacity can be simulated. Several well-known simulation models are: ‘© SIMMOD (FAA) Federal Aviation Administration's airport and airspace simulation model aids in the study of en route air traffic, terminal area air traffic and airport ground operations; © ‘TAAM - TOTAL AIRSPACE AND AIRPORT MODELLER (Preston Group, Australia) is a computer software program for slow, fast or real time simulation of airspace and_airport operations. The simulation allows the evaluation of: changes to airport congestion resulting from the addition of runways or taxiways. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT During the course of the 20th century, air transport has grown into one of the world's most important industries. It has brought employment and prosperity to millions of people while expanding world trade and increasing the opportunities for travel and tourism. In delivering these benefits, air transport has had far less of an impact on the world's environment than most people realize: Energy consumption - aviation accounts for just 5% of the annual world oll consumption and about 12% of the oil supplies used by the entire transport industry. Airline energy efficiency has improved at an average annual rate of 3-4%, thereby doubling about every 20 years; Emissions - scientists estimate that jet aircraft produce 2-3% of global man-made Nox ‘emissions and 2-3% of CO, produced by buming fossil fuels. Jet engines built after 1982 emit ‘about 85% less unburnt hydrocarbons than jet engines built in the 1970s. Carbon monoxide ‘emissions have decreased about 70%; - i © Global warming - jat aircraft engine CO, emissions are thought to be responsible for only 1% of the future global temperature rise caused by man-made CO2 emissions; 85 &, aT Airport Development Reference Manual 2.4.1 2.4.2 86 © Land Use - aviation uses less than 8% of the land required for rail transport and less than 1% o that required for roads. In terms of the number of people moved, aviation uses this land five times more efficiently than road; © Noise - aircraft are only partly responsible for noise level at airports. The number of people directly affected by aircraft noise today represents 5% of those affected in the 1970s. Airport Integration in Urban Fabric When a new airport is planned or a major expansion envisaged it is important to consider not onl what effect the change will have on the airport within its boundaries but also to consider what the impact will be on the surrounding community. Airports can satisfactorily be integrated into existing urban development or conversely surrounding urban developments can co-exist with airports if due care is taken. ‘Analysis of existing and future land use of areas affected by the noise generated by takeoff anc landing of aircratt is one of the prime concerns. Noise impacts will have to be assessed as a resul of the changes to runway use and possible shifting or relocation of established urban or rural areas will have to be considered. Private and public vehicular traffic generated by the airport activities (passengers, cargo, staff, etc. must be studied and the surrounding road network laid out to minimize negative effects or residential areas. It is recognized that the negative effects of airport vehicular traffic (noise anc palin are often worse than the more known adverse effects of aircraft traffic (noise anc lution). Airports also produce positive effects to the surrounding community in terms of increase: ‘employment and increased economic activity. If well integrated into the existing urban fabric airport: contribute to the healthy growth of communities. Itis very important for the very survival of an airpor within a built up area that positive aspects be highlighted and made publicly known e.g. advantage: which would otherwise not exist without the presence of the airport. It is customary that airport planners liaise with local governemnt authorities and their architects planners, traffic engineers etc. to define the local development plan which usually is part of a more general city plan. The early co-operation of airport planners and local officials should be encourage from the onset of airport planning to avoid future environmental problems. Environmental Impact Statement Many countries require an in-depth analysis to be submitted to local and/or central authorities befor: planning permission is granted. For example, in the USA planning permission is subject to FA‘ regulations and an environmental impact statement is required. The FAA produces an Airpor Environmental Handbook which includes the information essential to meeting procedural an substantive environmental requirements to meet standards set in the National Environmental Polic: Act. Similarly in the U.K. major airport expansions (new runways, terminals etc.) are subject to publi hearings and new environmental legislation is presently pending that will affect European airports. There are many cases in which the so called ecological balance would be disrupted if careft planning was not applied from the beginning. Poor planning has resulted in the cancellation or dela of many new airport projects (e.g. the third London airport at Maplin in. the Thame others while Munich Il took more than 20 years to get environmental and politi Regulations vary from country to country but more and more airport developments are opposed the envionment (flora and fauna) are put at risk and or endangered species are threatened. Th: analysis and evaluation of these important aspects are well described in the FAA Environments ‘Handbook, ————______ _ —__—_—— oe 2.4.3.2 Airport Masterplan Noise Contours Related to Aircraft Operations Noise Footprints People living around airports often fee! that air transport is a heavy strain on the local environment particularly with regard to noise. Their complaints cause airport authorities to introduce their own noise rules reticting aif cperations. in tu, the afines lok to the marutactrers fr quieter aircraft. ’ Noise Impact at Take-Off Aircraft Engine T.0. weight Noise footprint 4320-200 CFM.56-5 ret 4,55 km? B727-200 JT8D-15 76,2t 14,25 km? | eat | | T 2 0-1.,2 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 14 12 13 [— km from brake release Flight plan 1000 n.m. Airport at sea level. No wind. Contour 85 dB(A) ‘The technology that made major reductions in aircraft engine noise possible was the “high by-pass ratio" engine. Quieter engines have significantly reduced the number of people affected by aircraft noise. On takeoft, a B727 creates an intrusive “footprint” of noise which covers an area exceeding 14 km®. In contrast, an A320 creates a “noise footprint” covering only 1.5 km?. Noise Restrictions ICAO has classified aircraft in its Annex 16 in 3 groups: (a) Non-noise certified - in this category belong the early jet aircraft such as the B707 and DC-8 (unmodified). These aircraft are no longer allowed to fly to many countries e.g. US, westem Europe, Japan and Australi (b) Chapter 2 aircraft are certificated according to ICAO Annex 16, Volume 1, Chapter 2 and include B727, B737-200, DC-9. Chapter 2 aircraft will be prohibited from operating within the next few years in many countries; (c) Chapter 3 aircraft include B747-400, B737-300, B757, B767, MD80, MD11, F100 and all Airbus aircratt. Aviation Related Air Pollution The most harmful air pollutants generated by the air transport industry are generally considered to include nitrogen oxides (NOx), unbumt hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO,). NOx, CO and HC affect local atmospheric conditions at and-near the airport. In combination with sunlight and oxygen, they form ozone (Os), an ifritant gas. CO, and NOx, are