PESIT
DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS  I
Subject Code: AU46 Faculty: RSS
B.E Mechanical
No. of Hours: 52
4 ^{t}^{h} Semester Course Information
Class 
Chapter Title / 
% of Portions covered 

# 
Reference Literature 
Topics to be covered 
Reference 
Cumulativ 

chapter 
e 

Chapter : 1 Introduction 
Materials and their properties, Design considerations, codes, standards, stress strain diagram, Definitions – stress, strain, shear stress, biaxial and triaxial loads, Stress tensor, Principal stress 

1  6 
T1: 
page 
13 – 35 44 – 74 3 – 29 

T2: 
page 
10% 
10 % 

R1: page 

R2: page 1315, 70 – 

72 

Chapter : 2 Design for static strength 
Static loads – Types of loads and problems, Theories of failure and problems. Members under combined loads, Stress concentration – explanation and examples, Reduction of stress concentration, Determination of stress concentration factor, combined stress concentration factor, Problems 

7 – 14 
T1: 
page 182 – 212 page 103 – 107 

T2: 

R1: page 
13 – 53 67 – 92 
15% 
25% 

R2: page 

Chapter : 3 Design for fatigue strength 
Introduction, SN diagram, low cycle fatigue, high cycle fatigue, Endurance limit. Modifying factors 

15– 20 
T1: 
page 
227 – 275 
size effect, surface effect, stress concentration effects; Fluctuating stresses, Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses, Goodman and Soderberg relationship; stresses due to combined loading, cumulative fatigue damaged. – 

T2: 
page 

R2: page 
114 – 125 117 – 156 
10% 
35% 

Chapter : 4 Impact Loading 
Derivation of instantaneous stress 

21 
– 25 
T1: page T2: page T3: page R1: page R2: page 
due to axial, bending and torsion loading, effect of inertia. 
5% 
40% 

Chapter : 5 Design of Shafts 
Torsion of shafts, design for strength and rigidity, with steady loading, ASME and BIS codes for design of transmission shafting, shafts under fluctuating and combined loads design of rigid flange coupling and bushed pin type flexible coupling. 

T1: 
page 
565 – 576 

26 
– 31 
T2: 
page 
465 – 473 465 – 481 234 – 246 
20% 
60% 

R1: page 

R2: page 

Chapter : 6 Fasteners T1: page 301 – 317 
Key types, Stresses in Keys, Pins and Retainers. Threaded Fasteners 

– 
Stresses, Effects of initial 

32 
– 40 
T2: page 493 – 498 R1: page 269 – 340 R2: page 247 – 255 
tension, effect of compression, effect of fatigue loading, impact loading, shear loading and eccentric loading. 
15% 
75% 
Chapter : 7 Power Screws 
Mechanics of power screw, stresses in power screws, Efficiency and self locking. 

41 
– 48 
T1: page 291 – 300 T2: page 266 – 273 R1: page 441 – 450 R2: page 163 – 185 
15% 
90% 

Chapter : 8 Mechanical joints: 
Cotter and knuckle joints, Riveted Joints – Types, rivet materials, Failures of Riveted joints, Efficiency, Boiler Joints, Tank and Structural Joints, riveted brackets. Welded joints – Types, strength of butt and fillet welds, Eccentrically loaded welds. 

T1: page 336 – 352 

49 
– 52 
T2: page 171 – 227 R1: page 213 – 256 R2: page 213 – 229 
10% 
100% 
Text Books:
T1: Mechanical Engg. Design by Joseph. E Shigley & Charles R MirchKe. Tata 6 ^{t}^{h} Ed 2003. Mc Graw Hill Edition 2001 T2: Design of Machine Elements by C.S.Sharma and Kamlesh Purohit, PHI 2003.
Reference Books:
R1: Machine Design by Maleev & Hartman, CBS Publishers & Distribution, New Delhi R2: Design of Machine Elements – V.B.Bhandari,. Tata McGraw Hill Pub. New Delhi R3: Theory and Problems of Machine Design by Hall Holowenko, (Schaum series) R4: Machine Design by Robert L Norton, Pearson Education Asia, 2001 R5: Design of Machine Elements by M.F.Spotts, PHI 2003. R6: Machine Design by Paul H Black, D.E.Adams McGraw Hill, 2001
Design Data Hand Books:
Design Data Hand Book – K.Lingaiah, McGraw Hill, 2 ^{n}^{d} Ed, 2003
1. Design Data Hand Book – K.Mahadevan & Balaveera Reddy, CBS Publication
2. Machine Design Data Hand Book by H.G.Patil, Shri Shashi Prakashan, Belgaum
QUESTION BANK
Chapter – 1 Introduction
1. Explain the term ‘factor of safety’.
2. Discuss the factors influencing selection of an appropriate material for a machine element.
(8)
(5)
3. Discuss the factors influencing selection of appropriate value for the factor of safety
(8)
4. * List the factors which govern the selection of a material for a machine component
(3) 

5. *Define Standardization. State the standards used in machine design. 
(3) 
Chapter – 2 Design for Static Strength
1. Determine the maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress at section A. A for the crank shown in figure.1. A load of 10KN is applied at the center of the crank pin. Neglect the effect of transverse shear.
(10)
2. Explain the influence of stress concentration in the design of machine elements.
(5)
3. Determine the critical stress in the machine component shown in the figure 2.
(7)
4. A weight of 1 KN is dropped from a height of 50 mm at the free end of a cantilever
beam of effective length 300 mm. Determine the cross section of the cantilever beam of square cross – section if the allowable stress in the material of the beam is limited to 80MPa. (8)
5. A flat bar shown in figure 3 is subjected to an axial load of F equal to 50KN. Assuming that the stress in the bar is limited to 200N/mm ^{2} . Determine the thickness
of flat bar.
(12)
6. A round steel bar having σ _{y} = 800 MPa is subjected to the loads producing the
calculated stresses of P/A = 70MPa, TR/J _{p} = 200 MPa, My/J = 300 MPa and 4V/3A = 170MPa.
(i) 
Determine the safety factor with respect to initial yielding according to maximum 
shear stress theory and maximum distortion energy theory 

(ii) 
Draw the sketch showing the location of maximum normal stress and maximum 
shear stress planes.
(12)
7. Explain the maximum normal stress, maximum shear stress and von Mises theory of failures.
(09)
8. A wall bracket as shown in figure 5 is subjected to a pull of 5KN at 60 ^{o} to the vertical. The cross section of the bracket is rectangular having b = 3t. Determine the
dimensions ‘b’ and ‘t’, if the tensile stress in the material of the bracket is limited 30
MPa.
(11)
9. Write full note on stress concentration factor.
(05)
10. A C–Clamp carries a load P=20000N. The crosssection (Figure 6) of the clamp at xx is rectangular having width equal to twice thickness. Assuming that the clamp is made of steel casting with an allowable stress of 120 MPa, find its dimensions. Also determine the stress at section zz.
(6)
11. A stepped shaft has maximum diameter 45 mm and minimum diameter 30 mm. The fillet radius is 6 mm. If the shaft is subjected to an axial load of 10KN, find the maximum stress induced, taking stress concentration into account.
(8)
12.
*A machine part is statically loaded and has yield strength of 350 MPa. For the
following stresses calculate the factor of safety using the following theories of failure:
(i) 
Maximum normal stress theory. 

(ii) 
Maximum shear stress theory 

(iii) 
Von mires theory 

(a) 
σ _{1} = 70MPa, 
σ _{2} = 0MPa 
(b) 
σ _{1} = 70MPa, σ _{2} = 70MPa 

(c) 
σ _{1} = 70MPa, σ _{2} = 70MPa 
13. A tension member shown in figure 7, supports an axial load P. It is necessary to
replace this member by one having a 15 mm hole as shown. Determine the thickness t and radius r at the fillet of the second member, so that the maximum stress will not exceed that of the first member.
(10)
14. Find the value of the max. Stress on the fillet if the stress concentration factor for the
filleted flat bar in tension is 1.8 and D/d is 1.2 as shown in figure 8. Determine the factor of safety if it is made of steel having yield strength of 320N/mm ^{2} .
(10)
15. A rod of circular cross section is to sustain a torsional moment of 300 KNm and a
bending moment of 200 KNm. Selecting a suitable material and assuming an appropriate value for the factor of safety, determine the diameter of the rod as per the following theories of failure:
(i) 
Maximum shear stress theory for failure. 

(ii) 
Von Mises or distortion energy theory for failure. 

(iii) 
Total 
energy 
theory 
for 
failure. 
(15) 
16. Figure 9 shows a crank shaft loaded by a force Fy = 1500N
(i) 
Draw separate free body forces, bending moments and turning moments that 
act on the crank and on the shaft. Label the directions of the co ordinates axis on these diagrams. 

(ii) 
Compute the maximum torsional stress and the maximum principal stress in the crank at a section 80mm from the pinend. 
(iii) 
Locate the stress element on the top surface of the shaft at A and find the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress at the same point. 
(15)
17. Obtain the magnitude of normal and shear stresses at the extreme fibers on the cross section AA of a clamp loaded as shown in figure 11
(12)
18. Determine the diameters of a round rod to sustain a combined torsional load of 1500
Nm and a bending moment of 100 Nm by the following theories of failure. Material
selected for the rod has a value of 300 MPa and 180 MPa for the normal stress and shear stress at yield respectively. Take a value of 2.50 for the factor of safety.
(i) 
Maximum shear stress theory 
(ii) 
Octa hedral shearing stress theory 
(12)
19. Explain six theories of failure.
(8)
20. Determine normal stresses at the extreme fibers on the cross section AA of a C
clamp loaded as shown in figure 12.
(12)
21. Explain the following theories of failure
(i) 
Maximum principle stress theory for failure 
(ii) 
Maximum shear stress theory for failure 
(iii) 
Octahedral shear stress theory for failure 
(9)
22. A round rod of diameter 30.0 mm is to sustain an axial compressive load of 20 kN and a twisting moment of 150 Nm. The rod is made of carbon steel C40. Determine factors of safety as per following theories of failure
(i) 
Maximum principal strain theory for failure 
(ii) 
Maximum Elastic energy theory for failure 
(iii) 
Distortion energy theory for failure 
(12)
23. * A rectangular plate 15mm thick made of brittle material is shown in fig below.
Chapter – 3 Design for fatigue strength
1. A shaft can transmit power of 20 KW at 1000 RPM. The actual torque transmitted by shaft is ± 60% of the mean torque calculated. Shaft is also subjected to a variable
bending moment of 500 Nm to 1000 Nm. The maximum bending moment occurs at the same instant as that of maximum torque. Determine the diameter of the shaft required selecting suitable material. Take factor of safety 2, size factor = 0.85, and surface factor = 0.8. (14)
2. A stepped shaft shown in figure 13 is subjected to the transverse load. The shaft is made of steel with ultimate tensile strength of 400 MPa. The shaft is machined. Determine diameter of shaft based on the factor of safety of 2.
(14)
3. Determine maximum stress induced in the following cases taking stress concentration in case
(figure 14)
(i) A rectangular plate under an axial load of 10KN.
(3)
(ii) The circular shaft with a step under transverse load of 10KN as shown (figure 15)
(iii) The
(3)
(3)
shaft under a twisting moment of 50Nm. (figure16)
4. Explain the significance of Goodman’s line and soderberg line in design of members subjected to reversal of stresses.
(8)
5. A steel member of circular cross section is subjected to a torsional stress that varies from 0 to 35 MPa and at the same time it is subjected to an axial stress that varies from 14 MPa to 28 MPa. Neglecting stress concentration and column effect determine
(i) the maximum equivalent shear stress.
(ii) the design factor of safety based upon yield in shear. The material has an
endurance limit = 260 MPa and a yield strength = 480 MPa.
The size factor
may
be
taken as UNITY and
the
surface has a
(12)
mirror
polish.
6. A stepped shaft with its diameter reduced from ‘1.2 d’ to ‘d’ has a fillet radius of 0.1d. Determine the diameters of the shaft and the radius of fillet to transmit a
power of 60 KW at a rated of 1000 RPM limiting the maximum shear stress induced
to 65MPa.
(7)
7. A shaft of circular cross section is subjected to a turning moment that fluctuates between 800 KNm and 600 KNm and also a bending moment that fluctuates between + 500 KNm and – 300KNm. The material selected for the shaft has a shear stress value of 100 MPa at endurance limit and a shear stress value of 120 MPa of the yield limit. Determine the diameter of the solid circular shaft taking a value of 2.50 for the factor of safety. Surface factor, size factor and load factor can be taken as 0.90, 0.85 and 1.0 respectively. Shear stress concentration factor is 1.80 and the notch sensitivity is 0.95.
8. A cantilever beam of rectangular cross section has a span of 800 mm. The rectangular cross section of the beam has a depth of 200 mm. The free end of the beam is subjected to a transverse load that fluctuates between 8 KN down to 5KN up. Selecting carbon steel C 30 as material for the beam and selecting a value of 2.50 for the factor of safety, determine the width of rectangular cross section. Surface factor and size factor are respectively 0.95 and 0.90. Stress concentration factor is given to be 1.65 (14)
9.
A round rod of diameter 1.2d is reduced to a diameter d with a fillet radius of 0.1d. This stepped rod is to sustain a twisting moment that fluctuates between +2.5KNm and +1.5KNm together with a bending moment that fluctuates between +1KNm
and –1.0KNm. The rod is made of carbon steel C40. Determine a suitable value for
d.
(14)
10.*A cantilever beam of circular crosssection is subjected to an alternating stress at a point on the outer fiber in the plane of the support that varies from 21 MPa (compression) to 28 MPa (tension). At the same time there is an alternative stress due to axial loading that varies from 14 MPa (compression) to 28 MPa (tension). The material has an ultimate strength of 412 MPa, yield strength of 309 MPa. Assume that actual stress concentration factor =1, size correction factor = 0.85, and surface correction factor = 0.9. Determine
i) the equivalent normal stress due to axial loading
ii) the equivalent normal stress due to bending and
iii) the total equivalent normal stress due to axial loading and bending
(12)
Chapter – 4 Impact Loading
1. Explain the influence of stress raiser on impact strength
(06)
2. A 5 Kg block is dropped from a height of 200 mm on to a beam shown in figure 4.
The material has an allowable yield stress of 50 MPa. Determine the dimensions of the rectangular section, whose depth is 1.5 times of the width. Take E= 70MPa.
(14)
3. A weight of 1400 N is dropped on to a collar at the lower end of a vertical steel shaft of 3m long and 25 mm. diameter, calculate the height of drop if the maximum instantaneous stress produced is not to exceed 120 MPa. Take E = 2.1 x 10 ^{5} MPa.
(5)
4. Derive an expression for shock/impact factor.
(5)
5. A cantilever beam of span 800.0 mm has a rectangular cross section of depth 200.0m. The free end of the beam is subjected to a transverse load of 1KN, dropped onto it from a height of 40.0 mm. selecting a suitable material and assuming an appropriate value for the factor of safety, determine the width of the rectangular cross section. (8)
6. Find the maximum stress due to impact in the bolt and in the beam shown in figure
10. Assume the same material, namely steel, for both the members.
Chapter – 5 Design of Shafts
1. A horizontal piece of commercial shafting is supported by two bearing 1.5 m apart. A keyed gear 20 ^{o} involute and 200 mm in diameter is located 400 mm to the left of right bearing and is driven by a gear directly behind it. A 600 mm diameter pulley is
keyed to the shaft 600mm to the right of left bearing and drives a pulley with a horizontal belt directly behind it. The tension ratio of the belt is 3:1, with the slack side on top. The driver transmits 50KW at 350 RPM, K _{b} = K _{t} = 1.5.
a) Draw the moment diagram
b) Calculate the diameter of the solid shaft required
c) Calculate the torsional deflection in degrees
(20)
2. Design a bush type flexible coupling to connect motor and centrifugal pump shafts. Motor transmits 10 KW at 1440 RPM. Allowable stress in shear for shaft, key and bolts are 40 MPa. Allowable bearing pressure for rubber bush is 0.3 MPa. Check for stresses. (12)
^{3}^{.} Three identical pulleys of 500 mm diameter and weighing 500 N each are mounted on a line shaft supported on two bearings 4000 mm apart. The pulley A is mounted at 300 mm to the right of left bearing and receives 30KW at 200RPM from a pulley vertically below it. The pulley B is mounted 1000 mm to the right of left bearing and
delivers 6KW to a pulley through a belt drive inclined backward at 45 ^{o} to the vertical.
The 
remaining power is taken out through another pulley C which is mounted at 3000 
mm 
to the right of left bearing and drives a planning machine the drive being 30 ^{o} to 
the front of the vertical. The angle of lap for all pulleys may be taken as 180 ^{o} and the coefficient of friction is 0.3. The working stress in shear for the shaft material is 80N/mm ^{2} . Determine the diameter of the shaft.(20)
4. Design a bushed pin type flexible coupling to transmit 90 KW at 1440 RPM for connecting two shafts of diameter 60 mm. Assume bearing pressure on the bushes as 0.35N/mm ^{2} , allowable shear stress in the material of the pins as 45 N/mm ^{2} and allowable bending stress in the material of the pin is 80 N/mm ^{2} .
(14)
5. Write a brief note on materials and heat treatments used for the shaft.
(06)
6. A 1.2 m hollow shaft is subjected to bending moment 900Nm and turning moment 600 Nm. The shaft is also subjected to an end thrust 1.2KN. Taking d _{i} /d _{o} = 0.7 and material of the shaft to be cold rolled steel, determine the inner and outer diameters of the shaft. Consider heavy shock condition.
7. A 250mm diameter solid shaft is used to drive the propeller of a marine vessel. It is necessary to reduce the weight of the shaft by 70%, what would be the dimensions of a hollow shaft made of the same material as the solid shaft.
(5)
8. A shaft is mounted between bearings located 9.5 m apart the transmits 10000 KW at 90 rev/min. The shaft weighs 66000N has an outside diameter of 450 mm and inside diameter of 300 mm. Determine the stress induced in shaft and the angular deflection between bearing. Do not neglect the weight of the shaft.
(10)
9. Design a cast Iron flange coupling (protected type) to connect two shafts and transmits a torque a 5000 Nm. The following permissible stresses may be used. Permissible shear stress for shaft, bolt and key material = 50 MPa. Permissible shear stress for CI = 16MPa.
10. Compare the weight, strength and stiffness of a hollow shaft of the same external diameter as that of solid shaft. The inside dia. of the hollow shaft being half the external diameter. Both the shafts have the same material and length.
(10)
11. A line shaft is to transmit 600 KW at 500RPM. The allowable shear stress for the material of the shaft is 42N/mm ^{2} (42MPa). If the shaft carries a central load of 900N
and is simply supported between bearing 3 meter apart, determine the diameter of
the shaft. The maximum tensile or compressive stress in not exceed 50 MPa.
(10)
12. A shaft is required to transmit 1 MW power at 240RPM. The shaft must not twist more that 1 ^{o} on a length of 15 diameters. If the modulus of rigidity for the material of the shaft is 80 KN/mm ^{2} , find the diameter of the shaft and the shear stress
induced.
13. Design a cast iron protective flange coupling to connect two shafts in order to
transmit 7.5 KW at 720 RPM. the following permissible stresses may be used permissible shear stress for shaft, bolt and key material = 33MPa. Crushing stress for
bolt and key material = 60 MPa. Shear stress for cast iron = 15MPa.
14. The shaft of uniform diameter as shown in figure 17 carries belt pulleys at A and B
with vertical belts. It is supported in bearings at C and D. the shaft transmits 10 KW
at 400 rpm. The tension on the tight side of belt A is 2000 N, and that on the slack
side of belt B is 900N. Pulley A weighs 200 N and pulley B 400 N. Estimate suitable
diameter for the shaft, adopting a working shear stress of 45 MPa.
15. State the advantages of hollow shafts over solid shafts in transmission of power
(5)
16. A 60 cm pulley A receives 15 KW at 500 RPM from below at angle of 45 ^{o} as shown in the figure 18. A gear C with 450 mm pitch circle diameter delivers 30% of the power horizontally to the right gear D with pitch circle diameter of 300 mm delivers the
remaining power downward to the left at an angle of 30 ^{o} below the horizontal. Both the gears have 20 ^{o} involute teeth. Assuming working stress in shear 40 MN/m ^{2} and in tension at 80 MN/m ^{2} and in tension as 80 MN/m ^{2} for the shaft material. Design the shaft of uniform diameter. The ratio of tensions in the belt is 2.
(20)
17. Design a protected type CI flange coupling for a steel shaft transmitting 15 KW at 1200 RPM. take the maximum torque to be 20% more than the fullload torque. Draw to scale the coupling designed giving all important dimensions.
(20)
18. A power transmission shaft is supported on two bearings 2000.0 mm apart. The shaft receives a power of 40KW through a belt drive situated, at a distance of 600.0
mm to the right of the left bearing. The weight & diameter of the pulley are
respectively 800N and 400.0mm. The belt moves towards the observer below the horizontal, inclined at 60 ^{o} to it. The ratio of the belt tensions is 3.0. The power is transmitted out of the shaft through a gear drive located on the shaft at a distance of
500.0 mm to the left of the right bearing. The weight and pitch diameter of the gear mounted on the shaft are respectively 600N and 300.0 mm. The gear which receives from this gear is located exactly behind. The teeth are of involute profile with a pressure angle of 20 ^{o} . Determine the diameter of the solid circular shaft selecting carbon steel C40 as material & assuming a value of 2.50 for the factor of safety.
(20)
19. Design a protected type of CI flange coupling to connect two shafts of the same diameters and transmit 150 KW at 100 RPM. Select suitable materials and factors of safety. Assume 25% over load.
(14)
20. A power transmission shaft 1200.0 mm long receives power of 25 KW through a belt
drive located at its right extreme end. The shaft is supported at two points A and B. While A is at the left extreme end, B is at a distance of 300mm from the right extreme end. The pulley on the shaft has a diameter of 500mm and weighs 800N. The belt on the pulley moves below towards the observer making an angle of 30 ^{o}
with the vertical. The power is taken out through a gear drive located at distance of
400mm form the left support. The gear mounted on the shaft has a pitch diameter of
250mm and weighs 500 N. The other gear which receives power form this gear is
placed just above this gear. The pressure angle is 20 ^{o} . The shaft operates at 750 RPM. Selecting a suitable material and assuming an appropriate value for the factor
of safety, determine the diameter of the solid circular shaft.
21. A power transmission shaft 1800 mm long is supported at two points A and B. Whereas A is at a distance of 300mm from the left extreme end of the shaft, B is at the right extreme end. A power of 50 kW is received at 500 RPM through a gear drive
located at the left extreme end of the shaft. The gear mounted on the shaft here has
a pitch diameter of 300mm and weighs 700N. The driver gear is located exactly
behind. A power of 30KW is given out through a belt drive located at a distance of 600mm from the left support. The pulley mounted on the shaft has a diameter of 400
mm and weighs 1000N. The belt is directed towards the observer below the
horizontal and inclined at 45 ^{o} to it. The ratio of belt tensions is 3. the remaining power is given out through a gear drive located at a distance of 400 mm from the
right support. The driver gear has a pitch diameter of 200 mm and weighs 500N. The
driven gear is located exactly above. Selecting appropriate material and assuming a
suitable value for the factor of safety determine the diameter of a solid shaft for the purpose. 22. Design a rigid flanged coupling to transmit a power of 40 kW at a rated speed of
100RPM
(10)
Chapter – 6 Fasteners
1. Determine load capacity of the riveted joint loaded as shown in figure 19, if the shear stress of the material of the rivet is 100 N/ mm ^{2} .
(12)
2. A 100mm shaft rotating at 100 RPM transmit 300 hp power is taken off through a gear whose hub is 200 mm long. The key is made of steel having an ultimate shearing stress of 350N/ mm ^{2} . Using a factor of safety of 5, determine the width of key required. (6)
3. A bolt in a steel structure is subjected to a tensile load of 9 KN. The initial tightening load on the bolt is 5 KN. Determine the size of the bolt taking allowable stress for the bolt material to be 80 MPa.
(08)
4. A flanged bearing is fastened to a frame by means of four bolts spaced equally on 400mm bolt circle as shown in figure 20. The diameter of the flange is 500 mm and a load of 200 KN acts at a distance of 250 mm from the frame. If the tensile stress in the bolt is not to exceed 63 MPa. Determine the bolt size.
(12)
5. Select a rectangular parallel key for transmitting a power of 50 KW at a rated speed of 500 RPM to mount a hub of length 60mm on a solid circular shaft of diameter 50 mm. (6)
6. Figure 21 shows the cylindrical head of a pressure vessel using 10 bolts and a confined gasket. The static pressure in the cylinder is 6N/mm ^{2} . Select the size of the metric bolts for a factor of safety of 3.
7. For the system shown in figure 22 find the maximum stress in the weld. Find the size of the bolt.
(20)
8. Determine the power capacity ratio of the two system: one a 24 mm diameter shaft with a 48 x 6 x 6 mm key and another a 24 mm diameter shaft with a 6 mm dia pin. The stress concentration for the key way in the shaft is 1.3, and that for the pinned shaft is 1.75. Assume only torsional load and the same material for all parts.
(12)
Chapter – 7 Power screws
1. A split nut used with a lead screw is propelled at a speed of 5 m/min, against a load of 20KN, along the spindle of a square thread (single start), having nominal diameter of 30 mm and a pitch of 6 mm. The axial thrust is absorbed by a collar of 100mm outside diameter and 70 mm inside diameter. Assuming suitable coefficient of friction, determine :
(i) 
Power required to drive 
(ii) 
height of the bronze nut required 
if allowable bearing pressure is 17MPa.
(10)
2. The following data applies to a C clamp shown in Figure 23. The screw has trapezoidal metric thread.
Outer dia. of screw – 12mm, Root Dia. – 9.853
Pitch – 1.75mm,
Coefficient of thread friction – 0.12
Coefficient of collar friction – 0.25 Friction circle radius of collar – 6mm Maximum thrust on the screw – 4 KN Determine:
(i) 
Length of handling if the operator exerts a force of 80N at the end of the handle 
(ii) 
Maximum shear stress induced in the body of the screw and where does it exist. 
(iii) 
Bearing pressure on threads. 
(14)
3. A machine weighing 20KN is to be raised by a single start square threaded 50mm diameter, 8mm pitch screw jack at a maximum speed of 600m/min. If the coefficient of friction between the threads is 0.2, determine the power required to lift the
machine. The thrust collar of the screw has inside diameter of 30mm and out side diameter of 60mm. The coefficient of collar friction is 0.1. (10)
4. A 15KN screw jack with a maximum extension of 150 mm has double square threads. Using an allowable compressive stress of 80N/mm ^{2} and bearing pressure on the threads 17.5 MPa Find:
(ii) 
Size of screw 
(iii) 
Height of nut 
(10) 
5. A shaft straightner is designed to exert a load of 25 KN. It utilizes a square threaded
screw having outside diameter of 75mm and pitch of 6 mm determine the force required to operate the handwheel of 300 mm diameter if the coefficient of friction for threads is 0.12. Also determine efficiency of straightner.
(8)
6. What are power screws? State their applications.
(4)
7. Design the following parts of 20 KN screw jack selecting suitable materials and assuming appropriate values for the factors of safety, for a travel of 200mm
(iv) 
Screw rod 
(v) 
Nut 
(vi) 
The hand lever 
8. A turn buckle is used to tighten a wire rope. The threads are single right and left hand square in section. The outside diameter of the screw is 38mm and the pitch is
8.5 mm. The coefficient of friction between the screws and nuts is 0.15. what is the maximum shear stress induced in the screw of the turn buckle if the rope is to be tightened to a tension of 8 KN.
9. Select thread proportions for the screw rod of a screw press to sustain an axial compressive load of 40 KN for an unsupported length of 350.0mm. select an appropriate material and assume a suitable value for the factor of safety.
(10)
10.
A weight of 500KW is raised at a speed of 6m/min by two screw rods with square threads of 50 x 8 cut on them. The two screw rods are driven through bevel gear drives by a motor. Determine:
(i) The torque required to raise the load
(4)
(ii) The speed of rotation of the screw rod assuming the threads are of double start
(2)
(iii) 
The maximum stresses induced on the cross section of the screw rod 
(4) 

(iv) 
The efficiency of screw drive 
(3) 

(v) 
The length of nuts for the purpose of supporting the load 
(vi) 
check for overhaul 
(2)
11.Design a turnbuckle to take an axial load of 100KN. The material of which the turn buckle is to be made has a design normal stress of 165 N/mm ^{2} and design shear
stress 
of 
100N/mm ^{2} . 
(08) 
Chapter – 8 Mechanical Joints
1. Design the longitudinal joint for a boiler for a steam pressure of 2 MPa. Diameter of the boiler is 1 m. Select a double riveted butt joint with a required efficiency of 75%. Take the following allowable stresses. σ _{t} = 80 MPa, τ = 60MPa, σ _{c} = 120 MPa.
(10)
2. An eccentrically loaded bracket welded to its support is loaded as shown in figure 24. Determine the size of the weld required. (10)
3. A steel bracket is welded to a structure and loaded as shown in figure 25. Calculate the size of the weld, taking the permissible stress in the weld to be 84 N/mm ^{2} .
(12)
4. Design a sleeve type of cotter joint to connect two tie rods subjected to an axial pull of 60KN. The allowable stress of C – 30 material used for rods and cotters are σ _{t} = 65 N/mm ^{2} , σ _{c} = 75 N/mm ^{2} and τ = 35 N/mm ^{2} . Cast steel material used for the sleeve has the allowable stresses σ _{t} = 70 N/mm ^{2} and τ = 45 N/mm ^{2}
5. Design the longitudinal and circumferential joints for a boiler whose diameter in 2 meters and is subjected to a pressure of 1 MPa. The longitudinal joint is a triple riveted butt joint with an efficiency of about 85% and the circumferential joint is a double riveted lap joint with an efficiency of about 70%. The pitch in the outer rows of the rivets is to be double that in the inner rows and the width of the cover plates is unequal. The allowable stresses are σ _{t} = 70MPa, τ shear stress = 50MPa crushing stress σ _{c} = 120MPa. Assume that the resistance of the rivets in double shear is 1.875 times that of single shear. (20)
6. A bracket as shown in figure 26 carries a load of 40000N. Calculate the size of weld, if the allowable shear is not exceed 80MPa.
(10)
7. Two lengths of mild steel flat tie bars 200 mm x 10mm are to be connected by a double riveted double cover butt joint using 24 mm diameter rivets. Design the joint, if the allowable working stresses are 112 MPa in tension, 84 MPa in shear and 200MPa in crushing.
8. Sketch and explain the types of riveted joint failure.
(8)
9. A knuckle joint is required for a rod which has to withstand a tensile load of 100 KN. Find the diameters of the rod and the pin. safe working stress both in tension and shear are 80 MPa and 60 MPa respectively. Suggest the suitable dimensions for the entire joint.
10. Design and draw a fully dimensioned neat sketch in two view of a double riveted butt joint with double cover plates for the longitudinal seam of a boiler 1.5m in diameter when working pressure is 1 MPa. Use the following data:
Allowable stress in tension for steel plate = 80MPa Allowable stress in shear for rivets = 60 MPa Allowable stress in crushing for rivets = 120 MPa.
(12)
11.
Find the difference in the diameters to be allowed for shrinkage when a compound
cylinder 200 mm external diameter, 100 mm internal diameter and 150 mm diameter at the junction of the two tubes has a radial pressure of 31 MPa at the junction. Take
E = 2.1 x 10 ^{5} MPa and Poisson’s ratio = 0.25.
(10)
12. 
A 
triplerivetted buttjoint with equal cover plates is used to connect two plates 16 
mm thick. Design the joint if the allowable crushing stress for rivet and plates is 

60 MN/m ^{2} . Find the joint efficiency. Allowable shear stress for rivets: 45 MN/m ^{2} . Draw to scale two views of the designed joint giving all dimensions. 

(10) 

13. 
A 
bracket supporting a load is welded to a stanchion by four fillet welds of 6mm size 
as shown in the figure 28. What is the maximum value of P if the normal stress on
the throat 
section 
is 
not 
to 
exceed 
98 
MN/m ^{2} ? 
(10) 
14. Design a triple riveted butt joint with unequal widths of cover plates to join two plates of thickness 10mm. The extreme row of rivets, which are in single shear, have
a pitch which is twice the pitch of rivets in the inner rows. The allowable stresses are as follows:
Tensile stress of the material of the plates = 80 MPa Shear stress of the material of the rivets = 60 MPa Crushing stress of the material of the rivets = 120MPa Sketch the joint. Also determine the various strengths & efficiencies of the joint.
(10)
15. Design a knuckle joint to transmit an axial load of 120 KN. The allowable stress for
80 MPa
the 
material of the joint 
are as follows: 
(10) 
σ _{t}
=
120
MPa and
τ
=
16. Design a cotter joint to sustain an axial load of 80 KN. Material selected for the joint
has the following mechanical properties. Normal stress at yield = 300 MPa Shear stress at yield = 150 MPa Allowable bearing pressure = 40 MPa
(12)
17. Design a longitudinal butt joint with equal widths of cover plates for a pressure vessel of diameter 1200.0 mm subjected to an internal pressure of 0.90 MPa. A joint efficiency of 75% can be assumed at this stage. For practical reasons the pitch of rivets is to be restricted a value not less than 3 d and not more than 3.5 d where d is the diameter of the rivets. Material selected for the main plate and rivets has the following safe values:
Design normal stress for material of the main plate = 120 MPa Design shear stress of the material of the rivet = 80 MPa Design Crushing stress of the material of the rivet = 160 MPa Sketch the joint and determine the various efficiencies.
(14)
18. Design a socket and spigot type of cotter joint to sustain an axial load of 100kN. The
material selected for the joint has the following design stresses. σ _{t} = 120 MPa, σ _{c} = 160 MPa and p _{b} = 60 MPa (10) 19. Design a triple riveted butt joint to join two plates of thickness 10 mm. The pitch of rivets in the extreme rows, which are in single shear, is twice the pitch of rivets in the inner rows which are in double shear. The design stresses of the materials of the main plate and the rivets are as follows:
for plate material in tension σ _{t} = 12MPa for rivet material in compression σ _{c} = 160 MPa for rivet material in shear τ = 80 MPa Draw neat sketches of the joint in two views.
(10)
20. Suggest a suitable weld size for a welded joint loaded as shown in figure 29
(10)
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS – IV – MAT41
Subject Code : MAT 41
No. of Periods : 65
Chapter 
Referenc 
Cumulat 

Peri 
title 
Topics to be covered 
e 
ive 
ods 
Chapter 

COMPLEX VARIABLES 

1 
Chapter 1 
Introduction 

2. 
Complex 
Definition of Limit, continuity, differentiability and problems 

Analysis 

3. 
Analytical functions and problems 

4. 
T1,Pg#592, 
CauchyRiemann equations in Cartesian form 

5. 
623 
CauchyRiemann equations in Polar form 

6. 
Problems 
21 
21 

7. 
R1,Pg#651 
Consequences on CR equations 
32.3% 
32.3% 
8. 
Problems 

9. 
Conformal transformations: z ^{2} , e ^{z} and z + a ^{2} / z 

10. 
Bilinear transformations 

11. 
Problems 

12. 
Complex integration: Line integral 

13. 
Problems 

14. 
Cauchy’s theorem – corollaries 

15. 
Cauchy’s integral formula 

16. 
Problems 

17. 
Taylor’s series and examples 

18. 
Laurent’s series and examples 

19. 
Singularities, poles 

20. 
Calculation of Residues and problems 

21. 
Residue theorem and examples. 

SPECIAL FUNCTIONS 

22. 
Chapter 2 
Series Solution of Bessel’s Differential equation 

23. 
Special 
Problems 

24. 
Functions 
Recurrence relations 

25. 
Generating function 

26. 
Problems 
14 

27. 
T1, 
Orthogonality Property and examples 
21.5% 

28. 
Pg#500 
Bessel’s integral formula and examples 

29. 
R1, 
Series Solution of Legendre’s differential equation 
35 

pg#194 
53.8% 

30. 
Problems 

31. 
Generating functions , 

32. 
Rodrigue’s formula 

33. 
Recurrence relations 

34. 
Problems 
35. 
Orthogonality Property and problems 

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 

36. 
Chapter 3 
Curve fitting by the method of Least squares 

37. 
Statistics 
Problems 

38. 
and 
Correlation and problems 

39. 
Probability 
Regression 

40. 
Probability, conditional probability 
12 
47 

41. 
Problems 
18.5% 
72.3% 

42. 
T1, 
Baye’s rule and problems 

43. 
Pg#733,78 
Discrete and continuous random variables 

44. 
0 
PDF and CDF 

45. 
R1, 
Binomial distribution and problems 

46. 
Pg#1049 
Poison distribution, Exponential distribution and problems 

R2,59,85,1 

47. 
19,177,245 
Normal distribution and problems 

SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION 

48. 
Chapter 4 
Sampling, Sampling distribution, Standard error 

49. 
Sampling 
TypeI and TypeII errors and problems 

50. 
distributio 
Testing of hypothesis for means large samples 
07 
54 
51. 
n 
Testing of hypothesis for means small samples 
10.8% 
83.1% 
52. 
Level of Significance and problems 

53. 
T1,Pg#822 
Confidence limits for means Large and Small 

, 
samples 

54. 
R1,Pg#110 
Student’s tdistribution. 

4 

Chapter 5 
JOINT PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION AND MARKOV CHAINS 

55. 
Joint 
Concept of Joint Probability and Joint distribution 

56. 
Probability 
Discrete and independent random variables 

57. 
Distributio 
Expectation and variance 

58. 
n & 
Problems 

59. 
Markov 
Introduction to Markov Chains 

60. 
Chains 
Probability vectors and problems 
11 
65 
61. 
R2,Pg#224 
Stochastic Matrices and problems 
16.9% 
100% 
62. 
282 
Fixed points and regular Stochastic Matrices 

63. 
Higher transition probabilities 

64 
Stationary distribution of regular Markov chains 

65 
Absorbing states 
Literature 

Book Type 
Code 
Title & Author 
Edition 
Publisher 
Year 
Text Book 
T1 
Higher Engineering Mathematics; B.S. Grewal 
38th 
Khanna 
2004 
Reference 
R1 
Advanced Engineering Mathematics; Erwin Kreyszig 
8th 
Wiley 
2001 
Books 

R2 
Schaum’s Outlines :Probability 
2nd 
McGraw 
2000 

Hill 
QUESTION BANK COMPLEX ANALYSIS (20 marks) Analytic Functions:
1. Show that the function f (z) = z is continuous at every point but not differentiable at any point.
2. Show that the function
f
(
z
)
= z 
2 is continuous at every point but is not differentiable
at any point other than origin.
3. The necessary sufficient condition for the function f(z)= u + iv to be analytic is
∂
u
∂
v
∂
v
∂
u
=
=−
∂
x
∂
y
,
∂
x
∂
y
4. If f (z) is analytic on an open set S and f ′(z) = 0 for all z ∈ S show that f (z) is constant.
5. Show that an analytic function with constant real part is constant.
6. Show that an analytic function with constant modulus is constant.
7. If f (z) = u + iv is analytic and ψ is any differential function of x and y prove that
⎛
⎜
⎝
∂ψ 
⎟ ⎞ 
2 
+ ⎛ ∂ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ψ 
2 
= ⎧ ⎪ ⎛ ∂ ψ ⎨ ⎜ ⎞ ⎟ 
2 + ⎜ ⎛ ∂ ψ 

∂ x 
⎠ 
⎜ ⎝ ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ 
⎪ ⎝ ⎩ ∂ 
u ⎠ 
⎝ ∂ v 
⎞
⎟
⎠
2
⎪ ⎫
⎬
⎪
⎭
 f
′
()
z

2
8. If f (z) = u + iv is an analytic function, prove the following
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛ ∂
⎜
⎝
⎛
∂
⎜ ⎝
∂
2
∂
2
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
(a)
(b)
(c) ⎜
 f
()
z

⎛ ∂
+ ⎜
⎜
⎝
∂
y
2
=
 f
⎟ ⎞
⎟ ⎠
log 
f
( )
z
∂ x
2
∂
x
2

∂ y
2
(
z
)
∂
2

⎞
⎟
⎠
2
+
f
+
∂ x
2
∂ y
2
4  f
()
z

=
0
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
′
()
z
2
=

2
 f
′
()
z

2
(d) If f (z) = u + iv is analytic and φ is any differentiable function of x and y, prove that
⎜ ⎛ ⎝
∂φ 
⎟ ⎞ 
2 
+ ⎛ ∂ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ φ 
2 
= ⎧ ⎪ ⎛ ∂ ⎞ ⎟ φ ⎨ ⎜ 
2 + ⎜ ⎛ ∂ φ 
⎞ ⎟ ⎠ 

∂ x 
⎠ 
⎜ ⎝ ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ 
⎪ ⎝ ⎩ ∂ u ⎠ 
⎝ ∂ v 
2
⎫
⎪
⎬
⎪ ⎭
 f
′
()
z

2
(e) If f (z) = u + iv is analytic, show that
∇
2
 f
( )
z

2
( )
= f ′ z

2
9. Prove that
∂
2
F
∂
2
F
∂
2
F
2
+
2 = 4
∂ x
∂ y
∂∂
z
z
Here F=F(x, y) z= x+ iy, z = x − iy
10. If f(z) = u +iv is analytic u and v satisfy Laplace’s equation, show that
∂
2
u
∂
2
u
+
∂
x
2
∂
y
2
=
0
∂
2
v
2
∂ v
∂
x
2
∂ y
2
+
= 0 i.e ., u & v are harmonic functions.
11. If f(z) = u + iv is analytic then the families of curves u= c _{1} and v= c _{2} here c _{1} & c _{2} are constant are orthogonal.
12. Show that an analytic function constant modulus is constant.
13. Find the analytic function f(z)=u + iv, given
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
^{(}^{e}^{)}
(f)
u =2x(1y) u = e ^{x} (x cosy – y siny) x sinx cushy – ycosx sinhy v=e ^{x} siny sinxsiny
^{v}^{=} cos2x
+
cosh2y
u
+ =
v
x
x
2
+
y
2
14.
If
PESIT
(g)
u
−
v
^{=}
cos
x
+
sin
x
−
e
− y
2 cos
x
−
e
y
−
e
−
y
iθ
z = re
and f ()z = u(r,θ )+ iv(r,θ ) prove that
∂ u
=
1 ∂ v ; ∂ v
r ∂
∂ r
1 ∂
u
∂ r
θ
r
∂θ
=−
15. f ()z = u(r,θ )+ iv(r,θ ) is analytic function, show that u and v satisfy the function
(a)
(b)
(c)
∂
2 ϕ
+
+
1
2 1
∂ v
+
∂ ϕ
+
+
+
1
∂
2 ϕ
∂ r
∂
2
2
u
r ∂ r
1 ∂ u
r
1
2
∂
θ
2
∂ u
= 0
2
= 0
= 0
∂ r
2
r ∂ r
∂ v
r
1
2
∂
2
θ
2
∂ v
∂ r
2
r ∂ r
r
2
∂
2
θ
16. Find the analytic function
(a)
2
u = r
cos 2θ
−
4 sinθ
(b)
f (z) = u + iv, given
u =
θ
cos 2
r
2
,
r ≠
0
Complex Integration
1. ∫∫
Prove that
f
()
z dz
=
cc
(
udx
−
vdy
)
+
i
∫
c
(
udy
+
vdx
)
2. Prove that ∫ c 
f ( 
) z dz = 0 

3. _{n} are ‘n’ non overlapping simple closed curves within C and f(z) is analytic If c _{1}_{,} c _{2}_{,} c _{3} … c 
on these curves in the region bounded by them then prove that
∫
c
f
()
z dz
=
∫
c
1
f
()
z dz
+
∫
c
2
f
()
z dz
+
+
∫
c
n
f
()
z dz
4. Verify the Cauchy’s theorem for the function
having vertices at
1 ± i , 1 ±
i
f
(
)
z =
3
z
2
+ iz −
4
with c as the square
5. If f(z) is analytic within and on a simple closed curve c in the complex plane and a is
1
∫
c
f
()
z
any point c then prove that
f
(
a
)
=
2π
i
z
−
dz
a
6. If f(z) is analytic within and on a simple closed curve C and a is any point within C then
n !
∫
c
f
()
z
f
n
()
a =
2
i
π
(
z − a
+ 1
)
n + 1
dz
7. Evaluate _{∫}
z
8. Evaluate _{∫}
c
9. Evaluate _{∫}
c
2
dz ,
where C is a simple closed contour enclosing the origin.
e
z
z
z
z
3
2
dz
+ 1
z
2
−
1
where C is the circle z=1
dz
,
where C is a circle of unit radius with center at
(i) z= 1
c
(ii) z=1
10.
1
)(
Obtain the Taylor’s and Laurent’s series for the function f(z)= (1
2
2)
+ z z +
11. (b) 1<z<2
(c) z>2
12. Obtain Laurent’s expansion for
f
(
)
z =
2
z
(
z
−
1)(
z
−
3 )
in the region (a) 1<z<3
1<2.
for (a)Z<1
(b) z
B.E. Mechanical
4 ^{t}^{h} Semester Course Information
PESIT
13. If C is a simple closed curve and f(z) is analytic within and on simple closed curve c
14.
except at finite points a _{1} ,a _{2} ,a _{3} …
a
_{n} inside c then prove that
∫
c
Evaluate
()
z dz
f
=
(
2
i R
π
1
+
R
2
+
R
3
∫
3
z
− 4
c
(
z z
−
1
)(
z
−
2
)
+
dz
R
n
)
here
R , R
1
2
, R
3
where C: z=3/2
R
n are residues of f(z) at a _{1} ,a _{2} ,a _{3}_{,}_{…}_{…} a _{n}
15. 2
_{∫}
z
+
z
z
2
−
1
2
c
dz ,
where (i) C: z=2 (ii) C: z1=1
16. Show that the transformation w = z ^{2} transforms the circle  za  = c to a cardioid or a limacon.
17. Find the bilinear transformation that transforms the points z _{1} = 1, z _{2} = i, z _{3} = 1 onto the points w _{1} = 2, w _{2} = i, w _{3} = 2. Find the fixed points of the transformation.
18. Find the images of (i) xy = 1
(ii) x ^{2} – y ^{2} = 1 under the transformation w = z ^{2} .
BESSELS FUNCTIONS: (10 marks)
1. Find the series solution of Bessel's differential equation.
2. Show that y = c _{1} J _{n} (kx ) + c _{2} J _{}_{n} (kx) is the solution of x ^{2} y _{2} + xy _{1} + (k ^{2} x ^{2}  n ^{2} )y =0.
3. Verify that y = x ^{n} J _{n} (x) is the solution of x y _{2} +(12n)y _{1} + xy =0.
4. Show that
(a) J _{½} (x) =
π x Sinx
(b) J _{}_{½} (x) =
5. Show that 2n J _{n} (x) = x
6.
[J n1(x) + J n + 1(x) ]
Show
that
J _{n} '(x) = x [J n1(x)  J n + 1(x) ]
d
[x
[x
n
J (x)]
n
−n
J (x)]
n
7.
8.
Show that
Show that
= x ^{n} J _{n}_{}_{1} (x) .
= x ^{}^{n} J _{n}_{+}_{1} (x) .
dx
d
dx
^{2} Cosx.
9.
Show that
(a) J _{3}_{/}_{2} (x) =
(b) J 3/2 (x) =
{(Sinx )/x  cosx }
{(Cosx)/x +sinx}
d
dx
[
x
J
n
(
x
)
J
n−
1
(
x
).]
1
π
∫
cos(n
10.
11. Show that cos (x sinθ) = J _{0} (x) +2ΣJ _{2}_{n} (x)cos 2nθ
12. Show that sin (x sinθ) = 2ΣJ _{2}_{n}_{}_{1} (x)sin (2n1)θ
13. Prove that J _{n} (x) =
14. State and prove orthogonal property of Bessel's functions.
Show that
= x[ J ^{2} _{n} (x) . J ^{2} _{n}_{}_{1} (x)]
θ
−
θ θ
x sin )d
LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS: (10 marks)
1. 
Find the series solution of Legendre's differential function. 

2. 
Show that (a)P _{n} (1) = 1 (b)P _{n} (x) = (1) ^{n} P _{n} (x) . Hence deduce that 
P _{n} (1) = (1) ^{n} 
3 ^{.} 
Express 3  x + 2x ^{2} + 2x ^{3} + x ^{4} in terms of Legendre’s polynomials. 

4. 
By using Rodrigue’s formula verify that P _{n} (x) satisfies Legendre’s differential equation. 
B.E. Mechanical
4 ^{t}^{h} Semester Course Information
PESIT
5. Show that P _{n} (x) =
0
⎤
⎥
⎦
θ θ
d
6. Show that [ (2n+ 1) x P _{n} (x)] = (n+1) P _{n}_{+}_{1} (x) + n P _{n}_{}_{1} (x)
7. Show that P _{n} (x) =
8. Show that P _{n} (x) =
xP' _{n} (x) 
P' _{n}_{}_{1} (x)
P' _{n}_{+}_{1} (x)  2x P' _{n} (x) + P' _{n}_{}_{1} (x)
9. Show that
10. Show that
11. Show that
1
∫
− 1
1
x
2
.P
n
∫
1
−
1
∫
− 1
x .P
n
x .P
n
+
1(x).P
n
−
1(x) dx
=
2n (n
+ 1)
(2
n
−
1)(2
n
+
1)(2
n
+
3)
(x).P
n
(x).P'
n
−
1(x) dx
=
2n
(4
n
2
− 1)
(x) dx =
2n
(2
n
− 1)
( x
)
1 d
n
( x
2
−
1
) ^{n}
12. Prove that
P
n
13. Express
14. Prove that
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